ssss

© All Rights Reserved

Просмотров: 21

ssss

© All Rights Reserved

- introduction to Finite Difference Methods for Numerical Fluid Dynamics
- Momentum Examples
- Underbalanced drilling software review
- SPE-131234-PP-Chin-Zhuang
- Cfd Simulations of Low Liquid Loading Mpf in Horiz Pipes Fedsm2014-21856
- Estimation-of-Natural-Frequency-of-the-Bearing-System-under-Periodic-Force-Based-on-Principal-of-Hydrodynamic-Mass-of-Fluid.pdf
- Advances in Coupled Projectile-Dynamics Interior
- The Josef Hasslberger Page Technology Dynamic Hydro Power
- Fluent manual
- Fluid Flow Materials Engineering Assignment
- An Aerodynamic Model for One and Two DOF Wing Rock of Slender Delta Wings
- CGM_FM Assignment 1.pdf
- 2-1 syll civil
- Notes01 Fundaments Lub Theory
- 2010 JFM - Sharp-interface limit of the Cahn–Hilliard model for moving contact lines.pdf
- Pages From Flow of Fluids Through Valves Fittings Pipe - Metric
- m2L7
- Fluid Mechanics
- What Are the Navier-Stokes Equations
- Exp 2 - Pipe Flow Characteristic_S17

Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 16

Cylinder Method

Brendan Arnold

27th April 2003

Abstract

We measured the viscosity, (), of Energol oil using Searles original rotating cylinder method but with significant improvements in data

collection. We determined to be 0.1228 0.0130 dyne second centimetres at room temperature (18.6o C) by immersing the cylinder in

various depths. Following that we investigated how the viscosity varies

with temperature. We varified the relationship exp(Ea /kb ) where

Ea , the activation energy, was found to be (1.3130.071)1025 joules.

Introduction

Viscosity is a measure of the internal friction of a fluid. For water, this was

determined by allowing it to flow through a narrow tube, however this technique is problematic for more viscous fluids. Dr G. F. C. Searle developed an

accurate method for such fluids, (in particular Lyles Golden Syrup). Our

setup is fundamentally identical to Searles apparatus save the fact that our

data was taken electronically thus reducing much of the human error in time

measurement. In addition our apparatus was furnished with a system for

evenly heating the oil to a variety of temperatures allowing us to investigate

the effects of heat on viscosity.

Knowing the viscosity of a fluid is critical when dealing with problems

of lubrication. Motor oil, for example, has its viscosity rated as well as how

it varies with temperature which is essential for engineers who design car

engines and other high performance machinery.

2

2.1

Setup

Equipment

Rotating arm

Pulley wheel

Optoelectronic switch

Spindle

Water In

Oil

Inner cylinder

Water jacket

4 bit counter

(see fig. 2)

Weight

Water Out

Baffle plate

Screw to adjust

depth of immersion

Outer cylinder

Searles menthod involves a rotating inner cylinder partially immersed in

the sample fluid contained in the outer cylinder. The inner cylinder is under

a constant, known, torque provided by two weights connected to a spool

on the inner cylinder via a pair of pulleys. When the weights are released,

the angular velocity of the cylinder increases until it reaches a stage where

the resistive force due to the viscosity of the fluid equals the force due to

the weights and the angular velocity remains constant. By measuring this

velocity, we can calculate the viscosity of the fluid.

The apparatus which we used also featured a water jacket around the

outer cylinder through which water of varying temperatures could be pumped.

This helped us to maintain a constant temperature in the oil (avoiding the

effects of frictional heating) and also enabled us to investigate the effects

of temperature on the viscosity. The water was pumped through from an

adequately large reservoir which could be heated using an electronic element. Although it featured it own thermomenter it was imprecise for our

2

purposes and so the temperature was taken using a seperate electric thermometer. The reservoir was mixed by a paddle connected to an electric

motor to ensure even heating.

The depth of immersion of the inner cylinder can be adjusted by loosening a screw and working the outer cylinder up or down around the inner

cylinder. The inner cylinder had a scale etched onto it calibrated in millimetres allowing us to easily obtain the correct depth. The baffle plate below

the inner cylinder prevents the fluid in the area below from rotating with

the cylinder and causing an unwanted whirlpool effect.

All diameters were measured using calipers and masses were measured

using the Sartorus balance in the level 2 laboratory. Because it is difficult

to measure the outer cylinder width directly, the width was calculated by

taking the diameter of the entire apparatus and substracting the width of

the water jacket.

2.1.1

The opto-electric switch was connected to a timer via a 4 bit counter interface. The interface featured two array of four switches, one array set the

number of rotations at which the timer starts, the other set the number

of rotations at which the timer stops. The basics of the interface unit are

shown in figure 2.

From optoelectric

switch

4 binary select

switches

Reset button

Conditioning and

divide by two

4 bit digital

comparator

Output P

4 bit digital

comparator

Output Q

Counter/Timer

4 bit digital

counter

Instrument

4 binary select

switches

The four binary switches can recognise a total of sixteen distinct states.

To allow for up to thiry two rotations, each state corresponded to two rotations, hence the divide by two step. However, this meant we were restricted

to setting an even number of rotations.

Both the counter and timer had to be reset after each trial.

2.2

Procedure

the oil at various depth of immersion and with various weights applying the

torque. Care was taken that the temperature did not vary too much within

the oil whilst trials took place. We then experimented with a depth of 4cm

and various temperatures and weights using the water jacket. We took the

average of ten measurements for each experiment to reduce random error.

3

3.1

Theory

Newtons Law of Viscous Flow

Imagine that liquid flows in layers over a flat surface. It has been shown

experimentally that the layer at x + dx distance from the surface flows at a

greater relative velocity than a layer of liquid at distance x from the surface.

If we call the difference in velocities between the layers dv then we get a

velocity gradient of dv/dx, see figure 3.

v

dx

dv

Surface

Resisting this relative motion between layers is what is known as the

internal friction of viscosity which is a force proportional to the velocity

gradient. This can be written

dv

(1)

dx

where F is the internal friction of viscosity between layers of area A and

is known as the coefficient of viscosity of the liquid and has units N.s/m 2 .

Equation 1 is known as Newtons Law of Viscous Flow[2]. Note that this

only holds for the flow of liquid described above, known as laminar flow.

F = A

3.2

fact that the oil is stationary and that it is the surface (the cylinder) that

moves is irrelevant. We substitute the velocity v for rd, where is the

angular velocity of the fluid and r is the distance the fluid is from the axle

in cm. For the sake of convenience we also convert to the c.g.s units of

dyne.s/cm2 or poises. To avoid confusion, we now write it as . Equation

1 can then be written

d

(2)

dr

The rest of this subsection is closely based on a derivation described in

Searles original paper[1].

F = rA

a

b

dv Outer cylinder

wall

Inner Cylinder

When the cylinder reaches its equilibrium angular velocity, , the moment, (Force perpendicular distance), due to the weights on the spindle

G is equal to the moment exerted on the cylinder by the viscous action of

the oil. Assuming the cylinder is radius r cm and immersed to a depth h

cm, we get

d

.r

dr

(3)

G 1

d

=

. .

dr

2h r 3

(4)

G = r2rh

or

=

G

1

. 2 +C

2h 2r

5

(5)

cylinder wall). Hence

G

1

1

=

.

(6)

4h r 2 a2

When r = b, the angular velocity is , and so

1

1

G

.

=

4h b2 a2

(7)

Rearranging, we get

G a2 b 2

=

(8)

4ha2 b2

We know G to be the torque produced by the weights on the spool. If

the spool has radius D cm and the total mass of the two weights is M grms.,

then G = DM g. The angular velocity, , is 2/T , where T is the time for

one rotation in seconds. Hence we finish with the formula

gD a2 b2

MT

(9)

=

8 2 a2 b2

h+k

where k is an offset of h due to the drag induced by the bottom of the

inner cylinder. To determine k we use the fact that M T (h + k) for a

given . By plotting a graph of M T against h, we find k as the point where

the line crosses the h axis.

k induces a moment according to the area of the bottom of the cylinder

(b2 ). This will be less than the moment induced by a similar area on

the side of the cylinder (2bh) because of the overall shorter moment arm.

Equating the two, we find a valid range for k to be

b

2

which can use this to varify our experimental results.

0<k<

3.3

A fluids viscosity arises from intermolecular forces. An increase in temperature of a fluid gives the molecules greater kinetic energy and weaken these

forces. Hence viscosity decreases with temperature.

which encompassess all fluids, however, an approximate relationship which

can be derived[4] that would suit our purposes is listed below.

Ea

= Ae kb

(10)

is temperature in Kelvins and Ea is known as the activation energy, a value

which corresponds to the energy needed for a molecule to move past its

neighbours in a liquid[7].

3.4

Non-laminer flow

can break down once a critical velocity is passed. The particular type of

flow in this experiment is prone to what are known as Taylor Vortices, see

figure 5.

Inner, rotating

cylinder

Outer cylinder

wall

As the oil spins, the centripetal force acts outwards on the fast moving

oil nearer the centre. This is balanced by the pressure gradient. At lower

velocities, any tiny radial movement due to, say, a lorry passing outside, is

absorbed by the viscosity of the slower moving oil further out. At high speed

however, the movement outwards may be quick enough so that the angular

momentum is preserved, the velocity increases and hence does the cetripetal

force. If this is greater than the pressure gradient, we get outward flow. 1

1

appear is beyond the scope of this experiment, we should be able to observe

an uncharacterstic reduction in equilibrium velocity should non-laminar flow

occur, since a great deal of energy is dissapated in vortices.

Results

check the equipment between laboratory sessions. After much investigation,

it is apparent that after the first two sets of data the results were taken over

twelve rotations. For the analysis we have assumed that this was the case,

although of course we cannot be certain.

Below is a table of measured constants and their determined errors.

Constant

a

b

D

m

Description

Outer cylinder radius

Inner cylinder radius

Spool radius

Total mass of pans

Value

(2.53 0.050) cm

(1.87 0.025) cm

(0.96 0.025) cm

(13.779 0.001) grms

After a few trial runs we collected data for room temperature (18 o C) at

different depths and weights. For a given depth, M T is constant, hence we

took an average over a range of weights. We plotted our results in a graph

of M T against h (figure 6). We find the value of k to be (0.537 0.093)

cm which fits within our expected range.

50

45

40

MT (grms.S)

35

30

25

f(x)=10.096x+5.422

20

15

10

5

0

1

k=0.537cm

2

h (cm)

4.1

The rest of our data was taken with a constant depth of 4 cm and a variety

of temperatures and weights. Our experimental values for viscosity, e are

tabulated below along with the manufacturers value, m 2 .

Temp. (o C)

18.6

18.6

18.6

18.6

18.6

25.0

30.0

35.0

40.0

Depth (cm)

0.5

1.0

2.0

3.0

4.0

4.0

4.0

4.0

4.0

e (Dyne.S/cm2 )

0.125 0.018

0.123 0.014

0.124 0.012

0.117 0.010

0.126 0.011

0.082 0.007

0.049 0.003

0.035 0.003

0.028 0.003

m (Dyne.S/cm2 )

0.137 0.018

0.137 0.018

0.137 0.018

0.137 0.018

0.137 0.018

0.080 0.005

0.057 0.002

0.038 0.001

0.027 0.001

ln[] (1/ln[Dynes.S/cm2])

0.25

0.3

0.35

0.4

0.45

0.5

0.55

15

20

25

30

Temp (Deg. C)

35

40

45

1/ ln() was plotted against temperature to establish the E a /kb from the

gradient. The activation energy was found to be (1.3130.071)10 25 joules.

The full relationship between temperature and is shown in equation 11.

= 4.771e

2

1.3131025

kb

(11)

4.2

temperature. This one in particular is for room temperature (18.6 o C) at a

depth of 1cm.

Weight (g)

13.779

23.779

33.779

47.779

53.779

(Dynes.S/cm2 )

0.168 0.020

0.123 0.014

0.108 0.013

0.110 0.013

0.106 0.012

Discussion

Our results at room temperature show an obvious linear relationship between depth, h, and the value M T . This yields a value of k that satisfies

0 < k < b/2. Our results for the reciprocal of the log of viscosity against

temperature also show, a less striking, linear relationship. This however can

be explained by the fact that the measurement of temperature was relatively

imprecsise with an estimated accuracy of 1 o C and the exponential relationship between temperature and viscosity meant that this could make a great

deal of difference. Nonethless the experimental values for closely resemble

those of the manufacturers with most results falling within a margin of one

or two errors. These slight differences could be due to contamination of the

oil with dust or other airbourne particles or maybe wear has affected the

properties of the oil.

As we can see from our typical sample of data for room temperature, the

viscosity decreased as the trials went on, when it should have remained the

same. This is also echoed by a consistantly lower than expected value for

the viscosity in all the room temperature trials. This is almost certainly due

to the effect of heating by the rotation of the cylinder since during the room

temerature trials we did not use the stabalising effect of the water jacket.

Taking the first trial for 1cm depth at room temperature, the manufacturers

data suggest that it was at a temperature of 18.4 o C, taking the final result

in this set of data the manufacturers data suggests a temperature of 22 o C,

an increase of around 3.5o C. For future experiments it would be advisable

to have water flowing through the jacket at all times to act as a heatsink.

It is interesting to note that in most cases the viscosity drops sharply to

begin with but then decreases much more slowly. This is probably due to

10

difference in temperature. The temperature increased to a point where the

rate of cooling was equal to the rate of heating due to the movement of the

cylinder.

Despite worries about the possibility of turbulence, none of the results

for are uncharacteristically high. If there were vortices present during

experimentation then they were relatively tame and did not affect our results

to an unacceptable degree.

It could be argued that precision in our results could be improved by consistantly taking results over a large number of rotations. However, thanks

to the electronic timer, precision is already high in this aspect of the experiment and also the longer the weight falls for, the greater the heating will

be. The greatest improvement in precision would be to be able to ensure a

more accurate temperature. If time permits, the oil temperature should be

left to cool back to its desired temperature between experiments.

Conclusions

viscosity of a liquid. However maintaining a constant temperature is difficult, especially with time constraints. Given more time and the benefit of

hindsight, I am confident that we could repeat this experiment to obtain a

significantly higher degree of accuracy.

11

References

[1] Dr. G. F. C Searle, A simple viscometer for very viscous liquids May 1912

[2] Champion & Davy, Properties of Matter The Students Physics Vol. 3, 1943

(Blackie & Son), Pages 243 259

[3] Halliday, Resnick & Krane, Physics 4th Edition Vol. 1, 1992 (Wiley), Pages

407 411 & 398

[4] Newman & Searle, General Properties of Matter 1948, (Arnold), Page 219

[5] A. R. Paterson, A first course in fluid dynamics 1997, (Cambridge), Pages 144

to 148

[6] NIST website http://physics.nist.gov/cuu/Constants/

[7] E. Lee & R. Sisson, Liquid Viscosity Models Project

http://www.owlnet.rice.edu/ceng402/proj02/beckys/

12

Searle Viscometer V3 Main apparatus, located in room 1.36 of second

year laboratory.

Energol Oil GR-XP 320 Oil used in the experiment, obtained from

BP Oil, PO Box 159, Bristol.

European Instruments Sartorus Balance BP2103 Measuring the mass

of the pans, located in second year laboratory.

Racal Dana Timer 9902/9906 Timer unit used to take results

Steel Calipers used to measure legths and diameters, located in second year laboratory.

13

Temperature 18.6 o C

Depth (cm)

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

1.0

1.0

1.0

1.0

1.0

2.0

2.0

2.0

2.0

2.0

2.0

3.0

3.0

3.0

3.0

3.0

3.0

4.0

4.0

4.0

4.0

4.0

4.0

Weight (grms.)

43.779

53.779

33.779

23.779

13.779

13.779

23.779

33.779

47.779

53.779

17.779

23.779

33.779

43.779

53.779

63.779

17.779

23.779

33.779

43.779

53.779

63.779

17.779

23.779

33.779

43.779

53.779

63.779

14

(Dyne.S/cm 2 )

0.113 0.016

0.112 0.016

0.114 0.016

0.121 0.017

0.166 0.024

0.168 0.020

0.123 0.014

0.108 0.013

0.110 0.013

0.106 0.012

0.154 0.015

0.131 0.013

0.123 0.012

0.114 0.011

0.113 0.011

0.110 0.011

0.146 0.013

0.127 0.011

0.114 0.010

0.108 0.010

0.105 0.009

0.103 0.009

0.171 0.015

0.130 0.011

0.119 0.010

0.114 0.010

0.111 0.010

0.108 0.009

Temperature 25o C

Depth (cm)

4.0

4.0

4.0

4.0

4.0

4.0

Weight (grms.)

17.779

23.779

33.779

43.779

53.779

63.779

(102 Dyne.S/cm2 )

9.854 0.868

8.709 0.752

8.032 0.693

7.719 0.666

7.537 0.650

7.421 0.641

Weight (grms.)

17.779

23.779

33.779

43.779

53.779

63.799

(102 Dyne.S/cm2 )

5.085 0.441

4.944 0.427

4.877 0.421

4.852 0.419

4.836 0.417

4.864 0.421

Weight (grms.)

17.779

23.779

33.779

43.779

53.779

63.779

(102 Dyne.S/cm2 )

3.410 0.295

3.484 0.301

3.504 0.303

3.525 0.304

3.603 0.311

3.605 0.312

Weight (grms.)

17.779

23.779

33.779

43.779

53.779

63.779

(102 Dyne.S/cm2 )

2.910 0.252

2.864 0.248

2.755 0.240

2.721 0.235

2.505 0.588

2.865 0.247

Temperature 30o C

Depth (cm)

4.0

4.0

4.0

4.0

4.0

4.0

Temperature 35 o C

Depth (cm)

4.0

4.0

4.0

4.0

4.0

4.0

Temperature 40 o C

Depth (cm)

4.0

4.0

4.0

4.0

4.0

4.0

15

Error Calculation

Measurements with calipers had an assumed error of 0.05 cm.

Measurements of weight had an assumed error of 0.0005 grammes.

The temperature of the oil was no more accurate than 1 o C.

Errors in the period were calculated by taking the standard deviation

of results.

Error in k and Ea were determined using Gnuplot3 which uses an

implementation of the non-linear least-squares Marquardt-Levenberg

algorithm.

The errors in the manufacturers data are from reading off a logarithmic

graph.

Error in was found using Maple and the following generic formula

f2

a2

f

a

2

See http://www.gnuplot.info

16

b2

f

b

2

...

- introduction to Finite Difference Methods for Numerical Fluid DynamicsЗагружено:prashanthreddy26
- Momentum ExamplesЗагружено:Dinesh Chandrasekaran
- Underbalanced drilling software reviewЗагружено:adilullo
- SPE-131234-PP-Chin-ZhuangЗагружено:Wilson Chin
- Cfd Simulations of Low Liquid Loading Mpf in Horiz Pipes Fedsm2014-21856Загружено:munkkkk
- Estimation-of-Natural-Frequency-of-the-Bearing-System-under-Periodic-Force-Based-on-Principal-of-Hydrodynamic-Mass-of-Fluid.pdfЗагружено:keepmoshing2
- Advances in Coupled Projectile-Dynamics InteriorЗагружено:wwbrown
- The Josef Hasslberger Page Technology Dynamic Hydro PowerЗагружено:travopas
- Fluent manualЗагружено:Pau Miralles Ferras
- Fluid Flow Materials Engineering AssignmentЗагружено:189goldgoldy
- An Aerodynamic Model for One and Two DOF Wing Rock of Slender Delta WingsЗагружено:Arvind Rajan
- CGM_FM Assignment 1.pdfЗагружено:charlesgmartin
- 2-1 syll civilЗагружено:Kiran Yaddanapudi
- Notes01 Fundaments Lub TheoryЗагружено:tomekzawistowski
- 2010 JFM - Sharp-interface limit of the Cahn–Hilliard model for moving contact lines.pdfЗагружено:Surjendu Maity
- Pages From Flow of Fluids Through Valves Fittings Pipe - MetricЗагружено:potatoteddy
- m2L7Загружено:VaibhavKumar
- Fluid MechanicsЗагружено:MohammedSafuvanKazhungil
- What Are the Navier-Stokes EquationsЗагружено:sumohi
- Exp 2 - Pipe Flow Characteristic_S17Загружено:Sulman Shahzad
- Polyflow Extrusion WS03 Cooled DieЗагружено:woongs73
- Assoc DissocЗагружено:adrrine
- Asymetric Bodys Improving FlowЗагружено:Youssef Galal
- Introduction to fluidmechanicsЗагружено:Somnath Swamy
- WangyЗагружено:anellbmc
- Seminar Report FormatЗагружено:Mithul TV
- Published Full Paper Determination of Safety Distance Around Gas Pipelines Using Numerical MethodsЗагружено:omid_adibi
- SluggingЗагружено:Ross Waring
- Forced ConvЗагружено:Zahel Salvador
- Calculate Flow Rate of Air Through a Pressurized HoleЗагружено:leonard1971

- Data SheetЗагружено:axelfredy
- gce o level physics questions faq 2013Загружено:api-235555080
- Steam_Tables.xlsЗагружено:Amr Ali
- XII PhysicsЗагружено:Charu Bhanot
- FluidsЗагружено:Abu
- ddfdbvbdvkjdvЗагружено:santha1191
- Thermal Energy Q(EDITED) CopyЗагружено:Praphul Malol
- Dynamics Prob Set(Seph)Загружено:Rodge Bal
- 2.2. Forces and DinamicsЗагружено:Martin
- Afcap ManualЗагружено:Narendra Bhole
- SettlingЗагружено:Aduchelab Adamsonuniversity
- TheoryЗагружено:Jatin hemwani
- ensc2002_sem_2_2013_examЗагружено:Akansha Dahiya
- Mod Phys Book - Work and E TESTЗагружено:tekya57
- Transformer 2W2Загружено:Mohgan Raj
- PHYS798I F12 Lecture 2v2.pdfЗагружено:Ganesh Adhikary
- Projectile MotionЗагружено:Yash Akhauri
- MIT16_07F09_Lec29Загружено:ucing_33
- Andrew_AVA5P-50-43BЗагружено:sfynks
- Aircraft External LoadЗагружено:Anonymous kK9Ep5b1
- cooling towerЗагружено:Rey Regaspi Tuyay
- Rolling Ball LabЗагружено:Julia
- Week 1b Appled Thermo DynamicsЗагружено:Adnan Alam Khan
- Thermodynamic- week12Загружено:Don Wook Won
- Shally Rahmawaty (5)Загружено:aekim
- basic electrical termsЗагружено:api-370911226
- 12 Chemistry NcertSolutions Chapter 2 IntextЗагружено:Susi Keerthi
- Calculating Temperatures in MathcadЗагружено:bmmostefa
- Physics of Wall BallsЗагружено:Erika Morrison
- 1516 Level NS Core Physics BGT Questions Solutions (Mechanics Part I)Загружено:Aya

## Гораздо больше, чем просто документы.

Откройте для себя все, что может предложить Scribd, включая книги и аудиокниги от крупных издательств.

Отменить можно в любой момент.