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Vanessa Olga J.

Dagondon
Environmental Chemsitry Assignment 2
2. Cite at least 2 scenarios of soil nutrient imbalance and how to manage
the soil condition such as nitrogen-phosphorus-potassium deficiency and
excess. Illustrate in a cartoon caricature.
Soil nutrient imbalance can be caused by deficiency or excess of
nutrients.
(1) Deficiency of Nitrogen in soil can be caused by leaching, in which
Nitrogen-N leach easily ass excess rainwater moves through soil to
groundwater. Nitrogen-N leaches because it has a negative charge that will
repel with the negative charge of the soil particles. In addition,
volatilization of Ammmonium-N can also cause loss of nitrogen. Ammonium-N
is easily volatilized in manure when it is converted into ammonia gas.
Deficiency of nitrogen causes plants to turn pale or yellow.In order to
manage loss of nitrogen, various manure management strategies can be
applied. If manure is incorporated into the soil, ammonium-N is brought
into direct contact with soil organic matter and clay, which attracts
ammonium-N and keeps it in the soil. Rapid incorporation of manure also
reduces the chance for runoff and erosion into nearby waters.
(http://pss.uvm.edu/vtcrops/DiggingIn/Digging_In_II_Understanding_Soi
l_Nutrients.pdf)

(2) Symptoms of phosphorus deficiency on plants includes dark green with


reddish-purplish leaf tips and margins on older leaves. Availability of
P is largely based on soil pH. At a high pH (basic soil), P can precipitate
with Ca. For example , P bind quickly in soil that has lots of calcium
or magnesium. Once again, your P is rendered unavailable to your plants.
At lower pH (acidic soil), P tends to be bound to Fe and Al compounds in
the soil.Phosphorus is in its most plant available form when the pH is
between 6.2 and 6.5.To management loss of phosphorus, manure with lots
of phosphorus is incorporated in the soil.
(http://pss.uvm.edu/vtcrops/DiggingIn/Digging_In_II_Understanding_Soi
l_Nutrients.pdf)

3. Choose a type of soil microorganism and illustrate their life cycle.


indicate their nutrient requirement, source of energy and carbon, mode
of respiration and origin.

Life cycle of Myxococcus xanthus.


Myxococcus xanthus cells are usually found on solid substrates. When
nutrients are present, group of cells (swarms) grow and move outward in
search of additional macromolecules or prey. Upon starvation, cells
aggregate at discrete foci to form mounds and then macroscopic fruiting
bodies. The rod-shaped cells in the fruiting bodies undergo morphogenesis
and form spherical spores that are metabolically inactive and partly
resistant to dessication and temperature. Peripheral rods remain outside
fruiting bodies and move as waves in search fro food. When nutrients become
available, the spore germinate and complete their life cycle again
(https://microbewiki.kenyon.edu).
Nutrient requirement: insolube organic compounds
Source of energy: Mixture of amino acids and organic compounds
Source of Carbon: Mixture of amino acids and organic compounds
Mode of respiration:needs oxygen, aerobic
Origin: common in animal dung and organic-rich soils of neutral or
alkaline pH