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# .

" "
..

1.
0
-1

2.

" "
..

" "
..

,
.
()
,
(
90%).

" "
..

4 :
n

,

.
,
.

, 1 (n =
" "
1, 2,
3, ... ).
..

()

().

..

" "
..

,

.

( )

.

( ) =
.

IV
Si

14
28,0855

" "
..

(N),
,
:
N = 2n2
n

n =1, N = 2 12 = 2,
2 !
n =2, N = 2 22 = 8
8 !
n =3, N = 2 32 = 18

"
"

18

!
..

()
l

( ).

0 n - 1 (l = 0, 1, ..., n - 1).

" "
..

l
.
l = 0

( s).
l = 1 ,
( p-).

,

## l, 2, 3 4 (d-, f-, g).

" "
..

" "
..

" "
..

" "
..

" "
..

1S2 2S1

" "
..

ml

(..
).
l, 0, +l
ml = 2l + 1

ml

1 (K) 0

1S

2S

2p

-1,0,+1

3S

3p

-1,0,+1

3d

-2,-1,0,+1,+2

10

4S

4p

-1,0,+1

4d

-2,-1,0,+1,+2

10

4f

-3,-2,-1,
0,+1,+2,+3,

14

2 (L)

3(M)

4 (N)

ms

(
).

: +1/2 -1/2.

" "
..

" "
..

1. .

.

, ..
.
1s<2s<2p<3s<3p<4s3d<4p<5s4d<5p<6s 5d4f<6p<7s

: , ,
, .

.

2.
(1925).

.
.. 2
,

).

,
,
.

" "
..

3. ()
(1927).

,
.
.. ,
.

:
, ,

.
" "
..

4. (1951).
, ,
(n+l).
1
:

.
: 4s n+l = 4 +0 = 4
3d n+l = 3 +2 = 5

4s, 3d.
2 : (n+l)
,
n.
: 5s n+l = 5 +0 = 5
4 n+l = 4 +1 = 5
3d n+l = 3 +2 = 5

## 3d, 4p, 5s.

" "
..

:
1s2,2s2,2p6,3s2,3p6,4s2,3d10,4p6,5s2,4d10,5p6,6s2,
5d1, 4f14, 5d2-10 , 6p6,7s2, 6d1, 5f 14, 6d 2-10
(n+l)

1
2

1
2
2
3
3
4
3
4
5
4

0
0
1
0
1
0
2
1
0
2

1s
2s
2p
3s
3p
4s
3d
4p
5s
4d

3
4

5
1
5p
6
0
6s
4
3
4f
5
2
5d
7
6
1 "
6p

"
0
7s
7..

(n+l)
1s = 1
2s = 2
3s = 3
4s = 4
5s = 5
6s = 6
7s = 7

2p = 3
3p = 4
4p = 5
5p = 6
6p = 7
7p = 8

3d = 5
4d = 6
5d = 7
6d = 8

4f = 7
5f = 8
6f = 9

=
=
: 1
2; 2 8; 3 18.
= =

=

(2 s-),
d-.

.

" "
..

.
Cu (4s1), Ag (5s1), Au (6s1), Nb (5s1),
Mo (5s1), Ru (5s1), Rh (5s1), Pd (5s0),
Pt (6s1), Cr (4s1)

" "
..

:
2 . 1, 2

" "
..