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By Henry Vaughan
My Soul, there is a country
Afar beyond the stars,
Where stands a winged sentry
All skillful in the wars;
There, above noise and danger
Sweet Peace sits, crownd with smiles,
And One born in a manger
Commands the beauteous files.
He is thy gracious friend
And (O my Soul awake!)
Did in pure love descend,
To die here for thy sake.
If thou canst get but thither,
There grows the flowr of peace,
The rose that cannot wither,
Thy fortress, and thy ease.
Leave then thy foolish ranges,
For none can thee secure,
But One, who never changes,
Thy God, thy life, thy cure.

by Henry Vaughan

MY soul, there is a country

Far beyond the stars,
Where stands a wingd sentry
All skillful in the wars :
There, above noise and danger,
Sweet Peace sits crown'd with smiles,
And One born in a manger
Commands the beauteous files.
He is thy gracious Friend,
AndO my soul awake !
Did in pure love descend,
To die here for thy sake.
If thou canst get but thither,

There grows the flower of Peace,

The Rose that cannot wither,
Thy fortress, and thy ease.
Leave then thy foolish ranges ;
For none can thee secure,
But One, who never changes,
Thy God, thy life, thy cure.

What are three themes is the story "Thank you Ma'am"?

Three themes present in "Thank You, Ma'am" are

Forgiveness and Empathy, the Power of Love and Trust,
and Christian Charity.

Forgiveness and Empathy :When Roger first snatches the purse

of Mrs. Luella Bates Washington Jones, she wrestles him and drags
him to her furnished room at the rear of a house. Once insides Mrs.
Jones asks the boy his name and tells him to wash his face in the

"You gonna take me to jail?"....

"Not with that face, I would not take you nowhere," said
the woman. "Here I am trying to get home to cook me a
bite to eat and you snatch my pocketbook! Maybe, you
aint been to your supper either, late as it be. Have
you?" Perceiving that Roger is neglected and hungry, Mrs.
Jones forgives him and with her motherly nature --"You
ought to be my son. I would teach you right from wrong"-she forgives Roger and cooks him a meal. She also tells
Roger that she, too, has done wrong, and offers him
empathy, "Everybody's got something in common."

The Power of Love and Trust: While she prepares the meal, Mrs.
Jones leaves her purse on the other side of the screen where she
cooks. Roger worries that she may not trust him, so he moves

where he hopes she can see him. "And he did not want to be
mistrusted now." And, as Mrs. Jones talks with Roger, she does not
ask him anything about himself which could be embarrassing.

Christian Charity: Despite Roger's attempted robbery, Mrs. Jones

understands his poverty and want. So, she gives him ten dollars for
the purchase of some blue suede shoes with the admonition to not
steal again. Leading him down the hall, she says, "Good night!
Behave yourself, boy!" Stunned by her charity and kindness, Roger
cannot even utter a thank you, so stunned is he by her charity.

Posted by Dr.Arghya Jana Literature Guide at 08:53 No comments: Links to this post
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Explain the title Thank You, Ma'am.

Roger, the young boy who tries to steal a purse from the
wrong woman in this Langston Hughes short story, feels
shame and regret after he is forced to return to her home.
While there, the large woman, Mrs. Luella Bates
Washington Jones, treats the boy with respect and gives
him a hot meal. She does not question him about the
purse again, but only asks if he wanted the money
because he was hungry. No, the boy tells her; he only
wants to buy some blue suede shoes. She tells him that
she, too, has done things for which she is ashamed. Mrs.
Jones gives him $10 to buy the shoes, and shows him the
way to the door. As he leaves, he wishes that he could
think of something else to say, but he only tells her
"Thank you, ma'am." Because the woman, who obviously
has little money herself and has to cook a simple meal on
a hot plate, is so kind to the boy, and treats him with
dignity, she earns his trust and his respect--quite a

change from how the two first met. It seems an

appropriate title.
Posted by Dr.Arghya Jana Literature Guide at 08:45 No comments: Links to this post
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Key facts of Thank You Maam by James Mercer Langston Hughes (February
1, 1902 May 22, 1967)

The Harlem Renaissance:

The Harlem Renaissance was a cultural movement that
spanned the 1920s. At the time, it was known as the
"New Negro Movement", named after the 1925
anthology by Alain Locke. The Movement also included
the new African-American cultural expressions across the
urban areas in the Northeast and Midwest United States
affected by the Great Migration (African American), of
which Harlem was the largest. Though it was centered in
the Harlem neighborhood of New York City, in addition,
many francophone black writers from African and
Caribbean colonies who lived in Paris were also influenced
by the Harlem Renaissance.
Harlem became an African-American neighborhood in the
early 1900s. In 1910, a large block along 135th Street
and Fifth Avenue was bought by various African-American
realtors and a church group. Many more African
Americans arrived during the First World War.
Characterizing the Harlem Renaissance was an overt
racial pride that came to be represented in the idea of the
New Negro, who through intellect and production of
literature, art, and music could challenge the pervading
racism and stereotypes to promote progressive or
socialist politics, and racial and social integration. The
creation of art and literature would serve to "uplift" the

Jazz poetry:
Jazz poetry is poetry that "demonstrates jazz-like
rhythm or the feel of improvisation".[1] During the 1920s,
several poets began to eschew the conventions of rhythm
and style; among these were Ezra Pound, T. S. Eliot, and
E. Cummings. The significance of the simultaneous
evolution of poetry and jazz during the 1920s was
apparent to many poets of the era, resulting in the
merging of the two art forms into jazz poetry. Jazz poetry
has long been something of an "outsider" art form that
exists somewhere outside the mainstream, having been
conceived in the 1920s by African-Americans, maintained
in the 1950s by counterculture poets like those of the
Beat generation, and adapted in modern times into hiphop music and live poetry events known as poetry slams.
Publication: The story was published in 1958 and is not
in the public domain. Although some sources cite 1933 as
the date of publication.
Characters: The story features two characters; Roger
and Mrs. Luella Bates Washington Jones.
Theme: Langston Hughes' "Thank You, M'am" contains three main
themes: love and trust, forgiveness, and dignity.
Posted by Dr.Arghya Jana Literature Guide at 08:45 No comments: Links to this post
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Key facts on Composed upon Westminster Bridge by William Wordsworth

Date of composition: September 3, 1802 ( July 31, 1802 in another opinion)

Year of publication: 1807 in Poems in Two volumes

Westminster Bridge: It is a bridge in England crossing the river Thames near

Westminster Abbey and leading to the road to Dover.

Occasion of composition: While going to Calais, France to pay a visit to Annette Vallon,
(a French woman whom Wordsworth met in 1791 in France fell in love and in 1802
Wordsworth and his sister, Dorothy, visited Annette and Caroline in Calais. The purpose
of the visit was to pave the way for his forthcoming marriage to Mary Hutchinson) on his
way from London to Dover, Wordsworth looked at the city of London from Westminster
Bridge. It was early morning (31st July 1802) and he was moved by the beauty of the city.
He stopped his horse carriage on the bridge and wrote the poem.

Poets companion: Dorothy, the poets sister.

Type of the poem: It is a Petrarchan (Italian) sonnet having 14 lines divided into Octave
(first eight lines) and Sestet (last six lines). The Octave follows the rhyme scheme abbaabba while the sestet keeps to cdcdcd.

Use of Personification: The city of London wears a new garment. The river Thames is
gliding on his own free will. The houses of London are fast asleep.

This city: The city of London.

Garment: The beauty of the morning covers the city just as a dress covers the body.

Domes : The dome of St. Pauls Cathedral(built c.604 A.D. and it was designed by the
architect Christopher Wren in1708)

Towers: Tower of London,situated at the North bank of the Thames,built up towards the
end of 1066

The river: The Thames, a river of Southern England flowing from the Costworlds in
Gloucestershire through London to the North Sea.

Steep: to submerge or cover; to radiate; to immerse.

Bare ...clothed : The city of London has been described as both bare and clothed.
This is a case of paradox.

Dear God ! : The poet addresses God out of joy and wonder. It is an exclamation.

Mighty heart : Huge heart [Here, the city has been compared to a giant with a huge
heart. When the city is full of commercial activity, it assumes an ugly shape like that of a
giant. It is an example of a metaphor.

The city now doth like a garment wear: The city of London here is imagined as a fair
lady. The poet imagines that the city wears a garment. It is a grand example of simile.

The very houses seem asleep: Here, houses are personified as asleep. The houses are
asleep for the members are sleeping. So the houses are calm and tranquill.

The river glideth at his own sweet will: Here, the river Thames is personified, for as if
he is in charge of his own movement.

In his first splendor: Here, the sun is personified. The sun is shining in its full radiance.

Never did the sun more beautifully steep : It is an example of metaphor to emphasise
how attractive the sunlight is. He wants to show how everything in the city is immersed in
sunlight. As a result, the city of London is glowing in its radiating beauty.

Earth has not anything to show more fair: It is an example of hyperbole. Here we find
Wordsworth exault in ecstasy.

N.B: London during the workday was rude and dirty. A walk across a bridge or through streets
and alleyways confronted the pedestrian with smoke, dust, grimy urchins, clacking carts, ringing
hammers, barking dogs, jostling shoppers, smelly fish, rotting fruit. But at dawn on a cloudless
morning, when London was still asleep and the fires of factories had yet to be stoked, the city
joined with nature to present the early riser a tableau of glistening waters, majestic towers,
unpeopled boats on the River Thames--bobbing and swaying--and the glory of empty, silent
streets. The message here is that even an ugly, quacking duckling can become a lovely, soundless
by John Donne
FOR Gods sake hold your tongue, and let me love ;
Or chide my palsy, or my gout ;
My five gray hairs, or ruind fortune flout ;
With wealth your state, your mind with arts improve ;
Take you a course, get you a place,
Observe his Honour, or his Grace ;

Or the kings real, or his stampd face

Contemplate ; what you will, approve,
So you will let me love.
Alas ! alas ! whos injured by my love?
What merchants ships have my sighs drownd?
Who says my tears have overflowd his ground?
When did my colds a forward spring remove?
When did the heats which my veins fill
Add one more to the plaguy bill?
Soldiers find wars, and lawyers find out still
Litigious men, which quarrels move,
Though she and I do love.
Calls what you will, we are made such by love ;
Call her one, me another fly,
Were tapers too, and at our own cost die,
And we in us find th eagle and the dove.
The phoenix riddle hath more wit
By us ; we two being one, are it ;
So, to one neutral thing both sexes fit.
We die and rise the same, and prove
Mysterious by this love.
We can die by it, if not live by love,

And if unfit for tomb or hearse

Our legend be, it will be fit for verse ;
And if no piece of chronicle we prove,
Well build in sonnets pretty rooms ;
As well a well-wrought urn becomes
The greatest ashes, as half-acre tombs,
And by these hymns, all shall approve
Us canonized for love ;
And thus invoke us, You, whom reverend love
Made one anothers hermitage ;
You, to whom love was peace, that now is rage ;
Who did the whole worlds soul contract, and drove
Into the glasses of your eyes ;
So made such mirrors, and such spies,
That they did all to you epitomize
Countries, towns, courts beg from above
A pattern of your love.