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. .

2009

271.21
22.15
44

44

. .
. .: , 2009. 72 .
ISBN 978-5-94057-461-3
,
2007 . , ,
, ,
. .
, , , .
( ).
.

22.15


http://www.mccme.ru/dubna

ISBN 978-5-94057-461-3

. ., 2009.
, 2009.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

5
5
7
8

1.


9
1.1.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
1.2.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
1.3.
. . . . . . . . . 14

2.


2.1.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.2.
.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.3.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.4.
() . . . . . . . . . . .
2.5.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.6.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.7.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.8.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.9.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.11. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.12. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3.

3.1.
. . . . . . . . . . . .
3.2.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.3.

( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.4.
. . . . . . . . .
3.5.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3

17
17
18
20
21
22
26
28
29
31
33
36
38

42
42
43
45
48
52

4.

5.


4.1.
. . . . . . . . . . . .
4.2.
. .
4.3.
. . . . . . . . . .
4.4.

4.5.
. .

.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.

58
58
59
61
63
64

68
5.1.
68
5.2.
. . . . . . . 69


The modern world is full of theories which are proliferating
at a wrong level of generality, were so good at theorizing, and
one theory spawns another, theres a whole industry of abstract
activity which people mistake for thinking.
I. Murdoch, The Good Apprentice

, ( ) , , ,
, .1
.

.
, , . (
) . (
,
, .) (,
)
,
, , . ( : ,

.)
,
, ( . ) 1 ( ,

, -
. . .
).

.
, . ,
(
),
.

. ( ,
), . , (
, ).
. . ( ),
.
, , , , , , ,
.
,
, (
)
, ,
, ( ) . ,
() , (
; ,
).
(, ,
, ).
,

. , ( )!
,
2004 2007
2007 . 6

(. . . . )
(. .... . . ).
. , . , . , . , . ,
. , . (, )
, . [Pr] .


. ( , , ,
). , ,
.
(,
, , ). . - .
.
;
. ,
( ), .
, .
,
( ), . , , 3- , . ( ). [Ra03, MF04] .
, . , ( , )
. , , ( !) , .
7


[BBB06] L. Bessieres, G. Besson, M. Boileau, La preuve de la conjecture
de Poincar dapres G. Perelman, Images des Mathematiques, 2006.
http://www.math.cnrs.fr/imagesdesmaths/IdM2006.htm

[Ca28] E. Cartan, Gomtrie des espaces de Riemann. Paris, 1928. .


: . , . ,
1936.
[Gr90] A. Gray, Tubes. Addison-Wesley, 1990. . : . ,
. .: , 1997.
[Gr94] M. Gromov, Sign and geometric meaning of curvature // Rend. Sem.
Mat. Fis. Milano 61 (1991), 9-123 (1994). . : . ,
. :
, 2000.
[MSF04] . . , . . . . , . .: ,
2004.
[MF04] . . . . , . .: , 2004.
[Pr] . . , (
).
[Ra03] . . , . .:
, 2003.
[Ra04] . . , . .:
, 2004.
[Ta89] . . , // , 1989, 5; // , 1989, 11.
http://kvant.mirror0.mccme.ru/

[To82] . , . .:
, 1982.
[Vi92] . . , // , 1992, 4.
http://kvant.mirror0.mccme.ru/

1.
1.1.
t,
( ).
1. ( )
: g (t) = (x (t), y (t)) g (t) =
= (r (t), f (t)) ; g (t) = (x (t), y (t), z (t)) g (t) = (r (t), f (t), z (t)), g (t) =
= (r (t), f (t), j (t)) , .
(a) OA O w. M OA,
O, v. M
.
(b) 2r, v ,
w.
(c) R
. .
(d) , () d,
f .
(e) g (t)
, H, H ? (
, g = g H.)
(f)* ,
( )
- (
45 ). .
.
(g)* ,
.
(h) R
R,
.
9

(i)* ,
, ,
a.
(j) R
R. .

(. . )
g : [a, b] R2 , g (t) 6= 0 t.

, .
.
R2
g : [a, b] R2 , = g [a, b] .
, .
.
2. (a) g
.
(b) g1 g2 .
(c) , .
(d)* ( )
g : [1, 1] R2 , {(0, t)}
{(t, 0)}, 0 6 t 6 1.
g = (x, y) : [a, b] R2 ( R n)


L(g) := sup |A0 A1 | + |A1 A2 | + + |An1 An |,

a = a0 6 a1 6 . . . 6 an = b, Ai := g (ai) ,
sup [a, b] .
3. (a)
Rb p
1 + y (t) 2 dt.
a
(b) . g : [a, b] R2 ,
g (t) = (x (t), y (t)),
Z bq
Z b
L(g) =
x (t) 2 + y (t) 2 dt =
|g (t)|dt.
a

10

4. g (a) g (b)
(a) ; (b) g (t) =
= (t, t 2); (c) ; (d) .
5. g (a) g (b) (a) ; (b) ; (c) .
, g : [a, b] R2 ( R3), g.
6. . , . . g1 g2

, L(g1) = L(g2).
:
, ,

g1 g1
2 : [a, b] [a, b]
. ,
.

1.2.
0. , , . . .
1. (a) 1 c
r = 10 , v = 100 / w = 2p c 1 ,
. , ?
:
.
(b) , . 1 /.

? ?
(c) r = f 1
1 /, f = 0.
,
f = p/2?
(d) d = 2 f = 1. , .
1 (. .
) . .

11

c y = g (x)
y = f (x) A, , . . A,
A
A.
( ) g : [a, b]
R2 , g (t) = (x (t), y (t)), t [a, b] g (t) =
= (x (t), y (t)).
,
1 , , 0
s s s.
( g).
2. (a)
.
(b)
(s) = (x (s), y (s), z (s)).
(c) , (s) = (x (s), y (s)).
(d) , (. . ),
( ) .
(e)
, .
( )
g : [a, b] R2 t [a, b] g (t) = (x (t), y (t)).
.

. 0.

s0 k(s0), | (s0)| ( ) , (s0)


(s0) () . , k(s0) := (s0) (s0). A = (s0)
k(A) := k(s0).
3. (a)
12

.
(b) .
g g (t) g (t) ,
g (t), :
k(g (t)) =

x y x y
g g
= 2
,
|g |3
|x + y 2 |3/2

t .
Rn , (), . . ( Rn !) Rn Rn ,
.
4. (a) . k : [a, b] R ( ) : R R2 , k( (s)) = k(s).
(b) .
,
, , , . . a,
k( 2 (s)) = k( 1 (s + a)) s, k( 2 (s)) = k( 1 (s + a))
s.
,

.
s0 k(s0) := | (s0)|. ,
.
, , , , .
5. k(g (t)) =

g = (x, y, z).

|g g |

|g |3

1b. g (t),
(s), (0) = g (0). . 3b.
3b. - g t t, -
Rt
s l (t) := 0 |g (t)|dt.
13

| | = 1, g = |g |. ,
(l (t)) = g (t). l = |g | g = |g |2 + |g |t .
g g g = |g |2 g = k|g |3 .
4a. = (x, y) .
Oxy, (0) = (0, 0) Ox (0).
a (s) := ( (s), Ox). (s) = (cos a (s), sin a (s)). 3a
(. 1c) a (s) = k( (s)).
= (x, y)

a (s) =

k(s)ds,

x (s) =

cos a (s)ds

y (s) =

sin a (s)ds.

1.3.
1. 1
c r, v w. (t) ( )
.
g , g (t) g (t) t.
g ,
.
2. (a) ( )
, .
(b) .
3. (a) a , g (t) = (e t , 2e t , e at ), ?
(b) g
...
, g (t) g (t) g (t) = 0
t.
s0
k (s0) (. . ,
). (),
,
() .
4. .

14

5. .
s. v :=
n := /| |; v n v n .
(a) 6= 0 (. . ).
(b) n = kv ( ).
(c) k n , : k = n (v n) = v n n .
(d) n = kv + k (v n).
k

.
(e) b = , b :=
k
| |
. d) e) v = kn .

6. (a) k =
.
k2
...
g g g
(b) k (g (t)) =
|g g |2
g ( ; t
).
(c)* . k : [a, b] (0, +) k : [a, b]
R : R R3 , k( (s)) = k(s)
k ( (s)) = k (s).
. k k (v, n) v = kn n = kv + k (v n).
(d) 4b
.
1. , .
,
.
g (t) = (r cos wt, r sin wt, vt).

w :=

w
=
|g (t)|

pr ww + v .
2 2

(s) = r cos ws, r sin ws,

15

vs w 
.
w

(s) = r w sin ws, r w cos ws,

vw 
,
w

(s) = (r w2 cos ws, r w2 sin ws, 0).


(t) =
2a. .

vw

v2

+ r 2 w2

2b. .
5b. n
v, .
6b. - g t t, - b
Rt
s l (t) := 0 |g (t)|dt.
( s)

. |b (s)| = 1, k (g (t)) = |b |. ,
b (s) :=
| |
( , ) (g , g ), ,
... g g = nb,
n := |g g |. t, g g = nb |g | + nt b.
g ,
...
n|g |kn
g g g = n|g |b g =
= n2 k.
|g |

, b g b b,
b k .

16

2.
2.1.
() ( ).
. D .

r : D R3 (, , x, y, z : D R),
(. . - ) (. .
(ru , rv)) (u, v) D.
,
(
).
(
) r (D) r. r (D),
r (D) ( D r (D).
(
) R3 , P
OP R3 , OP .

.

. , , R3 .
1.
R3 , ()
.
(a) ;
(b) ;
(c) ;
17

(d) ;
(e) ;

(f) ;
(g) ;
(h) z = xy.

2.2. .

, Rn
,
(), . . ( Rn !) Rn Rn , .
()
, , . . , .

: , ()
) ?
) ?
2. (a) ,
.
(b) , R4 x12 + x22 + x32 + x42 = 1,
x12 + x22 = x32 + x42 .
(c) .
3. (a) .
(b)
.
(c)
.
P, X
|P, X| , P X.
, . (. . , ,
, )
.
18

( ).
P L,P (R) R
P .

. 1.

3 . P

t = t,P := 6 lim

R0

2pR L,P (R)


.
pR 3

,
; ,
.
P
, .
4.* (a) .
ptR 3
(b) L,P (R) = 2pR
+ O (R 5) [Gr90, BBB06] .
6
19

. ,
.
5. (abcd) 1abcd .
(e)* (0, 0, 0) z = xy, x 2 + y 2 6 1.
6. (a) ?
(b) .
(c)* , , ?
(d)* .
, ( , , .
) [MF04, Ra04] .
(
)
!

2.3.
S
[0, +), .
() , ,
,
S ( ) = S () + S ().
() f : f () , S (f ()) 6 S ().
() 1.
. .
1 ( 4bd) ( ). .
,
S .
1

20

1. .
2. (a) a
2a.
(b) . a, b g
a + b + g p.
(c) . a1 , . . . an
a1 + + an (n 2) p.
3. (a) R 2p (1 cos R).
(b) ,
p
Rb
f : [a, b] (0, +) Ox, 2p a f (x) 1 + f (x) 2 dx.
4. (a)* .
RR
r (D) S (r (D)) = D |ru rv | du dv [Ra03] .
(b) ,
r.
(c) (
).
(d)* (
!). , , . [Gr94] .
5. S,P (R) R
P .

(a) L,P (R) = S,P


(R).
pR 2 S,P (R)
.
(b) t = 24 lim
R0
pR 4
pt
(c)* S,P (R) = pR 2 R 4 + O (R 6) [Gr90] .
24

2.4. ()
Rm P
S,P (R) R P .
P

t = t,P := 6 lim

R0

4pR 2 S,P (R)


.
(4/3) pR 4

1. R4 :
(a) R3 ; (b) S 2 R; (c) S 1 R2 ;
(d) t 2 = x 2 + y 2 + z 2 ; (e) S 3 ; (f)* S 2 S 1 .
21

n- n- . n- , : n- r : D Rm
Z
Z
V (r (D)) = . . .
|r1 rn | du1 . . . dun .
D
n

D R |r1 rn | n-
n- , r1 , . . . , rn .
n > 2 n-
Rm . Vn Sn = nVn n-
(n 1)- 1 Rn , V,P (R) S,P (R)
n- (n 1)- R P P. P

t = t,P := 6 lim

R0

Sn R n1 S,P (R)
.
Vn R n+1

2. (a) .

(b) S,P (R) = V,P


(R).
(c) Sn = nVn .
Vn R n V,P (R)
.
(d) t = 6(n + 2) lim
R0
Vn R n+2
t
(e)* VP (R) = Vn R n
Vn R n+2 + O (R n+4) [Gr90] .
6(n + 2)
3. . .
( n- .)

2.5.
A1 , . . . , As m1 , . . . , ms . l
I (l) = m1 |A1 l|2 + . . . + ms |As l|2 , |Ai l| Ai
l.
1. (a) I+ I
, O (, I+ = I). l+ ,
I (l+) = I+ . I (l) = I+ cos2 f + I sin2 f, f = (ll+).
(b)* l1 , l2 , l3 , O, l, O,
I (l) = I (l1) cos2 (ll1) + I (l2) cos2 (ll2) + I (l3) cos2 (ll3).
22

(. . ) n(P),
P .
()

.
( , , .)

. 2.

XVIII
.
P . a,
P, P () a
(. . 2)?
l+ l
P P ()
, P.
P , l , ( P),
,
23

, l .
2. , 1abcdef .
3.
(a) ?
(b) ?
4. (a) .
(b) .
5. . (a) P
, e > 0 B (P, e)
R3 P e
P.
(b) P ,
e > 0 B (P, e)
P.
6. (a) k(f)
z = ax 2 +2bxy+cy 2 , Oz
f Ox.
(b) z = f (x, y) , z =
 0, .. f (0, 0) = fx (0, 0) = fy (0, 0) = 0 h =

fxx fxy
fxy fyy

2
(l fxx) (l fyy) = fxy
, . . det(h lE) = 0,
R2 R2 ,
(
).
(c) . R3 P . k(f) P
, P
f , (. . , l+). k(f) = l+ cos2 f + l sin2 f.
(d) , .
(e)* ,
?
7. (a) ( , 2)
(a an
. 2), P ,

24

, j ?
. , . .
(b) P = g (0) g g (0)
P.
(c) . k kn (a an . 2),
P
, ,
j . k cos j = kn .
(d) d (e) : R3 d (e) (P) = P +
2
2
|d (e) P (a)| |a|
, a = g (0).
+ en(P). (b) lim
e0
2e

(. ).
1a 6c. ,
f (f) = A cos2 f + 2B cos f sin f + C sin2 f.
1b. .
2f. .
6b. .
( H K ) ,
f , .
6c. z = f (x, y),
Oxy O.
6d. 6c.
6e. r (u, v) 6b.
7b. n = n(g (t)).
n g = 0

n g + n g = 0

n g = g

n
.
g

7ac. 7b.
7b. , z = f (x, y), f (0, 0) = fx (0, 0) = fy (0, 0) = 0, z = x ctg j. y. , zy = fx xy + fy zy = xy ctg j. (0, 0, 0)
yy = 1, zy = 0 xy = 0, . .
25

. Oz
zyy = (fxy + fxx xy)xy + fx xyy + fyx xy + fyy . (0, 0, 0) zyy = fyy ,
j. Oz j.
, k(f, j) = k(f, 0) / cos j.

2.6.
e- M ( ) Me , M
, e:
Me := {x : |x y| < e y M} .
1. e-
(a) 1;
(b) S P.
2. e-
(a) 1;
(b) 1;
(c) 1;
(d) ( ,
; e2).
3. (abcd) e- V (Me) , 2.
(e) .
, ?
(f) M
P li
li (p ai) 6 8pR.
ai R,
() F F .
M

S (Me) S (M)
H (M) := lim
.
e

e0

2d ,
H (M) =

X
26

li (p ai).

R3 . , en(P), P
, e := {P + en(P)}P (. 3).

. 3.


S (e) S ()
H () := lim
.
e0

,
(. . ) 0.
4. , 1abcde .
5.
(a) ?
(b) ?
6. (a) , . . H (1 2) = H (1) +
+ H (2) ( 1 2 , ).
(b) .
(c)
.
7. r (D)
ru rv
. n =
|ru rv |

(u, v)
RR ru rv , n(r (u, v)) n.
(a) S (r (D)) = D ru rv n du dv.
(b) r (D) e = re (D),
RR re (u, v) := r (u, v) + en.
(c) H (r (D)) = D (ru nv n + nu rv n) du dv. , ,
, .
27

8.* M R3 e- Me
1
2

(a)

V (Me) = V (M) + S (M) e + H (M) e2 +

(b)

S (Me) = S (M) + H (M) e + 4pe2 .

(c)

H (M) = 2 lim

e0

V (Me) V (M) S (M) e

e2

4p 3
e.
3

V (MR) 4pR 3 /3
.
R
R2

= lim

2d. ( e-) ,
. , ,
, .
, , ( ) ,
( ) .
7a. ru rv n = (ru rv) n.

2.7.
.
,
( ,
).
.
,
P
H = H,P :=

lim

diam(P )0

H (P)
,
S (P)

P , P .
.
1. , 1abcde .
2. ,
(a) ; (b) f .
3. ?
4. (a)
28

lim

diam(P )0

H (P)
e-d.
S (P)

(b)
.
(c)* .
5. (abc) .
HP =
=

ru nv n + nu rv n
=
|ru rv |

(rv2 ruu + ru2 rvv 2(ru rv)ruv) ru rv


=
|ru rv |3

= fxx fyy ,

n =

ru rv
,
|ru rv |

O z = f (x, y),
Oxy ,
nO = (0, 0, 1).
, .
(d) .
6. .
:
Z p
1
l+ + l
H
=
=
k(f)d f.
2

5a. .
5c. n =

ru rv
.
|ru rv |

r (u, v).

2.8.
R3 ,
, () , . (
, .)
.

K () = lim

29

S (R)
.
R2

1. , 1abcde* .
(f) (. .
) .

K (),
S (e) = S () + H () e + K () e2

()

e ( e ).
2. (a) .
(b) .
3.
(a) ?
(b) ?
4. (a) , . .
K (1 2) = K (1) + K (2)
( 1 2 , ).
(b) .
( Egregium
) , .
, .
G () S 2 R3
(. 4).

. 4.

5. .
30


. ( ),
( )
(
).
6. z = xy, x 2 + y 2 6 1.

, ,
.
7. (a) , . . .
(b) .
.
r : D R3 .
ZZ
ru rv n du dv.
Sn (r (D)) :=
D

8. K (r (D)) =

RR

nu nv n du dv n =

ru rv
.
|ru rv |

, , . . S (e) () ( e)
H () K ().
n(r (u, v)) ,
. n r : D
S 2 R3 .
9. (a) n(r (u, v)) n r (D)
n r (u, v), . . m(n r (u, v)) := n(r (u, v))
n r (D).
(b)
.

2.9.
.
,
31

( ,
).
.
,
P
K = K,P :=

lim

diam(P )0

K (P)
S (P)

P , P .
.
1. 1abcde
.
2.
(a) ; (b) .
3. (a) ,
.
(b) .
4. ?
5. (abc) .
KP =
=

nu nv n
=
|ru rv |

(ruu ru rv) (rvv ru rv) (ruv ru rv) 2


2
= fxx fyy fxy
,
|ru rv |4

n =

ru rv
,
|ru rv |

O z = f (x, y),
Oxy .
, .
(d) .
6. (a) .
l2 + H l + K = 0.
(b) . : K = l+ l .
32

(c) 5ab
()
K > 0 (K < 0).
(d)
, .
7.* . R3 t = 2K ( t
) [Gr90, MF04, Ra04] .

K <0

K >0

. 5.

2: . . 5.
5a. .
5c. n =

ru rv
.
|ru rv |

r (u, v).

2.10.

, , . .
x U ,
y1 , y2 U
y1 y2 .

. .
1. (a) , .
(b)
a b c, ,
.
33

(c) 2p.
(d) (. . )
.
2. (a) .
(b) .
(c)* (, ).
3. (a) .
(b)* . g : [a, b] , g (t)
(, ) g (t) t.
.
t , g
g (t) . ,
. .
[Ra03] .
(c)*

. ( .)
(d)* ( ,
; , ) . ( )
.
, .
g : [a, b] , g (t)
g (t) t.
3b , , ,
, .
, ( 34

).
. ( ) .
4. (a) .
(b) .
(c)
,
.
(d)* , , .
5.
(a) ; (b) ; (c) ( 7f);
(d) ( ).
6. . g r sin (g , m) . r
m .
7. x1 , x2 : R R, g = r (x1 , x2)
r : D R3 .
(x1 (t), x2 (t)) r
t, r ( g)
(
).
(a) g ,
g r1 = g r2 = 0 t.
(b) g = r1 x1 + r2 x2 g r (x1 (t), x2 (t)).
(c) g = x1 r1 + x1 r1 + x2 r2 + x2 r2 .
(d) r1 = r11 x1 + r12 x2 .
(e) . ( x1 x2
r)
(
x1 = 111 (x1 ) 2 + (121 + 112)x1 x2 + 122 (x2 ) 2 ,
x2 = 211 (x1 ) 2 + (221 + 212)x1 x2 + 222 (x2 ) 2

xk +

kij xi x j = 0,

i, j

gi j = ri r j kij

g3k,3k rk ri j gk,3k r3k ri j


:=

det g

35

(f) . .
(g) .
1c. ,
, ( ) ,
.
6. , e g g = const,
g e , . , e g g = 0.

2.11.
, .
. ,
.
. (, , .)
.
,
. .
,
.
.
1. (a)
A1 , . . . , An ,
a1 , . . . , an ,
(a1 + . . . + an).
(b)* ( 2pn)
, A1 , . . . , An .
( ).
.

( ).

36

: .
, R3
g : [a, b] .
v (t) Tg (t) g [a, b]
( ),
vt (t0) Tg (t0) ,
g (t0) t0 .

,
( 2c ).
v (b) , v (a)
.
2. (a) ,
, ?
(b) ,
.
(c) .
(d) .
3. (a) , ,
.
(b) f .
R3 , ,
(a, f (a), 0) (b, f (b), 0) ?
4. u v
,
(a) |v (x)| = |v (y)|;
(b) u(x) v (x) = u(y) v (y);
(c) (u(x), v (x)) = (u(y), v (y)).
(d) u + v 3u .
5. (a) .
.
(b)
, 37


.


6. v (t) = a1 (t)r1 x1 (t), x2 (t) +a2 (t)r2 x1 (t), x2 (t) r x1 (t), x2 (t) .
t .
(a) v = a1 r1 + a1 r1 + a2 r2 + a2 r2 .
(b) v g = r (x1 , x2)
, v r1 = v r2 = 0.
(c) . ( a1 a2
r, x1 , x2)
(
a1 = (111 x1 + 121 x2 )a1 + (112 x1 + 122 x2 )a2 ,
a2 = (211 x1 + 221 x2 )a1 + (212 x1 + 222 x2 )a2
, ,
ak +

kij xi a j = 0.

i, j

(d) .
( ) ,
, , ,
.

2.12.
[Ta89] .
1.

(a) ?
(b) a, b, g ?
(c) z = 1 z 2 = x 2 + y 2 ?
(d) j = j0 ?
(e) ?
1c 3b. ( )
.
2. N, N , g. , g
N N .
38

. 6.

()

.
3. (a) .
(b) .
.
(c) , . . (1 2) = (1) +
+ (2) ( 1 2 , ).
4. G : S 2
.
dGP : TP TG (P)

: P () PX

G (P)dGP (X), PX .
dGP .

(a) , . . G (P)dGP (X) G ().


(b)
.
(c) , , , ( ).
(d)
: () = (G ()).
(e) (Egregium). R3
39

: () = K (). (. 7
.)
,

( , ).

.
, P
(P)
,
(P) :=
lim
diam(P )0

S (P)

P , P.
.
5. ?
, R3 , ( 2). ,

Rm m > 3, .
6. t = 2 Rm .
1de. 1c 2.
4e.
. .
4e. vP
, , aP bP . ( P)
sin (v, a)d(v, a) = d (cos (v, a)) = d (v a) =

= v da + dv a = v da = sin (v, a)b da.

d(v, a) =
ZZ 

b da =
b au du + b av dv =
D

ZZ
(b au)
(b av )
(bu av bv au) du dv =
du dv =

u
v
D
ZZ
nu nv n du dv = S (G (r (D))).
=

40

,



w1 w2
w1
a
0
a
a
0

b = w1

w3
0
0
b ,
b = w1
w2 w3
n u
w2 w3 0
n
n v

a
w2
w3 b ,
0

bu av bv au = w2 w3 w2 w3 = nu nv n.
6. . 5e
.

41

3.

3.1.
S 2 := {(x, y, z) | x 2 + y 2 + z 2 = 1}.
, .
( ).
1. (a) R 2p sin R.
(b) g = (f, j) : [a, b] S 2 f, j.
(c) g = (x, y).
(d) : (p, q)
, (p, q, 0) (0, 0, 1).
(e)* ,
. (u, v) ,
( ) (. .
).
. (f, j)
(u, v).
(u,v)

2. [a, b] R2
R3 u v
( ,
)
(a) r (u, v) = (cos u, sin u, v)
.
(b) r (u, v) = (v cos u, v sin u, v) .
(c) r (u, v) = ((2+cos v) cos u, (2+cos v) sin u, sin v)
.
(d) r (u, v) = (f (v) cos u, f (v) sin u, h(v)) .
3. . r (u, v) : [a, b] R2 R3
Z

b
a

q
ru2 (ut ) 2 + 2ru rv ut vt + rv2 (vt) 2 dt.

t u, v, ut , vt ; ru =
= ru (u(t), v (t)) rv .
42


A .
4. (a)
.
(b) r- v = u + 1 v = 3 u
r (u, v) = (v cos u, v sin u, v 2) (r- D
z = x 2 + y 2).

3.2. .

1. r : R2 R3 .
P TP = TP, P.
1 ( ) gP : TP TP R (P ), gP (a, b) = a b.
,

(, )

2 2.
r : D R3
gi j ( (0, 1), (1, 0)) , r-
r (D), . .
r (X) g : R2 R2 R

(X D),


r (X) g (a, b) = r (X)a r (X)b.
( ,
2f .) det g gi j
( g r (X) g).
2. (a) . gi j (u, v)
(. . ) (ru , rv).
(b) . g = (u1 , u2) : [a, b] D 1

, , R3 .

43

r : D R3
Z bq
Z b sX
Z bq
gi j ui uj dt =
r gr (g) (g , g) dt =
gr (g) (r g , r g) dt.
a

i, j

t g, u1 , u2
(u1 (t), u2 (t)) r , gi j .
(c) gi j r (u, v) = (u, v, f (u, v)) ( f
).
(d)
r (u, v) = (x (u, v), y (u, v), z (u, v))
( x, y, z ).
2
(e) det g = g11 g22 g12
> 0 .
(f) . r, e
r e g
e = J T gJ , J = (r 1 e
g, g
r) .
3. (a) . (. . ) ,
.
(b) P
f = f,P : R
f (X) = |P, X|2 , |P, X| .
f (P) = 0 f
.
(c) . , .
4. (a) g, b : [1, 1] D ,
g (0) = b (0) = X. (a1 , a2) := g (0) (b1 , b2) := b (0). r g r b (
r : D R3) r (X)

q (P

P
a a )(
i, j

i, j

gi j

gi j ai b j

i j

i, j

gi j bi b j )

pr

r g (g , b)
=
g (g , g)r g (b , b)

= p

gr (r g , r b)
.
gr (r g , r g) gr (r b , r b)

g b 0, r, r , gi j X.
44

(b) .
5. (a) |ru rv |2 = det g.
RR p
det(r g) (u,v) du dv,
(b) r (D)
D

(r g) (u,v) (r g) (u,v) (0, 1), (1, 0).


6. (a) rk ri j gi j .
(b) .
(c) . . (
3b .)
(d) . , , , .
(e) . .
3a. .
, ,
, .
6a. . 2ri rii =
= (gii) i , 2ri ri j = (gii) j , 2ri r jj = 2(gi j) j (g jj) i , i 6= j.
: gi j = ri r j , 2rk ri j = (gki ) j + (gk j) i (gi j) k .

3.3.
( )
( ) R3

qeP : TP TP

qeP (a) :=

(P ),

n
= (nga (t) ) t
a

t=0

ga (t) , ga (0) = P ga (0) = a. ni = qi1 r1 qi2 r2 .


n

TP 1. (a) , . .
a
ga .
(b) .
(c) ru , rv .
45

. 7.

R3
qP : TP TP R,

(P ),


qP (a, b) := qeP (a) b = b

n
.
a

(, .)
2. (a)
.
(b) .
(c) . z =
= f (x, y), Oxy O = P, f .
(d) ru , rv .
(e) , q p .
3. R3 .
(a) g
P = g (0)
P:
n g (0) = qP (g (0), g (0)).
(b) d (e) : R3
d (e) (P) = P + en(P).
46


2qP (a, b) = lim

e0

d (e) P (a) d (e) P (b) a b


.
e

r : D R3
qi j ( (0, 1), (1, 0)) , r- r (D), . .
r q : R2 R2 R

(X D),


r q (a, b) = qr (X) (r a, r b),
r X. ( .)
4. qi j
(a) r (u, v) = (cos u cos v, cos u sin v, sin u);
(b) r (u, v) = (a cos u cos v, a cos u sin v, c sin u);
(c) r (u, v) = ((2 + cos u) cos v, (2 + cos u) sin v, sin u);
(d) r (u, v) = (f (u) cos v, f (u) sin v, sin u).
5. .
( g q, . .
det(g lq) = 0).



( ).

6. R4 .
7.* qi j
.
(a) . ri j = 1i j r1 + 2i j r2 + qi j n
[Ra03, . 528] .
(b) . R3 ,
, ( ) [Ra03, 81] .
47

. , .
, , [Ra03, 82, 83] .
3a. .

3.4.
Rm n.
P ()
exp = expP : X

exp(u) := gP,u (1), gP,u : [1, 1] ,


gP,u (0) = P gP,u (0) = u. X TP
u, gP,u (1).

. 8.

1. (a) S 2 T (1,0,0) S 2 :
exp(1, r, f) = (cos r, sin r cos f, sin r sin f).
(b) .
2. (a) , P,
expP .
(b) ,
?
(c) ( TP) R P expP ( ) R.
48

(d) ,
?
3. (a) exp P, . . gi j (P) = di j gij (P) = 0.
(b) :
f : 1 , exp f (P) (f (P)u) = f (expP u).
4. , P

Vn R n V,P (R)
,
R0
Vn R n+2

t = t,P := 6(n + 2) lim

V,P (R) R P P.
(a) , .
(b) gi j,kl (
k l k l).
. () n Rm P r = rP : TP TP R,
Z
1
V (exp(A)) = V (A)
r (u, u) du + O (hn+3), h = diam(A P) 0
6

A TP .
, , n- A TP
P
Z
hn+2
r (u, u) du + O (hn+3) h 0.
V (exp(hA)) = hn
6

A
A TP hn hn V (A) (hn+2 hn+3 ).

5. (a) -

.
(b) gi j,kl .
(c) .
B n Rn Vn n- .
6. w : Rn Rn R
(a) w
e : Rn Rn ,
w
e (u) v = w (u, v).
49

(b) ,
Z
(n + 2)

Bn

(c) ,
Z

w (u, u) du = Vn tr w
e = Vn

w (u, u) du =

w (ei , ei).

1
1X
w (ei , e j),
tr w
e+
3
4
i< j

A e1 , . . . , en .
7. (a) . t = tr e
r.
(b) ,
X
texpP hu,ei i,P ,
2rP (u, u) =
i

|u| = 1 e1 , . . . , en1
u TP hu, ei i TP ,
u ei [BBB06] .
(c) e1 , . . . , en TP ,
X
t,P =
texpP hei ,e j i,P .
i< j

(d)* . Rm
Z
t
S (exp(A)) = S (A)
u2 du + o (h4) h = diam(A P) 0
12

A TP . , t/2:
2r (u, v) = tu v [Gr90, MF04, Ra04] .
.
3a. v1 , . . . , vn TP .
e := expP . gi j = ei e j . u, .
ei = vi P (. . eP = E), gi j (P) = di j .
g (t) := e (at, bt, 0, . . . , 0) a b,
(a2 e11 + 2abe12 + b 2 e22) ek = 0 k. e11 ek = e12 ek =
= e22 ek = 0. ei j ek = 0 i, j, k.
(gi j) k = (ei e j) k = eik e j + e jk ei = 0.
50

gij = 0. gu (t) := e (ut)


, eP (u, u) = gu (0) TP u TP .
eP (u, v) TP u, v TP . ,
(g (u, v)) w = (eP u eP v) w = eP (u, w) eP v + eP u eP (v, w) = 0.
. gij (P) = 0 , e-
P o (e) , , eu .
4. (a) v1 , . . . , vn TP .
(3a), gi j (u) =
= di j + o (|u|). det gi j (u) = 1 + o (|u|). ,
Z
q
V,P (R) =
det gi j (u) du = Vn R n + o (R n+1).
B (R)

V,P (R) .
(b) ,
X
gi j,kl uk ul + o (|u|2).
gi j (u) = di j +
k,l

5ab. v1 , . . . , vn TP .
(a)
(3a),
p
p
gi j (u) = di j + o (|u|). det gi j (u) = 1 + o1 (|u|) = 1 + o2 (|u|).
R p
V (exp(A)) = A det gi j (u) du, V (exp(hA)) .
(b) (3a),
+ Ri j (u, u) + o (|u|2), Ri j u
gi j (u) = di jP
(Ri j (u, u) = k,l gi j,kl uk ul ).
det gi j (u) = 1 +

Rii (u, u) + o (|u|2) = 1 +

1X
Rii (u, u) + o (|u|2).
2
i

R p
V (exp(A)) = A det gi j (u) du,

r (u, v) :=

1X
Rii (u, u).
2
i

51

5a. 3a. ,
eu vi = vi +

e (u, u, vi)
+ o (|u|2),
2

2Ri j (u, u) = v j e (u, u, vi) + vi e (u, u, v j),


X
vi e (u, u, vi).
2r (u, u) =
i

. [L, L ]
L L (
R).
e : TP [TP , TP ]

(e ). , eu : TP [TP , TP ]
,
eu : TP TP TP ,
.
e : TP [TP , [TP , TP ] ]
(e ).
eu : TP [TP , [TP , TP ] ]
, eu : (TP) 3 TP , .

7. (a) 6b.
(c) 7ab.
r = E.
(d) 1a 7d r = g, . . e
t = tr e
r (7a) t = 2 2r = t g.
(. 5a).

3.5.
Rm n.
A TP ,
P. (A) : TP TP , x TP , x
52

expP (A). ( A , expP (A) .)


P ,
u, v TP ,

R (u, v) = R (u, v) P : TP TP ,
Au,v , u, v,

(hAu,v ) = E + h2 R (u, v) + o (h2)

h 0.

Au,v P u.
u v , R (u, v) = 0.

. 9.

P
RPa : TP TP a P.
1 2 , , , R (u, v) .
S (exp(hA

))

u,v
1. (a) n = 2 (hAu,v ) = RP
.
p 2
(b) n = 2 R (u, v) P = ( P u v)RP/ .
(c) ,
,
.
(d)* u R (u, v)v = (exp hu, vi)u v. ( (exp hu, vi) P,
u, v.)

53

2. (a) , n = 3
p 2

R (u, v) = (exp hu, vi) (u v)RP/ prhu,vi ,


hu, vi TP , u, v,
pr : TP hu, vi ?
(b) S n = {x02 + +xn2 = 1} (0, . . . , 0, 1)

R (u, v)w = (v w)u (u w)v,

u, v, w S n .
3. (a)* R (u, v) .
(b) u, v.
(c) .

(A) = E + S (A)R (u, v) + o (S (A))

diam A 0

A TP , P.
(d) .
4. .
(a) R (u, v) , . . [R (u, v)x] y = [R (u, v)y] x.
(b) R (u, v) u, v: R (u, v) = R (v, u).
(c) (). R (u, v)x + R (v, x)u +
+ R (x, u)v = 0.
(d) [R (u, v)x] y = [R (x, y)u] v.
5. . (a) 4- b=R
bP : (TP) 4 R,
R
1b
exp (u)x exp (u)y = x y + R
(u, x, u, y) + o (|u|2)
3

x, y TP . exp (u) : TP Texp(u) .


(b)
eP : (TP) 3 TP ,
R

eP (u, x, v) y = R
bP (u, x, v, y).
R
bP (u, x, v, y).
(c)* RP (u, x)v y = R
( , , , . . [Ca28, 9.1, . 204] .)
54

bi jkl = gi j,kl .
(d) R
b
(e) Ri jkl r : D
(rx , ry).
6.* (a) [MF04, Ra04] .
n- :
(1) Rn ;
(2)
;
(3)
( , . ).
(b) (3),
.
P () Rm
R : (TP) 3 TP ,
R (u, v, x) := R (u, v)x.
7. (a) R ijkl
.
(b) . Rm :
p 2

R (u, v, x) = u vRP/ (x).


(, , R1212 =
= det(gi j); R1212
.)
(c) . Rm :
t
2

r (v) (v x)er (u) + [(v x)u (u x)v] .


R (u, v)x = r (u, x)v r (v, x)u + (u x)e
(d)* .
P :
R (ei , u)v ei .
(
, , )
f : A (A TP),
= v v A ( f (tv) t
t=0
). , ,
.

r (u, v) =

55

1. (a) Egregium .
(b) S (exp(hAu,v)) = h2 u v + o (h2).
(c) R3 ( R2).
3a. g : [0, 4h] D,
P
g (0) = g (4h) = P g [0, 4h] = expP (hAu,v).
w (t) =
ai (t)ri (g (t)) w (0)
g [0, t] . t w (t), a(t), g (t) , g (t) ri dri = ri .
t.
, ri (g (t)) : Rn Tg (t) .
j
X
0 = w r j =
[ai ri r j + ai (ri g) r j ] .
i

r a = Fg (g)a, FP (x) : Rn Rn
R 4h
. w (1) = exp[ 0 Fg (g)dt] w (0).
Z

4h

Fg (g)dt =

Fvhvt (v)dt +

Fuh+vhut (u)dt
Z

Fuh+vt (v)dt

h
0

Fut (u)dt.


FP (x).
3d. .
4. (a) (A) .
(b) (Av,u) (Au,v ) = E. o (h2)
.
(e) 4abc.
5. (a) .
(b) (u, v, x, y) = (hek , hel , ei , e j). 1b 2a.
7. (a) 7b.
(b) 1a.
(c) 2a 7d.
(d) (u, v) = (ek , el ). 1b, 2a, t = 2
.
56

. , gi j (u) = di j + Ri j (u, u) + o (|u|2). 3a


X
2r (u, u) =
Rii (u, u).
i

5b.

57

4.
4.1.
,
,
, . . .
. , .

vP TP (P ), P.

1. . (,
, ) .
?
AP : TP TP (P ), P.
(= ) fP : TP R (P ),
P.
(= ) wP : TP TP R (P ),
P.
k- (= ) k- wP : (TP) k R (P ),
P.
,
. .
2. R3
(a) ?
(b) ?
(c) ?
(d) ( B : V V R , B (a, a) > 0 a V r {0})?
(e) (
B : V V R ,
a V r {0} x V , B (a, x) 6= 0)?
58

(f)* IP : TP TP , IP2 = E?

3. (abcdef) , 2, .
4. (a)* . S 2
.
(b) (a), S 2
.
(def) , 2 (def), S 2 .
5. (abef)
S 3 = {(x, y, z, w) R4 | x 2 + y 2 + z 2 + w 2 = 1}

(g) ;
(h) .
2a, 3a 5a. .
(b) . {vP } ,
fP (u) := u vP .
(c) . , AP (v) := v.
(d) . , BP (u, v) := u v.

2e 4e. . .
2f 4f. .
p/2 .
3ef 5e. .
2 5. ,
. .

4.2.
0. f : R2 R , (a, b), (x0 , y0).
f : S 2 R?
Rm f : R .
P u TP gu = gu,P : [1, 1]
, gu (0) = P gu (0) = u.
f : R P
u TP (, u TP)
59

(u f) P := [f (gu (t))] t

t=0

1. (a) , . . gu . (
.)
(b) f : S 2 R f (P) = sin POZ,
Z = (0, 0, 1) O =
(0, 0, 0).
(x, y, z) = (1/2, 0, 3/2) (0, 1, 0).
(c) u (f1 + f2) = u f1 + u f2 .
(d) u (fg) = (u f) g + f u g.
(e) r : D . (u f) P
(a, b) u (rx , ry).
(= ) f : R (= ) f (= )
{(f) P }P ,
(f) P (u) := (u f) P .
2. (a) (f) P : TP R
, . . (f) P (la + mb) = l (f) P (a) + m (f) P (b).
(b) 1b P TP (
).
(c) (f1 + f2) = f1 + f2 .
(d) (fg) = (f) g + f g.
(e) r : D . (f) P (rx , ry) P .
(f) f : D D . (f r) x ,
(f r) y f rx , ry .
(g) f : D D?
3. (a)
(grad f) P P, (u f) P = u (grad f) P u.
(b) R2 , S 2 R3
( f : R3 R).
(c) .
(d) f : R f 1 (c),
c R. .
60

(e) ?
(f) f g.
1. gu (t) = r (a(t), b (t)), a = a (0), b = b (0).
(b) (u f) P = [f (r (a(t), b (t)))] t
.
t=0

(e) : u = arx + bry ,


(u f) P = a(f r) x

r 1 (P)

+ b (f r) y

r 1 (P)

2e.
(f) P = (f r) x

(P)

, (f r) y

(P)


.

2g. ,
. .

4.3.
u v ( Rn , n- Rm). r : R2 R2 ( r : R2 ),
(. . u = r (1, 0) v = r (0, 1))?
, .
u v
[u, v] ,
u v f v u f = [u,v] f

f : R.

1. (a) [u, v] .
(b)
[u, v] = [v, u] ,
[lu, v] = l [u, v] ,
[u1 + u2 , v] = [u1 , v] + [u2 , v] .
(c) v Rn (x 1 , . . . , x n)
, v i (x 1 , . . . , x n) = Aik x k , A
. , ,
.
(d) .
61

2. u1 u2 Rn .
(a)
a1 (t) u1 , a1 (0) = P,
b2,t (s) u2 , b2,t (0) = a1 (t),
a2 (t) u2 , a2 (0) = P,
b1,s (t) u1 , b1,s (0) = a2 (s).
, [u1 , u2 ] = 0 , b1,s (t) = b2,t (s)
P Rn t, s R.
(b) r : Rn Rn , u1 = r (1, 0, 0, . . . , 0),
u2 = r (0, 1, 0, 0 . . . , 0) . . ,

.
3. (a) u, v Rm , Rm . [u, v]
[u, v] [u , v ] , u
v u v.
(b)
S 3 = {(x, y, z, w) R4 | x 2 + y 2 + z 2 + w 2 = 1}

u = (y, x, w, z),

v1 = (w, z, y, x)

v2 = (w, z, y, x).

[u, v1 ] [u, v2 ] .
4. (a) Rm ,
. . ,
?
(b) ?
(c)* A Rn .
u, v Rn
N (u, v) = A2 [u, v] A[Au, v] A[u, Av] + [Au, Av] .
, N : TP TP TP . ,
,
A , N = 0.
5. (a) S 3 ,
.
(b)* S 3 S 3 .
5b. S 3
= S1 S1 S1.
62

4.4.
prTP TP .
v
P u TP
(u v) P := prTP [vgu (t) ] t
.
t=0

1. (b)
v (r, f) = cos f,

sin f 
r

(0, 2) (1, 1).


(acd1d2e1e2) 1acde
.
1d :
u (fv) = (u f)v + f u v
u (v1 v2) = (u v1) v2 + v1 u v2 .
, 1e,
(e1) gi j = di j .
(e2) .
(f) u, v x R3 .
u, v x ,
u v.
(g) f : D D?

2. (a)
,
.
(b) ,
.
(c) [u, v] = u v v u.

3. (a) P (.
3() . 3.4),
u v w v u w = [u,v] w.
63

(b)* R (u, v)w = v u w u v w + [u,v] w.


(c) r : D (rx , ry) ( (b))
R ijkl .
v

(v) P : TP TP ,
(v) P (u) := u v.
4. (b)
v (r, f) = cos f,

sin f 
r

.
(acd1d2e1e2g) 2acdeg
.
1. (e1) vr (x,y) = p (x, y)rx (x, y) + q (x, y)ry (x, y)
r (x, y) gu (t) = r (a(t), b (t)). u =
= rx a (0) + ry b (0)




rx + ry [vr (a(t),b (t)) ] t
ry .
u v = rx [vr (a(t),b (t)) ] t
t=0

t=0

(e2) (e1) (f). (e1) (g).


(g) , .

(. . 2f
).

4.5.
R3 g :
[a, b] . A(t) : Tg (t) Tg (t) g ( ),
v (t) Tg (t) , g,
A(v (t)) g.
0. (a) , .
(b) P R3 p 2
v RP/ (v) , v p/2
64

p 2

. RP/ .
(c) .
u, v TP . vu (t) Tgu (t)
, gu , vu (0) = v.
A P u TP ,
v
(u A) P (v) := prTP [Agu (t) (vu (t))] t

t=0

A

(A) P : TP TP TP ,

(A) P (u, v) := (u A) (v).


1. (b) P = (x, y, z) R3 v AP (v) , xv p/2 . A (1, 0, 0) (0, 1, 0).
(acd1d2e1e2) 1acd1d2e1e2
.
(f) v (t) Tgu (t)
( gu), v (0) = v,
(u A) (v) = [Agu (t) (v (t))] t

t=0

AP (prTP [v (0)]).

2. (abcd1d2e1e2g) 4abcd1d2e1e2g
. e1,e2 !
3. (a)
.
(b) .
f
(f) P : TP TP R (P ) ,

(f) P (u, v) = (u f) P (v) := [fgu (t) (vu (t))] t
65

t=0

4. (b) ( ) , f (x, y, z) = x
x 2 + y 2 + z 2 = 1 .
(acd1d2e1e2g) 2acd1d2e1e2g
.
5. v (t) Tgu (t)
( gu), v (0) = v,
(u f) (v) = [fgu (t) (v (t))] t

t=0

fP (pr TP [v (0)]).

6. (a)
.
(b) .
w

(w) P : TP TP TP R (P ),
(w) P (u, v, w) = (u w) (v, w) := [fgu (t) (vu (t), wu (t))] t

t=0

7. (b) - ( )
3 3 3 ( ) x1 x2 dx3 dx4 x12 + x22 + x32 + x42 = 1
(0, 0, 0, 1) . , (a, b) (x1 , x2 , x3 , x4)
x1 x2 (a3 b4 a4 b3).
(acd1d2e1e2g) 2acd1d2e1e2g
.
(h) fd f d j
1
2

1
2

(a, b, c) (a , b , c ) (0, , ) R3 .

8.

(a) k- .
(b) (TP) k (TP) l , . . (k, l).
(c)* m R ijkl + k R ijlm + l R ijmk = 0.
9. (acd1d2e1e2g) 2acd1d2e1e2g
(k, l).
yP : TP TP R
(Alt y) P : TP TP R, 2(Alt y) P (u, v) := yP (u, v) yP (v, u).
66

10. (a)
= fi (x1 , . . . , xn)
x i
, Alt(f) = 0 ( f
).
(b) Alt(f) .
(c) Alt(f) = u (f (v)) v (f (u)) f ([u, v]).

w k- (= k- ) d w (k + 1)-,
X
(1) sgn (w) P (u (0) , . . . , u (k) ).
(d w) P (u0 , . . . , uk) :=
Sk+1

11. (a) d f = Alt(f) f.


(b) d w .
. .
4e1e2, 7e1e2. .

67

5.
5.1.

z > 0
z 2 = x 2 +y 2 +1.
, .
1. (a) , , ,
.
(b)
.
(c) (x (t), y (t), z (t))
xt (t) 2 + yt (t) 2 zt (t) 2 > 0.
(x (t),
y (t), z (t)), t [a, b] , Rb p
a xt (t) 2 + yt (t) 2 zt (t) 2 dt. (,
, ds 2 = dx 2 + dy 2 dz 2 .)
gi j ds 2 = gi j dx i dx j .
2. (a)

ds 2 = 4

dwd w
(w w)
2

( ).
.
(b) 1
w

p (w) = w + a q (w) = .

|z1 z2 |2
.
2Imz1 Imz2
. z1 z2 .
(c) :
ch c = ch a ch b.
. C = i, A = ki B = cos f + i sin f.
(d) .
(e)* R.
(c) ch |z1 , z2 | = 1 +

68

.
,
. . .
(f)* ,
.
(g)* ,
az + b

, - f (z) =
cz + d
ad bc = 1 ( a, b, c, d).

5.2.
() (M, g)
Rn g .
M Rm !

, .
TP P M Rn .
, , , , ,
(M, g)
, Rm .
1.
(a) , . .
ds 2 = 4

dwdw
.
(w w) 2

(b) ds 2 = l (x, y) (dx 2 + dy 2).

(c)* Rn ds 2 =
(d)* .
2. (a)*
X
xk +
kij xi x j = 0,

dx12 + + dxn2
.
(1 + x12 + + xn2) 2

i, j

2kij =

X
l

g kl ([gl j ] xi + [gli ] x j [gi j ] xl ).

(b) .
69

3.
(a) ds 2 = y (dx 2 + dy 2);
dwdw
;
(w w) 2
dx 2 + dy 2
.
(c) ds 2 = 2
x + y2

(b) ds 2 = 4

4.* l (x, y, z), {y =c1,z =c2 }


e l (x,y,z) (dx 2 + dy 2 + dz 2)
R3 .
5.
.
M v
expP g : [0, 1] Rn M
expP g,
[expP (g (t))] 1 vexpP (g (t))
.
6. (a) Rm .
(b)
.
(c) .
, , k-
(M, g) .
7.* (a) t = 2 , . . ( )
1R
A
tdS.
2 A
(b)
.
v M P M
u
u v := [(expP (ut)) 1 vexpP (ut) ] t

t=0

. . ( 0 Rn u)
v .
70

8.* (a) Rm .
(b) .
(c) v P
v i 
.

x j
(d) ( ) .
(e) .
(f) [Gr90, 2.2] .
e k
(g) kij
ij
ei j M (1, 2).
gi j g
(h) (1, 2) .
9.*
.
10.*
. [Ra04, MF04] .
(a) u, v ,
x = (e u , 1) h = (0, e v) (. . ).
(b) ( ) kij kji .
(c) ,
?
2a. .
8e.

X
v i
+
ik j v k .
x j
k

, Rm .

71

01.12.2008 . 60 90 1/16. .
. . . 4.5. 1000 . 1663.

.
119002, , ., . 11. . (499) 2417483.

,
., . 11. . (499) 2417285. E-mail: biblio@mccme.ru