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. .

2015

530.12(075.8)
22.2 22.313
318
:
- .-. , . . .

20092018 . .
, . .
318 : . /
. . ; . . -. : , 2015.
283 .
ISBN 978-5-4437-0439-5
,
. ,
, .
, .
,
, , , .
,
.
530.12(075.8)
22.2 22.313

, 2015
. . , 2015

ISBN 978-5-4437-0439-5


................................................................................................................ 6
I ..................................................................................................... 8
1. . , ........ 8
2. ? ................................ 9
3. ................................................................................................. 10
4. ................................................................................... 12
II ........................................... 15
5. , , ........................................................... 15
6. ................................................................................................................... 18
7. , ............................................. 20
8. ................................................................................ 24
9. .......................................................... 28
10. ............................... 31
11. ...................................................................... 32
12. e, ........................... 32
13. ..................................................................................... 33
III .......................................... 35
14. , .............................. 35
15. , , ................... 36
16. , ...... 38
17. ....................................... 40
18. .................................................................................... 43
19. ........................................................................ 46
20. ............................................................................................................... 47
21. 4- ................. 49
22. .................................................................................. 51
23. ............................................................................................................. 52
24. ................................................................................................... 54
25. 4-, , 4- .......................... 58
IV .................................................. 61
26. ................................................................................................... 61
27. ................................................................................................................ 65
28. , ................................................................... 68
29. ........................................................................................... 70
30. ........................................................................... 72
31. () ........................ 74
32. ................................................................................... 77
33. ......................................................................... 81
34. , ........................... 83
35. , ................................................ 90
36. , ....................................... 92
37. ......................................................................................... 94
38. ................................................................. 97
39. ,
........................................................................................................................ 98

V .................................................... 101
40. ................................................................................... 101
41. ..................................................................................... 104
42. -.................................................................... 109
43. .......................................................................................... 112
44. ....................................................................................... 116
45. .......................................................................... 123
46. ..................................................................................................... 126
47. , , ........ 130
48. .................................................................................................. 132
49. ..................................................................................................... 136
50. ...................................... 137
51. ......................................... 138
52. ................................................. 140
53. ......................................................................................... 142
VI , ................................. 143
54. () .............. 143
55. , .................................................................... 145
56. ..................................... 150
57. ...................................................................................... 152
58. .................................................................................. 154
59. ............................................................................... 158
60. ............................................................................... 159
VII ............................................................ 163
61. .................................................................................................... 163
62. , .................................................................. 165
63. ....................................................................... 165
64. ........................................................................................... 167
65. ................................................................................ 169
66. .................................................................................................. 171
67. ............................................................................................ 171
68. , ................ 172
69. .................................................................................................... 173
VIII ....................................... 175
70. ....................................... 175
71. ................................................................................................ 181
72. ................................................................................................. 188
73. , ......... 192
74. ............................................. 195
75. ..................................... 196
76. , ....................... 198
77. ................................................................................................ 200
78. ............................................................................................. 201
79. ..................................................... 202
80. ......................................................................................... 203
IX ......................................................... 208
81. , , , ............. 208
82. ................... 210

83. , ............................... 213


84. ......................................................................... 215
85. ................................................................. 217
86. ................................................ 218
87. ........................................................................................................... 221
88. .............................................................................................. 223
X . 228
89. ...................................................................................................... 228
90. , .......................................................... 228
XI . 233
91. . ........................... 233
92. ........................................... 234
93. .............................................................................................................. 238
XII ,
................................................................................................ 242
94. ............................................................................................................. 242
95. , ..................... 244
96. ......................................................... 247
97. .................................................. 248
98.
............................................................................................................................ 249
XIII .................................... 250
99. , ............................................................... 250
100. ..................................................................................................... 251
101. ........................................ 252
XIV ............ 254
102. ........................................................................................................... 254
103. ......................................................................... 256
104. .......................................................................................................... 268
105. ............................................................................ 282



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(x, y, z). , ,
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, . , , e.
( x , y ) ( r, j ) . 1 2.

A
r

j
X

X
. 2

. 1

x = r cos j
y = r sin j

r = x 2 + y2
y
j = arctg .
x

16

(5.1)

, ( x , y, z ), ( r, j, z ) ( r, q, j ), . 3, 4 5.

. 4

. 3

: . (. 35) Z ():
XY X Y Z .
Z . .
q 0 p ,
j 0 2p . . 5 .
x = r sin q cos j

y = r sin q sin j

90

z = r cos q

(5.2)

r = x 2 + y2 + z 2

j
q = arctg

j = arctg

. 5

17

x 2 + y2
z
y
.
x

6.

- r (
r ) (O) Z
(A), . 6.
r = | r | .
A
r

Y
- .
O

.
. X
r1 O .
. 6

r1

r3

r2

r2

. - O
r3 = r1 + r2 .

( ) . 7.

O
-,
, ,
. 7
, . .
, , . . , -
r = (x , y, z ) i x + j y + k z ,

(6.1)

i, j, k X ,Y , Z .

v = (vx , vy , vz ) i vx + j vy + k vz .

(6.2)

. v1 , v 2 .

(. 8)?
,
v = v2 - v1 = v2 + (-v1 ) .

18

(6.3)

v1

v2

v1

v2

v1

v2
. 8

. 9

. 10

. (-v1 )
v2 (. 9), v .
,
. v1 v2 (. 10).
, v1 v2 , . ,
v = v2 - v1 ,
v1 + v = v 2 , . 10.

:
b = g a ;
c = a + b cx = ax + bx , cy = ay + by ;

c = a - b x = ax -bx ,

c = (ab) ab = | a || b | cos j

y = ay -by ;

(c , . . , j );
c = [ab] [a, b] a b

,
| c |=| a || b | sin j . c
a b a
b , a b = -b a .
: (a + b)c = ab + bc .

. (ax , ay , az ) (bx , by , bz )
c = (ab) = (iax + jay + kaz )(ibx + jby + kbz ) = axbx + ayby + azbz , (6.4)
19

, (ii) = ( jj) = (kk) = 1 , (ij) = (jk) = (ik) = 0 .


, c = (ab) =| a || b | cos j .
a = (cos a, sin a), b = (cos b, sin b ) j = b - a ,
ab = cos a cos b + sin a sin b = cos(b - a) = cos j .
:
c = a b = (iax + jay + kaz ) (ibx + jby + kbz ) .

,
[i j] = -[ ji ] = k,

[ jk ] = -[ k j] = i,

(6.5)

[ k i ] = -[i k ] = j

( ),
c = i(aybz - azby ) + j(azbx - axbz ) + k(axby - aybx ) .

(6.6)

,
, .
:
a[ bc] = [ab]c = [ca ]b ,

(6.7)

,
, .

[a [ bc]] = b(ac) - c(ab) .


(6.8)
.
.

7. ,

v(t ) r(t ) a(t ) v(t ) .
.
Dx
Dt 0
v =
Dt
t = t0 , x (t ) ,
t (. 11).
20

x (t )

t0
. 11

x (t ) t0

dx (t0 ) t 0 x (t0 + dt ) - x (t0 )


.
=
dt
dt
:
(7.1),

x (t ) = at 2 ,

(7.1)
a = const .

2
dt 0
dx (t ) a(t + dt )2 - at 2 2at dt + a(dt )
=
= 2at + adt = 2at .
=
dt
dt
dt

(7.2)

dx (t )
;
dt
x (t ) ;

x .
v(t ) .
, ,
a(t ) =

v(t + dt ) - v(t ) dv
=
v (t ) v(t ) .
dt
dt

(7.3)

v(t ) x (t ) ,
a(t ) =

d 2x (t )
x (t ) = x(t ) .
dt 2

21

(7.4)

, ( ):
f (x )

f (x )

f (x )

f (x )

const

ex

ex

nx n -1
n
- n +1
x
1
1

xn
1
xn
x
x

1/ x

sin x

cos x

(7.5)
cos x

2 x
1
- 2
x

1
x

ln x

- sin x

tg x

1 / cos2 x

ctg x

- 1 / sin2 x .


f (x ) = u(x )v(x ) ,
df
u(x + dx )v(x + dx ) - u(x )v(x )
=
=
dx
dx
=

(u(x ) + u (x )dx )(v(x ) + v (x )dx ) - u(x )v(x )


dx

(7.6)

dx 0

= u (x )v(x ) + u(x )v (x ).

,
,
f (x )

f (x )

u(x )v(x )

u (x )v(x ) + u(x )v (x )

u(x )v(x )g(x )

u (x )v(x )g(x ) + u(x )v (x )g(x ) + u(x )v(x )g (x ) (7.7)

u(x )
v(x )

u (x )v(x ) - u(x )v (x )
.
v 2 (x )

22


f (u ) , u = g(x ) .

f (x ) = sin2 x .

df
= 2u,
du

df
df du
=
.
dx
du dx

(7.8)

f = u 2 , u = sin x .

du
df
= cos x ,
= 2 sin x cos x = sin 2x .
dx
dx

, , . .
, (. 12)
r(t + Dt ) - r(t ) dr
= .
Dt 0
Dt
dt

v(t ) = lim

r
r (t dt )
r (t )

. 12

vz

v(t)

vy
vx
. 13

dv d 2 r
= 2 .
dt
dt

dx dy dz
v = (vx , vy , vz ) = , , .
dt dt dt

a(t ) =

(7.9)
(7.10)

(7.11)

r(t )

X , Y , Z -.

(. 13).

.
.
.

23

8.
a(t )
v(t ) r(t ) .
v(t )
(. 14), .


x - x 0 = vi Dti =
i

v(t )dt .

(8.1)

t0

.
.
( )
v(t )

t2

S=

t0

v(t )dt.

(8.2)

t1

t2

S=

. 14

v(t ) dt.

(8.3)

t1

,
, ,
( ). ,

.
, v(t ) , S (t ) . ? , v(t ) = S (t ) ,
S (t ) ,
v(t ) . , , .
f (x ) :

f (x )dx = F (x ) + const ,
24

(8.4)

F (x ) , F (x ) = f (x ) ,
f (x ) . (8.4) ,
,
: (F (x ) + const) = F (x ) .
.
,
f (x ) , x ,
x .
, S a < x < b
b
a ,
, b a :
b

S=

f (x )dx = F (b) - F (a ) .

(8.5)


, . . .
, ,
(sin x ) = cos x , cos x dx = sin x + const .

. ,
, ,
.
,
,
, ab Dx
f (x i )Dx . ,
, a b .

.
:
x n +1

x dx = n + 1 , (n - . , n -1) sin x dx = - cos x


n

dx

x = ln | x |,
e dx = e
x

(8.6)
cos x dx = sin x
tg x dx = - ln | cos x |.

(x 0)

25

. v = bt 2 ( b ),
t1 t2 .


t2

x=

t2

bt dt = 3 t |
2

t1

t1

b 3
(t2 - t13 ) .
3

(8.7)

:
v = bt 2 , , () ,
x = x 0 t0 .
, :
x=

bt dt = 3 t
2

+ const .

(8.8)

b
x = x 0 , t = t0 , const = x 0 - t03 . 3
:
b
x = x 0 + (t 3 - t03 ) .
(8.9)
3


.
.

t

r(t ) =

v(t ) dt + r(t ),

v(t ) =

t0

a(t ) dt + v(t ).
0

(8.10)

t0

,
, ,
. .
1.

f (x ) = 1 + x 1 +

x
, x 1 .
2

26

(8.11)

, ,
1 + x , 1 + x + x 2/4 .
,
, x .
1+a
2.
, a, b 1 .
f (x ) =
1+b
(1 - b )
,
f (x ) =

1 + a (1 + a)(1 - b ) 1 + a - b - ab
=
=
1 + a - b . (8.12)
1+b
(1 + b )(1 - b )
1 - b2

1
1
f (a + x ) = f (a ) + f (a ) x + f (a ) x 2 + f n (a )x n .
(8.13)
2!
n!

, (,
(x n ) = nx n -1 ), f (a + x ) = f (a ) , x . ,
f (a + x ) = f (a ) + . . ,
x
. , . ,
( x 1 ),
x2 x3
ex = 1 + x +
+ ,
(8.14)
2
6
x2
ln(1 + x ) = x - ,
(8.15)
2
x3
(8.16)
sin x = x - ,
6
x2
cos x = 1 - ,
(8.17)
2
x3
tg x = x + .
(8.18)
3
27

9.

Y
v
R

(. 15).

R .
-
j = wt X , w
.
T = 2pR v
wT = 2p ,

. 15

w=

2p
v
= .
T
R

(9.1)

, x = R cos j, y = R sin j ,
x = R cos wt

x = -Rw sin wt

x = -Rw 2 cos wt

y = R sin wt

y = Rw cos wt

y = -Rw 2 sin wt,

(9.2)

x = -w 2x ,

y = -w 2y

(9.3)

v 2 r
,
R R

(9.4)

r = -w 2 r = -

r = i x + j y - , |r| R . , .

v
(. 16).
v
d j v .
d
,

.
R
,

d j .

. 16

dv = 2v sin(d j/2) vd j ,

28

(9.5)


dv = -e r vd j,

(9.6)

er , -
.
an =

dv
dj
v2
= -e rv
= -e rv w = -e r .
dt
dt
R

(9.7)


an ,
( ). (9.4).
,

a t , (
)
a t = ej

dv
,
dt

(9.8)

ej , v
().
a = a n + a t = -e r

v2
dv
.
+ ej
R
dt

(9.9)

. ,
.
.
,

v2
dv
+t .
(9.10)
R
dt
n = -e r ,
a = an + at = n

t = e j .

R. t n ,
29

a 2 - a t2
an
1
=
=
=
R v2
v2

v 2 - v 2
.
v2

(9.11)

1
w
dj
= v w, v = 0,
= .
R
v
dt
:

v = v

a
1
= n2 ;
R
v

(av)

an = | a n | = | a - a t | = a -

(av)
v.
v2

(9.12)

A = Ax2 + Ay2 .

, .
R,
.
,
,
an =| an |=

| [av ] |
.
|v |

(9.13)

XY,

Z. (6.6)
,
- yx
| ,
| [av ] |=| xy

(9.14)

a
- yx
|
1
| av |
| xy
.
= n2 =
= 2
3
R
|v |
(x + y 2 )3/2
v

(9.15)

30

10.

, ,
, .
er -, ej

e e
r

. -

r = e rr .


er . ,

. 17

de r = ed j,

dej = -erd j

e r = ej ,

e j = -er j .

(10.1)
r,

(10.2)

v = r = (e rr ) = e r r + ej r j .

(10.3)

,
( f1 f2 f3 ) = f1 f2 f3 + f1 f2f3 + f1 f2 f3 ,

(10.4)


a = (e rr + ej rj ) + (-e r r j 2 + ej rj + ej r j) =
= e r (r - r j 2 ) + ej (2rj + r j).

(10.5)

, r (t ) j(t ) , a(t ) .
:
;
, ;
( )
j . e r , , ,
j , ;
,
.
31

11.
w ,
d j = w dt (. 18). ,
w
.
r sin q ,
| dr | = r sin qd j = r w sin q dt .

(11.1)

dr
q

dr = [ r ] dt .

v=

dr
= [ r ].
dt

(11.3)


v = w r sin q = wR ,

. 18

(11.2)

(11.4)

R .

a = v = [ r ] + [ r ] .

(11.5)

,
v 2/R .

12. e,
e , .
.
, . e, , e.
, (15641642) ( ): .
32

, . , . ,
e
.
,
.
(, , ).
, - e , e . :
, , e,
.

z = -g .

(12.1)

13.
S V S. (
, ) ,
X , X (. 19). , t = 0
e .
Y
Y

S x , y, z t ,
V
S x , y , z , t . -

X
. 19

,

. S S
33

, , :
x = x + Vt, y = y , z = z , t = t .

(13.1)


r = r + Vt,

t = t .

(13.2)


.
, , ,
.
(13.2) t ,
dr dr dt
=
+ V.
dt
dt dt

(13.3)

, dt = dt ,

v = v + V,
(13.4)
v = dr/dt,

v = dr/dt . a = dv/dt,

a = dv/dt (13.4)
a = a .

(13.5)

. S l = (r2 - r1)2 .

l = (r2 - r1 ) , r2 r1 t .

(13.2) , l = l , . . . ()
,
.

34

III

14. ,
e
. ,
3 1010 / (e, 1676
; 1728 e ; , 1849 ). ,
20 . , , .
19 . , , . . , . ,
, ,
.
,
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e . 1905 .
(), . .,
e.
. (18791955), .
(18531928), . (18541912) . (18641909).
.
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e. , , .
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, c .
.
c.

15. , ,

c ,
. ,
,
.
S S , V . OX
OX e S S V
S S. S S ?
: , ,
, , . . .
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, . -

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, ,
. . , , ,
.
A B e , , c,
, A B . ,
36

e.
A O . A
, , O ,
A Dt .
O t 0 A A t0 + Dt / 2 .
e,
. , t, , ,
, t .
, .
. . ? ,
c + v ,
c - v . , ,
, ,
.
S S . , , (
O O ), t = t = 0 .
.
.
, ,
. ? .

e
, , , .
, e ,
. .
, , . V .
t , l = V t .
37

16. ,

S ( S S )
, Y . S . S
, Y . ,
, S , S . , , , , . ,
. :

.
, , , . ,
. ,
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B
l0

A1

a)

Vt

A2

)
. 20

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, c, . 20, .
S .
38

S Y . S , ? S

t 0 = 2l0 c .
(16.1)
, S ,
, . 20, .
S t .
c,

2

t
c t = 2 l + V ,
2
2
0

(16.2)

t=

2l 0

1 -V 2 c 2

t0
1 -V 2 c 2

(16.3)

: ,
e , g = 1

1 -V 2 c 2 > 1 .

. .
, .
, ,
, .
, , ,
, . . , , ,
.
. ,
S A ,
S A 1 A 2 .
. . ,
, e ,
39

. . , , , . , . . - -, .
. . ,
(16.3).

17.
, , S X .
. ,
S , t1
, t2 .
, ,
t1 , . .
c t 1 = l + V t1 .

(17.1)
l S .
l ,
. .
c t 2 = l -V t 2 .
(17.2)
, , , , , , (16.3), (17.1),
(17.2),

2l 0
1
2l
l 1
=
. (17.3)
t=
= t1 + t2 =
+
2

c
V
V
V

V
1 + c 1 -
1 c 1- 2

c
c

c 2
c
l , ,
, l 0 :
l = l 0 1 -V 2 c 2 = l 0 / g

g = 1 / 1 -V 2 c 2 .

40

(17.4)

,
!
. S
,
V . S , , l 0 . S l , t 0 = l /V . , , , . .
.
S . V ,
t = l 0 / V .
, . , , ,
g = 1 / 1 -V 2/ c 2 , . . t 0 = t 1 -V 2/ c 2 .

l
l
= 0
V V

1 -V 2/ c 2 , (17.4):

l = l 0 1 -V 2 c 2 , . . -

. , . ,
l
l0/V , , : 0 1 -V 2/ c 2 .
V

, ,
g . .
-4 ( ) 5 , g 104 . (
1010 ) ( ) 1 . g
, . . 100 ! (R
= 45 ). ,
104
. ,
41

, ,
.
: ,
V , , L .
?
, ,
g , t = L/gV . -: g , .
, , , g . ?
, X l 0 . , X . ,
,
, , ! ,

g .
( ).
, . , .
l 0 l 0 /g , . . . ? ,
, .
.
, , .
.

42

18.
S x t
. x t
S . , , S
x e O , S
x 1 -V 2 c 2 O , ,
, x 0 = Vt ,
x = Vt + x 1 -V 2 c 2 .

(18.1)


x =

x -Vt
1 -V 2 c 2

(18.2)

S S
, x x , x x , t t , V -V
x=

x + Vt
1 -V 2 c 2

(18.3)

(18.1)
Vx
c2 .
t=
1 -V 2 c 2
t +

(18.4)

V -V :
Vx
c2
.
t =
1 -V 2 c 2
t-

43

(18.5)

, ,

L
L-1
x = g(x -Vt )
x = g(x + Vt )

y = y
y = y
(18.6)

z = z
z = z

2
t = g(t -Vx c )
t = g(t + Vx c 2 ),

g = 1 / 1 -V 2/c 2 .
, X.
V X , r
: r r^ :
(Vr)
(18.7)
, r^ = r - r,
V2

Vr
r = g(r + Vt ), r^ = r^ , t = g(t + 2 ) .
(18.8)
c
Vr . ,
V , , :
1
r = r + 2 (g - 1)(Vr )V + g Vt , t = g(t + Vr /c 2 )
(18.9)
v
. S
x x .

r = r + r^ ,

r = V

S
t2 - t1 = g

V
(x - x 1 ) 0 .
c 2

(18.10)

,
S , S S .
44

, , , . , l 0 , ( S ) V . g . ?
, S , V , . -, .
, x 1 = 0, x 2 = l 0 , t1 = t2 = 0 , (18.5), t = g(t -Vx c 2 ) ,
, : x 2 = l 0
Dt = gVl 0/ c 2 .

, . . , Dl = V Dt = gV 2l 0/ c 2 .
S l = l 0/g ,

V2 V2
l = l + Dl = l0/g + gV 2l 0/c 2 = gl 0 1 - 2 + 2 = gl 0 ,

c
c

(18.11)

, ! - , S .
(18.6) 1904 . . ,
. 1905 .
. . , .

45

19.
e R = (ct, x , y, z ) R(ct, r)
4- . ,
, 4- .
R(ct, r) R (ct ,r )
ct g -gb 0

x -gb g 0

y 0 0 1
z 0 0 0

g = 1

0 ct

0 x
R = LR ,
0 y

1 z

(19.1)

1 -V 2 c 2 , b = V c . ,
Ri = Lik Rk .

(19.2)

, , .
R = L-1R , L-1 , L b -b .
ct , x , y , z

4-
.

A = {a 0 , a1, a2 , a 3 } , 4- , . .
a 0 = g(a 0 + ba1 ), a1 = g(a1 + ba 0 ), a2 = a2, a 3 = a 3 ,

(19.3)

4-. ? , , 4- , ,
, . 4-
.

46

20.

l12 =| r2 - r1 | ( 9). ,
. , ,
(t2 - t1 ) l12 , . .
.
x , y, z, t , , .
x 1, y1, z 1, t1 x 2 , y2 , z 2 , t2 , ,
c 2(t2 - t1 )2 - (x 2 - x 1 )2 - (y2 - y1 )2 - (z 2 - z1 )2 = 0 .

(20.1)

S
c 2 (t2 - t1)2 - (x 2 - x 1)2 - (y2 - y1)2 - (z 2 - z 1)2 = 0 .

(20.2)


s = c 2(t2 - t1 )2 - (x 2 - x 1 )2 - (y2 - y1 )2 - (z 2 - z1 )2 .

(20.3)



X , Y , Z , cT . , , :
, , . , , .
. ,
, , . s s ? ,
! , (20.2) x , y , z , t
x , y, z , t . ,
47

, y = y z = z ,
,
c 2 (Dt )2 - (Dx )2 = c 2 (Dt )2 - (Dx )2 .

(20.4)

(18.6)
Dt = g(Dt -

V
Dx ),
c2

Dx = g(Dx -V Dt ) .

(20.5)

(20.5) (20.4), , . , ,
s 2 = s 2 .
(20.6)
! ,
,
(x 2 - x 1 )2 + (y2 - y1 )2 + (z 2 - z 1 )2 = inv.

(20.7)


s 2 = c 2 (t2 - t1 )2 - (x 2 - x 1 )2 - (y2 - y1 )2 - (z 2 - z 1 )2 = inv. (20.8)


, . ,
ds 2 = c 2dt 2 - dx 2 - dy 2 - dz 2 .

(20.9)

, ds 0 , ds 0 .
ds 0
ds 2 = a(V )ds 2 ,

(20.10)

a
. ,
,
. , .

48

S , S1 , S2 , V1 V2
S1 S2 S . :
ds 2 = a(V1 )ds12

ds 2 = a(V2 )ds22 .

(20.11)


ds12 = a(V12 )ds22 ,

(20.12)

V12 S1 S2 .
, ,
a(V2 )
a(V1 )

= a(V12 ).

(20.13)

V12 V1 V2 ,
.
. ,
, a(V ) , , ,
. ,
ds12 = ds22 .
(20.14)
,
s1 = s2 .

(20.15)

21. 4-

, ,
. , , .
,
.
.
, 49

. , .
T = ict , i = -1 . 4
. T, x,
y z . , j
:
T = T cos j - x sin j
x = x cos j + T sin j.
X

e j ,
V
S S .

e S . x = 0
(21.1)

X
x
x

x = ict sin j,
t = t cos j,

T
. 21

(21.1)


x
V
tg j =
= -i .
ict
c

(21.2)

(21.3)

, x/t

V S . ,
V
c
sin j =
1 -V 2 c 2
-i

cos j =

1
2

1 -V c

(21.4)

, tg j ,
, . (21.4) (21.1),
:
x = g(x + Vt )

y = y

z = z

50

V
t = g t + 2 x .
c

(21.5)

22.
e S
v . , S S V OX . S V v , . .
v = v + V .
(22.1)
.
dx = g(dx + Vdt ), dy = dy , dz = dz , dt = g(dt +

V
dx ).
c2

(22.2)

dx , dy, dz dt ,
vx =

vy g
vz g
v +V
dx
dy
dz
; vy =
; vz =
. (22.3)
= x
=
=
dt
vxV
dt
vxV
dt
vxV
1+ 2
1+ 2
1+ 2
c
c
c

V ,
S S
vx =

v -V
dx
;
= x
dt
vxV
1- 2
c

vy =

vy g
vz g
dy
dz
; vz =
. (22.4)
=
=
dt
vxV
dt
vxV
1- 2
1- 2
c
c

,
.
. V c vx c ,
(22.3)
v = (vx + V ) (1 + vx V c 2 ) c.
(22.5)

51

23.
S v q
OX . , X S (. 22).

V
q
O

. 22

vx = v cos q vy = v sin q , ,
(22.3),
vx =

V + v cos q
Vv
1 + 2 cos q
c

vy =

v sin q
.

Vv
g 1 + 2 cos q

(23.1)

tg q =

vy
vx

sin q

g cos q + V v

tg q =

sin q

g cos q -V v

(23.2)

, v = c , , sin q cos q , , S c.
sin q =

vy
c

sin q

V
g 1 + cos q

cos q =

vx
c

cos q + V c
V
1 + cos q
c

( v = c ) .
52

. (23.3)

q q V -V :

q q ,
sin q =

vy
c

sin q
;
V

g 1 - cos q

cos q =

vx
c

cos q -V c
V
1 - cos q
c

(23.4)

. .
:
q=0
q = 0
q = p 2 sin q = 1 -V 2 c 2 = 1 g .
q = p
q=p

(23.5)

, , , e sin q = 1 g
. .
e . ,
. (23.4) , e , . .
c -c .
q .
sin q

sin q =

.
(23.6)

g 1 + cos q

c
e
sin q = 1 -V 2 c 2 = 1 g .

(23.7)

,
, , .
: ,
.
e 1725 .

, e,
V /c 10-4 . .
53

24.
e e ,
. , , . , XY (. . z = 0 ).
Z .
. z = 0
E = E 0 (t ) . z
E (t, z ) = E 0 (t - z c) ,

(24.1)

. . z c . E 0 = A cos wt ,

E (t, z ) = A cos(wt - kz ) ,

(24.2)

k = w c .
(, wt - kz , 2p )
T = 2p/w .

(24.3)

t
( k Dz = 2p )
l=

2p
2p
.
k=
k
l

k = w c,
l = cT ,

(24.4)

wl = 2p c.

(24.5)

- r ,
z = r cos q
E (t, r) = A cos(wt - kr) .

(24.6)

k , , (24.4).
54

, ,

e . ,
k ? -, , w k 4-; -,
, , E = w ,
p = k ( ).
, , , S ,
V X , e
, O
q l = l0 T = T0 = l0/c (
, T0 ).
S q (. 23).
S
A

ct

Vt cos q
q

Vt

. 23

x = x = 0 . . S
t = gT0 (,
B), , g
, .
S Vt X . . , . .
,
cT = l = AB = ct -Vt cos q = c gT0 (1 -

55

V
cos q) .
c

(24.7)

1
g
V
= (1 - cos q)
T0 T
c

w0 w = gw(1 -

(24.8)

V
cos q) = g(w - kxV ) = g(w - kV) ,
c

(24.9)

kx X. V -V

w = gw (1 +

V
cos q ) = g(w + kxV ) = g(w + k V) .
c

(24.10)


. (24.9), (24.10) ,
, c.
(24.9) , q = 0
w0 = gw(1 -V c)

w = w0

1 +V c
1 -V c

(24.11)

, ( q = p 2 ),
w = w0 g .

(24.12)

, ( ) V / c , ( ) V 2 c 2 .
( ).

, , ,

, .

56

(24.9) (24.10),
k . , | k | = w/c , | k | = w /c ,
(23.4),
V
cos q - c

w
w V
w
= g kx - b
kx = k cos q =
cos q = g 1 - cos q

c
c
c
V
c

1 - cos q
c

ky = k sin q =

w
w V
sin q
w
sin q = g 1 - cos q
= sin q = ky
c
V
c
c
c
g 1 - cos q
c

kz = = kz .

(24.13)

4- ( 15), ,
w

, k 4-, ,

4- R{ct, r} , . . .
e w
k . S cos(w t - k x ) . S cos(wt - kx ) .
, , , . , (, )

wt - kr = w t - k r

(24.14)

wt - kx x - ky y - kz z = w t - kxx - kyy - kzz .

(24.15)

x , y , z , t
t, x , y, z ,
w
w = g(w - kxV ), kx = g(kx - b ), ky = ky , kz = kz , (24.16)
c
.
. ,
{w/c, k} 4-, , {ct, r} .
57

, {w/c, k}
, . ,
k
k
k
sin q
sin q = y = y = y =
,
(24.17)
V

k
w /c
w /c
g 1 - cos q

(23.4).

.
, 1/g .
? (24.9),
, . ,
, , ,
cos q ,
. q = 0 w = gw 1 + V /c ,

, q = p/2 ,
w = gw . ,

.

25. 4-, , 4-

4- , ,
4- R = {ct, r} , . . A = {a 0 , a1, a2 , a 3 } 4-,
a 0 = g(a 0 + ba1), a1 = g(a1 + ba 0 ), a2 = a2, a 3 = a 3 .

(25.1)

4-, , 4-.
e 4-
A = {a 0 , a1, a2 , a 3 }

B = {b0 , b1, b2 , b3 }

(25.2)

(AB ) = a 0b0 - a1b1 - a2b2 - a 3b3 a 0b0 - (ab).

58

(25.3)

ai , bi , S
, (25.1),
a 0b0 - a1b1 - a2b2 - a 3b3 = a 0b0 - a1b1 - a2b2 - a 3b3 ,

(25.4)

(AB ) = (A B ) = inv ,

(25.5)

. . 4-
. , ,
A2 = inv,

(A - B )2 = inv .

(25.6)

R1 = {ct1, r1 } R2 = {ct2 , r2 } .
s 2 = (R2 - R1 )2 = c 2 (t2 - t1 )2 - (r2 - r1 )2 = inv .

(25.7)

16,
,
.
s 2 > 0 , ,
s 2 < 0 .
s 2 < 0 e,
. , t2 = t1 , s 2 = -(r2 - r1 )2 < 0 .
s 2 > 0 e, . , r2 = r1 , s 2 = c 2 (t2 - t1 )2 > 0 .
- , ,
r2 - r1 = v(t2 - t1 ),

(25.8)

v ,
.
s 2 = c 2 (t2 - t1 )2 - v 2 (t2 - t1 )2 > 0 ,

(25.9)

. . .
,
ds 2 = c 2 (dt )2 - (dr )2 = inv .

59

(25.10)

ds 2 > 0 , , (dr )2 = 0 , . .
.
(ds )2 = c 2 (d t )2 ,

(25.11)

t .
c 2 (dt )2 - (dr )2 = c 2 (d t )2

c2 - v2 2
dt = d t 2
2
c

d t = dt 1 - v 2 c 2 = dt g .

(25.12)

.
4-. 4- R , 4- . , . . 4-

dR m
um =
.
(25.13)
dt
, d t = dt g , um

c
v
cdt dr

u m = {u 0 , u } =
,
,
=
. (25.14)
2
2
2
2

dt
dt
g
g
1
v
c
1
v
c

4-
u m2 = u 02 - u 2 = c 2 = inv

(25.15)

,
4-. 4-
.

60

IV

26.
, , , .
, , .

. .
,
, , . , (~384 . .) , ( ) .
, , ,
.
. 17 .
, ,
, . .
1687 . (16421727).
,
. ,
, , ( mvr < ) (. ).
, .

e,
(), ,
. ,
.

61


,
,
e :
a=

F
.
m

(26.1)


i j ,
:
Fij = -Fji
(26.2)
( Fij , i - j - ).
, , . . . , ,
.
, .
, ,
. .
, . ,
, . . , , .
. , , .
. . . , , .
.
.
62

. . , ,
, . , . ,
. ,
, , e ,

a ~ F.

(26.3)

,
, . , , . ,
. m, (26.3)
F = m a = m r .

(26.4)

, ,
.
e .
, , . .
. (
,
. . ,
, .)
:
m1a1 = -m2 a 2 m1v1 + m2 v2 p1 + p2 = const .
(26.5)

. ,
, F12 = -F21 , e ,
, .
, ,
, ,
.
.
, ?
, .
63

, , , , . , ,

()
.
, .
, ,
. , . , : .
.
, , . .
, .
.
, .
.
, :
( ).
.

().
, 1 = 0.01 .

().

() .
, 1 = 103 .

() , 1 1 /2, [] = /2.
64

(: ,
dyn . ) ,
1 1 /2, [] = /2.
1 = 105 .

27.
p mv
. ,
.

P = Pi
N

dP
d
1
= mi vi = Fi = Fik = (Fik + Fki ) = 0. (27.1)

dt
dt i
2 i,k ,i k
i =1
i k i

,
.
:

P = mvi = const.

(27.2)

,
dP
= F = Fi ,
dt
i

(27.3)

. . .


.
P = mi v i = m i
i

dri
dt

d
dt

m r

i i

=m

d 1

dt m

m r ,
i i

(27.4)

m = mi .

R=

1
mi ri
m
65

(27.5)

, (. .)
.

P=m

dR
= mV,
dt

(27.6)

V .

F
dV
= .
dt
m

(27.7)

, ,
, .
,
.
. m F,
. ,
. ?
. (27.7) ,
, ,
. . a = F/m ,

.

.
,
. , mi ,

= const , pi = mi vi

(27.8)

(
, ).
m0 ,
,
| v - v0 |
.
(27.9)
mi vi + m 0 v 0 = mi vi + m 0 v 0 mi = m 0 0
| vi - vi |
66



dp
(27.10)
Fi = i .
dt
(27.8), (27.10) . , .
(), (27.10)

dpi
(27.11)
= Fi (r1, r2 ...v1, v2 ...) .
dt
(27.8) :

dp1
dt

F12 = -

dp2
dt

= -F21 .

(27.12)

, , . , , ,
,
( ). , .

,
, . . ,
m = m1 + m2 .

(27.13)


. , . ,
. ,
, . :
.
S
(27.14)
m1v1 + m2 v2 = mv .
67

e S ,
S V . S :
m1v1 + m2 v2 = mv .

(27.15)

S S
:

v1 = v1 - V,

v2 = v2 - V,

v = v - V .

(27.16)

(4.12) (4.11)
m1(v1 - V) + m2 (v2 - V) = m(v - V) .

(27.17)

(27.14),
(m1 + m2 )V = mV.

(27.18)

:
m = m1 + m2 .

(27.19)


. .

28. ,
, , :
F21 = -F12 = F(r),
r = r2 - r1 .
(28.1)

m1r1 = -F(r)
m2r2 = F(r)

(28.2)

, -

m r + m2 r2
(28.3)
R= 11
m1 + m2
-
r = r2 - r1 .

68

(28.4)

,

R = R 0 + Vt .
(28.5)

r = r2 - r1 =

F(r) F(r) F(r)


,
+
=
m2
m1
m

(28.6)

m=

m1m2

(28.7)

m1 + m2

. ,
m F(r) .
, r(t ) . r(t ) . r1 r2 ,
.

m1r1 + m2 r2 = 0

r2 - r1 = r ,

(28.8)

(28.3),
r1 = -

m2
m1 + m2

r,

r2 =

m1
m1 + m2

r.

(28.9)


r1 = R + r1 = R 0 + Vt r2 = R + r2 = R 0 + Vt +

m2
m1 + m2
m1
m1 + m2

r
r.

(28.10)

. m1 m2 , k .

m1m2
m =
k ,
m1 + m2
.
69

,
( , ).
.
mm
F = -G 1 3 2 r .
r

29.
, ,
. , .
.
. u 0 .
. .
m Dv = Dm u 0 = -Dmu 0 ,

(29.1)

m , Dv ,
Dm ,

-Dm . Dv ,

.
,
dm
dv
=- .
m
u0

(29.2)

m 0 m , 0 v . ,
m

m0

dm
1
=m
u0

dv ln m
0

=-

v
u0

(29.3)

m = m 0 exp(- v u 0 ) .

70

(29.4)

,
.
. 1 m 0 m
v = 8 /.
1
m 0 m u 0 8 /

u 0, /

m0 m

2980

54.6

14.5

7.4

u0

(u

~ T ,

T = 30000

H2O

(-

) 2 /. ,
. ,
,
.
(29.3) .

dm = -dm = a dt , a = const ,
m = m 0 - at . (29.4),
v = u 0 ln

m0
m 0 - at

71

(29.5)

30.
() 1
2 l F ,
, .
()
() . ,
,
, .

2

A=

Fd l ,

(30.1)

d l , Fd l = Fdl
= F cos a dl , a

.
dp
dv
(30.1) F =
= m , d l = vdt ,
dt
dt
dA = m

mv 2
dv
d (v 2 )
d (v 2 )
.
=m
= d
vdt = m
2
dt
2
2


mv 2
.
K =
2

dA = dK ,
2

A=

Fdl = K

- K1 =

mv22
2

(30.2)

(30.3)
(30.4)
-

mv12
2

(30.5)

. . .
. , ,
. , () .
. , ,
, .
72

, .

m i , v i .

K0 =

mivi2

(30.6)

P0 = mi vi .

(30.7)

,
V .
vi + V ,
K =

mi
2

(vi + V) =
2

m i v 2i
2

+ V mi vi +

m V
i

. (30.8)

(30.6), (30.7)
K = K 0 + P0 V +

mV 2
,
2

(30.9)

m = mi .
i

( . .), (30.9) ,
K = K ..

mV 2
+
.
2

(30.10)

,
. .
.


() = .
() = .
,
ergon .
1 = 105 , 1 = 102 ,
1 = 107 .
73

31. ()
2

F(r) ,

Fdl

, .
( ). , :
Fdl = 0 . -

1 2:
2

U (r2 ) -U (r1 ) = - F(r)dl ,

(31.1)

. .

dU = -dA = -Fdl .

(31.2)

( )
.

dU = U (x + dx , y + dy, z + dz ) -U (x , y, z ) =

U
U
U
dx +
dy +
dz
x
y
z

(31.3)

dU = -dA = -Fdl = -Fxdx - Fydy - Fzdz ,

Fx = -

U
,
x

Fy = -

U
,
y

Fz = -

U
z

(31.4)
(31.5)

, F = iFx + jFy + kFz ,


F = -i

dU
U - j U - k U -U -grad U ,
dr
x
y
z

(31.6)

()

==i
+j
+k
,
x
y
z

(31.7)

, , .
74

U x , y, z (31.6).
U , U = U (r ) ,
dU
.
dr
dU (r )
dr

=i

U (r )
x

+j

U (r )
y

+k

U (r )
z

r 2 = x 2 + y 2 + z 2 ,
dU (r )
dr

dU (r ) r
r
r
+j
+ k . (31.8)
i
dr dx
dy
dz

r
x r
y r
z
= ,
= ,
= .
x
r y
r z
r

dU (r ) x
y
z dU (r ) r
.
i + j + k =
dr r
dr r
r
r

(31.9)

, U (r ) ,
,
.
,
, .
.
()
() .

: X , g ,

f (x ) = mg ,

(31.10)


dA = mgdl = -mg dx ,

dU = -dA = mg dx ,

U (x ) -U (a ) = mg(x - a ) ,

(31.11)
(31.12)

a . , .
( )

f (x ) = -kx ,
75

(31.13)

dA = -kx dx , dU = -dA = kx dx ,

1
U (x ) -U (a ) = k (x 2 - a 2 )
2

(31.14)

r
f (r) = f (r ) ,
r
r
dA = f (r ) dl = f (r ) dr ,
r

(31.15)

dU = -dA = -f (r ) dr ,

, rdl = rdr ,
r

U = - f (r ) dr + U (r0 ) .

(31.16)

r0

,
r max

dA = f (r ) dr =

r min

f (r ) dr +

r min

f (r ) dr = 0 .

r max

( )
r
(31.17)
f (r) = a 3 ,
r
dr
dr
r
dA = a 3 dl = a 2 , dU = -dA = -a 2 ,
r
r
r
a
U (r ) = + const ,
(31.18)
r
. U () = 0 , . . const = 0 .
, a > 0 U (r ) > 0 ,
a < 0 U (r ) < 0 .

v
,
(31.19)
v
a(v ) > 0, . . .

f dl = f v dt = - a(v)v dt < 0 0 .
f (r, v) = -a(v )

76

32.

dU + dK = 0 ,

(32.1)

()
E = K + U = const ,

(32.2)

K1 + U 1 = K 2 + U 2 .

(32.3)

, .
K =

mi v 2 i

(32.4)

. i j

Fij = -

U ij (ri - rj )
ri

=-

U ij (ri j )
ri

(32.5)

, i - ,
Fi = Fij ,

(32.6)

j i

1
-dU = dA = dri Fij = dri Fij + drj Fj i . (32.7)

2 i
i
j i
j i
j
ij

, Fij = -Fj i drij = dri - drj ,


dU = dU i = = i

1
dr F .
2 i j ij ij

i j , dri j = 0 .

77

(32.8)

Fi jdri j -dU i j , U i = U i j j i

i , (32.8)
1
1
U = U ij = U i .
(32.9)
2 i j
2 i
, U i j

i j . ,

.
, , .
qq
U 1 = 1 2 ,
r
U 2 = U 1 ,
qq
1
U = (U 1 + U 2 ) = 1 2 .
r
2

,

dU = -F1dr1 - F2dr2 = -F2dr21, dr21 = dr2 - dr1. ,


dK + dU = 0 ,

(32.10)

E = K + U = const ,

(32.11)

E , K
, U .

.
1. , :
mv 2
+ mgh = const .
2

(32.12)

2. m1 m2 l1 l2 .
,
( ).
U = m1gh1 + m2gh2

78

(32.13)

dU = m1g dh1 + m2g dh2 = g(m1l1 - m2l2 )d a = 0 ,

(32.14)

da .
m1 l 1 = m2 l 2 .

(32.15)

.
.
,
.
3. .
, , , .
4. , .
. (. 24)

m1

F
dr1

dU = -dA = - Fdr ,

(32.16)

dA = Fdr1 + Fdr2 = F (dr1 + dr2 ) = Fdr = -dU ,

(32.17)

. .
,
,
.

F
m2
dr2

. 24

K 1 + K 2 + U = const .

(32.18)


mv12

mv22

q1q 2
r

= const .

(32.19)


mv12

mv22

-G

m1m2
r

= const .

(32.20)

. 4 q, m ,
b . ,
?
79

. , . .

r12 = b, r13 = 2b, r14 = b,

1
1
1
q 2
1
U 1 = q ( +
+ ) = 2 +
.
r12 r13 r14
b
2
.
2

1
q2
(32.21)
4U 1 = 2U 1 =
4+ 2 .
2
b
1/2 ,
.
(in-itial) (f-inal)
K in + U in = K f + U f .
(32.22)
U =

, K in = 0, U in = U , K f = 4
v = q

2 +1/ 2
.
mb

2
mv

, U f = 0 ,

(32.23)

5. .
,
E , () .

, .
E = K + U + E = const .
(32.24)
E
.
( IX ).

80

33.
, E = K + U .
,
.
. ,

dK = -Fdl = -kPdl ,

(33.1)

k - .
: ,
.
. ?
. ,
,

2

mv
mM
=G 2 .
r
r

(33.2)

K =

mv
mM
.
=G
2
2r

()
mM
.
U = -G
r

(33.3)

(33.4)

(33.3), (33.4), ,

U
U
(33.5)
K = - , E = K + U = -K = .
2
2
,

dE = -fdl = -fvdt ,

81

(33.6)

f > 0 , (. (33.5))
dK = -dE = fvdt ,

(33.7)

. . . :
, !
.
,

.
dU = 2dE = -2 fvdt .

(33.8)

U , (33.4) ,
.
.
.
(
), . ( , . . ) ( ), . ,
, , ,
.
,
(),
, ,
. ,
(, ).
,
, .
( ) .
, , .
.
82

() ,
( , ).

34. -

,
,
: , , .
(<10131016 ), .
, . :
1039 , . , , ,
.
, . . ,
. , , .
, ( ) .
? , . , . , ,
W Z , .
, , () ,
,
.

,
(
).
83

, .


,
, .
C
qq r
F = 1 22 ,
(34.1)
r r
:
qq
U = - Fdr = 1 2 + const .
(34.2)
r
, U () = 0 ,
U =

q1q2
r

(34.3)


F21 =

q1q 2
r

r = q2 E,

E=

q1
r3

r,

(34.4)

E , .

U 21 = q 2j ,

(34.5)

q1

j = - Edl =

(34.6)


, 1/r 2 , ,
. , , , .

E 4 r 2
84

q
4 q.
r2

(34.7)

E ds , ds = ds n , n
S

, ,
q

E ds = r
S

rds = q

ds^
r2

= q d W = 4pq.

(34.8)

.
,
.
e

e, .
,
E
1/r 2 .

. 25

,
.


s = Q /S . (. 25), ( ) 2E = 4ps ,

E = 2ps .

(34.9)

.
q Q , , , .
. E = 4ps , E = 0.

85


l = Q /l .

r
, 2pr E = 4pl ,
E=

2l
.
r

(34.10)


, , .
Q r ,

4pr 2E = 4pQ
E=

Q
,
r2

(34.11)

, .
- , . , , ,
, ,
.

, ,
:
j=

Q
,
R

(34.12)

R .

,
, . .
, , , . Q , j = Q/R .
86

dQ

Q
(34.13)
dA = jdQ = dQ .
R
Q0 ,
R

U =

dA =

Q0

Q0

jdQ =

Q2
Q
dQ = 0 .
2R
R

(34.14)

, (34.14) , dA ,
, . .

Q0 R .

r , ,
E=

Q0

dQ =

Q0

Q
4 3 1
pr 2 = 03 r .
3
r
R

(34.15)
4
3
pR
3

Q
, E = 20 .
r
, , ,
R . r ,

Q0 4 3 1 Q 0 2
j=
pr
= 3r .
(34.16)
r
4
R
3 3
pR
3
,

4
pR 3
3

4pr 2dr =

87

3Q0
R

r 2dr .

(34.17)

(34.14)
Q0

U =

Q0

R
0

r dQ =

Q0

R
0

3Q0
R3

r dr =

3Q02
R6

r dr =

3Q02
5R

(34.18)


.
? .
Q02
. (34.14) U =
. 2R
dR ( ), ( U ,
-dR )
Q2
dU = 02 dR .
(34.19)
2R

?
dR ,
Q
E = 02 . ,
R
2

Q 4pR 2dR E 2
dU = 02
dV ,
=
8p
8p
R

(34.20)

dU
E2
=
.
(34.21)
dV
8p
! , , , .
, , ,
, .
u=


. ,
, 88

, ,
, , .
F G

m1m2
r,
r3

G 6, 667 108 3 1 1 6, 667 1011 3 1 1 . (34.22)

j
E

u (. )
U
U

q1q 2
r
r3
q
r
q
r
r3
E2
8p
q2
2R
3q 2
5R

mm
-G 1 3 2 r
r
m
-G
r
m
-G 3 r
r
1 E2
G 8p
m2
-G
2R
3 m2
-G
5 R

. ,
. ,
, ( ).
,
G , .

89

35. ,

? , 50 .
re ,
e2
.
(35.1)
re
,
E = mc 2 .
, , , ,
E

e2
(4, 8 10-10 )2
=
= 2, 8 10-13 .
re =
-28
2
10
mc
9 10 (3 10 )

(35.2)

.
.

19641965 . , , -
. ,
10-14 . , ,
1017 .
, , . ?
(35.1) . ,
( XIII).

c
lC =
. 2 137 mc
e
.
, 1/r , , .
90

.
,
, , , .
, ,
( )? ,
,
mc 2 1 (). 2p
2 10-14
,
. l =
p
E [ ]
,
, .
100 .


, , () mc 2 . , ( )

m2
Gm
rS = 2 ,
(35.3)
mc 2 G
rS
c
, .
, , .
18 ., (19151916).
, .
.
rS 10 .


. 91

, ,
. ,
M = 4, 3 106 M ( M ). 1010 .

rS (

),
.
, (M ) ,
(1015 /3),
m
c6
rS m , : r 3 2 3 .
rS
mG

1010 M 104 /3, . .


. ,
, , ,
. , . .
rS 1010 ,
rS /c , .

36. ,
(, collide ) . .

m , v ,
m1 m2 Q .
,
q ?
,
. . m = m1 + m2 . Q
, ,
92

.

Q=

p02
2m1

p02
2m2

p0 =

2Qm1m2
m1 + m2

v10 =

p0
m1

(36.1)


v1 = v + v10 .


, . .
v v1 ,

2
v1 = O1 O2

v10

(36.2)

v10


v1 - v = v10 ,

. 26

2
v12 - 2vv1 cos q + v 2 - v10
= 0.

(36.3)

2
2
v1 = v cos q v 2 cos2 q - v 2 + v10
= v cos q v10
- v 2 sin2 q .

(36.4)

. 26.
v > v10 sin q =

v10
v

, -

v1 . 26.
v < v10 ,
+ (36.4), v1 .
()
m1 , v ,

m2 . ?

m1v1
v =
,
m1 + m2
93

(36.5)

m v2
m v2
m2
v 2
Q = K - K = 1 1 - (m1 + m2 )
= 1 1
. (36.6)
2
2
2 m1 + m2

37.
m1 , v1 , m2 , -

p1

v2 .

, q ?
, ,
, . .
p2

(). ,
. 27
.
, ( ),

. :
p1

p2

p1 + p2 = p1 + p2

p12
2m1

p22
2m2

p12
2m1

(37.1)
p22

2m2

(37.2)

(37.1) :
.
, p , p , q , p , p 1

. , ,
. , . .

94

(37.1) p2 = p1 + p2 - p1 (37.2).
p12
2m1

p22
2m2

p12
2m1

(p1 + p2 - p1 )2
2m2

(37.3)

p1 .
,
p12
2m1

p12
2m1

p12
2m2

p12
2m2

2p1p2
2m2

2p1p1
2m2

2p2 p1
2m2

(37.4)

, p1p2 = -p1p2 , p1p1 = p1p1 cos q , p2 p1 = -p2 p1 cos q ,



p12 - 2p1

(p1 - p2 )m1 cos q


m1 + m2

2p1p2m1
m1 + m2

p12 (m2 - m1 )
m1 + m2

= 0 , (37.5)


p1 =

(p1 - p2 )m1 cos q


m1 + m 2

(p1 - p2 )2 m12 cos2 q


(m1 + m2 )2

2p1 p2m1
m1 + m 2

p12 (m2 - m1 )
m1 + m 2

. (37.6)

, .
, p2 = 0 , :
m

1
1
p1 = p1
cos q
m22 - m12 sin2 q .

m1 + m2
m1 + m2

(37.7)

m1 > m2 , m2 > m1 +.
m1 > m2
sin q =

m2
m1

(37.8)

q = 0 m1 > m2
p1 = p1 p1 =

m1 - m2
m1 + m2

p2 = p1 - p1 =

p1 ,

95

2m1m2
m1 + m 2

v1 . (37.9)

( ), , .
m1 < m2
( q = p )
p1 =

m2 - m1
m1 + m2

p1 .

(37.10)

(37.9) , v2 = 2v1 .
, ,
v1
. , v2 = v1 + v1 = 2v1 .

q1

, k .
q2
, q1
.
,
. 28
. .
, ,
F^t = 2p cos q1 .

(37.11)

kF^ ,

p = p sin q1 - kF^t = p sin q1 - 2kp cos q1 .

(37.12)

:
tg q2 =

p
p^

sin q1 - 2k cos q1
cos q 1

96

= tg q1 - 2k .

(37.13)

,
. ,
, ,
tg q2 = 0

tg q1 < 2k .

(37.14)

, .

,
tg q2
, . , , , F < kF^ , . .
tg q1
k
F sin q1 < Fk cos q tg q1 < k .
2k
,
.
. 29

:
tg q2 = tg q1 - 2k

tg q1 > 2k

tg q2 = 0

k < tg q1 < 2k

tg q2 = - tg q1

tg q1 < k .

(37.15)

38.
, . : i k ,
: Fik = -Fki . ,
. , .
,
L = [ ri pi ].

(38.1)

L = r^ p = rp^ , r^ = r sin q , p^ = p sin q , . .


()
97

, , . ,
r p .

.
dL
= [ r1 p1 ] + [ r1 p 1 ] + [ r2 p2 ] + [ r2 p 2 ] .
dt

(38.2)

, p 1 = -p 2 ,
dL
= [ r1 p1 ] + [ r2 p2 ] + [(r2 - r1 ) p 2 ] = 0 .
dt

(38.3)

,

. ( -, ). , .
.

39. ,


E = K +U =

mi v 2i

+ U (r1, r2 ....rn , t ) ,

(39.1)

dv
dU dr
dE
U
= mi v i i + i i +
dt
dt
dt
dri dt
t

(39.2)

= vi (mi

dv i
dt

- Fi ) +

98

U
U
.
= 0+
t
t

(39.3)

.
: ,
,
.

, , .
: , , g1 , , g 2 .
, . . .
g ,
, G .

, i -
Fi .

, d R ,
. ,
, . .
dA = d R Fi = 0 .

(39.4)

F
i

. , .
, , , , .

, , , . , i - Fi .
, ,
.

99

,
:
dA = Fi d ri = Fi [dj ri ] = dj [ri Fi ] = dj [ri p i ] = 0 . (39.5)
i

ri Fi = ri p i , .

,
.
dL
= [ ri pi ] + [ ri p i ]) = 0 .
dt

(39.6)


, -
.

100

V

40.
,

m1v1 + m2v2 = const


(40.1)
,
.
,
p = mv (
,
).
, ?
. 1 2
, ,
, 3 4 (. 30).
, ,

(-p1 ) + (-p2 ) + p1 + p2 = 0
(40.2)
p1 + p2 = p1 + p2 .

(40.3)


.
,
.
p1
p2
,
4
3
p1 p2
,
e,
p1
p2
p 1 1
2 p 2
e.
.
. 30

101




e. , ,
4-.

p = f (v )mv ,

(40.4)

f (v ) ,
v 0 . ,
(. 31).
Y

,
2
e


1
X
vy , vy c . . , -
.
1
.
, . .
. 31

mvy = m f (v )vy .

(40.5)

,
, vy c . vy v
, 2,
1. V ,
Y- (22.4) ,
vx 2 ,
vy = vy 1 -V 2 c 2 .

102

(40.6)

(40.6) (40.5)
f (v ) 1 -V 2 c 2 = 1 .

(40.7)

vy , v V ,
1

f (V ) =

1 -V 2 c 2

(40.8)



mv
.
(40.9)
p(v) = f (v )mv =
2
2
1-v c

mi v i
1 - vi2 c 2

= const .

(40.10)

(40.11)

,
p=mu =

u=

dr
=
dt

mv
1 - v 2/ c 2

v
v2
1- 2
c

4-.

(40.12)

(40.9),
.

= p j , p = mu =
j

103

mv
1 - v 2 / c2

(40.13)

41.
M m1
m2 . -

m1

v1

M
v =0
. 32

v2

(. 32). e, v1 v2 w c

m2

(. 33).

m1w
m2w
.
(41.1)
Mw =
+
1 - v12 c 2
1 - v22 c 2

w , v1 v1 v2 v2 .
(41.1) w ,
m1

v1

M =

m2

v2

m1
1 - v12 c 2

m2
1 - v22 c 2

. (41.2)

. .

. 33

M > m1 + m2 .

(41.3)

, (41.2)

m ic 2
2
i

1-v c

=
j

m jc 2
2
j

1-v c

(41.4)


E=

mc 2
2

1-v c

= gmc 2

(41.5)

.
: v 0
104

E = mc 2 +

mv 2
,
2

(41.6)

. .
.
(41.4)

= Ej .

(41.7)

.

.

mc 2
(41.8)
T =
- mc 2 = (g - 1)mc 2 .
2
2
1-v c
,
. .
(41.5) , 27 .
.
, M
m1 m2 X . , 4-,
M ux = m1 u1x + m2 u2x .

(41.9)

,
X V .
Mux = m1u1x + m2u2x .
(41.10)
X - 4-
ux = g(ux - bu 0 ) , g = 1 / 1 -V 2/ c 2 , b = V /c , (41.10)

M g(ux - bu 0 ) = m1g(u1x - bu10 ) + m2 g(u2x - bu20 ) .

105

(41.11)

(41.9),
Mu 0 = m1u10 + m2u20

(41.12)

, 4-
c
c
c
, u10 =
,
(41.13)
u0 =
u20 =
v12
v22
v2
1- 2
1- 2
1- 2
c
c
c

m1
m2
M
,
(41.14)
=
+
1 - v2 c2
1 - v12 c 2
1 - v22 c 2
(41.2).
4- pm = mu m ,

4-
(41.15)
Pm = Pm .

.
1. m1 m2 M m1 + m2 .
2.
, , . :
p + p p + p + p +p .

(41.16)

1955 .
.
3.
DT = Mc 2 - mic 2 .

(41.17)

, ( ) ,
E = mc 2 .
: p 0 gg, e +e - gg .
, . .
Mc 2 .
106

,
, :
M < Zm p + Nmn .

(41.18)

DM = Zm p + Nmn M

(41.19)

()

. -

. 34

, .
. 34 , . .
. ,
.
Fe. .
() . ( ) , .
, U235

n + U235 A1 +A2 + (2 - 3)n.

(41.20)


T = DMc 2 (M U - m A - m A ) c 2 200 0, 001 Mc 2 . (41.21)
1

107

( 0.4 % Mc 2 ) , :
d + T a + n + 17, 6 .

(41.22)

E = mc 2 1017 ,
, 1 ,
1, 5 107 . , 0,1 % mc 2 -

5 106 , .
, mc 2 , .
, ,
, :
1 = eDU = 1, 6 10-19 1 = 1,6 10-19 .

(41.23)


1 103 , 1 106 , 1 109 . .
. 3 .
3

()
()
()
(m)
. ( p 0 )
(p)
(n)
Z-
t-

mc 2 ,
< 10-33
< 10-6
0,511
105,7
140
938,3
939,6
91200
171000

108

42. -
. -,
.
,
.
, ( )

= pj .

(42.1)

,
,
. ,
. p = mv
, , .
4-, . ?
,

a = b.

(42.2)

, ,
,
. ,
. , ,
4-
ict, x , y, z . ,
4-:
a m = bm , m = 0, 1, 2, 3 ,

(42.3)

.
4-
ict, x , y, z , 4-.
4- v
4- u m
Pm = m

dR
mc
mv
, (42.4)
= m u m = {p0 , p} ; p0 =
, p=
dt
1 - v 2 c2
1 - v 2 c2

109


4-
(42.5)
Pm = Pm, m = 0 3 .
i


4-
.
p = f (v )mv , f (v )
,
. , (42.4), p = g m v ,
. ,

4-,

.

mc 2
(42.6)
E = p0c =
1 - v2 c2
,
p=

mv
1 - v2 c2

(42.7)

. ,
, .
, 4-, ,
Pm2

E2
- p2 = m 2c 2 = inv .
2
c

(42.8)

(42.6), (42.7)
p=

Ev
.
c2

110

(42.9)

Pm , , 4-, S , V X , S , :
E = g(E + Vp), px = g(px +
E = g(E - Vp), px = g(px -

V
E ), py = py, pz = pz; (42.10)
c2

V
E ), py = py , pz = pz ,
c2

(42.11)

g = 1 / 1 -V 2/ c 2 .
, , 4-, . ,
(40.9) (41.5) (42.8)
.
. m = 0 , (42.8)
E g = pgc .

(42.12)

()
E g = w .

(42.13)

p g = w c .

(42.14)

e (42.12)

{E

c , pg

4-, 4-

{w c, k} , | k |= w c . (24.16) , :
w
), ky = ky , kz = kz . (42.15)
c
,
:
w = g(w - kxV ), kx = g(kx - b

tg J =

py
px

p sin J
sin J
=
.

E
g px + 2 V g + cos J

111

(42.16)


,
. E 0 -

X ,
V . .
. (42.11)
E = g(E 0 - Vp0 ) . , p0 = E 0/c ,

V
E = gE 0 1 + .
c

(42.17)

,
, .
E = g(E + Vp) . p = E /c
V p , :
2

V
V
E = gE 1 + = g 2E 0 1 + .
c
c

(42.18)

43.
,
.

dp
.
(43.1)
dt
, .
E 2 - p2c 2 = m 2c 4 , EdE = c 2 pdp , e (42.9)
(43.1)
dE
pc 2 dp
=
= (vF) dE = vFdt = Fdr .
(43.2)
dt
E dt

F=

, , .
112

4- , 4- ,
fm =

g dE dp g(Fv)

=
,g =
, g F ,
c dt

dt
dt c

dPm

(43.3)

g = 1 / 1 - v 2 / c 2 , v .
(43.2), (43.1).
, ,
, , 4-
, .
: , g ( ) .
v ,
g = 1 / 1 - v 2/c 2 , ,
V S , -
,

g = 1 / 1 -V 2/c 2 . , , ,

, .
S S , V X,
V
V
dE ) Fx - 2 (Fv)
2
c
c
=
=
,
Fx =
dt
V
Vvx
g(dt - 2 dx )
1- 2
c
c
g(dpx -

dpx

Fy,z =

dpy,z
dt

dpy ,z
V
g(dt - 2 dx )
c

Fy ,z 1 -V 2 c 2
1-

Vvx

g = 1 / 1 -V 2/ c 2 , V S .

113

c2

(43.4)

(43.5)

V -V
V
Fx + 2 (Fv )
c
,
(43.6)
Fx =
Vvx
1+ 2
c
Fy ,z =

Fy,z 1 -V 2 c 2
1+

Vvx

(43.7)

c2

, S' , . . v = 0 ,
F , S
Fx = Fx,

Fy ,z = Fy,z 1 -V 2 c 2 .

(43.8)

,
g .
F a = dv dt

F=

dp
d
(av)v
= (gmv) = m g a + m g 3 2 = m g a + m g 3 b(ba) , (43.9)
dt
dt
c

g = 1 / 1 - v 2/ c 2 , b = v/c .
,
d (v 2 ) d (vv)
=
= 2(va) .
dt
dt

(43.10)

(43.9) b ,
(ab) =

(Fb)
m g(1 + g 2 b 2 )

(Fb)
mg3

(43.11)

(43.9),
a=

F - (Fb)b
.
gm

114

(43.12)

, !


F a . p = mv , m = gm 0 .
. g ,
. .
1.
p=

mv
v2
1- 2
c

(43.13)

F ,
F=

dv
= gma ,
v 2 dt
1- 2
c
m

(43.14)

,
. ,
v v :
F=

dv
mv 2
dv
+
= m g 3a .
3/2
2 dt

v
v 2 dt
1- 2
c 2 1 - 2
c

c
m

(43.15)

(43.9). ,
F/a ,
.
2. E 0 , m Q U . ?
dE
. ,
= (vF) ,
dt
dE = F dl = U , . . ,
115

.
E = E 0 + qU
mc 2

mc 2

1 - v2 c2

1 - v 02 c 2

+ eU .

(43.16)

3. X v
, ?
. Fx = e cos q , Fy = e sin q,

q X. ,
V v vx , (43.4) (43.5)
Fx =

Fy =

V
(Fv)
c2
= e cos q ,
Vvx
1- 2
c

Fx -

Fy 1 -V 2 c 2
1-

Vvx

e sin J
1 - v2 c2

(43.17)

(43.18)

c2

. . , g .

44.

(), . .
; ;
, ,
.
. , V , , L. ?

116

:
) t = L/V ,
g = 1 / 1 -V 2/c 2 , ,
t = t/g = L/gV ;
) g ,
V , ,
t = L/gV , . . .
.
,


,
e, . , g.
e S
Fx = max = mg .

(44.1)

( S ),
v = V .
(43.6) , v
x

, Fx = Fx :
dp
d
(44.2)
(gmv ) = Fx = mg .
dt
dt
e , v = 0 t = 0,
m gv = mgt
v
2

1-v c

= gt v =

gt
2 2

1+g t c

117

g = 1 + g 2t 2 c 2 .

(44.3)

1 + a 1 + a 2 a 1 ,

g 2t 2
v gt 1 - 2 ,

2c

c2
v c 1 - 2 2 ,

2g t

gt c 1

(44.4)
gt c 1.

, ,
2

gtdt

x=

1 + g 2t 2 c 2

c
g

(gt c )

dy
2 1+y

c 2
g 2t 2
.
+
1
1

g
c

gt 2
,
x=
2

gt c 1

(44.5)

(44.6)

gt c 1
x

c 2 gt

g c

3
2
2
c2
ct + c - c ct - c .
+
1
1

g
g
g 2t 2
2g 2t

(44.7)

, T
.

x = c(t - T ) = ct - cT .

(44.8)

(44.7), , T > c g
! g = 103 / T = c /g = 3 107 1 . e
,
,
, 1 . ,
, .
t , . (16.3) (25.12)
d t = dt 1 - v 2 c 2 = 1 g .

118

(44.9)

g (44.3),
t

t=

dt
1 + g 2t 2 c 2

gt
c
arcsh
g
c

(44.10)

c gt
ln + 1 + g 2t 2 c 2 .
g c

,
gt
gt
= sh .
c
c

(44.11)

,
:
e x + e -x
e x - e -x
chx =
, shx =
, ch2x - sh2x = 1,
2
2
(44.12)
(chx ) = shx , (shx ) = chx .
gt c << 1 ,
gt c >> 1

t t,
t

c 2gt
ln
.
g
c

(44.13)
(44.14)

(44.11) (44.3) (44.5),


gt
gt
,
(44.15)
v=
= c th
2 2
2
c
1+g t c

c 2 g t
- 1 .
ch

g c

(44.16)

x=

c2
gt
exp
,
2g
c

(44.17)

t=

c 2gx
ln 2 .
g
c

(44.18)

x=

gt c 1

119

g 103 / (c / g 1 ).
4
, , c a = g
t
1
10
1010

t
0.88
3
23

v
0.7
0,995
c

x
0,41 .
9,5 .
1010 .

( ).
23 !

, .
. .
u0 . .

( )
m dv = d m u 0 ,

(44.19)

m , v , d m
, -dm.

dm
dv
(44.20)
=- ,
m
u0
m = m 0 exp(- v u 0 ) .

(44.21)

,
.
. ( S ).
mdv = dm u 0 g ,

g = 1

1 - u 02 c 2 .

(44.22)

,
,
120

.

-d (mc 2 ) = dm g c 2 + m

(dv )2
.
2

(44.23)

,
dm dm .

(44.24)

(44.24) (44.22),
mdv = -u 0dm .
(44.25)
,
(44.25) (44.19) .
dv . (22.3)
dvx

V + dvx
V2

dv
(1
).
x
c2
1 + dvxV c 2

(44.26)

v vx V , (44.26)
dv
.
v2
1- 2
c

dv (44.25),
dv =

(44.27)

dm
dv
.
=m
u 0 (1 - v 2 c 2 )

(44.28)

,
1
1 1
1
.
=

2 x + 1 x - 1
1- x2
1 - v

m
=
m 0 1 + v

c 2u0

.
121

(44.29)

,
. u 0 = c
1-v c
m
=
.
m0
1+v c

(44.30)

.
, ,

p=

Eg

m 0c 2 - E

,
(44.31)
c
c
E , p .
(42.8)
E 2 - p 2c 2 = m 2c 4 .

, p =

(44.32)

E
v , (44.31) (44.32)
c2

v
E 1 + = m 0c 2 ,

v2
E 2 1 - 2 = m 2c 4 .

(44.33)
(44.34)

E ,
1-v c
m
,
=
m0
1+v c

(44.35)

(44.30).
,
.
.
v (44.15) (44.35), .
, ,
dpg = dE g c = -(dm )c ,

122

(44.36)

dm .
. c
F =

dp
(dm )c
= mg = ,
dt
dt

(44.37)

m = m 0 exp(- g t c) .

(44.38)

g 23 (. 4). , c/g = 1 ,
m
(44.39)
= e-23 .
m0
(R = 6400 ),
3 !
, ,
. . , , , ,
.

45.
4-.
m1 m2
4-
P1 + P1 = P2 + P2 ,

(45.1)

P = E c , p

4-.

, (45.1),
. 4. = 1.
, c.

123


E1 E 2 q . .
. ,
. 3
P1
( , q P2
P1
, ).

| p1 |, | p2 | q2 , .
. 2 ,
:

P2
. 35

(P2)2 = (P1 + P2 - P1)2 = m22

(c = 1) .

(45.2)

| p1 | ,
.
, ,
( ), . 35. (
) () 4-

Pg = E g , pg , 0, 0 ,

pe = Ee2 - m 2 ,

Pe = {Ee , -pe , 0, 0} ,

(45.3)

pg = E g .

(45.2)
(Pe + Pg - Pg )2 = m 2

(45.4)

Pe2 + Pg2 + Pg + 2Pe Pg - 2Pe Pg - 2Pg Pg = m 2 .

(45.5)

, (AB ) = a 0b0 - ab ,
2

Pe2 = m 2 , Pg2 = Pg = 0 ,

(45.6)

Pe Pg = Ee E g + pe pg = E g (Ee + pe ),

(45.7)

124

Pe Pg = Ee E g + pe E g cos q,

(45.8)

Pg Pg = E g E g - E g E g cos q .

(45.9)

(45.5),
E g (Ee + pe ) - Ee E g - pe E g cos q - E g E g + E g E g cos q = 0 .

(45.10)

( )

Ee + pec
.
(45.11)
E g = E g
Ee + pec cos q + E g - E g cos q

E g = E g

mc 2
;
mc 2 + E g (1 - cos J)

l = l + le (1 - cos J), (45.12)

le = /mc .
Ee mc 2 1
q = p ( ).
(45.11) pec = Ee ,
a2
m 2c 4
,
,

cos q -1 +
2
2Ee
a = p - q .
4Ee E g
x
(45.13)
E g = Ee
, x =
.
2 2
x +1+a g
m 2c 4

pec = Ee2 - m 2c 4 Ee -

: Ee = 100 , E g = 2, 5 ( ), x = 4
a = 0 E g = 80 , . . ,
, 80 %
.
-
1001000 .
x 1 , E g = 4g 2E g ,
(42.18) .
125

46.
1. M
m1 m2 . 4-
P = P1 + P2 .

(46.1)
() ,
( = 1)
M = E1 + E 2 > m1 + m2 .
(46.2)
. (46.1)
(P - P1 )2 = P22 = m22 .

(46.3)

, P = {M , 0}, P1 = {E1, p1 } ,
M 2 - 2ME1 + m12 = m22 ,

(46.4)

( )
E1 =

(1 2)
E2 =

M 2 + m12 - m22
2M
M 2 + m22 - m12
2M

c2

(46.5)

c2 .

(46.6)

.
2. V
m1 m
(. .) E 0 E1 , p0 = E 02 - m 2c 4
( ) v 0 = p0c / E 0 .
q .
4- ( = 1)
E 0 = g(E - pV cos J) , p = E 2 - m 2 .

(46.7)

E
E 2 (1 -V 2 cos2 q) - 2EE 0 1 -V 2 + E 02 (1 -V 2 ) +V 2m 2 cos2 q = 0.

126

(46.8)

( , , . 26) , v0 < V , .
( ).
. . . . q0 , (42.16)
tg q =

py
px

p0 sin q0
g(p0 cos q0 + E 0V c 2 )

sin q0

g(cos q0 + V v 0 )

(46.9)

max(tg J) , (tg q) = 0 . ,
cos q0 = - v0 V .
tg qm =

v0
g V 2 - v 02

sin qm =

g 0v0
gV

(46.10)

g = 1 / 1 -V 2/ c 2 , g 0 = 1 / 1 - v02 / c 2 .
3. p 0 -
g -.
p 0 - V v0 = c , . . .
(42.11)
E0 =

V
cos q)
c
,
1 -V 2 c 2

E (1 -

E 0 = m pc 2 2

(46.11)

E=

E 0 1 -V 2 c 2
V
1 - cos q
c

127

(46.12)


( q = 0 q = p )
E max =

E min =

E 0 1 -V 2 c 2
V
1c
E 0 1 -V 2 c 2
V
1+
c

m pc 2

1 +V c

1 -V c

m pc 2

1 -V c

1 +V c

= Ep

= Ep

1 + V /c
2
1 -V /c
2

(46.13)

(46.14)

.
p 0
( -)
dP () =

d W0
4p

2p sin q0d q0
4p

dW

1
= - d (cos q0 ) .
2

(46.15)

(. 5), (R, q, j) .
R q
q + d q j j + d j . ,
dS = R sin qd q Rd j . , , d W = dS/R 2 , d W = sin q d q d j .

q , j , d W = 2p sin q d q , . .
q q + d q . (46.15) 4p ,
4pR 2 , R 2 , ,
(, ).

V
E = gE 0 (1 + cos q0 )
(46.16)
c
E
c

(46.17)
cos q0 = (
- 1) ,
gE 0
V
128


d (cos q0 ) =

cdE
.
V gE 0

(46.18)

(46.18) (46.15),
e
dP = -

c
1

dE ,
2V gE 0

(46.19)

. . E min E max .
, , .

e.
. ., (46.15). ( (23.4))
V
g
P
q
E ) cos q -V c
(
cos
2
Px
c
,
(46.20)
=
=
cos q0 =
E
V
g(E - PV cos q)
1 - cos q
c

d (cos q0 ) =

d (cos q)
2

g 2 1 - cos q

(46.21)

(46.15),
dp = -

1
2

d (cos q)
2

g 2 1 - cos q

(46.22)

, . .
,
.

129

47. , ,

1.
() m1
m2 4- P1 = {E1, p1 }, P2 = {E2 , p2 }

M 2c 4 = P 2 = (P1 + P2 )2 = (E1 + E 2 )2 - (p1 + p2 )2 .

(47.1)

2. .

E = E1 + E 2 = E1 + m2c 2 ,
(47.2)
p = p1 + p2 = p1 .


p1 c 2
c2p
v=
,
=
E
E1 + m2c 2

(47.3)

(47.1)
M 2c 4 = (E1 + m2c 2 )2 - p12 = m12c 4 + m22c 4 + 2E1m2c 2
M 2 = m12 + m22 + 2E1m2/c 2 .

(47.4)

M
E1 =

(M 2 - m12 - m22 )c 2
2m2

(47.5)

.
p+p p+p+p+p

(47.6)

, ,
. ,
.
130

M = 4m p (m p
). (47.5)
E1 = 7m pc 2 6.5 .

(47.7)

, ,
, 1955 . .

, e
. ,
, . (47.4) E1 m1, m2
Mc 2

E1

2m2c 2
E1

(47.8)

3. .
E 0 -


Mc 2 = 2E 0 ,

(47.9)

.


. (47.5) (47.9)
E1
E0

M 2 - m12 - m22
Mm2

(47.10)

m1 = m2 = m M m
E1 E 0 M m .

(47.11)

(47.9) (47.11), ,
E 0
E1

2E 0
mc 2

131

E0 .

(47.12)

- ,
1964 . ()
, E 0 = 160
1 .

2 160
E1 = 160
100000 = 100 .
(47.13)
0.5
. ,
1965 . () e -e - 2E 0 = 600 . , ,
(. 35). 1966 .
( e +e - ) ,
2E 0 . , .
e +e - -, , 2E0=209 (LEP, ),
pp - 2E 0 = 2000 (Tevatron, ), pp - 2E 0 = 14000 (LHC, ). LHC
27 , LEP. , Z0-
92 / c 2 , 125 /c2 t- 172 /c2.

48.
.
.
: . (17771855), . (17751836), . (17911867). 60- . 19 . . (18311879). .
,
.

132

1. . ,

qq
F = 1 32 r .
(48.1)
r
2. .
.
, ,
10-20 e (e ).
v /c ~ 10-2 . - , Dq/q ~ (v/c)2 10-4.
, : , , ,
. , .
e. ,
l0 S 0
e r0 . v , , e S = S 0 ,
: l = l 0 1 - v 2 c 2 .
r=

r0
1 - v2 c2

(48.2)

(, 2 )
r0 v
.
j = rv =
1 - v2 c2

} {

, {r c, j} = r0 gc, r0 g v = r0u 0 , r0 u

(48.3)

4-, ,
V
j) , jx = g( jx - rV ), jy = jy , jz = jz
c2
V -V .

r = g(r -

133

(48.4)


, , . .
, r V ,
-r
V
q
. ,

v
.

-v
() q
V .
?
. 36

. e (48.4)
V
vV
j ) = gr (1 - 2 ) ,
2 +
c
c

(48.5)

V
vV
=
+
)
gr
(1
).
j
c2
c2

(48.6)

r+ = g(r+ r- = g(r- -

,
r+ = r,

r- = -r, j+ V = r+ vV = r v,

j-V = r-(-v)V = r v . (48.7)


dr = r+ + r- = -

2gr vV
c2

(48.8)

, e,
q,
, ,
q! ,
.
.
q r .
134

q ( ).
(34.10)
2l
,
(48.9)
r
l .

4grvVS
2dr S
(48.10)
Fy =
q =q.
r
rc 2
E=

, (43.7).
vx q ,
4rvVS
2IV
= -q 2 .
2
rc
rc
,
I = 2rvS .

Fy = F /g = -q

(48.11)
(48.12)

V
2I
B,
B=
.
(48.13)
c
rc
B .
,

( ) ,
.
,
, ,
v
| B |=| E | .
(48.14)
c
(48.5), , .
,
( Vv/c 2 ) | F |= q

? , , , , , ,
, .
135


(48.13) , ,
,
. r
I 1 I 2 . (48.13) , -

,
F1 = -e

v2
c

B = -e

v2 2I 1
c cr

(48.15)


N = I 2 / ev2 .
, .
(48.15) N ,

2I I
(48.16)
F = - 21 2 .
cr
. , 1820 . ,
, ; , , . .
.

49.

, . , , , .
.
, , V,
V
B) ,
(49.1)
c
B , . .
F = q (E +

136

, ,
v ,
v
(49.2)
B = E .
c
E B . 37.
, ,
.
B

(49.1) v
( (49.1)), .
. 37
, .
(): ,
.

,
( )
, , .
1892 .
E

50.
, ,
. , ,
:
V
V
Ey + Bz
Ez - By
c
c
E x = E x,
Ey =
, Ez =
(50.1)
2
2
1 -V c
1 -V 2 c 2

Bx = Bx,

V
V
Ez
Bz + Ey
c
c
By =
, Bz =
.
2
2
1 -V c
1 -V 2 c 2
By -

V -V .
137

(50.2)

. Bz .
S , X V,
, :
Ey = -g

V
B
c z

Bz = g Bz .

(50.3)

, ,
,
.

51.
. (49.1) , .

dp ^
d mv^ q[ vB]
=
.
(51.1)
=
dt
dt 1- v 2 c 2
c

, , , . ,
. . (51.1) ,
dv ^
v^2
v = const
= -eR
, [ v B] = -eRv^B ,
dt
R
q v^B
dp^
p v
= ^ ^ =
,
(51.2)
dt
R
c

pc
R= ^ .
(51.3)
qB
q = e ( ) (51.3)
3333 p^c [ ]
R
, .
(51.4)
B[]
138

= 1000 ()
(. ).
. B
Z, ( Z )
z = v t + const .
(51.5)
(51.2)
dv ^
qB
= e z wB ,
= v B ,
B =
(51.6)
gmc
dt
wB . v^ wB ,
,

x = x 0 + R cos(wt + j0 );
y = y 0 + R sin(wt + j0 );
(51.7)
vx = -RwB sin(wt + j0 );
vy = RwB cos(wt + j0 ),
x 0 , y 0 , j 0
R=

v^
pc
= ^ .
wB
qB

(51.8)

, wB , (51.6), q , . . .
,
, . .

139

52.

.
, ,
. .



. ,
1 , 1 .
F=

q1q 2

,
(52.1)
r2
, . , .
(). , 1 1 (). ( ) , , 1 , 2 10-2
1 .
(48.16). ,
1 = (/10) . 3109 .
(52.2)
10
( c = 29979245800 3 10 /).
, , :
F = c 2 10-7

q1q 2
r

qq
1 q1q 2
= 8987551787,3 1 22 ,
2
4pe0 r
r

(52.3)

, , , /.
:
e 1, 6 10-19 K = 4, 8 10-10 . .
(52.4)


: 1 . 1 . :

1 = 1 . . 1 . . .
140

(52.5)

: 1 1 . ():
1 =1 1 .

(52.6)

, 1 = 107 ,
1.

1
1.
1
7 ([ ] /10) 299, 792458 300,
10
. . 1 . 300 .

(52.7)



V
B) .
(52.8)
c
()
, ,
. / ( ).
( )
F = q (E +

F = q(E + V B) ,

(52.9)

, .
().
, (52.8) (52.9),
. ,
1 T = 104 .
(52.10)
1 .
105 .
- 1 .
1 = e 1 = 1.6 10-19 K 1 = 1, 6 10-19 = 1, 6 10-12 . (52.11)

141

53.

( collide (engl.) ). ( t 0 = 2 10-6 c), , , . , mc 2 = 105 ,
200 , .
40000 , .
, ,
. ,
( ) , ?

t = gt 0 = 2 10-6 g . L ct n = L/2pR ,
n=

c gt 0eB
2p pc

eB t 0
2pmc

(53.1)

. : ,
. 10 = 100
n=

4, 8 10-10 105 2 10-6 3 1010


2700 .
6,28 105 1, 6 10-6

(53.2)

( ) c mc 2
(1 = 1, 6 106 ).

142

VI
,
54. ()

x = f (x , x ) .

(54.1)

, .
,
.
,
, . .
,
mx = F (x ) .
(54.2)
, ,
U (x ) ,
U (x ) = - F (x ) dx ,

(54.3)

(54.2)

mx 2
+ U (x ) = E = const .
(54.4)
2

( ),
( x 0, v 0 ). (54.2)
(54.4) E . (54.4)
,
x x v . E
,
() . , , . ( )
143

Ec

U (x )
mv 2
2

E
x1

x2
. 38

6-

, , .
, . 38, () x 1 x 2 .
K = E -U (x )
,

. E < Ec

. 39

, E > Ec .
()

. 39.
(54.4)
.
dx
2
=
(E -U (x )) ,
dt
m

(54.5)

t =

m
2

dx
E -U (x )

+ const .

(54.6)

, x (. 39).
x2

m
T =2
2
x

x 1, x 2 U (x ) = E .

144

dx
E -U (x )

(54.7)

55. ,
U (x ) , . 38.
, x ,
x = 0 .
x = x 0
x - x 0 :

1
f (x 0 )(x - x 0 )2 + ... .
2!

f (x ) = f (x 0 ) + f (x 0 )(x - x 0 ) +

(55.1)

U (0) = 0, U (0) = 0 ,
kx 2
,
(55.2)
2
k = U (0) .

U
f == -kx ,
(55.3)
x

U (x ) =

x + w02x = 0

(55.4)

k
x (0) = x 0 , x(0) = v 0 .
m

w02 =

mx 2 kx 2
+
=E,
2
2
E
E=

mv 02

kx 02

+
.
2
2

2

(55.6)

v

+ x = 1 ,

v
x
m
m

x m = 2E / k ,

(55.5)

vm = 2E / m .

145

(55.7)
(55.8)

(55.5)
(54.5)(54.7).
kx 2
U =
(54.6),
2
t =

m
2

dx

+ const .

kx 2
E 12E


dx = t =

(55.9)

kx 2
= cos2 a .
2E

2E
sin a d a ,
k

m 2
2 k

da =

m
m
k
arccos
a + const =
x + const . (55.10)
2E
k
k

x=

2E
k

cos
t + const = a cos w0 t + j 0 ,
m
k

(55.11)


a =| -x 1 | = x 2 =

2E
k

(55.12)


w0 =

k
.
m

(55.13)

(55.11) , : cos(-wt + j1 ) = cos(wt - j1 ) , , , .

146

(55.10), ,
T =2

m
m
m
(arccos(-1) - arccos(1)) = 2
p = 2p
, (55.14)
k
k
k

(55.11), ,
T
2p , . . w0T = 2p ,
T =

2p
m
= 2p
.
w0
k

(55.15)

,
x + w02x = 0

x = a cos w0 t + j 0

(55.16)

x = c1 cos w0t + c2 sin w0t.

(55.17)

(55.17)

c1
c2
x = c12 + c22
cos w0 t +
sin w0 t ,

c 2 + c 2
c12 + c22

1
2
cos j0

(55.18)

- sin j0

,
cos(a + b ) = cos a cos b - sin a sin b ,

(55.19)

x = a cos(w0t + j0 ),

(55.20)

a = c12 + c22 ,

tg j0 = -

c2
c1

x (0) = x 0 ,
147

(55.21)
x (0) = v0 .

t = 0
x = c1 cos w 0t + c2 sin w 0t,

(55.22)

x = -c1w 0 sin w 0t + c2 w 0 cos w 0t

c1 = x 0 ,

c2 =

v0

(55.23)

.
w0

v
x = x 0 cos w 0t + 0 sin w 0t
w0
2
0

x = a cos(w 0t + j 0) , a = x +

v02
w

2
0

tg j0 = -

(55.24)
v0
w 0x 0

. (55.25)

.
m w 20a 2
mx 2
ka 2
K =
=
sin2 (w 0t + j 0) =
sin2 (w 0t + j 0) ;
2
2
2
2
2
kx
ka
U =
=
cos2 (w 0t + j 0 ) ,
(55.26)
2
2
, ,
m w02a 2
ka 2
=
.
(55.27)
2
2
, . ,
E = K +U =

K = U =

E
.
2

cos w 0t =

148

(55.28)

1 + cos 2w 0t
2

1
. (55.29)
2

.
1. .
mx = -kx ;

x = -w 20x ,

(55.30)
w 20=

k
.
m

(55.31)

. 40

2. .
m(l j )2
+ mgl (1 - cos j)
2
m(l j )2 mgl j 2
+
.
2
2

E=

mg
. 41

(55.32)

(55.32)

E=

m*j 2
2

k*j 2

2
k
g
w 20= * = .
m*
l

, m* = ml 2 ,

k* = mgl,

(55.33)
(55.34)

-. (55.32),
g
j + w 20j = 0, w 20= .
(55.35)
l
3. , .
F .

(. 42)
x
mx = (F + dF )sin q F q F ,
(55.36)
l
l

x
. 42


F
w02 =
.
(55.37)
ml
(55.36)
.
149

56.
. ,
,

d nx
dx
an n + ...a1
+ a 0x = 0 .
dt
dt

(56.1)

:
, x 1(t ), x 2 (t ), c1x 1(t ) + c2x 2 (t ) c1,2 .
, ,

x (t ) = a 0 cos(w 0 t + j 0) = Re a 0 e
Z = Ae

i wt

A = a 0e

ij 0

i wt +i j 0

= Re Z ,

(56.2)


e ix = cos x + i sin x .

(56.3)

. z = cos j + i sin j . ,
dz = - sin jd j + i cos jd j = izd j. ln z = ij z = e ij ,

.
, .
(, , , ), .
,
() , , Z = x R + ix I (56.1)
an

d nxR
dt n

+ ...a1

d nx

dx
+ a 0x R + i an nI + ...a1 I + a 0x I = 0 .
dt
dt
dt

dx R

150

(56.4)

,
. , ,
, . , , . . x . , x 2 ,
(x R + ix I )2 = (x R - x I )2 + 2ix Rx I . ,
x 2 (x R - x I )2

, x 2 .
:
x (t ) = Re{e

iwt

}.

(56.5)

dx
d nx
iwt
= Re{i w e iwt },... n = Re{(i w)n e }
dt
dt
(56.1)
an (i w)n + ...a1(i w) + a 0 = 0 .
(56.6)

n- n w j ,
. ( )
(56.1)
n

x (t ) = Re{c je

iw jt

}.

(56.7)

j =1

(56.1) ,
F (t ) ,
x (t ) = x .(t ) + x .(t ) .

151

(56.8)

57.
. ,
,
f = -bx .

(57.1)


mx = -kx - bx

(57.2)

()
x + 2gx + w02x = 0,

2g =

b
.
m

(57.3)

(57.4)

,
x (t ) = Re Z ,

Z = Ae

i wt

w A . (57.4) (57.3)

Ae iwt (-w 2 + i w2g + w 20) = 0 .


(57.5)
,
w 2 - i w2g - w 20= 0 .
(57.6)

w = i g -g 2 + w02 .

(57.7)

Z = A 1e

-g t +i w 20-g 2 t

+ A2e

-g t -i w 20-g 2 t

(57.8)

w0 > g ( ),
Z = e-gt (A1 cos W t + iA1 sin W t + A2 cos W t - iA2 sin W t ) , (57.9)

W = w 20- g 2 .

152

(57.10)

x (t ) = Re Z = e

-g t

(c1 cos Wt + c2 sin Wt ) ,

(57.11)

c1, c2 () , . , (57.9) , c1 = Re(A1 + A 2), c2 = Im(A2 - A1 ) .


, , e

-g t

: W = w 20- g 2 .
( g w 0 )
t=

w
w
1
2p
Q
=
0 T 0 T ,
g
w0 2pg
p
2pg

(57.12)


Q=

w0

.
(57.13)
2g
x (0) = x 0 ,
x (0) = v 0 . (57.11) t = 0 , c1 = x 0 .

, (57.11) v 0 t = 0 :
x (t ) = -ge

-g t

(c1 cos Wt + c2 sin Wt ) + e

x (0) v 0 = -gc1 + c2W , c2 =

-g t

(-c1W sin Wt + c2W cos Wt ) ,

v 0 + gx 0

.
W
g < w 0 :
x (t ) = e -gt (x 0 cos Wt +

v0 + gx 0

sin Wt ) .
(57.14)
W
w0 < g , (57.8) -


Z = A 1e

-gt -

g 2 -w02 t

+ A 2e

-gt + g 2 -w02 t

- g2 -w02 t
+ c2e
x = Re Z = e-gt c1e

153

(57.15)

g 2 -w02 t

(57.16)

,
. c1, 2
, ( ).
, g = w 0 . g = w 0
(57.16), x = c e -gt . !
( ).
,
x + 2gx + w02x = 0 g = w 0
x (t ) = (c1 + c2 t )e

-g t

(57.17)

g 2 - w02 = e 0 . -

e , e x 1 + x x , (57.16)

x (t ) = e -gt (b1(1 - et ) + b2 (1 + et ) = e -gt [(b1 + b2 ) + e(b2 - b1 )t ] .

(57.18)

b1 + b2 c1 , e(b2 - b1 ) c2 , (57.17).
c2 (
e ), b1 b2 -

. (57.14).

x (t ) = e-gt [x 0 + (x 0 g + v0 )t ] .
(57.19)
, .

58.

F (t ) = F0 cos w t (
).
x + 2g x + w02x =

154

F0
m

cos w t .

(58.1)

56,
( )
( ) . . F = F0e iwt
Z = Ae iwt . (58.1),
Aeiwt (-w 2 + i w2g + w 20) =

F0
m

eiwt ,

(58.2)

A=

F0
m(w 20- w 2 + i 2wg )

(58.3)


x (t ) = Re(Ae iwt ) =

F0 cos(wt + d)
m (w 20- w 2 )2 + 4 g 2 w 2

= a cos(wt + d) ,

(58.4)


tg d =

sin d
-2gw
= 2
.
cos d
w 0- w 2

(58.5)

w * = w02 - 2g 2 .

(58.6)

. 43.

. 43

w=0

a=

F0
m w02

w = w*

a=

w w0

a=

F0

k
F0

2m g w02 - g 2

(58.8)

F0
mw

1 + 4 g /w

155

(58.7)

F0

w02

k w 2 1 + 4g 2/w 2

. (58.9)

, w0 g ,
w * w0

a=

F0
2m gw0

F0 w0
m w 2g
2
0

F0
k

Q,

(58.10)

. . Q (Q ) ,
.
, g w0 ,
a

1
(w0 + w)2 (w0 - w)2 + 4g 2 w 2

1
2w0 (Dw)2 + g 2

(58.11)

Dw = g 2 .
2Dw
2g
1
=
= .
(58.12)
w0
w0 Q
d , (58.5).
, , . :
w=0
d = 0,
p
w = w0
d =- ,
(58.13)
2
w w0 , w g d = -p.
. x = a cos wt ,

p
x /w = -a sin wt = a cos wt + , . .
2

p
, ,
2
p
w = 0 dF = ,
2
(58.14)
w = w0 dF = 0,
p
w w0 dF = - ,
2

. . , ,
, .
156



F0 cos(w t + d)
x (t ) =
+ (57.11), (57.16) (57.17) (58.15)
m (w 20- w 2)2 + 4g 2 w 2
w0 > g , w0 < g w0 = g .
g = 0 ,
x (t ) =

F0 cos w t
m(w 20- w 2)

+ c1 cos w0 t + c2 sin w0 t.

(58.16)

x (0) = 0, x(0) = 0 , c2 = 0

x (t ) =

F0 (cos w t - cos w0 t )
m(w 20- w 2)

=-

w + w w - w
0
0
2F0 sin
t sin
t

2
2
m(w 0+ w)(w 0- w)

. (58.17)

w + w
0
sin
t
2
w - w
0
t , . .
, sin

, . w = w0
x t sin w0t ,

(58.18)

. . .

, w0 g,
dE
mv 2
2
= fv = - bv = -4g
= -2 g E ,
dt
2

(58.19)

dE
= -2gE
dt

E = E 0e-2gt .

, E v 2 x 2 (e -gt )2 = e -2 gt .
157

(58.20)

,
P ==

dE
= 2gE = 2gm x 2 = 2gm w02 x 2
dt
gw02F02

m [(w 20- w 2 )2 + 4g 2 w 2 ]

(58.21)

, = 0 cos wt (. .
), (58.21),
F0 = e0 .
(. (58.6)) w * = w02 - 2g 2 w0 .

59.
. . . .
, . ,
( ).
dl l .

vl
dl
(59.1)
v 1 + .
v + dv =

l - dl
l
.
,
E=

mv 2
,
2

dE = mvdv = mv 2

158

dl
dl
= 2E .
l
l

(59.2)

. ,
, dt
2dt
dN =
,
(59.3)
T
w dl
2w dl
dE
4dl dt

=
= 4 0 dt,
(59.4)
E = E 0 exp( 0 t ) .
E
l T
2p l
p l
, , , mv 2/l . E = E 0e-2gt ,
2w0 dl
dl
gp
p
>
=
.
> 2g
p l
l
w0
2Q

(59.5)

60.
.
,
u , .
,
.
, .
X
44 .
v

,
. X
S
?
x
. 44
S = xv,
DS = v Dx + x Dv .

(60.1)


, u ,
Dv = -2u .

159

(60.2)

, v - u , . ,
v - 2u .
2x
Dx = uT = u
.
(60.3)
v
(60.2), (60.3) (60.1),
2x
DS = v u
- x 2u = 0 .
(60.4)
v
, , , ( )
() , , .
.

.
mx 2 kx 2
+
, k . E =
2
2
( , )
2
2

2xx 2mxx
kx
kx
k E
) =
. (60.5)
+k
+
=
+ x (
E =
kx +
mx

2
2
2
2
2
k
0


dE
1 dk
1
=
ln E = ln k + const
2 k
2
E

E
k

E
= const ,
w0

(60.6)

w0 = k/m , m .
( ) w02 = g/l , , I = E l /g . , , mg Dl .
160

,
E
I =
.
(60.7)
w0
m w02x 02

, v 0 = w0x 0 , 2

E =

x 0v 0 = const .

(60.8)

(60.7) , .
, , . ,
, , (60.5)

2
2

2xx 2mxx
kx
x 2
kx
x 2
E =
+k
+
+ m
=
+ m
+ x (
kx +
mx) =

2
2
2
2
2
2
0

(60.9)

2
k m E
kx
x 2
=
+ m
= +
.
2
2
k m 2

dE
1 dk 1 dm
=
+
E
2 k
2 m

ln E =

1
ln km + const
2

I =

E
km

E
km

= const .

(60.10)

.
1. ( ). mx = -mgx/l , . . E l
. m g
E m , ,
.
-

k * = mg/l . I =

161

: E 1/ l . ,
( mg ), , ( mv 2/l ).
2. .

(60.10). E m . ,
, .
.
,
. ?
, ? . .

162

VII

61.
,
.
,
T = -P =

F
Z
. 45

F
Dl
k Dl
=E
Ee
,
S
l
S

(61.1)
,

e=

Dl
,
l

F
ES
=
. Dl
l
.
k

( Z)
Dx
Dy
Dz
Dl
=
= -m
-m
,
(61.2)
x
y
z
l
m .

DV
D(xyz ) Dx Dy Dz
Dz
=
=
+
+
=
(61.3)
(1 - 2m) ,
V
xyz
x
y
z
z
1
m = . m 0.5 ,
2
m 0.3 , 0.07.


ex = ey = ez = -

163

P
(1 - 2m) ,
E

(61.4)


DV
Dx Dy Dz
P
=
+
+
= ex + ey + ez = - ,
(61.5)
V
x
y
z
K
E
.
K =
3(1 - 2m)
0.5, . . ,
, .
, ,
. Pz Px ,

Py , :
P
Dx
m
= - x + (Py + Pz ) = 0
x
E
E
Py
Dy
m
= - + (Px + Pz ) = 0.
ey =
y
E
E

ex =

(61.6)

Px = Py =
ez = -

Pz
E

+m

m
P,
1- m z

(Px + Py )
E

=-

Pz
Pz
2m2
1 = - ,
E
1 - m
E

(61.7)

E = E

1- m
(1 + m)(1 - 2m)

(61.8)

. ,
,
, , .

164

62. ,
. ,
, .
. . . ,
.
, , , .
, .
,
( ), . , .
.

63.
F ,
v . v c ,

B
F
d (mv )
c
v
= F,
(63.1)
dt
. 46

mv (r + dr)S (c - v )vt rScvt.


P = F/S = rcv .

(63.2)


Dl
vt
v
=- =l
ct
c

(63.3)

( vt ).
P = -E

Dl
v
=E .
l
c

165

(63.4)

(63.2) (63.4), , ,
c=

E
.
r

(63.5)

(63.4) B. B, rc ,
(c - v )(r + d r) .
rc = (c - v )(r + d r),

dr r

v
c

(63.6)

( (63.3), d r/r = -dl/l ).


(63.2) (63.6),
c=

dP
.
dr

(63.7)

rdl
dP
=r
l
E
(63.5). (63.7),

d r = -

c= g

P
,
r

g=

cP
cV

(63.8)

, (63.5)
, .
E E ( (61.8)),

c =

E
1- m
.
r (1 + m)(1 - 2m)

(63.9)

, .
: 1)
; 2) ; 3)
.
166

: ( ).
c^ =

G
,
r

(63.10)

E
, c > c > c^ .
2(1 + m)
,
.
.

G =

64.
.
3 .
1. , .
2. .
3. .
2. P = f (r) .
P0 = f (r0 ) .

P
Pu = kru , k =
.
(64.1)
r
u .
1. (X)
y(x , t )
x . . x .
x + y(x , t ) . x + Dx x + Dx + y(x + Dx , t ) .
, Dx , y
Dx + y(x + Dx , t ) - y(x , t ) = Dx +
Dx ,
x
, . -

167


y
.
r0Dx = (r0 + ru )Dx 1 +

y
.
x
y
,
ru
x
y
ru -r0
.
(64.2)
x
, 3
Dx
2 y
2 y
P
P
(64.3)
r0Dx 2 = - u Dx r0 2 = - u .

t
dx
dx
t
ru

2y
r
(64.1) (64.3), r0 2 = -k u (64.2)
t
dx

2 y
2 y
P

= c 2
c2 = k =
,
.
(64.4)
2
t 2
r
dx

x
(64.5)
y(x , t ) = y t ,

c
. . , ,
c . , (64.5) (64.4),
y y ,
(t x / c) , . . (64.5) (64.4). ,
x = 0 t = 0 y(0) ,
t x = ct . ,

x
x
(64.6)
y(x , t ) = y1 t + + y2 t - .

c
c

, (64.4) (63.7).
168

(64.6), ,
( )
. , ,
. . .
, .
,
.
,
(64.5)
, y1,2 .

65.
, T ,
Dl x .
X
T2
dl (Dl )2 + x 2 - Dl
q 2
2
x
Dl Dl , . .
q1 T
Dl
1
. , .
x
Z
,
, q
Dl
z2
z1
. . sin q tg q q .
. 47

,
Dz ,
x x
2x
Fx T (tg q2 - tg q1 ) T - = T 2 Dz .
z
z 2 z 1

169

(65.1)

X
2x
2x
rS Dz 2 = T
Dz ,
t
z2

(65.2)


:
2
2x
T
2 x
=c
, c2 =
.
(65.3)
2
2
rS
t
z
, .
c . .
R , .

a=

c2
,
R

(65.4)

. , l ,
Tl
a
. m = rSl F = 2T sin T a
2
R

c
T

a=
a

F
T
=
.
m
rSR

(65.5)

(65.4) (65.5), , (65.3):


c2 =

. 48

170

T
.
rS

(65.6)

66.
dV
rv 2
dV .
(66.1)
2
,
kx 2
F
ES
U =
=
. k
Dl
l
2
dK =

k (Dl )2
ESl Dl
U =
=
.
2
2 l

(66.2)

,
(63.3) (63.5),
v
Dl
c=
= ,
l
c
(66.3) (66.2),
U =

rv 2
rv 2
lS =
V
2
2

E
.
r

dU =

(66.3)

rv 2
dV .
2

(66.4)

, !

67.
(64.6), , . ,
( ),
P ,
. , P/2 P
. , 2rc
, ,
P , .
, .

171

v =

. ,
, .
( )
.

68. ,


v .
, v
, (.
49). ,
, .
: ,
v
v=0
.
, ,
. t = 2l/c.
v=0

v=0



v .
, v /2 . -

, ,
.

, ,
v
.
. 49

v
. , v /2 .
172

. ,
-,
. , . ,
, ,
.
, .
, ,
, , , ( ).
. ,
.
, ( ),
P2
P2
, , <
2m2
2m1
. , , , , . . . , .

69.
:
y1 = a cos(wt - kx ), y2 = a cos(wt + kx + j) ,
(69.1)
w , k = 2p/l . (
)

c = w/ k .

.
y = y1 + y2 = a cos(wt - kx ) + a cos(wt + kx + j) =

2p

j
j
= 2a cos x + cos wt + .
2
2
l

173

(69.2)


2p
j
(69.3)
A = 2a cos x +
l
2
, n p, n = 0, 1, 2 ,

n p + p/2 .
()
l/2 .
,
.
(
) , , . ,
. 50

2L
, n = 1,2, 3... ,
(69.4)
n
L , . . . x = 0 ,

l=

pn
(69.5)
x .
L
. 50 l = L/2 .
A sin

, , ,
-.
,
(69.4), .
, , , . l = (2L), (2L/2), (2L/3)... .
, . ( ) l/2 = L .
174

VIII

70.
, , , .
. 28,

( ) .
.

, , :
F21 = -F12 = F(r),

r = r2 - r1 .

(70.1)


m1r1 = -F(r) ,

(70.2)

m2r2 = F(r) .

(70.3)


r = r2 - r1 =

m =

F(r) F(r) F(r)


+
=
,
m2
m1
m

(70.4)

m1m2

.
m1 + m2
,
m F(r) .
.
r1 r2
m1r1 + m2 r2 = 0

r1 = -

m2
m1 + m2

r2 - r1 = r ,

(70.5)

m1

(70.6)

r , r2 =

175

m1 + m2

r.


p1 = m1r1 = p2 = m2 r2 =

m1m2
m1 + m2
m1m2

m1 + m2

r = -m r,

r = m r,

K1 =
K2 =

p12
2m1
p22
2m2

m2 2
v ;
2m1
2

m 2
v .
2m2

(70.7)

, (r )2 = v 2 . , (r )2 r 2 . ,
(r )2 = v 2 , r 2 = 0 .
E = K 1 + K 2 + U (r ) =

m2 1
1 2
mv 2

+
+ U (r ) , (70.8)
v + U (r ) =
2 m1 m2
2

. . ,
. r(t ) (70.6).

, , , . , . , ,
,
, . , p r
L = [ r p] .

(70.9)


dL
= [ r p] + [ r p ] .
dt

(70.10)

, r p ,
, F = p r .
L = [ r p] = const , , L .
176


.
dS
r 2d j
2
L = [ r p] = rmv^ = mr j = 2m
dS =
= const,
,
(70.11)
dt
2

, , -
( ),
dS
= const .
dt

(70.12)

31, (), . .

mv 2
m
E=
+ U (r ) = (r 2 + r 2j 2) + U (r ).
(70.13)
2
2

E=

m 2
r + U (r ),
2

U (r ) = U (r ) +

L2
,
2mr 2

(70.14)

() U (r ) ,

U (r ) L2 2mr 2 , .
r =

dr
2
=
E -U (r ) .
dt
m

(70.15)

, r , . , . +.

177

(70.15),
r

t=

m
2
r
0

dr
E -U (r )

+ t0 .

(70.16)

(70.11)
L
(70.17)
dt
mr 2
dt (70.15), (r, j)
dj =

j=

m
2

L
dr
mr 2
E -U (r ) -

L
2mr 2

+ const .

(70.18)

r = 0 (70.14),
. . r
L2
.
E = U (r ) +
2mr 2

(70.19)

rmin rmax , (). rmin rmax -

L
dr
mr 2

rmax

Dj = 2m

rmin

L2
E -U (r ) 2mr 2

(70.20)

, Dj = 2p k n , k, n ( n k j ). . ,
U = -a/r L E < 0
U = m w 2r 2 /2 ( ) L E .

178

, r 2(r = 0) > 0 , . . (. (70.14))


L2
>0
2mr 2

r 0 ,

(70.21)

L2
< Er 2 = 0
2m

r = 0 .

(70.22)

E -U (r ) -

r 2U (r ) +

E ,
. :
1) L = 0

( (70.21));

(70.23)

L2
L2
a
a
=
(
);
(70.24)

>
a
2m
2m
r2
a
3) U = - n , n > 2 , a > 0 .
(70.25)
r
1
U - , r
, (
)
a
b
U - - 2 ... , .
r r

1. ()
L2
a
a
U = - , U = - +
. (70.26)
U (r )
r
r
2mr 2
, .
E2
E > 0 ( E 2 ) , -

2) U = -

E1

rmin

rmax
. 51

,
( ). E < 0
( E1 ), rmin rmax .
179

2.


,
,

.

U (r )
E

rmin
rmin

U =

kr 2
,
2

U =

kr 2
L2
+
. (70.27)
2
2mr 2

rmax
. 52

, rmin = rmax .
= 0 .
U
na
a
, F = - n +1 .
n
r
r

U =-

(70.28)

mv 2
na
= n +1 .
(70.29)
r
r
, ,
, ( r = -v 2/ r ),

= 0 , U (70.26).
U

, , ,
. ? ,
, ( ),
U .

, :
a > 0, 0 < n < 2 ;
(70.30)
a < 0,

n < 0.

180

(70.31)

, ,
n = 1 .
(70.30), (70.31).
a
U (r ) = - 10 , , .
r
,
.

71.
(15711630)
(15461601) .
1. ,
.
2. ,
, -, , .
3.
: T12 T22 = a13 a23 .
, , .
( , ). , ,
, , . .

,
L2
a
a
U = - , U = - +
, a > 0,
r
r
2mr 2
m a2
L2
r* =
,
U , min = 2L
ma

.
181

(71.1)

(70.18)
j=

L
dr
r2

2mE + 2m a - L

r
r 2

(71.2)

L am

d r
L

= -

+ const =

2mE + a m

L2
2

dx
2

a -x

L am

- r
L

= - arccos

+ const.

x
,
a

L am
r
L
j = arccos
+ const .
(71.3)
a2m 2
2mE + 2
L
const = 0 .
p
= 1 + e cos j ,
(71.4)
r

p=

L2
,
ma

e = 1+

2EL2
.
m a2

(71.5)

, (,
,
. ). p e
.
,
e = 0 ;
e < 1 ( E < 0 );
e = 1 ( E = 0 );
e > 1 ( E > 0 ).
182

. ,
.
a p

b

j
2b
x 2 y2
C c O
O
+
= 1.
(71.6)
a 2 b2

2a

,
(. 53).
(71.4)
()

rmin

rmax
. 53

( )
p
rmin =
,
1 +e

rmax =

p
,
1 -e

(71.7)

p
.
2
p
a
a
+ rmax ) =
==
2
2E
2|E |
1 -e

p j =
1
a = (rmin
2

(71.8)

( , E , ),
rmin = a(1 - e),

rmax = a(1 + e) .

(71.9)


c = 0.5(rmax - rmin ) = ae ,

(71.10)


b = a 2 - c2 = a 1 - e2 =

p
1 -e

L
2m | E |

(71.11)

, a ,
.

183

, rmax , rmin , a , . , ,
mv 2 a
E=
- ,
2
r

(71.12)

a
2EL2

+
1
1
,

2E
m a 2

(71.13)

L = mvr,

rmax,min = -

a
1
a = (rmin + rmax ) = ,
2
2E

(71.14)

(71.8) (71.9).


L = mr 2j = 2m

dS
,
dt

S =

L
T,
2m

(71.15)

T . , S = pab,
T =

2pmab
m
3/2 m
= pa
=
.
p
2
a
a
L
2 | E |3

(71.16)


4p 2m 3
(71.17)
T =
a .
a
, ,
. M m
Mm
a = GMm, m m =
(71.18)
M +m
2

4p 2a 3
T =
.
G (M + m )
2

184

(71.19)

e = 1 , E = 0
(71.4) ,
Dj
p
L2
rmin = =
2
2ma
j

(71.20)

(. 54) Dj = 2p , . .
( cos 1 r ).
(71.20) ,
E = 0 , rmin

. 54

mv 2 a
- = 0.
(71.21)
r
2
e > 1 , E > 0
,
()
(-c, 0) , (c, 0) 2a < 2c .
x 2 y2
(71.22)
= 1.
a 2 b2
L = mvr,

E=

(71.4) p/r = 1 + e cos j , e > 1 .



p
.
(71.23)
e +1
1
r = , cos j = - . e
(. . 54)
rmin =

Dj = j -

1 p
p
= arccos - - ,
e 2
2

(71.24)

- cos Dj +

p
1
= sin Dj = =
2
e

185

1
2EL2
1+
ma2

(71.25)

v
(
) r , (71.25)
L = m rv ,

E=

2
mv

(71.26)


GM
a
= 2 .
(71.27)
2rE
rv
.
, (. 55).
. .
,
.
.

tg Dj =

. 55

a
U = ,
r

L2
a
= +
, a > 0.
r
2mr 2

(71.28)

, (71.2), , (71.4) :
p
= -1 + e cos j ,
r

(71.29)

p e (71.5).
rmin =

p
.
e -1

186

(71.30)

Dj r
j
O

. 56

(. 56)
p
Dj = - j . r = (71.29)
2
1
cos j = ,
e
p

1
sin Dj = sin - j = cos j = .

e
2

(71.31)

(71.31) (71.25) , ! . , , (71.27).


,
, .

, (71.4) ,
, . . , cos x / r , (71.4)
r = p - xe .
(71.32)
,
x 2 y 2 p 2 2 pxe x 2 e2 .

,
1) e 1 ()
2
pe

y2
p
p
1 e2

1 , a
b
;
2
2
2
a
b
1 e
1 e2
2) e 1 ()
p

y 2 2 p x ;
2

3) e 1 ()
2
pe

x 2
p
p
y2
e 1

2 1 , a 2
b
.
2
2
e 1
a
b
e 1
187

(71.33)

(71.34)

(71.35)

(71.36)

72.


mv 2 GMm
=
2
r

GM
.
r

v=

(72.1)

, r = R
v1 =

GM
R = gR = 7.9 /.
R2

(72.2)

.

2pR

T =

GM
R

= 2p

R
g

= 88 .


2pr
T =
= 1 .
GM
r

(72.3)

(72.4)

r = 42.2
v =

GM
= 3.07 / .
r

(72.5)


,
, , (
),
E=

mv 2 GMm
> 0.
2
R

188

(72.6)

, .

v2 =

2GM
R = 2gR = 11.2 /
R2

(72.7)

.
v , ( r R )
2
mv

2
mv 2 GMm
mv 2 mv2
=
=
,
2
R
2
2

2
v
= v 2 - (11,2)2 , /.

(72.8)
(72.9)


,
. (
)
v1C =

GM C
r

= 29, 76 30 /.

(72.10)

r , M C .

v2C =

2GMC
r

= 2v1 = 42,1 /.

(72.11)

,
42,1 30 12,1 /. ,
(. (72.9))
v = (12,1)2 + (11,2)2 = 16, 5 /.

189

(72.12)


,

, ,
(. 57). , (71.8)
GMm
E
, a
2a
.
K0 = -

. 57

GMm
2GMm GMm
, (72.13)
-U 0 = +
2a
a
r

.
(-) (71.19)
4p 2 (r + r )3
4p 2a 3
T =
=
.
GM
8GM
2

(72.14)


T2 =

4p 2r3
GM

, TM2 =

4p 2rM3
GM C

(72.15)

T = 1 , TM = 1.88
3
1 2/3
T + TM2/3
T = 1, 42 .
(72.16)
8
,
(. 57), (71.8)
GMC m
.
(72.17)
E =r + rM

T2 =

v
E=

mv 2
2

GMC m
r

=-

GMC m
r + rM

(72.18)

v =

2GMC rM
r (rM + r )

= v2C

rM
r + rM

42,1 0, 78 = 32, 7 /.

190

(72.19)

29,76 /,
32,7 - 29,76 2, 95 /.

(. (72.9))
v = (2, 95)2 + (11,2)2 = 11, 6 /.

(72.20)

. .
, (72.19) ,
. ,
, .

(72.21)
v r = v MrM ,
v 2
2

GM C
r

vM2
2

GMC
rM

(72.22)

v , (72.19).
, . 5 / ( 2,375 /),

. , . , , -.
. ,
, 100 (1 ),
.
, , .
, , ? wM . , , w = w - wM .
TTM
2p
(72.23)
=
= 2.14 .
T =
w - wM TM - T
191

, .
207 ,
249 . , , ( ),
.
2,14 4 8 .


,
.

, , .
T 2 a 3

( )

T = 12

3/2

T = 0, 35 .

(72.24)

, ,
30 /. , .
v = (30)2 + (11,2)2 = 32 /.

(72.25)

, (72.12), .

73. ,


a
U (r ) = - n .
(73.1)
r
n = 1 ( ), . ,
--
(- ) n = 6 .

dp
U
dU r
==,
dt
dr
dr r

192

mv 2
na
= n +1 .
r
r

(73.2)

,

mv 2
na
n
K =
= n = - U,
2
2
2r
(73.3)
n -2
(2 - n )
E = K +U =
K =
U.
n
2
, , n = 1 ,
K =-

U
,
2

E = -K =

U
.
2

(73.4)

(U = kr 2 ), n = -2 ,

K = U,

E = 2K = 2U .

(73.5)

.
, . ? ,
, , . , ,
.
. (73.4) , ( ) !
.
F = mv .

(73.6)

r
).
Fr = m(vr

, ,

(73.7)

d
:
(vr) = vr + vr
dt

Fr = dt m (vr) - m(vr ) = dt m (vr) - 2K .


193

(73.8)

, , ( t r /v ). f (t )

f (t )

f (t ) dt
0

, .

(73.9)

(73.8) , .
, (73.8)
S (t ) ,
S ( ) S (0)
.

K =-

1
2

Fr

(73.10)

1
Fr , 2
, (73.10) (, 1870).
F ,
, r - . , (73.10)
. ,
,
, . ,
, , .

Fr = F

r + F12 r1 = F(r2 - r1 ) = Fr = -

21 2

U =

U r
U
r.
r=r r
r

(73.11)

U
a
a
a
r = n n +1 r = n n = -nU .
,
n
r
r
r
r

(73.12)

Fr = nU .

(73.13)

194

(73.10), U = -a/r n
n
K =- U,
2

E K U

n2
(2 n)
K
U.
n
2

(73.14)
(73.15)

, ,

a
U = - n . , .
r

74.

, , . (73.15) ( n 1 )
K = -E . E , , . 3
, K = kTN , ( k
2
), .
U
GM 2
, , E = 2
r
E r .
, ! , . , ,
( . .).
.

-, ,
U M 2 , , . . K M . -

195

U
. , (
2
)

K = -

GM 2
NkT nR 3kT .
R

(74.1)

M M H nR 3 , n 10-5 1 ,
T 104 , ,
R>

kT
10-16104
=
1024 .
2
-7
-5
-48
GnM H
10 10 10

(74.2)

75.

R r
r M , P . , ,
P
PR 2
2

p
=
.
(75.1)
Frad =
R
4pr 2c
4r 2c

GMm GM 4prR 3
=
.
Fg =
r2
3r 2

(75.2)

1/r 2 , , .
Frad > Fg , . .
R<

3
P
.
16p GM rc

(75.3)

P = 3.9 1033 /, M = 2 1033 . r = 3 / 3 G = 6.67 10-8 3 -1-2 ( ),


R < 2 10-5 .

(75.4)

.
196


.
, ( ) . de
de dm = 2 .
c
de
dp = vdm = 2 v (
c
, ).
, 1/ r 2 (. ), .
, ,
, . ,

dp
de v
P pR 2 v
F =
==
,
(75.5)
dt
dt c 2
4pr 2 c 2
P , r , v
, R .
, , , .

GMm
PR 2 v 2
= F vdt = - 2 2 dt ,
(75.6)
d
2r
4r c
GMm
PR 2 v 2
dr = dt .
2
4 c2

v =

(75.7)

4pR 3
GM
, m=r
,
3
r

rdr = -

3P
dt ,
8prRc 2

197

(75.8)


2
r 2 r0
3P
- =t.
2
2
8prRc 2

(75.9)

( r = 0 )
t=

4prRc 2r02
3P

(75.10)

r0 = 150 1011 , r = 3 / 3 ,
P = 3, 9 1033 / ,
t = 6, 5 1014 R[ ] c =2 107 R[ ] .

(75.11)

( 5 ) 250 . ,
, , , . ,
.

76. ,

, ,
, v
. , m
.
M
, R

?
, ( ).
. 58
, ,
,
(. 58).
. M . ,
, , 198

, ( ) .
a =-

GM
4prR
= -G
.
2
3
R

(76.1)


M ,

v 2 G 4prR 2
v 2 GM
= A,
= A
2
3
2
R

(76.2)

A = const . A = 0 ,
; A < 0 , R = -GM /A
. A > 0 , v = 2A .



v = Hr ,
(76.3)
H , . ,
. (76.2) v = HR ,
3H 2

8
A = pGR 2
(76.4)
- r .

3
8pG
,
. ,
( A = 0 )
3H 2
r =
.
(76.5)
8pG
. ,
,
H = c 0.8 10-28 -1 .

199

(76.6)

.
(, )
r 0.04r , 2005 .
(. 104) . ,

r = r 10-29 / 3 .

(76.7)

5 %. .

77.

, - . dx n

dP = sndx ,

(77.1)

.
: R , , s = pR 2 , . . .
, .
.
.
,
. , ,
dP = d s n Dx ,

d s = 2pr d r ,

(77.2)

r (
). (77.2) s = pR 2 . , .

200

r(q) ,
dr
(77.3)
dq .
dq
,
dr
dq ,
dq
,
( ).
q ,
d W = 2p sin q d q ,
(77.4)
d s = 2pr

(77.3)
r dr
(77.5)
dW .
sin q d q

q , .
, , .
.
.

ds =

78.

. . 59,
p - q
q
= R cos , (78.1)
r = R sin f = R sin

2
2
q
q = p - 2f .
r
R
dr
f
(78.2)
d s = 2pr
dq ,
dq

. 59

dr
1
q
= - R sin
dq
2
2

201

(78.3)


q
q
1
R2
d s = pR 2 cos sin d q = pR 2 sin qd q =
dW .
(78.4)
2
2
2
4
. , , , . , .
,
, .

79.
a
a - ( ). ,
, a -
q 1 . ,
a
.
(79.1)
rk
k . . a - v . ( )
r
t .
(79.2)
v
, a - F = a /rk
F=

r ,

P^ F t

(79.3)

q tg q

. 60
1

a
.
v rk -1

a k -1
r 2
mv q

P^
P

a
,
mv r k -1

(79.4)

a k -1
dr
2
mv
dq

202

1
1-k q

k
k -1

(79.5)

, ,
2

a k -1
dN = N 0ndx 2pr d r = N 0ndx 2p 2
mv

dq
1-k q

k +1
k -1

a k -1
= N 0ndx 2
mv

dW
1-k q

2k
k -1

(79.6)

N 0 , .
, , .
2k

j (q) q0 k -1
= .
j (q0 ) q

dS
dW = 2
R

(79.7)

( )
j (q) q 4 = const , k = 2 . -

, a
.
, r 10-13 (
)
Ze .
.
. 61

80.

U = a/ r n .

U = a/ r , , (71.27)
c
a
tg =
.
(80.1)
2
2
rmv
203

. (77.5),
2

a d W

.
d s =
2

2mv
4 c
sin
2

(80.2)

.
( ) , .

()
(80.2) .
. :
m2 m1 , v1
m1, v1

q1

r
m2

q2

r .
q1 q2 ( q1 ). -


.
, .
r
, (, ) ,
m1m2
,
() m =
m1 + m2
. 62

. 63 (). r1 = r

m2
m1 + m2

m1
(), , .
,
, . . .

204

m1

r1

..

r2

m2

. 63

,

. c
. . .
p - c . , . . c (80.2) . , m (80.2)
m1m2
v .
m=
m1 + m2
c q1 q2 .
m1v1

v . . =

m1 + m2

(80.3)

. .
m1m2

p = m1(v1 - v .. ) =

(80.4)
v = mv1 .
m1 + m2 1
:
p =m v +n p =
1

p1
q1
a
. 64

bn
c

. .

m12
m1 + m2

tg q1 =

v1 +

m1m2
m1 + m2

v1n = a + bn,

m2 sin c
b sin c
.
=
a + b cos c m1 + m2 cos c

205

(80.5)

(80.6)

:
p2 = m 2 v . . - n p =
b(v1/v1 )
q2

p2

m1m2
m1 + m2

v1 -

bn

m1m2
m1 + m2

q2 =

v1n = b

v1
v1

- bn,

p-c
.
2

(80.7)

(80.8)

. 65

(80.8) ,
2

a d W
2
d s2 = 2
.
mv cos 3 q2

(80.9)

, - . . , . ( 39), m1 > m2 q1 c . . 64 a > b .


. c = 2q1
(80.2) m = m1/2
2

a cos q1 d W1
m1v12

d s1 =
, E1 =
.
E1 sin 4 q1
2

(80.10)

, 1 (80.2)
-. , , .
. m1 , v1 , m2 r . ,
U = -

206

a
.
r

. ,
, ,
,
, . . v1 . -

d
mv1r = mvd ,

(80.11)

mv12

mv 2 a
=
- .
d
2
2

(80.12)

v , :

a
a2
d =- 2
+ r2 ,
2 4
mv1
m v1

m =

m1m2
m1 + m2

(80.13)

,
.
( ) . , , -
( )
dp = nxds .

207

IX

81. , , ,

. 11, ,
. 38
, . ,
.

, : p
L ; v
, p = mv L = I ,

I ; K =

mv 2
I w2
K =
, 2
2

dp
dL
=F
= , . dt
dt

, .
, , ,

.
,

.
.
,
.
: XYZ
x 1, x 2 , x 3 ( x , y, z ),

. 208

6 :

, . . 6 .

r = R + r ,

x3

x2

r
r

x1

. 66

(81.1)

. 66.
11,
d , ,
dr = [d r] ,

dr = dR + dr dR [d r] .

dr
dR
d
,=
,
v= ,V=
dt
dt
dt
v = V + [ r ] ,

(81.2)

(81.3)

V , .
; .
.
a , r = a + r . (81.3),
v = V + [ a ] + [ r ] .

(81.4)

, ,
v = V + [ r ] ,

V = V + [ a] ,

= .

(81.5)
(81.6)

, ,

.
( ).
209

a V = 0 .

. (81.6) , V ^ .
.
,
1 , 2 .
dr1 = [1r] dt , dr2 = [ 2 (r + dr1 ] dt [ 2r] dt ( ). dr = dr1 + dr2 = [ r] dt , = 1 + 2 .
.

1. V. . V,
2V.
2. L VA
a , B . , x .
.
VA a
x

, B
A
( ).
L
V
V
w = A = A sin a .
AO
L
a

. 67

VA

L2
sin a
Vx = w (OB ) + x =
+ x 2 . (81.7)
2
L
tg a
2

82.


K =
V2
=
2

m ivi2

mi
2

(V + [ r ])

+ m i V[ ri ] +
210

=
mi
2

(82.1)
2

[ ri ] .

V2
MV 2
=
2
2

m i V[i r] = V[i m i r] .

mi

,
, mi ri = 0 . ,
( M = m i ) ( i
)

K = K + K ,
MV 2
=
,
2

K =

m
2

[ r ]2 =

(82.2)

m
2

(w 2r 2 - (r)2 ) . (82.3)


sin2 q 1 - cos2 q .
, , .
(
, , ).
,
, , . ri = ri sin qi v^ = ri w ,

m
mv 2
m
m
K = [ r ]2 = w 2r 2 sin2 q = (rw)2 = ^ (82.4)
2
2
2
2

K =

1 2
Iw ,
2

I = mr 2 m i ri2 .

(82.5)
(82.6)

I .
211


. ,
L = [r p] = m (R + r)(V + [ r]) =
= m [RV ] + [ mr V ] + [R [ m r ] + m [ r[ r ]].

(82.7)

, , , mr = 0 , .
L = [R p] m [r[ r ]] .

(82.8)

, ,
, . , .
, . a (b c) = b(ac) - c(ab) ,
L = m(r 2-r(r)) .

(82.9)

(). -, ,
.
, , , m
r , -r , r
q .
(82.9) L = 2mr 2 sin q ^ r , ,
.
L
, .
, L ,
, , ( ).
. ,
,
( Z )
212

( ).
, .
,
.
, , ,
Z ,
Lz = I wz ,

I = m r2 ,

(82.10)

r 2 = x 2 + y 2 . (82.9), :
Lz = m(wz r 2 - wz z 2 ) = m wz (x 2 + y 2 ) .


(82.3) (82.9), ,

K =

1
L .
2

(82.11)

83. ,

(82.9).
x ( )

Lx = m(wx r 2 - x (r)) =
= wx m(y 2 + z 2 ) - wy mxy - wz mxz .

(83.1)

wx , y z. .
: mxy , mxz

myz .

, -

, , . .
,
, , , , , .
.
213

(83.1)
Lx = I x wx ,

I x = m(y 2 + z 2 ) I 1 = m(x 22 + x 32 ) ;

(83.2)

Ly = I y wy ,

I y = m(x 2 + z 2 ) I 2 = m(x 12 + x 32 ) ;

(83.3)

Lz = I z wz ,

I z = m(x 2 + y 2 ) I 3 = m(x 12 + x 22 )

(83.4)


L = I 11 + I 22 + I 1 3 .

(83.5)

,
,
. (82.11) (83.5),
1
1
(83.6)
K = L = (I 1w12 + I 2 w22 + I 3 w32 ) .
2
2
(83.2)(83.4),
, , : I i = mr 2 ( r 2dm ) .
,
:
I 1 + I 2 = m(x 12 + x 22 +2x 32 ) > m(x 12 + x 22 ) = I 3 . (83.7)
:
I 1 I 2 I 3 ;
I 1 = I 2 I 3 ;
I 1 = I 2 = I 3 .


.
, ,
,
.
214

, . ,
.
. .
, x 3 = 0 ,
I 1 = mx 22 , I 2 = mx 12 , I 3 = m(x 12 + x 22 ) , . . I 3 = I 1 + I 2 . (83.8)

.
R

I 3 = r 2dm = r 2 r 2prdr =2pr


0

R4
4

MR 2
2

(83.9)

r , . I 1 = I 2 , (83.7)

. 68

I1 = I 2 =

I3
2

MR 2
.
4

(83.10)

84.
,
, I 0 . ,
a ,

I = mi (a + ri )2 = mia 2 + 2a m i ri + miri2 .

(84.1)

, , mi ri = 0 ,

I = Ma 2 + I 0 .

(84.2)

.
-.
(82.2)
2
MV 2 I 0 w
K =
+
.
(84.3)
2
2
I w2
, I = Ma 2 + I 0 , V = wa , K =
2
(84.2).
215


1. ().

L /2

I0 =

rr dr =2
2

M 2
ML2
r dr =
,
L
12

(84.4)

, ,

2
L
ML2

.
(84.5)
I = M + I 0 =
2
3

2. .
,
,
I 3 = MR 2 .
(84.6)
(83.8) ,
,
I
MR 2
.
(84.7)
I1 = I2 = 3 =
2
2
3. .
(. (83.9), (83.10)):
MR 2
MR 2
, I3=
.
(84.8)
I1 = I 2 =
4
2
4. .
,
Z
, r
dz = R sin q d q
q
( z = R cos q ).
R

dI =
. 69

r 2dm (R sin q)2


rp(R sin q)2 R sin q d J =
=
2
2

1
rpR 5 (1 - cos2 q)2 d (cos q) .
2
p

I =

8p

dI = 15 rR

q =0

216

(84.9)
2
MR 2 .
5

(84.10)

85.

.

dv
dP
= M .. = fi = f + f = F ,
dt
dt

(85.1)

P = pi , F = f , .
( I )

dL
d
=
dt
dt

[r p]

[r p] = [r p] + [r p ] = [r f ] .

(85.2)

, r p . ,

,
dL
= [ r f ] = ,
dt
. . .
r = a + r

= [ r f ] = [ r f ] + [a F ] = + [a F ] .

(85.3)

(85.4)

, F = 0 , ,
. F
-, a , = 0 .
(85.4)
t = [a F ]
(85.5)
, ,
( ).
. . F . F , , , -

217

t
. , F
, F .

m [rg] = [ m r g] = M [R g] , R ,
d =

,
.


.
, .
dK = fdr = f [d r ] = d [ r f ] = d .

(85.6)

, ,
,
.

86.

,

.

N
mg sin a
F
dv
m
= mg sin a - F ,
(86.1)
a
dt
. 70

dL
dw
= I0
= FR ,
dt
dt

(86.2)

v = wR .

I g sin a
dv
g sin a
,
.
(86.3)
F = 02
=
I0
dt
I0
R
1+
1+
mR 2
mR 2

218

I 0 =

MR 2
2

a =

dv
2
1
= g sin a , F = mg sin a .
dt
3
3

(86.4)

F < kN = kmg cos a

(86.5)

tg a < 3k .

(86.6)

-,
, .
:
I dv
dv
R 2mg sin a
.
(86.7)
= Rmg sin a
=
R dt
dt
I
3
I = I 0 + mR 2 = mR 2 ,
2
dv
2
= g sin a .

dt
3

dw
I
= -Mga sin j .
(86.8)
j ..
dt

j = -wo2j ,

Mg
. 71

wo2 =

Mga
.
I

(86.9)
(86.10)

g
.
(86.11)
l
, , I = Ml 2/3 , a = l/2 , wo2 = 3g/2l .
I = Ml 2 , a = l wo2 =

219

,

(. 72)
dL

dj

Mg

. 72

t = Mga sin q ,

(86.12)

,
a
.
d j
L ,
.
,
,

dL = L sin qd j .

(86.13)

, ,
, L sin q ,
dj
.
W =
dt
,

W=

d j Mga
Mga
=
=
.
dt
L
Iw

(86.14)

, . . ,
. (86.14)
w W I w 2 Mga , . .
.

220

87.
- . .


(. 73) , .
.
,
d
m
L , . .
mg
,
Dm
mg
, . .
. 73
, d Dm .
t = Fd, F = Dmg .

. , . dL
= t WL = Fd .

dt
Fd
Fd
W=
=
,
(87.1)
L
Iw
(86.14).
. W ,
,
? (87.1)

F=

LW I w W
.
=
d
d

221

(87.2)

,
, . 74. ( )!

,
( (87.2)).
. 1 , 10 , 10 . 74
10000 ,
w ~ 1000 1/c ( ) 10 ( W 60 1/c) . , ,

mR 2Ww 103 102 1000 60

= 3 108 300 . (87.3)


2d
2 10


. F
,
,
. 75. :
. F

W , ,
. 75
,
(87.2).

. ,
, , . .
, -.

222


, ,
, .
(. 76). .
. 76

.

,
.
(. 77). , ,
. ,

,
. ( , L
, . 77
).
.
, :
.

88.
, , , .

F = 0,

= 0.

(88.1)

. , ,
,
. ,
. , , (. (85.4)), .
223


. , , .
. .


, ,
(. 78). : , . , . ,
, .
N
F
, : mg a
, .
. 78 , . 78
.

.
F = mg sin a ,

N = mg cos a .

(88.2)

( ). , .


m1
m1

T =?

m2

m2
. 79

,

(. 79). : T
?

-
N 1 = m1g cos a , N 2 = m2g cos a . (88.3)

F,1 + F,2 = (m1 + m2 )g sin a .


224

(88.4)

T = m2g sin a - F,2 .

(88.5)

,
.
F,1 F,2 , (88.4) ,

F,1 < N 1m1 = m1m1g cos a , F,2 < N 2 m2 = m2m2g cos a .

(88.6)

(88.4) (88.6) . 80, . ,


F,2

m1m1g cos a
, :
m2m2g cos a

F,1 + F,2 =
(m1 + m2 )g sin a

F,1 = m1m1g cos a,


F,2 = m2m2g cos a.

(88.7)


, . 80
( ) . .

F,1


, (. 81).
,
F,2
, N2
. , . , 5 : ,
P
, 4 .
N1
3:

. , F,1
. 81
. , ( ). 225

m1 , m2 . :

F
F

=0

N 2 = F,1 ,

(88.8)

=0

P = N 1 + F,2 ,

(88.9)

t = 0 ( )
P

L
cos a = F,2L cos a + N 2L sin a .
2
F,1 = m1N 1 , F,2 = m2N 2 .

(88.10)
(88.11)

(88.8)(88.11)
tg amin =

1 - m1m2
2m1

(88.12)

, . , , m1 = 0 , .
, ,
( ).

1
.
(88.13)
tgamin =
m1
, , N 1L cos a - N 1L m1 sin a = 0 ,
(88.13).

.
, , . () , , . . , . ,
226

Ra

d
a

O
. 82


. .
:
, (. 82).
h0 = R + d /2 O .
a

d
a2
d
h = R + cos a + Ra sin a R + 1 - + Ra2
2
2
2

(88.14)

d a 2

Dh = h - h0 = R - .
2 2

(88.15)

Dh > 0 , . . d < 2R .

(88.16)


,
.
T1 T2 . , Da , k ?
, da . da dN = Tda , T .
a a + d a ,
, dTd a .
dT = kdN = kTd a ,

dT
= kd a
T2 = T1e k Da .
(88.17)
T
, 5 ,
k = 0, 5 T2/T1 = exp(0.5 2p 5) 6, 6 106 .
.

227

, .

89.
, , h
P = P + rgh .

(89.1)

, ( ). ,
, , . , , , , , ,

F = -rV g .

(89.2)

, , , , .

90. ,
. , .
.
S1
V1
( S2
V2
),
. 83
(. 83).

228

S1 V1 , S 2 V2 . , ( , ):
S1V1 = S 2V2 .

(90.1)


, , . ,

, ,
. , , ,
. ,
(, ) A1 = P1S1V1t ,
A2 = -P2S 2V2t ( , ).
mV22
2

mV12
2

= A1 + A2 ,

m = rV1S1Dt = rV2S 2Dt ,

(90.2)

rV2S 2DtV22
2

rV1S1DtV12
2

= P1S1V1Dt - P2S 2V2Dt .

(90.3)

V1S1Dt = V2S 2Dt ,


P1 +

rV12
2

= P2 +

rV22
2

(90.4)

, ,

P+

rV 2
+ rgh = const .
2
229

(90.5)


, .
. . , , , . . .
rV 2
.
DP =
2

, h . ,
, ,
. ( PA )

PA + rgh = PA +

h
V

rV 2

,
(90.6)
2

V = 2gh .

(90.7)

. 84

(16081647).
,
. ,
, . ,
( ).
( ) . , ,
rgh (90.6) P .


V = 2P/r .

230

(90.8)


V . , ,
( c ) . , ,
, .
P = rVc .
(90.9)
1435 /. 1 / P = 1.4 107 /2 = 1.4 106 /2 14 .
. ,
( ,
). , -
( ),
.


, 20 .
, (. 85).
,
.
u

.
. u .
. 85
, V = u/sin a .
V0 = u/tg a
V0 ( (90.5) P = const ).

231

, .
S a .
V0S L -V0S R = SV0 cos a ,
SL + SR = S .

(90.10)

, ,
S R = S (1 - cos a) / 2 .

(90.11)

, , ,

VR = V0 + V = u(1 + cos a)/sin a ,


VL = -V0 + V = u(1 - cos a)/sin a .

(90.12)

, ,
, ( 4/a 2
a ). u = 2 /, a = 20 , VR = 11, 4 /,
, . ,

. .
P = rV02/2 , 1, 5 106 . (
3,7 .). ,
,
, .
.
VR/2 , .

232

XI


91. .
, .
( ) S , S . R 0
S
S
S , r
.

r
R
R = R0 + r , t = t .
(91.1)
R
0


. 86

d 2R
= F,
dt 2

(91.2)

ma = m

d 2R0
d 2r
F
=
m
= F - ma 0 .
dt 2
dt 2

(91.3)

,
,
, , , -ma 0 . , , ,
( ).
. .
,
. ,
233

, .
, a , (. 87). ?
:

T cos a = mg ,

ma 0 = T sin a ,

mg

(91.4)

a0

tga =

. 87

- ma 0

(91.5)


(. 88)
(91.6)
T = -mg + ma 0 ,

T sin a = ma 0 T cos a = mg ,

tga =

mg

a0

(91.7)

a0

.
(91.8)
g
.
.

. 88

g = g - ma 0 ,

(91.9)


w =

g
=
l

g 2 + a 02
l

(91.10)

92.

, w , ,
,
mv 2
F = ma = -er
= -m w 2 r .
(92.1)
r
234


, (,
, )

Fi = m w 2 r ,
(92.2)
. .
, . ,
.


v
.

F = -er m

(wr + v )2
.
r

(92.3)

, , ,
, ,

mv 2
Fi = -F = er m w 2r + 2m wv +
(92.4)
.

r
(92.4) ,
,
, , F = 2m wv ,
, .
( . , 17921843).
. L = m wr 2 .

dL
dr
= 2m wr
= Fr ,
dt
dt

(92.5)

F = 2m wv .

(92.6)

235

, , . ,

Fc 2m [ v] .

(92.7)

.
. 86. S , S , .
v = v0 + r = v0 + [ r] + v ,
(92.8)
v0 S , [ r]
, S ( ),
v S .

r = i x + jy + k z ,
r = ix + jy + kz + x

(92.9)

di
dj
dk
.
+y +z
dt
dt
dt

(92.10)

di
dj
dk
[ i ],
[ j],
[ k ] ,
dt
dt
dt
= ix + jy + kz , (92.10) (92.8).

,
v

a = a 0 + [ r ] + [ r ] + v .

(92.11)

r [r] v

(92.12)

v = [ v ] + a ,

(92.13)

= a 0 + [ r ] + [[ r ]] + 2[ v ] +

236

a .

(92.14)

a = F/m , ;

a 0 + [ r ] + [[ r ]] , S ;

2[ v ] .

[[ r ] ] . r = r + r^ ( ),
[[ r ]] = [[ r^ ]] = ( r^ ) - r^ w 2 = -r^w 2 .

(92.15)

(92.14) (92.15),

ma = F + F + F ,

(92.16)

F = -ma 0 + m[ r ] + mw 2 r^ ,

(92.17)

F = 2m (v ] .

(92.18)


1.
.
1851 . .
, .
.
, .
,
,

F = 2m[ v ^ ] , w^ = w sin q ,

(92.19)

. .
,
. 237

, , , .

w^ = w sin q, T =

.
sin q

(92.20)

. 90 ,
, ,
() ().

. 89

. 90

2. .
,
. -

.
3. .
( ) .
4. .
.
. .

93.

.
.
1015 ,
.
.

238

O
. 91

, . (, ), ().
. (. 91). ,
, B , .
, ,
, . C , .
.
, , x

1
1 GM
a(x ) = GM
3 2x .
2

(r - x )2 r
r

(93.1)

,
,
R

DjA = - a(x )dx = 0

GM
3

R2 .

(93.2)


,
.
GM
GM
GM 2
(93.3)
DjC = +

R .
3
2
r
2r
r
+ R2
239

(
, , . . )
AC

3GM 2
R .
3
2r

(93.4)

gh , h
, g . , g =

GM

R2
, ,
h =

3M R4
3
2r
M

0, 55 .

, -

(93.5)

M M ,
r r :

h =

3M R4
2r3 M

0,24 .

(93.6)

,
(
). .

. 92

,
,
.
240

. ,
( 58), p , . . .
,
, ( , ), 92.

(. 93). , ,
.

. 93

241

XII
,

94.

(),
. ,
, , .
, ,
.
, ,
.
, . , .
, ( ).
.
, , (), . (1916). , . . ,
() . .
. , , .
,
, . , , ,
,
, , .
.
. 242

? , . ,
, ,
. ,
,
w 2R 2
> 1 . , , c2
2pR ,
g , .
, , ,
, 2pg . ,
! . .

.
. , ,
. , n- , n+1- , .
,
. 2p .
2p . , ,
,
2p , .

. . , ,
. , . , .
g = 1/ 1-

243


,
(
F 1/r 2 ), . , . ( ) ( ),
- . , ,
, .

95. ,
, ,

mi = F a .

(95.1)


:
Fg = -G

mg (1) mg (2)

r.
(95.2)
r3
, . , .
? 1 2 .

mi (1)a(1) = -GMmg (1) r 2 ,

(95.3)

mi (2)a(2) = -GMmg (2) r 2 ,

(95.4)

mi , mg , .

mi (1)
mi (2)

mg (1)a(2)
mg (2)a(1)

244

(95.5)

,
: a (2) = a(1) , ,

mi (1)
mg (1)

mi (2)
mg (2)

(95.6)

, ,
. . .
,

l m 1 2

i
T = 2p
.
g mg

(95.7)

mi mg 10-5 .
.
, mi ,

mg , mi /mg .
. . , , : , mg , , mi .
18901920 . ,
,
( ), . 94.
, , ,
. ,

m1g r1 = m2g r2 .

(95.8)


t m1ir1 - m2ir2

245

(95.9)

m1g /m1i = m2g /m2i .


,
, , 10-8.
10-12 .


. . . .

r1

r2

m 2,iw 2R
m 1,iw 2R
m 2,g g
m 1,g g

. 94

, . , ,

. m ,
,
:
exp(-r/l)

, l
F
.
(95.10)
2
mc
r
,
1
(95.11)
F 2 1 + a exp(-r/l) ,
r
,
. ,
. l R , -

,
l .
.
, .
,
. , ,
246

. j(t )
, .
, .
.

96.
. ? .
L.
, g.
, , E 0 .
t L/c .
v gt gL/c .

E = g(E 0 + E 0v c) E 0 (1 + v c) ,

(96.1)

. .

Dw
DE
gL
(96.2)
=
2 .
w0
E
c
, m = E 0 c 2 = h w0 c 2 mgL .
1960 .
. 20 . (10 %, 1 %). 2 10-15 .
1958 . (

, , , ).
(96.2)

Dj
(96.3)
w w0 1 + 2 ,
c

247

w0 , , Dj ( ), w , . , ,

GM 3

w w0 1 (96.4)

R3c 2

97.
j ,
. . ,
, (96.3). ( ) .
( t ), j ,
(t0 ) , ,

t
w
j
=
1+ 2 .
w0
t0
c

(97.1)

j , ,
. 2 10-6 , .
1976 . ,
. 10
15 . 50 10-9 , ( ) : 7 10-9 .
1.6 %.
.
() ,
:

Dt
Dj GM
.
= 2 =
t
c
Rc 2

248

(97.2)

t/g - t
Dt
V2
V2
=
= 1- 2 -1 - 2 .
t
t
c
2c

(97.3)


2GM
(97.4)
V2 =
= 2gR ,
R
. . , 11,2 /.
, , , , (),
, , .

98.
, .
j c 2 1, V 2 c 2 1 .

(98.1)

, .
, . V 2 GM r j , . . . , 100 % .
. ,
, . .
31010 . , .
e, h, c, G
( )

M =

hc
2 10-5
G
249

( 1019 m ) .

(98.2)

XIII

99. ,
, ,
, . , .
19 . , ,
. , ,
, 10-8 ?
1990 . .
.
1905 . . ,
() w , . . 1923 .
, :
n = E/ l = 2p /p ,

(99.1)

l ,
. 19251926 . . . () .
- ,
.
Y(x , y, z, t ) ? , : p | Y |2 .
0 a .
, Y(x ) , -

250

, 69.
, . .

ln

=a.
(99.2)
2
(99.1)
p
pn =
n
(99.3)
a

p2
p 2 2n 2
.
(99.4)
En = n =
2m
2ma 2
, .
p = p/a pa = p .
n

. , .

Dpx Dx /2 ,

(99.5)

Dpx Dx .

x

dp =
,

2 2 px
sin
dx .
a
a

(99.6)

p(x )dx = 1 .

100.
r ,
p h / r .
p2 e2
e2
2
(100.1)
E
-
- .
r
r
2m
2mr 2
( dE /dr = 0 )
r

2
10-8 .
2
me

251

(100.2)

r (100.1)
2
me 4
2 mc
=
a
-13, 6 ,
(100.3)
2
2 2
e2
1

.
a =
c 137
,
- .
, 13,6 .
, ,
, .

E -

101.
()
? m
x0 m p
l (. 95). ,
0
, , x 0
g

. ,
, p0 /x 0 -

. , . ,
, .

. 95

g
g
q = q q = w 2q , w 2 = .
l
l

(101.1)


q = ae wt + be -wt ,

(101.2)

a b . ,

x
p
q = 0 + 0 e wt + e -wt .
2l
2ml w
252

(101.3)

, . , .
, x 0 p0 ,
q

h wt
e
m wl 2

(101.4)

, ( q 1 ),

ln
T

m wl 2
3
= 1 l ln m gl
w
2 g

( )

1/2

(101.5)

l = 100 , m = 1000 , = 1, 05 10-27 ( . ), g 980 /2


T 13 . ,
.

253

XIV

102.

. , . , , - .
, , .
( ) :
( 10-17 ), ( 1028 ).
:
. : ; , ;
, ,
; ?
, . , ,
: , , , . . .
,
. ,
, ( ). . ,
, .
:
254

;
,
4,5 % . ,
6 , (. . 25 % ), , 70 %, ( ), ;
,
( ).
, .
, .
, ,
( ),
, , .
, , , ,
, , , ( ), .
, .
, , -, .
. 15 ( ).
, , , ,
, 10-11 .
3 1015 K ( 3 ). ,
( ).
,
, - .
,
.
255

103.
, .
,
.

, ( ,
, collide ).
, , (. . .).
()
, 40
e -e - e +e - .
e +e - , pp , pp ( p ), ep
.

. :
1.
M max = 2E /c 2 ;
2. , - l = /p c/E .
0,1l 2 10-15/E [] .

e +e - 2E 215 (LEP-II, , ) pp 14 (LHC, ), ,


10-18 10-17 . ,
, ,
,
1/6 .

() . pp ( pp ) e +e - . pp LHC c 2E = 14 , 2008 .,
30 ( e +e - LEP).
256


( R E/B ). -,
100 ,
.
e +e -
,
E 4/R . LEP-II
.
e +e - . e +e - ILC (International Linear Collider)
2E = 1 . 40 .
LHC, , 2E = 0,1 1 .
CLIC
2E = 3 5 , .
.
0.5 .
, - ( ) . . .
e +e - , pp ,
. e +e -
( , ) . , , . , - pp , e +e -
.
. , , , 200 .
40 000 , , . , ( t = 2 10-6 ),
, , . , .
257


1000 (. 53). 0.1100 ,
,
.
, , , L N 2 f /S ,
N ; S ; f .
N = Ls .
,
, s 1 / E 2 ,
E 2 ,
( 1000).
,
.
, . 1 /
( ), . ,
, ILC 1 40 10 , 10
1000 ! ,

.
, , , , .
.
, .
, .
258

1020 ( 108 ). 107 ,


LHC, 100 2 . LHC 2E 0 = 14 .
,
E 2E 02/m pc 2 105 . 1 000 1 2 . (, , .) , , .
(Pierre Auger observatory)
. 3 000 2.
( , ), ( ).
EUSO (Extreme Universe Space Observatory). ( )
, , ,
. 20000 2.
1000 1020 (16 ).
: -,
, , ; -, , ,
.
. ,
, .
, (
) ( ).

, 5
259

10 , .
,
.
- . , , . , LHC 40 ,
30 pp , ,
(. .
). ,
, . WWW, GRID, /.


, , . , ( ),
- .
. , .

: , , .
, :
, ,
.

6 (. 5). .
.
1/2 (). , , 3 . 260


. ,
, , . , , s d + g . , . ( qiq jqk ) ( qq ), (
-). , uud .
, 8
( 3 3 - 1 () = 8).
< 10-17 .

u
d
s

b
t

,
23
46
100
1 300
4 200
175 000

.
+2/3
1/3
1/3
+2/3
1/3
+2/3

.
1/3
1/3
1/3
1/3
1/3
1/3

strange
charm
beauty
truth

() . ,
- , , .
, - ,
.
.
, 4- 5- , . ,
. , ,
( ).
261


6 (. 6). .
, . 1/2
().
10-17 .
6

,
0,51

.
1

.
Le = 1

105,6

Lm = 1

1 777

Lt = 1

106

Le = 1

< 0,19

Lm = 1

18

Lt = 1

e
m


.
, , .
, .

, ( ).
(. 7).

8 .
W
Z

, .
0
0
0
0
80 000
1
91 000
0
0
0
262

1
1
1
1
2

..
-

, ,
19701980 . ,
,
, W Z
. . ( ) .
. g, W , Z , .
( -) . , . ,
.

,
( . chroma ).

, ,
. ( H ), . , ( , ) , M H
120200 . LEP (
) Tevatron
, 115
160 . , 2012 .
LHC, ATLAS CMS 125 . ,
,
, , H .
. !
. ,
, .
263

?

, . . .
, c, G .
l p = (G / c 3 )1/2 = 1, 6 10-33 ,
t p = (G / c 5 )1/2 = 5, 4 10-44
m p = (c / G )1/2 = 2,18 10-5 ~ 1019 / 2 ,
, .
, , - . , , . , : , , , (-,
.), , .
(Q c/r ) .
, Q 1016 .
. ()
.
( ).
, ( 50 000 , Super-Kamiokande). p 1034 . ( ).
. , .
: 6 , 6 ,
2 , 15.

(
) 2.
264


W - (3 x 3) , 4 : ,
-. ( )
(3 x 3) 4 . 8.
, , c, G ,
, 25 ! , . , , .
( ) .

.
.
. ,
(
). ,
, ? ,
( K- B-), .

, ,
? ;
, , , ,

. , :
, , .
, .
(SUSY).
, , ,
() 1/2 (1)
0 (1/2). , , ,
.
, . .
265

, LHC ILC.
(. ). ,
. LHC 1 000 .
LHC . ,
, ,
. LHC, . .

, , , . : ,
(ne , n m , n t ) . e, m, t ,

(. 6). ,
. . ,
, .
30-
. , ,
. 1011 ./ 2 /.
(-, -, ) , - . ,
, , .
Super-Kamiokande,
50 000 3 ,
13 000 ,
( Kamiokande). ,
( ).
266

,
. , , , , , ,
.
. , ,
- .
. ne , n m , n t , , , ,
( ).
-
( ).
, .
, , .
l = 4pE / (m j2 - mi2 )c 3 .
, , ,
, . -,
.
2002 . , (-
, ). , SNO (Sudbury Neutrino Observatory), 1 000 (D2O) ( ),
. .
. : ) W-
, , ; )
Z- ( ), -, , 267

(NaCl). : , , 35 %
, , ,
. ,
,
2/3 !
Super-Kamiokande SNO .

,
, .
.
, . (,
.) , ,
. .
,
m1, m2 , m 3 .
:
m22 - m12 = (8, 0 0, 5)10-5 2 ; m 32 - m22 = (2 - 3)10-3 2 . (103.1)

, , -, . .
.

104.
, , ,
. : , , ( )
5 %! 25 % ( ), , ,
, 70 % -
( , , ), 268

.
, ! 5 % . , , .

.
,

, . , , ,
. , .
, 15 ,
. ,
,
.
.
, . .
( t = 0 ).
:
V = Hr ( V << c ) .
H 70 //M. a(t )

a(t ) = H (t )a(t ) .

(104.1)



l0 t0 t ,
,

l
a(t )
.
(104.2)
=
1+z
l0
a(t0 )
.
269

. ,
( ) .
.
z 1 .
, ,
. .
, . .
c .
(
, ).
,
. ,
,
c . .
, , , , . , . , , , ,
.

.
1922 . . , , a(t ) :
2

da
= 8 pG ra 2 - kc 2 ,
dt
3

(104.3)

d (rc 2a 3 )
d (a 3 )
+p
= 0.
dt
dt

(104.4)

rc 2 ; p , k , , -1 , 0 1 270

(). (104.3), (104.4) :


d 2a
4
= - pGa(r + 3p/c 2 ) .
2
3
dt

(104.5)

, , ! (104.5) ( )
. ,
.
-
( ). p = 0 ,
- p = (1/3)rc 2 , p = -rc 2 .
,
. , , ,
p = -r c 2 .
. , . ( )
, :
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