LCCDE
The DiscreteTime Fourier Transform (DTFT) of a signal x(n) is
defined by:
X
j
x(n)e jn
X (e ) =
n=
CHUM Pharino
November 6, 2016
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Application of DTFT I
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November 6, 2016
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Application of DTFT II
Inverse System: Using Fourier Transforms, it is easy to find inverse
system for signal reconstruction problems, when they exist.
Example: The frequency response if a system is
H(e e ) =
1 + 0.25e j
1 0.5e j
h(n) = an u(n)
y (n) = (n)
Solution:
G (e j ) = H 1 (e j ) =
1 0.5e j
1 + 0.25e j
There are some serious practical issues with this solution. Can you
think of some?
The author (ITC)
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November 6, 2016
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lecture #06
November 6, 2016
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Application of DTFT IV
Rewriting, we have
(
)
(M
)
N
X
X
j
j jk
j
j jk
Y (e ) 1
a(k)Y (e )e
= X (e )
b(k)X (e )e
N
X
a(k)y (n k) +
k=1
M
X
k=1
b(k)x(n k)
y (n) =
k=0
k=0
N
X
a(k)y (n k) +
k=1
b(k)x(n k)
k0
Solution
y (n) = F 1 Y (e j )
where
Y (e j ) =
M
X
N
X
a(k)Y (e j )e jk +
k=1
M
X
PN
jk
k=0 b(k)e
P
X (e j )
n
1 k=1 a(k)e jk
b(k)X (e j )e jk
k=0
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November 6, 2016
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N
X
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November 6, 2016
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Example
a(k)y (n k) +
k=1
M
X
b(k)x(n k)
k0
H(e j ) =
1 1.4142e j + e 2j
1 1.3433e j + 0.9025e 2j
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lecture #06
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More on LCCDE
FIR Filters
N
X
a(k)y (n k) +
k=1
M
X
y (n) =
b(k)x(n k)
M
X
b(k)x(n k)
b(k)(n k)
H(e j ) =
k=0
M
X
b(1)
6
5 b(0)
h(n) = b(n)
b(5)
b(2)
b(4)
4
3
b(3)
b(k)e jk
k=0
2
h(n)
h(k)(n k)
k=0
k=0
h(n) =
b(k)x(n k)
k=0
k=0
M
X
M
X
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1
10
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More on LCCDE
Computation Algorithm
When one or more coefficient a(k) are nonzero, there is feed back
and the unit sample response is infinite in length.
y (n) =
Example:
z
N
X
}
a(k)y (n k) +
k=1

y (n) = ay (n 1) + x(n)
H(e j ) =
h(n) = an u(n)
M
X
{
b(k)x(n k)
k=0
{z
Feedback
PM
jk
k=0 b(k)e
P
jk
N
k=1 a(k)e
{z
FeedForward
Numerator Polynomial
Denominator Polynomial
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A Picture
% Initialization
x1 = 0; x2 = 0; x3 = 9; x4 = 0; x5 = 0
read b0, b1, b2, b3. b4, b5
% Loop
x0 = get next input
% Compute output
y = b0*x0 + b1*x1 + b2*x2 + b3*x3 + b4*x4 + b5*x5
% Delay
x5 = x4; x4 = x3; x3 = x2; x2 = x1; x1 = x0
Repeat
lecture #06
November 6, 2016
x(n)
b(1)
b(2)
b(3)
...
b(q)
x(0)
x(1)
x(2)
x(3)
...
x(n q)
y (n)
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A Picture
% Initialization
x1 = 0; x2 = 0; x3 = 0; x4 = 0; x5 = 0
y1 = 0; y2 = 0; y3 = 0; y4 = 0; y5 = 0
read b0, b1, b2, b3. b4, b5
read a0, a1, a2, a3. a4, a5
% Loop
x0 = get next input
% Compute output
y = b0*x0 + b1*x1 + b2*x2 + b3*x3 + b4*x4 + b5*x5
y = y + a1*y1 + a2*y2 + a3*y3 + a4*y4 + a5*y5
% Delay
x5 = x4; x4 = x3; x3 = x2; x2 = x1; x1 = x0
y5 = y4; y4 = y3; y3 = y2; y2 = y1; y1 = y
Repeat
The author (ITC)
b(0)
lecture #06
November 6, 2016
x(n)
b(0)
b(1)
b(2)
b(3)
...
b(q)
x(0)
x(1)
x(2)
x(3)
...
x(n q)
y (n p)
...
y (3)
y (2)
y (1)
y (0)
a(p)
...
a(3)
a(2)
a(1)
a(0)
y (n)
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x(n)
h1 (n)
y (n)
h2 (n)
Note that the log magnitude of the cascade is the sum of the log
magnitude of individual systems,
20 log10 H(e j ) = 20 log10 H1 (e j ) + 20 log10 H2 (e j )
() = 1 () + 2 ()
and a frequency response
H(e j ) = H1 (e j )H2 (e j )
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h1 (n)
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+
+
y (n)
x(n)
+
+
w (n)
y (n)
f (n)
h2 (n)
g (n)
W (e j ) = X (e j ) + G (e j )Y (e j )
H(e j ) = H1 (e j ) + H2 (e j )
The author (ITC)
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November 6, 2016
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lecture #06
Y (e j ) = F (e j )W (e j )
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Interconnection of System:
Forming New Filters
and
W (e j ) = X (e j ) + G (e j )F (e j )W (e j )
Solving for W (e j )
Hhp (e j )
X (e j )
W (e ) =
1 F (e j )G (e j )
j
with
Y (e j ) = F (e j )W (e j ) =
F (e j )X (e j )
1 F (e j )G (e j )
H(e j ) =
F (e j )
1 F (e j )G (e j )
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