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OrganizationalBehavior(OB)is"thestudyofhumanbehaviorinorganizationalsettings,theinterface
betweenhumanbehaviorandtheorganization,andtheorganizationitself."[1]
OBcanbedividedintothreelevels.[2]Thestudyof:
(a)individualsinorganizations(microlevel),
(b)workgroups(mesolevel),
(c)howorganizationsbehave(macrolevel).
Contents
1Overview
2Contributingdisciplines
3Relationtoindustrialandorganizationalpsychology
4History
5Currentstateofthefield
6Methodsused
6.1Quantitativeresearch
6.2Computersimulation
6.3Qualitativeresearch
7Topics
7.1Counterproductiveworkbehavior
7.2Decisionmaking
7.3Employeemistreatment
7.3.1Abusivesupervision
7.3.2Bullying
7.3.3Incivility
7.3.4Sexualharassment

7.4Teams
7.5Jobrelatedattitudesandemotions
7.6Leadership
7.7Managerialroles
7.8Motivation
7.9Nationalculture
7.10Organizationalcitizenshipbehavior
7.11Organizationalculture
7.12Personality
7.13Occupationalstress
7.14Workfamily
8Organizationtheory
8.1Bureaucracy
8.2Economictheoriesoforganization
8.3Institutionaltheory
8.4Organizationalecology
8.5Organizationstructuresanddynamics
8.6Scientificmanagement
8.7Systemstheory
9Journals
10Seealso
11References
12Furtherreading

Overview

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ChesterBarnardrecognizedthatindividualsbehavedifferentlywhenactingintheirorganizationalrole
thanwhenactingseparatelyfromtheorganization.[3]OBresearchersstudythebehaviorofindividuals
primarilyintheirorganizationalroles.OneofthemaingoalsoforganizationaltheoristsinOBis"to
revitalizeorganizationaltheoryanddevelopabetterconceptualizationoforganizationallife"[4]

Contributingdisciplines

[edit]

Psychology
SocialPsychology
Sociology
Anthropology

Relationtoindustrialandorganizationalpsychology

[edit]

Miner(2006)pointedoutthat"thereisacertainarbitrariness"inidentifying"apointatwhich
organizationalbehaviorbecameestablishedasadistinctdiscipline"(p.56),suggestingthatitcould
haveemergedinthe1940sor1950s.[5]Healsounderlinedthefactthattheindustrialpsychology
divisionoftheAmericanPsychologicalAssociationdidnotadd"organizational"toitsnameuntil1970,
"longafterorganizationalbehaviorhadclearlycomeintoexistence"(p.56),notingthatasimilar
situationaroseinsociology.Althoughtherearesimilaritiesanddifferencesbetweenthetwodisciplines,

thereisstillmuchconfusionastothenatureofdifferencesbetweenorganizationalbehaviorand
organizationalpsychology.[6]

History

[edit]

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TheHawthornestudiesstimulatedOBresearcherstostudytheimpactofpsychologicalfactorson
organizations.[5]Inhis1931book,HumanProblemsofanIndustrialCivilization,EltonMayoadvised
managerstodealwithemotionalneedsofemployees.Thehumanrelationsmovement,anoutgrowthof
theHawthornestudies,influencedOBresearcherstofocusonteams,motivation,andtheactualization
ofindividuals'goalswithinorganizations.
TheSecondWorldWarpromptedashiftthefield,asitturneditsattentiontolargescalelogistics
andoperationsresearch.Therewasarenewedinterestinrationalistapproachestothestudyof
organizations.[citationneeded]HerbertSimon,JamesG.March,andthesocalled"CarnegieSchool"
conductedinfluentialOBresearch.OtherprominentOBresearchersincludeChesterBarnard,Henri
Fayol,FrederickHerzberg,AbrahamMaslow,DavidMcClelland,andVictorVroom,Douglas
McGregor,KarlWeickandMaryParkerFollett.
Inthe1960sand1970s,thefieldbecamemorequantitativeandproducedsuchideasasbounded
rationality,theinformalorganization,andresourcedependence.Contingencytheory,institutionaltheory,
andorganizationalecologyalsoemerged.[citationneeded]
Startinginthe1980s,culturalexplanationsoforganizationsandorganizationalchangebecameareasof
study.Informedbyanthropology,psychologyandsociology,qualitativeresearchbecamemore
acceptableinOB.[citationneeded]

Currentstateofthefield

[edit]

ResearchinandtheteachingofOBcanbefoundinuniversitymanagementdepartmentsthatare
generallyfoundincollegesofbusinessandinSchoolofsocialworks.SimilarmicroOBtopicsare
taughtinindustrialandorganizationalpsychologygraduateprograms.
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Duringthelast20years,therehavebeenadditionaldevelopmentsinOBresearchandpractice:
Anthropologyhasbecomeincreasinglyinfluential,andledtotheideathatonecanunderstandfirms
ascommunities,byintroducingconceptssuchasorganizationalculture,organizationalrituals,and
symbolicacts.[1]
LeadershipstudiesbecamepartofOB.
OBresearchershaveshownincreasedinterestinethicsanditsimportanceinan
organization.[citationneeded]
OBresearchershavebecomeinterestedintheaestheticsphereoforganizations,[7]drawingon
theoriesandmethodsfromthehumanities,includingtheater,literature,music,andart.

Methodsused

[edit]

Avarietyofmethodsareusedinorganizationalbehavior,manyofwhicharefoundinothersocial
sciences.

Quantitativeresearch

[edit]

Mainarticle:Quantitativeresearch
Statisticalmethods[8][9]commonlyusedinOBresearchinclude:
ANOVA
Correlation
Metaanalysis
Multilevelmodeling
Multipleregression
Nonparametricstatistics
Structuralequationmodeling
Timeseriesanalysis

Computersimulation

[edit]

Mainarticle:Computersimulationandorganizationstudies
Computersimulationisaprominentmethodinorganizationalbehavior.[10]Whiletherearemanyuses
forcomputersimulation,mostOBresearchershaveusedcomputersimulationtounderstandhow
organizationsorfirmsoperate.Morerecently,however,researchershavealsostartedtoapply
computersimulationtounderstandindividualbehavioratamicrolevel,focusingonindividualand
interpersonalcognitionandbehavior[11]suchasthethoughtprocessesandbehaviorsthatmake
upteamwork.[12]

Qualitativeresearch

[edit]

Mainarticle:Qualitativeresearch
Qualitativeresearch[8]consistsofanumberofmethodsofinquirythatgenerallydonotinvolvethe
quantificationofvariables.Qualitativemethodscanrangefromthecontentanalysisofinterviewsor
writtenmaterialtowrittennarrativesofobservations.Somecommonmethodsinclude:
Ethnography

Singleandmultiplecaseanalysis
Groundedtheoryapproaches
Historicalmethods
Interviews
Visualmethodssuchasphotoelicitationorparticipantcreateddrawings.

Topics

[edit]

Counterproductiveworkbehavior

[edit]

Mainarticle:Counterproductiveworkbehavior
Counterproductiveworkbehaviorconsistsofbehaviorbyemployeesthatharmorintendedtoharm
organizationsandpeopleinorganizations.[13]

Decisionmaking

[edit]

Mainarticle:Decisionmaking
Rationalplanningmodel
Normativedecisionmaking(concernedwithhowdecisionisordinarilymade)
Descriptivedecisionmaking(concernedwithhowathinkerarrivesatajudgment)
Prescriptivedecisionmaking(aimstoimprovedecisionmaking)

Employeemistreatment

[edit]

Thereareseveraltypesofmistreatmentthatemployeesendureinorganizationsincludingabusive
supervision,bullying,incivility,andsexualharassment.
Abusivesupervision [edit]
Mainarticle:Abusivesupervision
Abusivesupervisionistheextenttowhichasupervisorengagesinapatternofbehaviorthatharms
subordinates.[14]
Bullying [edit]
Mainarticle:Workplacebullying
Althoughdefinitionsofworkplacebullyingvary,itinvolvesarepeatedpatternofharmfulbehaviors
directedtowardsanindividual.[15]Inorderforabehaviortobetermedbullying,theindividualor
individualsdoingtheharmhavetohaveeithersinglyorjointlymorepowerthanthevictim.
Incivility [edit]
Mainarticle:Workplaceincivility
Workplaceincivilityconsistsoflowintensitydiscourteousandrudebehaviorwithambiguousintentto
harmthatviolatesnormsgoverningappropriateworkplacebehavior.[16]
Sexualharassment [edit]
Mainarticle:Sexualharassment
Sexualharassmentisbehaviorthatdenigratesormistreatsanindividualduetohisorhergender,

createsanoffensiveworkplace,andinterfereswithanindividualbeingabletodothejob.[17]

Teams

[edit]

Mainarticle:Team

Jobrelatedattitudesandemotions

[edit]

Organizationalbehaviordealswithemployeeattitudesandfeelings.
Jobsatisfactionisthefeelingsonehasaboutthejoborfacetsofthejob,suchaspayor
supervision[18]
Organizationalcommitmentistheextenttowhichemployeesfeelattachmenttotheir
organization.[19]
Emotionallaborconcernstherequirementthatemployeesdisplaycertainemotions,likesmilingat
customers.[20]

Leadership

[edit]

Mainarticle:Leadership
Therehavebeenanumberofapproachesandtheoriesthatconcernleadership.Earlytheoriesfocused
oncharacteristicsofleaders,whilelatertheoriesfocusedonleaderbehavior,andconditionsunder
whichindividualscanbeeffective.Someleadershipapproachesandtheoriesinclude:
Contingencytheorysaysthatgoodleadershipdependsoncharacteristicsoftheleaderandthe
situation.[21]
LeadermemberexchangetheoryorLMXfocusonrelationshipsbetweenindividualsupervisor
subordinatepairs.[22]
OhioStateLeadershipStudiesidentifiedthedimensionsofconsideration(showingconcernand
respectforsubordinates)andinitiatingstructure(assigningtasksandsettingperformance
goals).[23][24]
Pathgoaltheoryisacontingencytheorylinkingappropriateleaderstyletoorganizationalconditions,
andsubordinatepersonality.[25]
Transformationalleadershiptheoryconcernsthebehaviorsleadersdothatinspirefollowerstohigh
levelsofmotivationandperformance.Relatedtocharismaticleadershipthatispartof
transformational.[26]

Managerialroles

[edit]

Mainarticle:Mintzberg'smanagerialroles
Inthelate1960sHenryMintzberg,agraduatestudentatMIT,carefullystudiedtheactivitiesoffive
executives.Onthebasisofhisobservations,Mintzbergarrivedatthreecategoriesthatsubsume
managerialroles:interpersonalrolesdecisionalrolesandinformationalroles.[27]

Motivation

[edit]

BaronandGreenberg(2008)[28]wrotethatmotivationinvolves"thesetofprocessesthatarouse,direct,
andmaintainhumanbehaviortowardattainingsomegoal."
ThereareseveraldifferenttheoriesofmotivationrelevanttoOB.

Equitytheory[29]
Expectancytheory[30]
Maslow'shierarchyofneeds[31]
Incentivetheory
OrganizationalJusticetheory[32]
FrederickHerzberg'stwofactortheory[33]
TheoryXandTheoryY[34]

Nationalculture

[edit]

Nationalcultureisthoughttoaffectthebehaviorofindividualsinorganizations.Thisideaisexemplified
byHofstede'sculturaldimensionstheory.Hofstedesurveyedalargenumberofculturesandidentified
sixdimensionsofnationalculturesthatinfluencethebehaviorofindividualsinorganizations.[35]
Powerdistance
Individualismvs.collectivism
Uncertaintyavoidance
Masculinityvs.femininity
Longtermorientationvs.shorttermorientation
Indulgencevs.restraint

Organizationalcitizenshipbehavior

[edit]

Mainarticle:Organizationalcitizenshipbehavior
Organizationalcitizenshipbehaviorisbehaviorthatgoesbeyondassignedtasksandcontributestothe
wellbeingoforganizations.[36]

Organizationalculture

[edit]

Mainarticle:Organizationalculture
Organizationalcultureemphasizesthecultureoftheorganizationitself.Thisapproachpresumesthat
organizationscanbecharacterizedbyculturaldimensionssuchasbeliefs,values,rituals,symbols,and
soforth.[37]Withinthisapproach,theapproachesgenerallyconsistofeitherdevelopingmodelsfor
understandingorganizationalcultureordevelopingtypologiesoforganizationalculture.Edgar
Scheindevelopedamodelforunderstandingorganizationalcultureandidentifiedthreelevelsof
organizationalculture:
ArtifactsandBehaviors
EspousedValues
SharedBasicAssumptions
Scheinarguedthatifanyofthesethreelevelsweredivergenttensionwouldresult:if,forexample,
espousedvaluesordesiredbehaviorswerenotconsistentwiththebasicassumptionsofan
organisationitislikelythatthesevaluesorbehaviorswouldberejected.
Typologiesoforganizationalcultureidentifiedspecificorganisationalcultureandrelatedthesecultures
toperformance[38]oreffectiveness[39]oftheorganization.

Personality

[edit]

Mainarticle:Personality
Personalityconcernsconsistentpatternsofbehavior,cognition,andemotioninindividuals.[40]Thestudy
ofpersonalityinorganizationshasgenerallyfocusedontherelationofspecifictraitstoemployee
performance.TherehasbeenaparticularfocusontheBigFivepersonalitytraits,whichreferstofive
overarchingpersonalitytraits.

Occupationalstress

[edit]

Mainarticle:Occupationalstress
Therearenumberofwaystocharacterizeoccupationalstress.Onewayofcharacterizingitistotermit
animbalancebetweenjobdemands(aspectsofthejobthatrequirementalorphysicaleffort)and
resourcesthathelpmanagethedemands.[41]

Workfamily

[edit]

Mainarticle:Workfamilyconflict
ChesterBarnardrecognizedthatindividualsbehavedifferentlywhenactingintheirworkrolethanwhen
actinginrolesoutsidetheirworkrole.[42]Workfamilyconflictoccurswhenthedemandsoffamilyand
workrolesareincompatible,andthedemandsofatleastoneroleinterferewiththedischargeofthe
demandsoftheother.[43]

Organizationtheory

[edit]

Mainarticle:Organizationtheory
Organizationtheoryisconcernedwithexplainingtheorganizationasawholeorpopulationsof
organizations.Thefocusoforganizationaltheoryistounderstandthestructureandprocessesof
organizationsandhoworganizationsinteractwithindustriesandsocieties.Withinbusinessschools,
organizationtheoryorOTisconsideredaseparatespecializationinmanagementfromOB.[citationneeded]

Bureaucracy

[edit]

Mainarticle:Bureaucracy
MaxWeberarguedthatbureaucracyinvolvedtheapplicationofrationallegalauthoritytothe
organizationofwork,makingbureaucracythemosttechnicallyefficientformoforganization.[44]Charles
PerrowextendedWeber'swork,arguingthatallorganizationscanbeunderstoodintermsof
bureaucracyandthatorganizationalfailuresaremoreoftenaresultofinsufficientapplicationof
bureaucraticprinciples.[45]
Weber'sprinciplesofbureaucraticorganization:
Aformalorganizationalhierarchy
Managementbyrules
Organizationbyfunctionalspecialtyandselectingpeoplebasedontheirskillsandtechnical
qualifications
An"upfocused"(toorganization'sboardorshareholders)or"infocused"(totheorganizationitself)
mission
Purposefullyimpersonal,applyingthesamerulesandstructurestoallmembersoftheorganization

Economictheoriesoforganization

[edit]

Theoryofthefirm
Transactioncosteconomics
Agencytheory

Institutionaltheory

[edit]

Mainarticle:Institutionaltheory

Organizationalecology

[edit]

Mainarticle:Organizationalecology
Organizationalecologymodelsapplyconceptsfromevolutionarytheorytothestudyofpopulationsof
organisations,focusingonbirth(founding),growthandchange,anddeath(firmmortality).Inthisview,
organizationsare'selected'basedontheirfitwiththeiroperatingenvironment.

Organizationstructuresanddynamics

[edit]

Complexitytheoryandorganizations
FrenchandRaven'sfivebasesofpower[46]
Hybridorganization
Informalorganization
Resourcedependencetheory
Mintzberg'sOrganigraph

Scientificmanagement

[edit]

Mainarticle:Scientificmanagement
Scientificmanagementreferstoanapproachtomanagementbasedonprinciplesofengineering.It
focusesonincentivesandotherpracticesempiricallyshowntoimproveproductivity.

Systemstheory

[edit]

Mainarticle:Systemstheory
Thesystemsframeworkisalsofundamentaltoorganizationaltheory.Organizationsarecomplex,goal
orientedentities.[47]AlexanderBogdanov,anearlythinkerinthefield,developedhistectology,atheory
widelyconsideredaprecursorofBertalanffy'sgeneralsystemstheory.Oneoftheaimsofgeneral
systemstheorywastomodelhumanorganizations.KurtLewin,asocialpsychologist,wasinfluentialin
developingasystemsperspectivewithregardtoorganizations.Hecoinedtheterm"systemsof
ideology,"partlybasedonhisfrustrationwithbehavioristpsychology,whichhebelievedtobean
obstacletosustainableworkinpsychology(seeAsh1992:198207).NiklasLuhmann,asociologist,
developedasociologicalsystemstheory.