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Optical Switching and Networking 15 (2015) 148 – 159 Contents lists available at ScienceDirect Optical Switching

Contents lists available at ScienceDirect

Optical Switching and Networking

journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/osn

Networking journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/osn Multi-OLT and multi-wavelength PON-based open access network

Multi-OLT and multi-wavelength PON-based open access network for improving the throughput and quality of services

Monir Hossen, Masanori Hanawa n

Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Medicine and Engineering, University of Yamanashi, Japan

of Medicine and Engineering, University of Yamanashi, Japan article info Article history: Received 26 March 2014

article info

Article history:

Received 26 March 2014 Received in revised form 5 September 2014 Accepted 6 September 2014 Available online 30 October 2014

Keywords:

Open access network PON FTTH Multi-OLT PON Hybrid networks

abstract

Passive optical network (PON) provides enough bandwidth for combining multiple service providers' in addition to the fiber to the home (FTTH) network. Multiple optical line terminals (multi-OLT) PON-based hybrid network is an efficient access network that provides an effective solution for reducing the computational complexity of data packet processing of multiple service providers having different packet lengths and data rates. However, in the multi-OLT PON-based hybrid networks, data transmission in the single upstream channel requires a complicated dynamic bandwidth allocation (DBA) algorithm for improving the bandwidth sharing efficiency among the multiple service providers. In this paper, we propose a new network architecture for a PON-based open access network (OAN) where every optical network unit (ONU) of the PON will be shared by all the service providers and in the central office multiple OLTs will be connected to handle the data packets of multiple service providers. In the upstream direction, we propose to use multiple wavelengths for modulating the data packets of multiple service providers and to avoid the requirement of a complicated DBA algorithm. The simulation results show that the multi-OLT and multi-wavelength PON-based OAN (MM-OAN) provides higher band- width utilization, higher upstream efficiency and higher throughput with a lower overhead to data ratio and jitter than the single-OLT and single wavelength PON-based OAN (SS-OAN). The overall throughput of the proposed scheme has been increased more than by a factor equal to the number of wavelengths employed than that of the SS-OAN. & 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction

An open access network (OAN) is a hybrid network where multiple service providers can use the network simultaneously. The OAN is open to any service provider, local or otherwise, and can use it to offer different services to the subscribers. The service providers are able to offer any number of services and the subscribers are also able to choose any service provider for each of the services those

n Corresponding author. Tel.: þ 81 552208683. E-mail address: hanawa@ieee.org (M. Hanawa).

1573-4277/& 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

they choose to subscribe to [1 , 2] . Multiple service provi- ders are expected to be deployed in the future modern cities in addition to the fiber to the home (FTTH) network, e.g., wireless sensor networks (WSNs), high-definition television (HDTV) or video on demand (VoD), and Femto networks (FNs). Usually, in any hybrid network, the central office (CO) provides independent connection with the different networks or service providers [3] . The conven- tional OAN also provides independent connections between the CO and different service providers through a common access network and any service provider can connect to that access network using a single access terminal. The passive optical network (PON) can be used

M. Hossen, M. Hanawa / Optical Switching and Networking 15 (2015) 148 159

149

as a common access network of the OAN because the PON provides huge bandwidth demand [4] with very lower cost [5] . In the PON-based OAN, the optical line terminal (OLT) of the PON will be acting as a CO and all the optical network units (ONUs) of the PON will be acting as the access terminals of an OAN and each ONU will be shared by all the service providers. As the PON provides huge bandwidth it can support the bandwidth demand of newly deployed multiple operators in a densely populated city. However, connecting several service providers of the OAN with a single OLT PON is not efficient because providing individual connections to the different service providers require so much computational operation that increases the burden of data processing and managements in the OLT. Moreover, different service providers have different data rates and packet lengths. To overcome these difficul- ties in the single-OLT PON, a multi-OLT PON-based OAN can be a good candidate to connect several service provi- ders in an OAN. In the multi-OLT PON-based hybrid networks, proposed by Hossen et al. [6 , 7] , each ONU connects to the users of a single service provider that means no need to share a single ONU by the multiple service providers. However, in the PON-based OAN each ONU should be shared by all the service providers. That is why some modification is required in the existing multi-OLT PON-based hybrid net- works to make it fit for the OAN. Moreover, the existing multi-OLT PON-based hybrid network is a scheme that follows the time division multiplexing (TDM) principles and it requires a complicated dynamic bandwidth alloca- tion (DBA) algorithm to improve the bandwidth sharing efficiency and bandwidth management in the upstream channel of the TDM PON. To avoid the requirement of a complicated DBA algorithm multiple wavelengths for multiple service providers can be used. The upstream data packets of multiple service providers connected to an ONU can be transmitted simultaneously by using individual wavelength for each service provider. Here, the upstream time slot allocated for each ONU is overlapped by the upstream transmission of multiple service providers modulated by the multiple wavelengths. In this paper, we propose a new network architecture for a PON-based OAN where multiple OLTs and multiple uplink wavelengths are used for multiple service provi- ders, i.e., FTTH, WSN, HDTV/VoD, and FNs. In the proposed scheme, each OLT independently handles the data packets of a particular service provider in the network and upstream data packet of each service provider is modu- lated by a particular wavelength. For example, if an ONU of a PON-based OAN shared by m service providers, then the number of OLTs and uplink wavelengths will be m . The proposed network architecture is called multi-OLT and multi-wavelength PON-based OAN (MM-OAN). We have conducted extensive theoretical and numerical analyses on different performance parameters in terms of the through- put, bandwidth utilization, upstream efficiency, overhead to data ratio, and time jitter. All the performance para- meters of the MM-OAN are also compared with those of the single-OLT and single uplink wavelength PON-based OAN (SS-OAN). The analyses are conducted using four OLTs and four uplink wavelengths for four service providers

connected to each ONU in the MM-OAN and a single OLT and single uplink wavelength for the four service provi- ders in the SS-OAN. Compared with the SS-OAN, the MM- OAN provides better performance. The rest of this paper is organized in 7 sections. Section 2 represents the related works. The network architecture and timing diagram for the MM-OAN are investigated in Section 3. Internal buffer architecture and bandwidth allocation princi- ples with an upstream frame format for the proposed MM- OAN are presented in Section 4. In Section 5, we explain the simulation environment in detail. Section 6 explains the simulation results. Finally, our conclusions are presented in Section 7.

2. Related works

In this section, we briefly review on different DBA algorithms for PON-based access networks. In [8] ,

a multi-threaded scheduling algorithm is considered for

a hybrid WDM/TDM PON. The scheduling scheme of the

multiple wavelengths allows sending multiple transmis- sions at a same time. The multi-threaded polling scheme can effectively reduce the propagation delay by employing the interleaved polling algorithm in the long range (LR) PON [8 , 9] . The combination of wavelength scheduling scheme with the earliest finish time with void filling (EFT-VF) algorithm for LR WDM/TDM EPON [10] provides reduced average packet delay. However, wavelength sche- duling scheme in addition to the DBA algorithm provides additional complexity. McGarry et al. [11] have proposed a single tread scheduling algorithm for grant sizing. In the scheduling frame work, the OLT receives bandwidth requests from the entire ONUs in a time cycle and activates the grant messages for each ONU. It does not consider any service differentiation for allocating the maximum granted win- dows in a time cycle. In the elementary grant sizing scheme [12] , reporting is considered at the beginning of the upstream transmission that provides fairness among the ONUs and reduces the delay. In [13] , a detail review and numerical analysis have been shown for both the online interleaved polling and offline multi-thread polling algorithms of LR-PONs. The comparison results show that the multi-thread polling algorithm can reduce the queuing and reporting delays but the interleaved polling algorithm provides better end-to-end delay performance with higher throughput. A detail analytical model of IPACT service has been presented in [14] . In the analysis, Poisson distribution is considered to model the incoming packet rate and all the packets have a fixed length. Considering all the assump- tions it leads to a complicated system and the author could not analyzed the model mathematically. However, ns-2 network simulator was used to prove that the analytical model of IPACT was valid based on the obtained results. A modified LS bandwidth allocation scheme has been proposed for upstream transmission to multiple OLTs [15] . The scheme reserves an upstream bandwidth toward each OLT. Alike the LS scheme it also limits the maximum bandwidth per ONU and allocates bandwidth considering the real traffic loads. In contrast, in the downstream

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M. Hossen, M. Hanawa / Optical Switching and Networking 15 (2015) 148 159

direction each OLT reserves a downstream bandwidth for a service. If an OLT of a particular service provider suffers from a sudden high load then the OLT of other service provider distributes its unutilized bandwidth to that OLT. In the 2-OLT system, two different wavelengths are used by the two OLTs as a WDM manner during the normal operation. However, a shared bandwidth scheme is used during the faulty condition of an OLT [16] . Hossen et al. [6 , 7] have proposed a new DBA algorithm for the multi-OLT PON-based hybrid networks. However, those papers have considered a network structure where a single uplink wavelength is used and every ONU is con- nected to a single service provider. That means sharing of an ONU by multiple service providers is not required. In this paper, we have used single thread scheduling, online interleaved polling, scheme for multiple OLTs. Our work differentiates all other previous works by employing multiple OLTs and multiple wavelengths with sharing ONUs for multiple service providers. The multiple OLTs reduce the data processing complexity in a conventional OLT-based PON system while the sharing ONU and multi- ple uplink wavelength provide simultaneous upstream transmission. The maximum granted window for each service provider connected to an ONU is different. That means if an ONU is connected to the m service providers then the number of maximum transmission windows and the number uplink wavelengths will also be m . However, each service provider uses a particular wavelength that does not require wavelength scheduling in a time cycle.

3. Network architecture and timing diagram for an

MM-OAN

In this section, we explain about the proposed MM- OAN architecture. Next, we explain the timing diagram for the upstream and downstream data transmissions in the MM-OAN. In this MM-OAN, multiple uplink wavelengths

are used for multiple service providers in an ONU and each ONU is shared by all the service providers while the single downlink wavelength is used for the multiple OLTs.

3.1. Network architecture of an MM-OAN

The architecture of the MM-OAN is a new network concept of the PON. In the MM-OAN, different service providers will be comprised in a single network having multiple OLTs and each ONU will be shared by all the service providers in the network. The number of OLTs depends on the practical scenario, the number of service providers installed, in an OAN. If an OAN comprises m different service providers, then the number of OLTs will be m , e.g., OLT1 for the FTTH terminals, OLT2 for the WSNs, OLT3 for the HDTV/VoD, and OLT m for the FNs. That is why, OLT1 does not consider about the data packet proces- sing complexity of other service providers' except the FTTH terminals. If a single OLT deals with the data packets of m service providers in the network then the OLT must be busier for handling the data packets with different properties and packet sizes as the different service providers offer data packets with different packet lengths and data rates. On the other hand, each ONU will be shared by the m service providers with the m different uplink wavelengths. There- fore, the number of OLTs and uplink wavelengths may vary; however, for simplicity, only two OLTs and two uplink wavelengths for two service providers are shown in Fig. 1. For connecting each sensor node to an ONU a cluster-based WSN is considered where each cluster consists of a static cluster head (CH) connected to an ONU through an optical fiber [17]. In the case of the FNs, each Femto access point (Femto-AP) will be connected to an ONU through an optical fiber. In every PON, a polling table is used to store the information of the round trip times (RTTs) of the entire ONUs. The proposed MM-OAN also uses a single polling table and all the OLTs will get the RTT information from that single

all the OLTs will get the RTT information from that single Fig. 1. Network architecture and

Fig. 1. Network architecture and data transmissions for an MM-OAN.

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polling table. As all the OLTs use same polling table for RTT information, in the proposed scheme, it is called shared polling table. The shared polling table is also used to provide synchronization among the multiple OLTs [6]. The proposed MM-OAN architecture is considered to be deployed in the city area, i.e. short range (SR) PON, to connect several service providers. However, a longer feeder optical fiber between the splitter and array waveguide grating (AWG) can be installed to implement the architecture for a long range (LR) PON. In the upstream direction of the proposed MM-OAN, the data packets of a particular service provider will be accepted by the designated OLT through a passive splitter and an AWG. The upstream channel in a time cycle will be divided by the number of active ONUs N , i.e., T slot ¼ T cycle / N . Here, T slot is the time-slot for each ONU in a time cycle and T cycle is the length of a time cycle. A T slot of an ONU will be occupied by overlapping the data packets from the differ- ent service providers by using the different uplink wave- lengths. As shown in the figure, the upstream data packets of the FTTH terminals connected to the ONUs 1 N are modulated by the wavelength λ u 1 and transmitted in the time slots 1, 2, 3, N . In contrast, the upstream data packets of the CHs of a WSN connected to the ONUs 1 N are modulated by the wavelength λ u 2 and transmitted in the time slots 1, 2, 3, N , respectively. Here, the length of the feeder cable between the AWG and the splitter will be limited to few tens of kilometers as the network will be deployed in the cities. In the downstream direction of the proposed MM-OAN, each OLT will broadcast data to the network through a passive splitter in a time division multiple access (TDMA) manner using a single downstream wavelength λ d . Here, the broadcasted data of each OLT contains the downstream data packets and control messages to a particular service provider of the entire ONUs. As shown in the Fig. 1 , the OLT1 broadcasts the downstream data packets and control messages to the FTTH terminal of all the ONUs while the OLT2 broadcasts the downstream data packets and control messages to the CHs of a WSN of all the ONUs. The multi point control protocol (MPCP) provides tim- ing reference to synchronize all the ONUs in the network. In the MPCP, timing synchronization among ONUs is

achieved by calculating the RTT and by maintaining a

polling table. The RTT depends on the physical distance from the OLT to an ONU. On the other hand, the MPCP uses

a DBA algorithm to allocate the upstream transmission

window or timeslots for every ONU and to share the single

optical fiber link with multiple ONUs. Fig. 2 illustrates the MPCP for an MM-OAN where two OLTs and an ONU shared by two different service providers are shown. Here, both the OLTs receive two reports messages from the two service providers, e.g., FTTH and WSN, of an ONU. In the downstream transmission, the MPCP maintains a time- stamp with its local time and broadcasts two Gate mes- sages from two OLTs to the ONU. In the upstream transmission, the ONU transmits data packets from two different buffers of FTTH and WSN using two different uplink wavelengths and the OLT1 accepts data packets from the FTTH buffer while the OLT2 accepts data packets from the WSN buffer. The upstream transmission window

of each buffer also contains a Report message at the end of

its timeslots to request the desired transmission window in the next time cycle T cycle . Upon receiving the Report message at the OLTs, the MPCP incorporated with the DBA algorithm and determines the allocated transmission win- dows and recalculates the required overhead and RTT to update the polling table. The proposed scheme is exclusively design for connect- ing several service providers onto one PON in a city area. Usually, the proposed network architecture will be very much effective for providing low cost bandwidth demand

in the huge populated area of developing countries. Because, it provides both the multi-wavelength and TDMA principles that will provide higher performance but the cost will be lower than the WDM-PON technology. The XGPON is a new technology that performs with the multiple service providers but it requires higher cost than the existing PON architecture [18 , 19] that will not be reasonable for the users of the developing countries. In contrast, MM-OAN uses existing PON architecture that requires less cost than the XGPON. Moreover, the OAN concept in a PON with the multiple OLTs is more effective,

as the multiple OLTs reduce the complexity of data packet

processing of multiple service providers, for connecting

complexity of data packet processing of multiple service providers, for connecting Fig. 2. MPCP operation in

Fig. 2. MPCP operation in an MM-OAN.

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M. Hossen, M. Hanawa / Optical Switching and Networking 15 (2015) 148 159

multiple service providers using a single access terminal that is also different and cost effective than the WDM and XGPON technologies.

3.2. Timing diagram for an MM-OAN

Fig. 3 shows a timing diagram for the proposed MM- OAN. In the figure, for simplicity, only two service provi- ders connected to every ONU, two OLTs, and a shared polling table are considered. The scheduling of the control messages follows the modified interleaved polling algo- rithm for the multi-OLT PON [6] . Here, both the OLTs are acknowledged about the RTT of each ONU from the shared polling table. The vertical lines among the OLTs and shared polling table shown in Fig. 3 represent the transmission of RTT information between the shared polling table and both the OLTs. As the OLTs and shared polling table are placed in the same location, i.e., at the CO, there is no propagation delay to transmit the RTT information among the OLTs and shared polling table. After getting the information about the RTTs of all the ONUs, both the OLTs broadcast the downstream data packets and the Gate messages for the two different service providers, e.g., FTTH and WSN, then all the ONUs transmit the upstream data packets from both the service providers by using two different wavelengths, e.g., λ u 1 for the FTTH data packets and λ u 2 for the WSN data packets. The Upstream packets from every two succeeding ONUs are discriminated by a guard time to avoid the fluctuation of round trip time (FRTT) and data collisions. Even though, two service providers and two OLTs are shown in the figure the number of service providers and the OLTs can be increased up to the m . In that case, the number of upstream wavelengths also will be m . However, the number of the downstream wavelengths is restricted by only one.

4. Internal buffer architecture and bandwidth allocation

principles for an MM-OAN

In this section, we explain about the internal buffer architecture in both the downstream and upstream direc- tions of the proposed MM-OAN. Next, we explain the bandwidth allocation principles and the upstream frame format in the MM-OAN.

principles and the upstream frame format in the MM-OAN. Fig. 3. Timing diagram for an MM-OAN.

Fig. 3. Timing diagram for an MM-OAN.

4.1. Internal buffer architectures of an ONU for an MM-OAN

In order to implement the principle that in the MM- OAN an ONU will be shared by the multiple service providers, modification of the conventional internal buffer architecture [21 , 22] in an ONU is required. That is why, in this paper, we propose a new internal buffer architecture for the proposed MM-OAN. In the proposed internal buffer structure of the MM-OAN, each ONU consists of multiple buffers for the multiple service providers connected to that ONU. The maximum number of buffers in an ONU depends on the maximum number of service providers connected to that ONU. That means each buffer of an ONU is devoted for the data packets of a particular service provider. Fig. 4 shows the proposed internal buffer architecture of an ONU for the downstream transmission in an MM- OAN. In the downstream transmission, each ONU receives the downstream data packets from all the OLTs and the received data packets are stored in the corresponding downstream buffer. Then every ONU transmits the down- stream data packets from the downstream buffers to the corresponding users connected to that ONU. The above figure represents an internal buffer architecture in the downstream direction of an ONU for the m different service providers, e.g., the buffer1 for the FTTH networks, the buffer2 for the WSN, and the buffer m for the FN. Therefore, the number of buffers should be directly pro- portional to the number of service providers connected to an ONU. A buffer management unit (BMU) is also used to monitor and control the downstream data flow of a service provider to the designated buffer [22] . Fig. 5 shows the internal buffer architecture of an ONU for the upstream transmission in the proposed MM-OAN. In the upstream transmission of the MM-OAN, primarily, data packets from the different service providers are stored in their designated buffers of each ONU, i.e., data packets from the FTTH terminals are stored in the buffer for the FTTH networks, data packets from the CH of WSN are stored in the buffer for the WSN, and data packets from the Femto access point (AP) are stored in the buffer for the FN. Secondly, the stored data packets from the different buffers are modulated with the different uplink wave- lengths, e.g., wavelengths λ u 1 , λ u 2 , λ um for the service providers 1, 2, m , respectively, and simultaneously

providers 1, 2, … m , respectively, and simultaneously Fig. 4. Internal buffer architecture of an

Fig. 4. Internal buffer architecture of an ONU for the downstream transmission in an MM-OAN.

M. Hossen, M. Hanawa / Optical Switching and Networking 15 (2015) 148 159

153

transmitted to the CO through an AWG as shown in Fig. 5 . The main limitations of an ONU with this buffer architec- ture are the requirement of an AWG and individual laser diode (LD) for each service provider these will restrict the maximum number of service providers connected to an ONU. Since, the cost of an ONU will be increased with the number of LDs and an AWG. In the upstream transmission, the BMU is not required because the data packets from all the buffers are simultaneously transmitted through a single optical channel.

4.2. Bandwidth allocation principles for an MM-OAN

Fig. 6 shows an upstream frame format of an MM-OAN. Here, the modified version of the limited service (LS) scheme [20] is used to divide the upstream bandwidth among the ONUs. In any DBA scheme, the length of a time

cycle T cycle is flexible and it maintains an upper bound, i.e.,

cycle , here, T cycle is the maximum length of a time

cycle. In the proposed scheme, the maximum cycle time T cycle is equally divided into the total number of ONUs N to provide the maximum transmission window Ω max for an ONU, i.e., Ω max ¼ T cycle = N . Every Ω max is occupied by the data packets from the different service providers using the different wavelengths. In the figure, the Ω max for the ONU1 is occupied by the data packets D SP 1 , D SP 2 , D SPm modulated by the uplink wavelengths λ u 1 , λ u 2 , λ um from the service providers 1, 2, m , respectively. All the service providers transmit same Ethernet overhead and individual Report message, i.e., R 1 , R 2 , R m for the service providers

T cycle r T max

max

max

max

service providers T cycle r T m a x max max max Fig. 5. Internal buffer

Fig. 5. Internal buffer architecture of an ONU for the upstream transmission in an MM-OAN.

1, 2, and m , respectively, using the different uplink wavelengths. In the upstream transmission of the proposed MM- OAN, four service providers are considered and they are divided into two groups depending on the generated packet lengths. We assume that the service providers FTTH and FNs are in group one while the service providers WSN and HDTV/VoD are in group two. The Grouping of the service providers is just our assumption on the basis of the upstream packet lengths of the different service providers which is not limited as it is. The length of a maximum upstream transmission window for the group one is Ω max _1

while the length of a maximum transmission window for the group two is Ω max _2 . Here, Ω max _1 ¼Ω max and Ω max _2 -

o Ω max because the length of the generated upstream packets of the service providers in the group one are larger than those of the service providers in the group two. The maximum granted window in the upstream direction for each ONU is calculated as follows:

Ω grant_ max

i

;j

(
¼

Ω max _ 1 for the heavily loaded ONUs

Ω max _ 2 for the lightly loaded ONUs

ð 1 Þ

where Ω grant _ max

i; j

i

;j

is the maximum granted window for the

ONU i at the time cycle j . However, if the requested window sizes are less than

the maximum transmission windows then the granted window size Ω grant for the ONU i at the time cycle j is calculated as below

grant

i

Ω

;j

¼

8

<

:

Ω

Ω

R_ 1

i

R_ 2

i

;j

;j

if

if

Ω R_ 1

i

Ω R_ 1

i

;j

;j

4 Ω R_ 2

i

; j

o Ω R_ 2

i

: j

ð

2 Þ

where Ω R _1 is the requested window size by the service

, and Ω R _2 is the

providers of group one and Ω R _1 o Ω

i; j

max _1

i

i

;j

; j

i

;j

requested window size by the service providers of group

two and Ω R _2 o Ω

max _2

i; j

i

; j

.

Due to this dynamic variation in the granted transmis- sion windows to the ONUs in every time cycle the T cycle is changed. Calculation of the T cycle at the time cycle j is given

below

N

T cycle ; j ¼

x ¼ 1

Ω grant

; j

x

ð 3 Þ

where x is an integer and x ¼ 1, 2, 3, N .

; j x ð 3 Þ where x is an integer and x ¼ 1, 2,

Fig. 6. Upstream frame format of an MM-OAN.

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M. Hossen, M. Hanawa / Optical Switching and Networking 15 (2015) 148 159

Calculation of T cycle is required to measure the jitter performance of the DBA scheme. In the conventional LS scheme, single Ω max is used that provide more dynamic nature of T cycle and causes larger time jitter. In contrast, in the proposed scheme, two different Ω max are used for two different groups of service providers to reduce the varia- tion of T cycle in different time cycle and that provides less time jitter.

5. Performance evaluation by simulation

In this section, the performance of the proposed MM-OAN is evaluated in terms of the throughput, band- width utilization, upstream efficiency, overhead to data ratio, and jitter. All these parameters are evaluated by simulation results. The evaluation was performed using laboratory-made computer simulation programs. In the evaluation, an OAN architecture with four OLTs for the four different service providers, i.e., FTTH, WSN, HDTV/VoD, and FN, and 16 ONUs were considered where each ONU was connected to the users of all the service providers. In the upstream direction, four different wavelengths were used for the four service providers while in the down- stream direction a single wavelength was considered. In a time cycle, the number of service providers connected to an ONU was assumed to be random and in the range of 1 4. That means the number of service providers connected to an ONU was not fixed over the time and this is the real dynamic nature of the network traffics in an OAN. In the MM-OAN, we have divided the four service providers into two different groups and assigned two different maximum transmission windows for the upstream transmission. The downstream and upstream channel speeds were consid- ered at 1 Gbps. The distances from the ONUs to the OLTs were assumed to be random and in the range of 10 20 km, since the network is considered to be deployed in the cities. However, some results also have been presented for the LR PON and the distances from the ONUs and OLTs were assumed to be random in the range of 80 100 km. All the data packets were assumed to have the same priority, meaning the service policy was on a first-in first-out (FIFO) basis with four individual infinite buffers for the four service providers in each ONU. A highly bursty self- similar network traffic model [23] was used to generate the data packets for all the service providers. This traffic model generated the network traffics for all the service providers from 0 to multiple packets in every time cycle, and the total requested window sizes of an ONU depended on the number of packets multiplied by the maximum length of a packet, PB max _1 for the service providers in the group one and PB max _2 for the service providers in the group two. The maximum packet length, i.e., B max _1 , for the service providers in the group one was 1500 bytes [24] while the maximum packet length, i.e., B max _2 , for the service providers in the group two was 1024 bytes [25] . The processing time was assumed to be 10 m s for the MM- OAN, as used by Hwang et al. [26] . All the analyses were performed for a non-uniform offered load in the range of 0 1.0 with a variable cycle time in the range of 0.5 3 ms. Our simulation took into consideration the queuing delay, transmission delay, congestion delay, and processing delay,

without taking into consideration any priority scheduling. The simulation parameters are summarized in Table 1 . The bandwidth utilization BWU in an MM-OAN using the bandwidth allocation principles explained in the pre- vious section is expressed by

BWU ¼

N m

k ¼

1 Ω grant

k

N

m

k

¼ 1 Ω grant

k

þ NT C

;

ð 4 Þ

where m is the number of service providers connected to an ONU, T C is the summation of B R / R , B E / R , T proc , and T GI . The proposed MM-OAN can achieve higher BWU than the SS-OAN by utilizing a single upstream channel by simultaneous transmission of the upstream data packets from the multiple service providers. The ratio between the successful upstream transmis- sion and the total generated traffic in the network is called the upstream efficiency. The expression for the upstream efficiency of an MM-OAN is

UE ¼

N m

k

¼

1 Ω grant

k

N

m

k

¼

1 P k B max þ NT C

;

ð

5 Þ

where UE is the upstream efficiency. The overhead to data ratio ODR is defined by the ratio between the total overhead and total granted transmission windows in a time cycle. Lower value of ODR provides higher QoSs in a PON-based OAN. Following equation is used to calculate the ODR in an MM-OAN:

ODR ¼

NT C

N

m

k

¼

1 Ω grant

k

ð

6 Þ

The burst network traffic and variation in the length of a T cycle in every time cycle causes the fluctuations in the data arrival times in different time cycles. To measure the variation in the data packet arrival time, the jitter perfor- mance of the proposed MM-OAN was analyzed. The jitter

Table 1

Simulation parameters.

Symbol Quantity

Value

N OLT

Number of OLTs

4

N

Number of ONUs

16

m

Number of service providers 4

λ

d

Number of downstream wavelengths Number of upstream wavelengths Data processing time per service provider Cycle time Guard time

1

λ

u

m 10 m s 0.5 3.0 ms 5 m s 1 Gbps 576 bits 304 bits 1500 bytes

T proc

T cycle

T GI

R

Transmission speed Length of Ethernet overhead Length of Report message Maximum packet length for service providers in the group one Maximum packet length for service providers in the group two

B

E

B

R

B max _1

B max _2

1024 bytes

P Number of generated packets and each packet 0 10

length is B max _1 for service providers in group

one and B max _2 for service providers in group two

packets

M. Hossen, M. Hanawa / Optical Switching and Networking 15 (2015) 148 159

155

can be calculated by

s

Jitter ¼ 1

n

ffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi

n

j ¼ 1

cycle T j 1

ð T j

cycle Þ 2

;

ð 7 Þ

where n is the number of time cycles, T cycle j is the data packets' arrival time at time cycle j , and j ¼ 1, 2, 3 n .

6. Simulation results

In this section, the performances of the proposed MM- OAN in terms of throughput, BWU, UE, ODR, and jitter are compared to those of the SS-OAN. To analyze all of these performances non-uniform burst network traffics were considered in both the upstream and the downstream directions. In this paper, all the results are presented using contour plots and in the contour plots lighter colors signify better performance. The analysis of throughputs in the upstream direction for the SS-OAN and MM-OAN for a range of maximal cycle times and offered loads are shown in Fig. 7 (a) and (b), respectively. In these contour plots the MM-OAN provides the maximum throughput of 2 Gbps while the maximum throughput in the SS-OAN is 0.6 Gbps. Here, the maximum throughput provides in the MM-OAN is higher than the bandwidth of the network of 1 Gbps. The main reason of this higher throughput in the MM-OAN is that the MM-OAN provides the simultaneous transmissions of

multiple upstream packets by using the multiple wave- lengths for the multiple service providers connected to an ONU. Fig. 8 (a) and (b) compare the throughput vs offered load in the upstream direction between the SS-OAN and MM-OAN for 2-ms and 4-ms cycle times, respectively. Here, the MM-OAN uses only 1 Gbps bandwidth while both the 4 Gbps and 1 Gbps bandwidths are used for the SS-OAN. From this figure we can see that the difference of throughput between the MM-OAN and SS-OAN increases gradually from the lowest offered load to the highest offered load. At the highest offered load of 1.0 the MM- OAN provides more than 400% higher throughput than the SS-OAN for 1 Gbps bandwidth in both the schemes. In contrast, the MM-OAN provides more than 25% higher throughput than the SS-OAN when the MM-OAN uses 1 Gbps and SS-OAN uses 4 Gbps bandwidth. This compar- ison proves than the MM-OAN provides higher throughput even though 4 times larger bandwidth is used in the SS-OAN for 4 different service providers. From the analysis of the contour plots in Fig. 7(a) and (b) and comparison of throughput for a 2 ms and 4 ms cycle times in Fig. 8(a) and (b) we found that the proposed MM- OAN provides almost more than 400% and 25% higher throughput than the SS-OAN for 1 Gbps and 4 Gbps band- width, respectively, at the highest offered load of 1.0. The main reason of this improvement in the proposed MM-OAN than the SS-OAN is the use of the multiple upstream wavelengths and simultaneous transmissions of the

upstream wavelengths and simultaneous transmissions of the Fig.7. Throughput in the upstream direction for the SS-OAN

Fig.7. Throughput in the upstream direction for the SS-OAN and MM-OAN.

in the upstream direction for the SS-OAN and MM-OAN. Fig. 8. Comparison of throughput in the

Fig. 8. Comparison of throughput in the upstream direction. (a) 2 ms cycle time and (b) 4 ms cycle time.

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M. Hossen, M. Hanawa / Optical Switching and Networking 15 (2015) 148 159

/ Optical Switching and Networking 15 (2015) 148 – 159 Fig. 9. Comparison of performances between

Fig. 9. Comparison of performances between the SS-OAN and MM-OAN, (a) Bandwidth utilization, (b) upstream efficiency, (c) overhead to data ratio, and (d) Jitter in ms.

M. Hossen, M. Hanawa / Optical Switching and Networking 15 (2015) 148 159

157

upstream data packets through a single upstream channel by the multiple service providers. This difference would be larger if the analyses were repeated for a larger number of service providers and uplink wavelengths connected to an ONU. The second reason is the reduction of data processing time and computational complexity by dividing the total computational complexity and data processing time of multiple service providers into the multiple OLTs. The third reason is a modification of the conventional LS scheme to make it fit for the MM-OAN where all the service providers are divided into two groups with two different maximum transmission windows. This new bandwidth allocation principle effectively reduces the bandwidth wastage and increases the bandwidth sharing efficiency among the multiple service providers. The final reason is the aggrega- tion of the multiple service providers in an ONU that reduces the probability of the lightly loaded ONUs and the ratio of the overhead to effective data packets. Fig. 9 (a) (d) shows the comparison of BWU, UE, ODR, and jitter, for the conventional LS scheme in the SS-OAN, left figures, and a modified version of the LS scheme in the MM-OAN, right figures. These contour plots for the max- imal cycle times and offered loads signify the better performances of the proposed MM-OAN architecture than the SS-OAN. From the analysis of these contour plots, it is clear that at the highest offered load of 1.0 the MM-OAN with the new bandwidth allocation principles provides about 19% and 28% higher BWU and UE with 300% and 150% lower ODR and jitter, respectively, than those of the SS-OAN. Even though the main emphasis of this paper is to provide higher throughput in the proposed MM-OAN than the SS-OAN but the results in the Fig. 9 (a) (d) proves that the proposed MM-OAN is far superior to the SS-OAN in terms of all the performance parameters. The reason in improving BWU and UE in the MM-OAN is the simulta- neous transmission of upstream data packets by using the multiple uplink wavelengths and reducing the processing time by using the multiple OLTs for the multiple service providers that reduces the overhead to effective data ratio. Moreover, the proposed scheme uses two different max- imum transmission windows for two service providers groups that effectively reduce the light load effect of an ONU but the SS-OAN uses the conventional LS scheme that does not consider the light load effect. As we know that the jitter and overhead cannot be avoided in a DBA scheme and a network having the self-similar traffics and

the Ethernet overhead but the MM-OAN provides signifi- cantly less ODR and jitter in both the directions of maximal cycle times and offered loads than the SS-OAN as shown in the contour plots of Fig. 9 (c) and (d). The reduction of the ODR and jitter are achieved due to the new bandwidth allocation principle that uses two differ- ent maximum transmission windows for improving the bandwidth sharing efficiency and reducing the bandwidth wastage. This paper considers a PON-based OAN that will be deployed in the city area. Usually, a SR PON will be enough to cover the whole city area. However, in this paper, the jitter performances of the proposed MM-OAN have been analyzed for both the SR PON and LR PON to prove that the proposed scheme is capable to provide better performance than the SS-OAN in both the SR and LR PONs. Typically, the jitter is increased with the distances between the OLTs and ONUs. Fig. 10 (a) and (b) shows the comparison of jitter between the MM-OAN and SS-OAN for both the SR and LR PONs and for 2 ms and 4 ms cycle times, respectively. Here, the results show that if the cycle time is increased then the jitters are decreased for both the MM-OAN and SS-OAN because in the larger cycle time the accumulated traffics suffer from lower congestion. From the results it is also clear that the proposed scheme provides far lower jitter, i.e., about 400% lower jitter at an offered load of 1.0, than the SS- OAN for both the SR and LR PONs. Finally, we can conclude that the proposed scheme utilizes the light load effect and reduces the bandwidth wastage and provides lower jitter with higher throughput in both the SR and LR PONs. Therefore, the proposed scheme can be used as either the city area network or the LR PON. From the analysis of all the performances it is clear that the proposed MM-OAN provides superior performances than the SS-OAN. However, to prove the effectiveness for implementation of the proposed scheme a tradeoff analy- sis between the performance enhancement and cost comparison is important. Table 2 shows a relative cost comparison between the proposed MM-OAN and SS-OAN. Here, 4 service providers, and 4 OLTs are considered for the MM-OAN while a single OLT and 4 four service providers are considered for the SS-OAN. From the above relative cost comparison table we can say that no additional cost is required to implement the proposed scheme instead the proposed MM-OAN provides far better performances than the SS-OAN.

MM-OAN provides far better performances than the SS-OAN. Fig. 10. Comparison of Jitter in ms, here,

Fig. 10. Comparison of Jitter in ms, here, SR ¼ short range PON and LR ¼ long range PON. (a) 2 ms cycle time and (b) 4 ms cycle time.

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M. Hossen, M. Hanawa / Optical Switching and Networking 15 (2015) 148 159

Table 2 Relative cost comparison between the MM-OAN and SS-OAN.

Quantity

SS-OAN

MM-OAN

Number of OLT cards in the CO

One 4 16

Four

Number

of

ONUs

16

Number of branches between the splitter and users 4 16

16

Requirement of additional power in the CO site

Requirement of additional power in the ONU site

No addition power is required

for 3 more OLT cards Additional power is required for 3 16 ONUs No additional power is required

Small amout of additional power is required

7. Conclusion

In this paper, the performances of the proposed net- work architecture of the PON-based Multi-OLT and multi- wavelength OAN, using the modified version of the LS scheme have been numerically analyzed in terms of throughput, BWU, UE, ODR, and jitter. All the analyses were done for a range of non-uniform traffic loads and variable maximal cycle times. The proposed MM-OAN commendably utilizes and shares the huge bandwidth of the optical network for the multiple service providers in a network and reduces the computational complexity of data packet processing. Finally, the performances of the proposed MM-OAN are compared to those of the SS-OAN. The MM-OAN provides tremendous improvements in several performance parameters than the SS-OAN because it effectively utilizes both the multi-OLT and multi- wavelength effect on the upstream channel. Specially, throughput in the MM-OAN is almost 400% higher than that of the SS-OAN for the four service providers con- nected to an ONU at an offered load of 1.0 ms and a 2 ms cycle time. This difference will be increased proportionally with the number of service providers connected to an ONU. It will not cause the lower power budget due to increasing the number of service providers in an ONU because all the service providers will use different wave- lengths in the upstream transmission. However, the max- imum number of service providers connected to an ONU will be limited by the cost of that ONU. A tradeoff analysis between the cost and performance enhancement with the number of service providers connected to an ONU is required to decide the optimum number of service provi- ders connected to an ONU.

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