100%(1)100% нашли этот документ полезным (1 голос)

177 просмотров34 страницыmarco rosignoli

© © All Rights Reserved

PDF, TXT или читайте онлайн в Scribd

marco rosignoli

© All Rights Reserved

100%(1)100% нашли этот документ полезным (1 голос)

177 просмотров34 страницыmarco rosignoli

© All Rights Reserved

Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 34

Corrugated-Plate Webs

Marco Rosignoli, DrIng, PE

Manual 101.01

November 2015

Other titles by the author:

Launched Bridges (ASCE Press, 1998) p.363, ISBN: 0784403147

Bridge Launching (Thomas Telford, 2002) p.352, ISBN: 9780727731463

Bridge Erection Machines (UNESCO Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems, 2011) p.72, Chapter 6.37.40

Bridge Construction Equipment (ICE Publishing, best-selling US title, 2013) p.496, ISBN: 9780727758088

Bridge Launching, 2nd Edition (ICE Publishing, 2014) p.376, ISBN: 9780727759979

Marco Rosignoli 2015

All rights, included translation, reserved. Except as permitted by the Copyright, Designs and Patent Act 1988, no part of

this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic,

mechanical, photocopying, printing or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the author.

While every effort has been made to ensure that the statements made and the opinions expressed in this publication

provide a safe and accurate guide, no liability or responsibility can be accepted in this respect by the author.

While any reasonable effort has been undertaken by the author to acknowledge copyright on material published, if

there has been an oversight please contact the author who will endeavor to correct this in a reprint.

Cover photograph reproduced with permission from ASCE

This manual has been designed for two-side printing in A4 or 8.5x11 format.

Marco Rosignoli, Dr.Ing., PE has 34 years of experience in the design, construction engineering and on-site supervision

of complex bridges, the industrialization of large-scale bridge projects, and the design review and forensic engineering

of major bridges and bridge construction machines. Bridge technical director for prime constructors (Impregilo, Bonatti,

Dragados USA) and design firms (HNTB, HDR, Parsons Brinckerhoff), and free-lance bridge consultant for a decade,

Marco Rosignoli has been working in 22 countries on four continents. He has served as designer, reviewer, technical

leader or technology consultant on six cable-stayed bridges, 34 incrementally launched bridges, multiple balancedcantilever bridges, and well over 50 kilometers of light-rail and high-speed railway bridges. International expert of

mechanized bridge construction and the incremental launching of bridges, Marco Rosignoli is the author of five books

published worldwide, three book chapters and over 90 scientific publications and presentations. He holds 32 patents on

bridge construction methods; serves as a peer reviewer for the bridge engineering journals of ASCE, IABSE, and ICE; and

teaches advanced courses for bridge engineers for the ASCE Continuing Education Program and other organizations.

Founder and chair of IABSE working group WG-6 Bridge Construction Equipment for the 2009-2013 term, chair of IABSE

2010 Singapore seminar State-of-the-art Bridge Deck Erection: Safe and Efficient Use of Special Equipment, founder and

manager of the Linked-In group Bridge Construction Technology, and fellow IABSE, he is a registered PE in Italy and

multiple states in the US.

Introduction

Limiting self-weight is a primary requirement in the design of most types of bridges. Self-weight is among

the most significant loads on the bridge and its reduction creates a reserve available for live loads. Selfweight also governs the cost of construction equipment, which is a prime component of the construction

cost of a bridge (1). The density of normal-weight concrete does not vary much with the concrete

strength, the weight of a prestressed-concrete (PC) bridge depends linearly on the cross-sectional area,

and the most influencing parameters are therefore related to the cross-sectional geometry.

The influence of the different parameters has been analyzed with a database of 165 constant-depth PC

box-girder highway bridges with continuous spans ranging from 19m to 96m. The depth of the crosssection governs the shear and flexural capacity and therefore increases regularly with the span, Figure 1.

The cost of materials and specialized

construction equipment (1) depends on the

weight of the cross-section, i.e. on its area

A. The moment of inertia I is the main

indicator of the flexural capacity of the

cross-section (2,3,4) and is inversely

proportional to the cost of post-tensioning

(4). The design efficiency of a PC bridge can

therefore be evaluated in terms of radius of

gyration of the cross-section

6.0

depth (m)

4.0

2.0

0.0

10

40

70

span (m)

I

A

(1)

on the deck width, their increase with the

span is scattered; their ratio does not

depend much on the deck width, and the

increase of the radius of gyration with the

span is therefore more regular, Figure 2.

2.0

100

1.5

1.0

and lower edge of the deck, respectively,

the maximum radius of gyration is achieved

when the area is positioned at the edges

0.5

0.0

10

40

70

span (m)

100

2

rmax

zu zl

(2)

1|3 2

Prestressed Composite Bridges with Steel Corrugated-Plate Webs | BEeM 101.01 November 2015

r2

I

1

2

rmax zu zl A

(3)

The closer f is to the ideal value of 1, the better the flexural efficiency, and the lower the quantity of

post-tensioning. The flexural efficiency of the PC bridges in the database is shown in Figure 3.

The cross-section of a PC box girder includes top slab, bottom slab and webs, and these three

components can be treated separately to increase the flexural efficiency f . The thickness of the top

slab depends on localized wheel-load bending and on the need for punching strength and adequate

concrete cover, and cannot be reduced excessively. The thickness of the bottom slab is often governed by

technological requirements of internal post-tensioning, but its design is generally less restrained. Using

internal post-tensioning, the web thickness is often governed by the need to contain and deviate the

tendons, and in a narrow box girder the

Figure 3: Flexural efficiency vs. span length

webs can reach 30% of the cross-sectional

area (5).

flexural efficiency

1.0

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

10

40

70

100

span (m)

the cross-section with a small contribution

to the moment of inertia because of their

position close to the neutral axis. The webs

also increase the cost of materials and

labor, as they are the most difficult

element to form and to cast of the crosssection. The webs are necessary for shear

transfer, and their shear efficiency depends

on the mechanical properties of the

material used for the webs.

The efficiency of a material can be evaluated with its strength-to-density ratio, em f . A concrete

with compressive strength fc ' 45N mm2 and density c 25kN m3 has compressive efficiency

2

em 1.8 103m and much smaller tensile efficiency. A steel plate with yielding strength fy 355N mm

and density s 77kN m3 has tensile efficiency em 4.6 103 m at first yielding and is 2.5 times more

efficient than concrete in optimum work conditions. The composite bridges with concrete slab and steel

girders are therefore more efficient than the PC bridges, as their masses are more distant from the

gravity axis, and the materials perform better.

Prestressing strand, however, is definitely more efficient. Commercial 7-wire strand reaches

em 21.5103 m at the 0.1%-load, and a cable is generally the most effective way to use steel in tension.

By relating the efficiency of materials in their optimal work conditions to the efficiency of prestressing

steel, 45MPa concrete reaches 8.4%, and medium-grade steel plates reach 21.4%.

A PC bridge is mainly designed for bending (4). Prestressing is the most efficient and cost-effective solution

to control the edge tensile stresses generated by the bending moment, and in a continuous beam this

requires the presence of two flanges to compress without instability. The use of reinforced concrete for

the two flanges offers compressive strength at low cost, and the use of external post-tensioning allows

web design for principal stresses without geometry restraints. Once the flexural demand has been met,

tendon deviation reduces the tangential stresses in the webs, with beneficial effects on web thickness

and the flexural efficiency of the cross-section.

2|3 2

Prestressed Composite Bridges with Steel Corrugated-Plate Webs | BEeM 101.01 November 2015

The efficiency of concrete can be improved by increasing the strength with the same density (i.e., by

using high-performance concrete) or by reducing the density with the same strength (i.e., by using

lightweight concrete). The next step in the research of maximum flexural efficiency consists in

abandoning the concrete webs and using two or more steel I-girders to connect the concrete slabs. Steel

webs offer the same shear capacity as concrete webs with only 5-8% of their weight, tendon deviation

diminishes the shear demand on the webs, the flexural efficiency of the cross-section increases because

of a better mass distribution, and these sections are also fast and easy to build.

The prestressed composite bridges may be grouped into two categories, the main difference between

them consisting in the transmission of shear. The space-frame decks eliminate material not working in

the Mrsch shear lattice, Figure 4, and the diagonals between the concrete slabs may be made with steel

shapes, steel pipes with or without concrete infill acting compositely, or precast PC members (6,7,8). The

box girders with steel-plate webs benefit from the higher shear efficiency of the steel plates compared

with concrete webs.

The combined use of external prestressing, concrete slabs and steel-plate or trussed webs results in

efficient cross-sections that make the most out of prestressing and are light and easy to build. Compared

with a conventional PC box girder, the cross-sectional area diminishes without affecting the moment of

inertia much, and the flexural efficiency increases. On a 40m span, a PC box girder with internal tendons

requires about 0.55m3 of concrete per square meter of deck surface, which decreases to 0.45m3/m2 with

the use of external tendons. A prestressed composite box girder with steel-plate webs requires only

0.35m3/m2 and is 25-35% lighter.

Concrete is located at the edges of the cross-section, the radius of gyration increases, and the flexural

efficiency increases with quadratic ratio. The cross-sectional area of concrete to be compressed

decreases, and prestressing diminishes because of the combined effect of smaller area and higher crosssectional efficiency.

The contribution of materials specializes. The concrete slabs resist bending thanks to prestressing, whose

deviation reduces shear to values that can be resisted with light steel-plate or trussed webs. Each

material works in uniform rather than triangular stress pattern (the concrete slabs are uniformly

compressed, the web plates resist uniform shear stress, the truss diagonals resist axial compression and

tension, and the prestressing tendons are subject to axial tension), which further enhances the efficiency

of design.

Figure 4: Space-frame deck (photo: VSL)

3|3 2

Prestressed Composite Bridges with Steel Corrugated-Plate Webs | BEeM 101.01 November 2015

A prestressed composite box girder with steel-plate webs is a hybrid between a PC box girder and a nonprestressed steel-composite deck that takes the best from the two technologies. Compared with a nonprestressed composite deck with two or multiple I-girders, the webs are thinner, the flanges are smaller,

less cross frames and no lateral braces are necessary, the weight of steelwork is only 15-20%, the unit

cost of steelwork is similar, field assembly is simpler, the geometry tolerances are less stringent, and the

maintenance costs are lower. Compared with a PC box girder, the absence of concrete webs saves labor

and post-tensioning and accelerates construction, reinforcement is simpler and easier to fabricate, and

casting cell and erection equipment (1) are less expensive.

flexural efficiency

The flexural efficiency of prestressed composite box girders with steel-plate webs has been evaluated by

subtracting the concrete webs from the cross-sectional area and moment of inertia of the bridge

database, and by increasing the net area thus determined by 5% to account for the weight of the steel

webs. The results are represented with

Figure 5: Flexural efficiency vs. span length

black dots, Figure 5, while the grey dots

represent the data in Figure 3. The increase

1.0

in flexural efficiency is substantial, and the

result is particularly interesting on longer

0.8

spans because of the progressive increase

in the web depth with the span. Better

0.6

structural performance and savings in

labor, concrete, reinforcement,

0.4

prestressing and construction equipment

balance the cost of steel webs and the risks

0.2

10

40

70

100

of innovation, and open new perspectives

in the design and construction of mediumspan (m)

span bridges.

The most intuitive way to replace the concrete webs of a PC box girder with steel webs is the use of

stiffened-plate webs. The deck has a conventional aspect, as the prestressing tendons are hidden within

the box cell. The behavior of the individual materials is well known, and the combined use of reinforced

concrete slabs and steel I-girders has been amply tested in hundreds of composite bridges. However, this

simplicity is only apparent, and several reasons discourage the use of this structural solution.

The steel webs resist a significant portion of the prestressing force applied to the composite section.

Under an axial force F, strain compatibility at the web-slab nodes governs the distribution of the axial

force between the concrete slabs, of total area Ac , and the steel girders, of total area As . The initial

portion of post-tensioning resisted by the steel girders is

Fs

As

F

E

As c Ac

Es

(4)

where Ec is the elastic modulus of concrete at stressing. The effects of concrete creep can be evaluated

with an age-adjusted modulus that decreases with time, and therefore Fs increases with time and soon

reaches 20-25% of the total prestressing force. This force is wasted and requires additional stiffeners to

prevent web buckling, which increases the fabrication cost of the webs and may reduce their fatigue life

due to cracks initiating at the stiffener welds (9).

If the webs were devoid of axial stiffness, the webs would resist only shear force, and the concrete slabs

would resist the entire bending. The axial stiffness of the webs must therefore be diminished without

affecting their shear capacity, and this requires anisotropic behavior. Orthotropic plates with different

4|3 2

Prestressed Composite Bridges with Steel Corrugated-Plate Webs | BEeM 101.01 November 2015

stiffness in the orthogonal directions are commonly used in steel bridges. Webs and bottom flange of

steel box girders are heavily stiffened in the direction of the principal compressive stresses, and less

stiffened in the orthogonal direction. This concept may be extended to the axial stiffness of a plate by

folding the plate to reduce its capability of resisting axial stress without affecting the shear capacity.

Trapezoidally- or sinusoidally-corrugated steel or aluminum plates are commonly accepted in naval and

aeronautical applications (10). Several fuselages and wing structures have been built with undulated or

corrugated plates. Skins of F-15 and wings of AV-8B and F-22 adopt corrugated panels (11). Aircraft

designers have realized long ago that the corrugated panels have larger buckling strength in the direction

perpendicular to the corrugation. Corrugated metal panels have long been recognized as excellent shear

carrying members. This is attributed to two characteristics of the panels: the transverse stiffness provided

by the corrugation depth, and the in-plane stiffness due to narrow spaced folds that act as vertical

stiffeners (12,13).

In civil structures, the advantages of structural anisotropy may be exploited by replacing the stiffenedplate webs of steel or composite girders with corrugated-plate webs (14,15,16,17). Vertical corrugation by cold

folding creates the in-plane flexibility necessary to minimize the longitudinal axial capacity of the web

panels, and amplifies the transverse flexural capacity needed to resist transverse bending and crosssectional distortion and to prevent buckling of web panels devoid of welded stiffeners, Figure 6.

Figure 6: Corrugated-plate webs (photo: Doka)

The idea of using corrugated-plate webs in civil structures was first introduced for the steel beams of

buildings, where the web thickness varies from 2mm to 5mm, and the height-to-thickness ratio of the web

panels varies between 150 and 260 (18). In the past three decades there has been increasing interest in

prestressed composite box-girder bridges with steel corrugated-plate webs, where the web thickness

varies between 8mm and 12mm, and the height-to-thickness ratio of the web panels typically ranges

between 220 and 375, and has reached 445.

The corrugated-plate webs have symmetrical regular shape with constant wavelength in the longitudinal

direction. Load tests on specimens of corrugated plates, finite-element numerical analyses and studies on

the behavior of corrugated-plate webs in prestressed composite bridges have been conducted in Britain,

Canada, China, Egypt, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Japan, Sweden and the USA, and the first actual

5|3 2

Prestressed Composite Bridges with Steel Corrugated-Plate Webs | BEeM 101.01 November 2015

bridges confirmed many advantages of the prestressed composite box girders with steel corrugated-plate

webs over the stiffened-plate ones (19,9,2).

The longitudinal flexibility of the webs minimizes the initial and time-dependent loss of prestress

into the webs. Fewer tendons are needed to prestress the slabs, and fewer shear connectors are

needed at the web flanges to transfer longitudinal interface shear. Internal tendons in a slab

compress only that slab and do not affect the other slab.

The state of stress in the central region of the web panels is an almost pure shear one. The

thickness of the web plates is chosen for shear strength, and the corrugation is designed to

control buckling. The webs may often be made with 8mm plates, while stiffened-plate webs are

rarely thinner than 12mm. In addition to savings in weight, this opens new perspectives for the

efficient use of high-grade steels.

Shear is mostly carried by tendon deviation, the residual shear is carried by the webs, bending is

carried by the concrete slabs, torsion is carried with hollow-section behavior, resistance to crosssectional distortion (20) is higher and more uniform throughout the length of the bridge, and the

interaction between bending and shear is minimal. Every material works with optimal stress

distribution.

The transverse stiffness of the corrugated plates avoids the need for welded stiffeners, reduces

the number of cross frames and diaphragms within the box cell, and saves material and labor.

These savings, along with the reduced plate thickness, are often enough to cover the cost of plate

corrugation.

Higher transverse stiffness, closely spaced folds, and the boundary restraint provided by the

concrete slabs increase web stability from buckling. Buckling depends on shear only, while in a

stiffened-plate web it depends on combined shear and axial stresses. Longitudinal axial stresses

do arise in the corrugated-plate webs in proximity of the concrete slabs, and vertical axial stresses

arise in the support regions of the bridge; these local stresses, however, do not affect web

stability.

The sensitivity to premature buckling due to geometry defects is definitely lower. The defects of

planarity are compared with the amplitude of the folds instead of the plate thickness, and their

effects are 10-20 times lower. Local distortion due to welding is limited to the edges of the

panels, which are restrained by the concrete slabs. The plastic strains due to cold folding are

uniform over the web depth and do not affect the elastic equilibrium of the panel.

The flexibility of the web panels facilitates fabrication and field assembly and avoids the need for

trial assembly and tight geometry tolerances. The web panels are overlapped and fillet-welded on

either side; in-place casting of the concrete slabs compensates for the residual geometry

irregularities.

Prestressed composite box-girder bridges with corrugated-plate webs have been built by incremental

launching on 40-55m spans and as balanced cantilevers on longer spans, Figure 6. Corrugated-plate webs

have been used in extradosed and cable-stayed bridges, and research is in progress to extend their use to

long-span arches. Combined with the use of high-performance concrete for the rib slabs, corrugated-plate

webs could lighten the arch ribs, diminish the cost of foundations and temporary support systems prior to

crown closure, avoid labor-intensive staged casting of concrete webs, and accelerate construction.

6|3 2

Prestressed Composite Bridges with Steel Corrugated-Plate Webs | BEeM 101.01 November 2015

In a prestressed composite box girder, vertical loads generate bending, shear, torsion and distortion.

Bending and shear are calculated with conventional beam analysis, but because of the orthotropic

behavior of the webs, the state of stress within the cross-section is analyzed with specific criteria.

The application of axial force and bending activates the specialized response of the different elements of

the cross-section. Because of the axial flexibility of the webs, the concrete slabs resist most of the axial

force and bending (21). The contribution of the webs to the flexural capacity of the composite section was

found to be small in finite-element analysis and negligible in real applications. High flexural efficiency of

the cross-section, uniform stress patterns in every material, no migration of prestress between the

concrete slabs, and minimal prestress shedding to the webs are the immediate consequences.

The axial flexibility of a corrugated plate

results from horizontal flexural

deformations in the plate and therefore

depends on the thickness of the plate, the

depth of the folds, and the shape of the

corrugation. Sinusoidal, zigzag and

trapezoidal corrugations are technically

possible. The cost of cold corrugation

depends on the fold angle and density, and

trapezoidal fold profiles offer a clear

economic advantage. Web plates with

trapezoidal corrugation are also stiffer in the transverse direction, and easier to splice by overlapping at

the longitudinal folds; they have therefore become standard practice in bridge applications.

Figure 7: Corrugation geometry

The restraint that the concrete slabs exert on the horizontal flexural deformations of the web plates

depends on the width and thickness of the steel flanges, on the effective width and thickness of the

concrete slabs, and on the reinforcement ratio of the latter. All these parameters influence the stress

distribution within the cross-section.

The response of a composite box girder with corrugated-plate webs to a longitudinal post-tensioning

force depends on web anisotropy and the longitudinal restraint exerted by the concrete slabs. Horizontal

bending occurs in the central region of the web panels, and with the symbols in Figure 7, the effective

longitudinal modulus of elasticity of the corrugated plate is (22)

E x ,eff

a f b f tw

c f 3b f h f

Es

(5)

The benefit of formulating an effective longitudinal modulus is that analysis methods for flat plates can

be applied to the solution of problems of corrugated panels. The corrugation angle is typically between

30 and 32, although actual bridge applications range from 25 to 38. For a typical web panel with

tw 8mm , bf c f 300mm and corrugation angle 30 , the effective longitudinal modulus is

E x ,eff 0.0013 E s , i.e. three orders of magnitude smaller than E s . This reduction in the axial stiffness

governs the axial stress distribution within the composite cross-section: the webs resist minimal

longitudinal bending, and in the absence of prestressing, two equal and opposite axial forces in the

concrete slabs balance the external moment (23).

Marco Rosignoli, Dr.Ing., PE | Bridge Engineering eManuals All Rights Reserved

7|3 2

Prestressed Composite Bridges with Steel Corrugated-Plate Webs | BEeM 101.01 November 2015

For the same reason, a prestressing force applied to a slab remains within the slab and does not affect the

webs and the other slab. Finite-element analysis and load tests showed that corrugated-plate webs

absorb a minimal fraction of the prestressing force applied to the cross-section, and the axial forces in the

slabs can be calculated based on the geometry of a cross-section composed of concrete slabs only.

Because of plate corrugation, the axial deformations of the slabs generate horizontal bending in the folds.

The peak horizontal bending generated at a vertical fold line by a longitudinal axial stress c in the

concrete slabs is (24)

mz

bf a f

Es

tw3

c

3b f c f 72h f Ec 1 2

(6)

After corrugation, the web plates are welded to flange plates, which are ultimately connected to the

concrete slabs. Strain compatibility generates longitudinal axial stress in the web regions close to the

flanges; the axial stress is higher in the longitudinal folds than in the inclined folds. With the typical

dimensions of the web plates for box-girder bridges, the longitudinal axial stress fades rapidly in 10-15%

of the panel depth and is negligible in the central 70-80% region of the panel (24). The local axial stress due

to shrinkage of concrete, slab shortening at the application of prestress and over time, live loads and

thermal gradients is the smaller the more constant the web corrugation is.

The longitudinal axial stress at the edges of the web panels does not seem to cause fatigue, as indicated

by the rarity of problems at the web-slab nodes of non-prestressed composite bridges (25,26). Tests

performed on corrugated plates welded to the flanges by intermittent welds showed that the strength of

the connection is critical for stable shear transfer. Intermittent welding may overload the welds and

cause premature failure, and is not recommended. Tests performed on corrugated plates continuously

welded to the flanges on one side only did not show premature weld failure.

The transverse restraint exerted by the flanges generates transverse bending in the vertical direction,

which fades within 10-15% of the panel depth because of the progressive onset of unrestrained

horizontal bending related to the axial flexibility of the plate. The peak vertical bending at the web-flange

weld is higher than the peak horizontal bending at the folds.

Tangential stress

As in a conventional PC box girder, the webs resist most of the shear. The shear force V applied to each

web can be assumed as uniformly distributed over the web depth, so that the uniform tangential stress is

V tw hw , where tw is the plate thickness and hw is the web depth measured clear between flanges.

Since also the vertical axial stress z is negligible far from the support regions of the bridge, the state of

stress in the web panels is one of pure shear. The two principal stresses 1 and 2 are inclined

at 45, two inclined forces F1 1tw and F2 2tw balance one another longitudinally along the vertical

fold, and the vertical resultant Fz 1tw 2 resists the external shear force (27). In the transverse plane,

the outward push of the compression fiber is balanced by the inward pull of the tension fiber.

The flange plates do not contribute much to the flexural capacity of the composite section and are

designed to be as small as possible. Web corrugation widens the flanges, their thickness is reduced to a

minimum, and the shear connectors are closely spaced to restrain the compression flange and avoid local

buckling. With the symbols in Figure 7, the ratio w of the initial plate length to its final length after

corrugation is

8|3 2

Prestressed Composite Bridges with Steel Corrugated-Plate Webs | BEeM 101.01 November 2015

bf c f

bf a f

(7)

The average shear angle in a several-wavelength web panel under pure shear is Geff , where the

effective shear modulus (22) is Geff Gs w . For a typical web panel with tw 8mm , bf c f 300mm and

corrugation angle 30 , the effective shear modulus is Geff 0.933Gs , the effective longitudinal

modulus is E x ,eff 0.0013 E s , and the reduction in the longitudinal axial stiffness is two orders of

magnitude larger than the reduction in the shear stiffness. The corrugated-plate webs are slightly more

flexible in shear than the stiffened-plate webs because of w 1 and the use of thinner plates, but the

total shear deflection is still small when compared to the flexural deflection of the composite section, as

deviation forces of polygonal tendons balance most of the vertical shear.

Load tests and finite-element analysis (19) showed that the reduction in Gs obtained by replacing a

stiffened-plate web with a corrugated-plate web corresponds to the value of w . Finite-element analysis

also showed that the shear force resisted by the concrete slabs is negligible in most of the deck but

increases near discontinuities of the shear force (2,4).

In correspondence with a discontinuity V in the shear force, the tangential stress discontinuity

tends to deform the web as a lozenge, i.e. to produce a sudden angular discontinuity Geff in

the web. The flexural and shear stiffness of the concrete slabs opposes sudden angular discontinuities in

the webs, and local systems of vertical

Figure 8: Web-slab interaction at shear discontinuities

forces arise at the web-slab nodes to

transfer the shear forces necessary to bend

the slabs until a common curvature is

reached, Figure 8. These local forces may

require additional connectors and slab

reinforcement; finite-element analysis

helps in investigating the local stresses in

web panels, web-slab nodes and the slabs

as well as in validating approximated

methods for their calculation.

Different shear deformations of slabs and

webs occur at the application points of

localized vertical loads such as support

reactions and tendon deviation forces. Different shear deformations occur in the support regions of nonprestressed composite bridges as well, but the web plates are thicker, and V is due to superimposed

dead and live loads only (self-weight is not resisted with composite action). The vertical axial stresses at

the web-slab interface depend inversely on the square root of the web area, and are therefore higher in

thinner webs.

The assumption that plane sections remain plane is not realistic in the prestressed composite box girders

with steel corrugated-plate webs. It may be adopted for preliminary design and to analyze longitudinal

bending and shear in the continuous beam; stress analysis in the shear discontinuity regions, however,

requires more refined approaches.

9|3 2

Prestressed Composite Bridges with Steel Corrugated-Plate Webs | BEeM 101.01 November 2015

Torsion-distortion interaction

In a PC box girder, the effects of eccentric loads deviate from Saint-Venants theory of torsion, and the

cross-sectional deformation is a combination of rigid torsional rotation and distortion. These effects

depend respectively on the torsional stiffness of the cross-section, which limits its capacity to rotate about

its axis, and on the interaction between the frame stiffness of the cross-section and the in-plane flexural

stiffness of webs and slabs, which together oppose distortion (20). In most practical cases, pier diaphragms

control distortion at the support sections, tendon deviators stiffen the cross-section along the span, and

warping is disregarded under the assumption that plane sections remain plane.

The distortion of a prestressed composite box girder with steel corrugated-plate webs under eccentric

loads is conceptually similar, but the effects are pronounced by the smaller in- and out-of-plane flexural

stiffness of the webs. The transverse flexural stiffness of corrugated-plate webs is much smaller than the

stiffness of the concrete slabs, the cross-section distorts as a parallelogram hinged at the web-slab nodes,

and control of distortion by in-plane frame action is minimal. The webs are also designed to not resist inplane bending, and distortion is primarily resisted by lateral deflections of the concrete slabs. Pier

diaphragms, tendon deviators and auxiliary cross frames within the box cell are therefore designed to

stabilize the cross-sectional geometry.

To study distortion, a load F applied to the top slab eccentrically from bridge centerline can be

decomposed into two symmetrical loads

F 2 and two anti-symmetrical loads Fh ,

Figure 9: Cross-section symbols

equal in value and opposite in sign, applied

to the top web-slab nodes of the crosssection. Symmetrical loads cause

longitudinal bending and shear. Because of

the minimal frame stiffness of the crosssection, external forces are only

counteracted by shear forces in the webs.

The shear force produced by Fh in each

web, assumed as hinged to the concrete slabs and with the symbols of Figure 9, is Vw Fhc h . This force

is higher than the shear force produced by a torsional moment T Fha , and corresponds to the shear

force due to a moment T Fh a b .

In a box girder with vertical corrugated-plate webs, the torsional shear in the webs is twice the torsional

shear determined with the Saint-Venants theory of torsion for an undeformable cross-section. In a

trapezoidal box girder, the lateral force in the top slab can be obtained (28) by adding a force Vt Fha h to

the shear force resulting from the torsional moment, and the lateral force in the bottom slab can be

obtained by adding a force equal to Vb Fhb h .

As a result of torsion-distortion interaction, the cross-section is subject to a rigid in-plane rotation due to

the torsional moment, and to lateral deflections of the concrete slabs in the opposite directions due to

distortion. Diaphragms and cross frames are therefore necessary to control lateral displacements and

rotations in the concrete slabs, slab edge decompression, and transverse bending in the corrugated-plate

webs (3,4). Although the transverse flexural stiffness generated by plate corrugation is relatively low, the

folds are shallow and the transverse axial stress in the web regions close to the slabs may reach the yield

point of steel at the plate surface. Transverse bending propagates to the web-slab nodes and may require

additional flange connectors and slab reinforcement, especially in the bottom slab.

10 | 3 2

Prestressed Composite Bridges with Steel Corrugated-Plate Webs | BEeM 101.01 November 2015

Because of the fundamental role of external post-tensioning in reducing the shear force applied to the

webs, the tendon deviators are distributed for optimal control of shear, and distortion is controlled with

additional diaphragms or cross frames. An analysis method proposed for the effects of launch bearing

misalignment in incrementally launched bridges (2,3,4,20) can be easily adapted to the study of the warping

stresses in the cross-section based on the effective longitudinal modulus, equation (5), and the restraint

provided by pier diaphragms, tendon deviators and cross frames to the lateral deflections of the concrete

slabs.

Web-slab nodes

The bottom web-slab node involves a few design challenges to assure durability. Longitudinal corrosion

lines have been frequently observed at the deck paving level in U-spans with edge girders connected by a

concrete slab at the bottom flanges. In a prestressed composite box girder the situation is similar,

although only condensation water can gather within the box cell. Corrosion prevention discourages from

placing triple contact points (air, concrete, and steel) near main structural members. Therefore, while the

top web-slab nodes may be detailed with conventional criteria, the bottom nodes present specific design

challenges, Figure 10.

The simplest solution (Scheme A) consists of casting the bottom slab over the bottom flange and is

adversely affected by a triple contact point on a main structural member. A longitudinal stiffener may be

welded to the web at the top of the slab

Figure 10: Bottom web-slab node

(Scheme B) to move the triple contact

away from the web. In both cases, the field

splices in the bottom flange interfere with

construction by incremental launching

(2,3,4). The slab may also be cast under the

bottom flange (Scheme C). This moves the

triple contact point away from the web,

reduces the weight of steelwork, and offers

a better aesthetic result; however,

embedded props are necessary to support

the web panels on the soffit form prior to

casting of the bottom slab. Concrete

pouring and vibration may be simplified by inclining the webs (Scheme D), which also assures better

concrete adhesion to the bottom flange and better performance of shear connectors. Additional cost

savings derive from a narrower bottom slab.

The web-slab nodes are designed for transfer of longitudinal interface shear, transverse bending and

vertical axial loads in the deck regions subject to shear discontinuities. Headed stud connectors may be

used when the concrete slab is cast over the bottom flange; the connectors for suspended slabs must

also resist the weight of the slab and are therefore embedded more deeply into concrete (29,30,31).

The web-slab connections of prestressed composite box girders are subject to specific design

requirements. The corrugated-plate webs are workshop welded to the flange plates and painted prior to

delivery. The concrete slabs generate the flexural capacity of the composite section, and the steel flanges

have therefore minimal area, for economic reasons and to minimize the restraint exerted on the axial

deformations of the concrete slabs.

Wide flange plates are necessary to accommodate the web corrugation and to contain concrete during

slab casting. The plate thickness is reduced to a minimum, and vertical buckling of the compression flange

11 | 3 2

Prestressed Composite Bridges with Steel Corrugated-Plate Webs | BEeM 101.01 November 2015

into the web (9) caused premature failure of tested specimens. The shear connectors are therefore

designed for diffused load transfer and to control buckling of the compression flange.

The connectors transfer longitudinal interface shear, vertical axial force, and biaxial bending. Weight of

suspended bottom slab and vertical forces at the longitudinal shear discontinuities in the box girder tend

to detach the slabs from the webs. Cross-sectional frame action and the restraint exerted by the webs on

lateral slab deflections when the cross-section distorts cause transverse bending at the interface. In-plane

lateral deflections of the slabs cause bending about the vertical axis. These effects are more pronounced

at the bottom web-slab node because of the higher lateral flexibility of the bottom slab (4).

Connectors are designed with conventional criteria. Interface shear transfer depends on the residual

shear force, which depends on prestress deviation. Prestressing may be internal in the slabs, external

within the box cell, or a combination of the two. The most effective design approach is balancing the

shear force due to permanent loads and one-half of live loads with the deviation of polygonal tendons, so

that shear forces in the webs and interface shear transfer at the web-slab nodes are only related to the

presence or absence of live loads (27).

In incrementally launched bridges, the integrative post-tensioning applied at the end of launch (2,3,4) is

designed to force the state of stress in the box girder under permanent loads toward an axial

compression one. A prestressed composite

Figure 11: Inner view of box cell

box girder is more flexible than a PC deck,

incremental launching construction

discourages from the application of

cambers, and high degrees of

compensation for the final prestressing (32)

are also necessary for control of midspan

deflections. External polygonal tendons can

be used as the only form of post-tensioning

or can be combined with internal tendons

in the slabs. Additional prestress may be

needed to control the edge stresses and to

provide ultimate flexural capacity. Internal

midspan tendons in the bottom slab and cap tendons over the piers are more efficient than short

external tendons because of the larger eccentricity, smaller anchor blisters, and less tendon congestion

within the box cell. Varying prestressing in the slabs does not cause hyperstatic effects, as the

prestressing forces applied to a slab do not migrate toward the webs and the other slab.

Even when only a few polygonal tendons are used, the shear reduction is significant and longitudinal

interface shear transfer at the web-slab nodes is rarely a major design issue. Most design standards for

composite bridges specify the maximum spacing of flange connectors in relation to slab and flange

thickness and height of connectors. Tight spacing is typically specified for headed stud connectors on 1012 mm flange plates for better control of buckling in the flange regions far from connectors. Headed stud

connectors, therefore, are not much fit for use on thin flange plates, as tight spacing conflicts with slab

reinforcement and prevents the concrete from flowing during slab casting.

Shape connectors (L-connectors with through bars that transfer vertical tensile force and transverse

bending, or channel connectors) are more practical, stabilize the flange plate more effectively, and

facilitate supporting the web panels on the soffit form before casting of the bottom slab. Shape

connectors are workshop welded to the flange in correspondence with the web folds to stiffen the flange

and to prevent buckling at the application of post-tensioning. The longitudinal spacing of shape

12 | 3 2

Prestressed Composite Bridges with Steel Corrugated-Plate Webs | BEeM 101.01 November 2015

connectors ( a f and b f alternate, as in Figure 7) varies between 250mm and 400mm, with smaller values

near the support sections of the deck.

Some design standards limit the dimensions of the welds of shape connectors to flange in relation to the

plate thickness. The minimum distance between the ends of shape connectors and the edges of the flange

plate is sometimes limited to 25mm. When the top flange is wide to facilitate the operations of a rolling

form table for the concrete slab, Figure 11, the width of shape connectors should not exceed the depth of

the web folds much. Because of combined geometry requirements, thin flange plates suggest combining

regularly-spaced shape connectors with integrative headed stud connectors. Some design standards

specify a reduced shear capacity for headed stud connectors subject to axial tension, and most design

standards specify the nominal shear capacity of L-shapes with hoops and channels.

From the 1960s onward, nearly all of the research work on corrugated-plate webs was addressed to

study the shear capacity. In the absence of instability, a steel plate subject to pure shear can be designed

for strength. The nominal tangential stress at yielding is determined with the Von Mises yield criterion

from the characteristic yield strength of steel, y fy

applicable design standards for shear failure is used to determine the design tangential stress at yielding,

y ,d s y .

The stiffened-plate webs of non-prestressed composite bridges are often designed to meet stability rather

than strength criteria (33,34). When different buckling modes are possible, each mode is identified based on

its critical tangential stress cr ,i . The design value for the critical tangential stress is then determined

based on the resistance factor cr ,i 1 specified by the applicable design standards for that mode,

cr ,i ,d cr ,i cr ,i , and the smallest of the factored design values identifies the design critical tangential

The typical design approach for a corrugated-plate web of a prestressed composite box girder is to define

the plate thickness based on the ultimate factored shear demand, the factored tangential stress at

yielding y ,d and the plate dimensions commercially available, and then to determine the shape and

amplitude of the corrugation so that the design critical tangential stress for buckling cr ,d exceeds y,d .

This approach allows reaching the structural safety represented by the reliability index of the design

standards with marginal differences in the corrugation costs. When achieving this goal is unpractical or

uneconomic, the range 0.8 cr ,d y 1 often results in efficient use of steel.

The buckling behavior of a corrugated plate is more complex than the buckling behavior of a stiffened

plate. Built-up girders with corrugated-plate webs subject to pure shear show three modes of web

instability in relation to the aspect ratio of the web sub-panels and the depth of the folds: local buckling,

global buckling and interactive buckling.

Local buckling

Local buckling corresponds to the shear instability of a flat web sub-panel supported at two vertical folds.

Local buckling affects trapezoidal and zigzag corrugations, while sinusoidal corrugations are unaffected.

The corrugated plate acts as a series of flat unstiffened sub-panels with large aspect ratio ( 6 hw bf 16

in practical cases) that support one another at the folds and are restrained at the flanges. In a prestressed

13 | 3 2

Prestressed Composite Bridges with Steel Corrugated-Plate Webs | BEeM 101.01 November 2015

composite box girder, the restraint exerted by the flanges corresponds to fixity due to the relative

stiffness of the concrete slabs.

Buckling in a single sub-panel is considered as the failure mode for local buckling. Local buckling is

reversible and preponderant in webs with coarse corrugation, does not cause significant risks of general

instability, and has a post-critical domain. Local buckling in a sub-panel is similar to buckling in a stiffened

plate and can be studied with the classical equations for isotropic plates. Because of the dense

corrugation profile, the corrugated-plate webs are typically stiffer than the traditional stiffened-plate

webs, and their resistance to local buckling is therefore higher.

The elastic critical tangential stress for local buckling of a sub-panel fixed at the edges and with infinite

length ( hw bf 6 ) may be defined with the Timoshenkos theory of stationary potential energy (35)

t

T 4.826E s w

bf

(8)

In equation (8), the longitudinal width b f of the sub-panel is replaced with the inclined width c f if

bigger. The vertical folds provide a flexible restraint to the sub-panels, and the elastic critical tangential

stress for local buckling is therefore lower than the Timoshenkos formulation. The following equation

has been proposed to account for the lower level of edge restraint (36)

tw

bf

cr ,l 0.88 T 4.247E s

(9)

Nonlinear finite-element analysis and tests on specimens of corrugated plates led to a second equation

for the elastic critical tangential stress for local buckling, which includes the effects of the aspect ratio of

the corrugation (9,37)

cr ,l

t

0.904kcr ,l E s w

bf

(10)

The buckling coefficient kcr ,l for local buckling is a function of the aspect ratio hw bf of the sub-panel

and of the support conditions at the boundaries. For simple support at the vertical folds and fixity at the

flanges it is

b

b

3.44 f 8.39 f

hw

hw

hw

bf

(11)

kcr ,l

b

8.98 5.60 f

hw

(12)

The average of the critical tangential stresses calculated with simple support and fixity at the vertical

folds has been found to closely match the results of finite-element analysis (9). The local buckling strength

of the corrugated plate depends on the aspect ratio of the sub-panels and on the plate thickness, and is

independent of the corrugation profile. Finite-element analysis tends to overestimate the results of load

tests because of geometry imperfections in the corrugated plates. Inelastic local buckling may occur

when cr ,l 0.8 y , and the inelastic critical tangential stress can be calculated as

cr ,l ,in 0.9 cr ,l y

(13)

14 | 3 2

Prestressed Composite Bridges with Steel Corrugated-Plate Webs | BEeM 101.01 November 2015

This semi-empirical equation (38) includes the effects of geometry imperfections and residual stresses

related to plate corrugation and welding to flanges (39,9).

Global buckling

In the global buckling mode, shear instability is characterized by diagonal buckling over several

corrugation sub-panels (18). This mode of instability is critical in webs with dense corrugation, or when a

small corrugation angle results in shallow folds.

The regular, wide wavelength deformation is progressive in the onset and development if in absence of

local buckling, and is similar to that of an orthotropic plate. If local buckling occurs in the post-critical

domain, the corrugated plate may lose the stability necessary to reach shear yielding. Easley (40)

investigated global buckling of corrugated-plate panels with orthotropic-plate buckling theory and tests

on 0.4mm aluminum plates. Tests on steel plates carried out in France (23), the UK (19) and the USA (9)

confirmed Easleys results.

The elastic critical tangential stress for global buckling is determined with the Ritz method (40,41,42) by

considering the corrugated plate as an orthotropic plate with a thickness equal to the corrugation depth

hf

cr ,g kcr ,g

Dz0.25Dx0.75

tw hw2

(14)

The web corrugation profile acts as uniform stiffening in the transverse direction of the panel. The

transverse flexural stiffness of a unit length of corrugated plate with trapezoidal profile is

Dx E stw h2f

3b f c f

12 a f b f

(15)

Dx E stw h2f

cf

12 a f

(16)

For the same sub-panel width and corrugation angle, the trapezoidal corrugation has higher resistance to

global buckling than the zigzag corrugation because of the increased moment of inertia contributed by

the sub-panels parallel to the girder length. The longitudinal flexural stiffness is reduced by the

corrugation ratio w , equation (7), for both types of corrugation

Dz 0.092 E s

tw3

(17)

The buckling coefficient kcr ,g for global buckling solely depends on the restraint exerted by the flanges

and varies from 36.0 for simple support to 68.4 for fixity according to Easley (43), from 31.6 for simple

support to 59.2 for fixity according to Elgaaly (9), and from 32.4 for flexible steel flanges to 60.4 for stiff

concrete slabs according to Bergfeld (44). Simple support at the flanges neglects the restraint to warping

exerted by the concrete slabs (45). Finite-element analysis showed that the concrete slabs exert a

substantial restraint action and greatly increase the elastic critical tangential stress for global buckling.

The no-warping model ( kcr ,g 60.4 ) has been recommended for the analysis of the corrugated-plate

webs of prestressed composite box girders (46).

15 | 3 2

Prestressed Composite Bridges with Steel Corrugated-Plate Webs | BEeM 101.01 November 2015

Inelastic global buckling may occur when cr ,g 0.8 y , and the inelastic critical tangential stress (44,9) can

be calculated as

cr ,g ,in 0.9 cr ,g y

(18)

Interactive buckling

Interactive buckling was identified in tests on corrugated plates (44) carried out in Sweden. It results from

the interaction between local and global buckling modes, is a sudden phenomenon characterized by a

sharp snap and steel plasticization along the folds, and is critical in webs with folds of intermediate depth.

The following equation has been proposed for the critical tangential stress cr ,i for interactive buckling

1

cr ,i

(19)

cr ,l cr ,g

Inelastic local and global critical stresses, equations (13) and (18), are used in equation (19) when the

corresponding elastic critical stress exceeds 80% of the yield point of steel. The interaction among the

three buckling modes and the tangential stress at yielding is shown in Figure 12 for an 8mm plate with

trapezoidal corrugation, fy 350N mm2 , hw tw 250 , kcr ,g 60.4 and 30 . El Metwally (47) has

proposed an interaction equation inclusive of shear yielding to predict failure of corrugated-plate webs

within the entire practical range of corrugation parameters

1

cr ,i

1

cr ,l

1

cr ,g

1

y

(20)

The recommended values for the exponent are k 2 for trapezoidal corrugation and k 3 for zigzag

corrugation. Prior to reaching the shear yielding point of the panel, the post-critical strength of

corrugated-plate webs depends on the width of the sub-panels. The ultimate shear capacity of wide subpanels may be twice their local buckling

capacity, while narrow or shallow

Figure 12: Non-factored critical tangential stress

corrugations offer minimal post-critical

600

domain due to global buckling.

local (10)

500

local (13)

global (14)

global (18)

interactive (19)

yielding

nonlinear finite-element analysis well

predicts the failure loads and the failure

300

modes of corrugated plates. Numerical

200

analysis of interactive buckling and the post100

critical domain requires consideration of

geometric and material nonlinearities

0

0

200

400

600

800

because of the significant influence of the

bw (mm)

plastic strains. The Ramberg-Osgood strainhardening model provides more accurate results than the elastic-perfectly plastic model. Arc-length

iterative algorithms may be used for the incremental loading of nonlinear models to overcome the snapthrough and snap-back numerical convergence problems often associated with nonlinear buckling

analysis.

400

Block distributions of yield strains have been used to study the effects of mechanical folding of the plates.

Because of the cold-forming process used for corrugation, yield strains and the degree of strain-hardening

16 | 3 2

Prestressed Composite Bridges with Steel Corrugated-Plate Webs | BEeM 101.01 November 2015

at the folds of the corrugation profile are higher than in the flat regions of the panels (48). Folding does not

seem to have significant effects on the ultimate strength of the panels.

Patch loading of corrugated-plate webs throughout a flange is rarely a problem in bridges built in their

final position, as the support regions of the webs are detailed for load transfer from the bearings. In

incrementally launched bridges, (2,3,4) dispersal of the launch support reactions within the webs generates

local vertical axial stress, and the lower region of the web panels is subject to a triaxial state of stress.

Lateral launch guides and the flexural stiffness of the bottom slab facilitate control of transverse bending,

the state of stress in the webs may be assumed as a plane one, and the Huber-Mises stress may be

directly compared with the yield point of steel.

In the absence of bearing stiffeners, the vertical patch-load capacity of the webs must be assessed in

terms of stability as well. Length of launch bearings and bottom slab haunches lengthen the patch load,

which typically includes several folds of the corrugation. The support reaction is therefore applied to

longitudinal sub-panels, inclined sub-panels, and several fold lines.

Tests and extensive finite-element analysis identified two failure modes of corrugated-plate webs under

vertical patch loads (9,49). The first mode (web crippling) includes a collapse mechanism in the loaded

flange and local bending or crippling of the web. The second mode (web yielding) does not include a

flange collapse mechanism, and failure is due to web yielding followed by crippling (50). When a short

patch load is applied directly to the bottom flange, web crippling occurs when the load is under the

longitudinal sub-panels of the corrugation, while web yielding mostly occurs when the load is under the

inclined sub-panels or the folds. Additional researches (49,51) showed that nonlinear finite-element analysis

well predicts the failure loads and the failure modes of corrugated plates under patch loading.

Crippling does not cause instantaneous failure of corrugated-plate webs (49,52). Patch load capacity

increases nonlinearly with the flange deflection, and the ultimate capacity is 10-80% higher than the first

crippling load. Local detailing of the bottom slab, web and flange thickness, load distribution and position,

and yield strength of the webs are the most effective factors for the control of web crippling (48,53). The

following equation has been proposed for the ultimate patch load capacity of a corrugated-plate web (53)

L

Pr 15.6wtbtw fy 1 w

240

(21)

where t b is the thickness of the bottom flange and Lw is the length of the patch load along the web edge,

both expressed in millimeters. In a prestressed composite box girder, the ultimate capacity for web

yielding is calculated based on axial yielding of an effective web length resulting from 45 dispersal of the

support reaction throughout the bottom web-slab node. In the most complex cases, more accurate

distribution of the vertical axial stress may be attained with finite-element analysis of models including

bearings and bottom web-slab node (4).

In-plane bending and shear diminish the vertical patch-load capacity of a corrugated-plate web. The

following interaction has been proposed (51) for combined patch loading and in-plane bending, where P is

the patch-load capacity in the presence of the bending, M is the bending capacity in the presence of

patch load, Pr is the ultimate patch-load capacity in the absence of bending, and Mr is the ultimate

flexural capacity in the absence of patch loading

Pr

M

Mr

(22)

17 | 3 2

Prestressed Composite Bridges with Steel Corrugated-Plate Webs | BEeM 101.01 November 2015

I-girders with flat stiffened-plate webs may be checked with k 2 (54). A more conservative value

k 1.25 has been proposed for corrugated-plate webs devoid of bottom slab (9). The flexural and shear

stiffness of the bottom web-slab node justifies the use of k 2 for a prestressed composite box girder.

The following interaction has been proposed for combined patch loading and in-plane shear (9), where Vr

is the ultimate shear capacity of the cross-section

Pr

V

1

Vr

(23)

The stiffness of the bottom web-slab node justifies the use of k 1.8 in a prestressed composite box

girder.

Resistance factors

Different resistance factors are used for the different buckling modes of a corrugated-plate web to reflect

the different post-critical domains; allowance is also made for geometry imperfections in the box girder

and the corrugation folds, and for residual stresses in the folds in relation to the corrugation process. The

resistance factors for the fillet welds of web to flanges, the flanges, and the shear connectors are specified

by the applicable design standards for non-prestressed composite bridges.

French researchers (39,55) proposed the use of cr ,g 0.50 for global buckling and of cr ,i 0.67 for

interactive buckling. These resistance factors were used for the design of the Pont de la Corniche (39). A

lower resistance factor for global buckling, cr ,g 0.33, was used for the design of the Charolles Bridge.

Further research could lead to relaxation or refinement of the resistance factors, especially in relation to

global buckling. When global buckling occurs, the shear strength decreases and the corrugated plate must

develop large diagonal deformations required for stretching the folds prior to being able to transfer

diagonal tension through membrane action. Tests confirmed the existence of a post-critical domain for

global buckling, but the deformations necessary to achieve post-critical stability may be excessive for

bridge structures. The resistance factors for global and interactive buckling are therefore lower than the

resistance factor for local buckling, whose post-critical domain is stable and well known. The resistance

factor for local buckling (38) may be taken as

Figure 13: Factored critical tangential stress

250

200

150

local (10)

local (13)

interactive (19)

yielding

global (14)

global (18)

100

50

0

0

200

400

bw (mm)

600

800

because the critical tangential stresses for

global and interactive buckling are higher

than the critical tangential stress of

stiffened-plate webs. If necessary, deeper

folds may increase the critical tangential

stresses for global and interactive buckling

with minimal additional costs, related only

to a shorter final plate length.

The design tangential strength d at the

ultimate limit state is taken as the smallest of the factored critical tangential stresses calculated for

yielding and local, global and interactive buckling for the given corrugation parameters. Starting from

Figure 12, the interaction among the three buckling modes and shear yielding is shown in Figure 13 for

cr ,g 0.50 , cr ,i 0.67 and cr ,l 0.91 . The design of a corrugated-plate web typically starts for

18 | 3 2

Prestressed Composite Bridges with Steel Corrugated-Plate Webs | BEeM 101.01 November 2015

d y 0.8 and the practical consequence of the application of resistance factors is narrowing the choice

of b f for a given set of corrugation parameters.

A corrugated-plate web is designed for a given depth hw (from the general geometry of the composite

section) and for a known factored shear force (from torsion-distortion interaction and the residual shear

after tendon deviation). The corrugation angle is typically between 30 and 32. In an open section the

a f b f ratio may be influenced by the need to limit the width of bottom flange overhang (56), but this is

rarely an issue in a prestressed composite box girder as the concrete slabs stiffen both flanges.

The sub-panels may have the same width in the longitudinal and inclined directions ( bf c f ) to achieve

the same aspect ratio and the same critical tangential stress for local buckling. This, however, is rarely

necessary as local buckling governs only for very wide sub-panels. The depth-to-thickness ratio of typical

corrugated-plate webs for box girder bridges is in the 200 hw tw 450 range, and the sub-panel aspect

ratio is 6 hw bf 16 . The following statistical regression has been proposed (24)

tw

h

0.00828 0.00044 w

hw

bf

(24)

For efficient use of steel it should be d y 0.8 , and therefore it remains to find t w and b f . The

following procedure has been proposed (19).

1. Determine t w from the factored shear force, the factored tangential stress at yielding, and the

plate thickness commercially available.

2. Assume an initial value of bf tw .

3. Determine the critical tangential stress for local buckling with equation (10). The factored critical

tangential stress typically exceeds the tangential stress at yielding and rarely governs design.

4. Input a start value for the critical tangential stress for interactive buckling into equation (19), for

example cr ,i ,d 0.9 y

5. Based on

cr ,i

and

cr ,l

, determine

cr ,g

Working on equations (10) and (11), d can be expressed as a function of bf tw and hw tw . Design

charts with bf tw in abscissa and hw tw in ordinate can be drawn for the desired ratio d y and the

chosen corrugation parameters. Design charts with hw tw in abscissa and d y in ordinate can be

drawn for different values of bf tw to determine the most efficient corrugation parameters in the

0.8 d y 1 range based on a chosen fold angle. Figure 14 has been obtained with the corrugation

parameters and the resistance factors of Figures 12 and 13. Design charts with b f in abscissa and d y

in ordinate can also be drawn for different values of hw tw , Figure 15.

The design charts may be based on non-factored tangential stresses for analysis of the physics of

instability, or on factored stresses for design purposes. The critical tangential stresses for the different

buckling modes can be enveloped with the following equation

d cr ,l cr ,l k cr ,g cr ,g k cr ,i cr ,i k s y k

1 k

(25)

19 | 3 2

Prestressed Composite Bridges with Steel Corrugated-Plate Webs | BEeM 101.01 November 2015

The tangential stress thus determined is always smaller than the individual stresses on the right-hand side

of the equation, and the exponent governs the shape of the transition. A large exponent makes the curve

to tightly follow the six bounding equations (local buckling below and above 0.8 y , global buckling below

and above 0.8 y , interactive buckling and factored tangential stress at yielding). The dotted line in Figure

15 has been calculated with k 10 .

Figure 14: Design chart

1.2

bf/tw=80

bf/tw=40

bf/tw=60

bf/tw=20

1.0

td/ty

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0.0

0

100

200

300

400

500

600

700

800

hw/tw

1.2

1.0

td/ty)

0.8

0.6

hw/tw=400

hw=tw=300

hw/tw=200

hw/tw=200; equation (25) k=10

0.4

0.2

0.0

0

200

400

600

800

the desired shear strength with the least

cost. Optimization may be based on the

least volume of steel, on the least number

of folds, or on a combination of the two

criteria. The width of the sub-panels affects

the buckling modes significantly. For

narrow sub-panels, the web buckles in the

global mode and the buckling wave

involves multiple sub-panels. For wide subpanels, the web buckles in the local mode

and instability affects only one sub-panel.

For sub-panels of intermediate width,

yielding or interactive buckling controls

web failure. The post-buckling behavior

depends on how close the web profile is to

the region governed by shear yielding as

opposed to the regions governed by global

and local buckling (18). Since local buckling

offers stable post-critical behavior, the

post-buckling strength of the web increases

as b f gets larger. Figure 13 shows that

governed by either shear yielding or local

buckling. This suggests the use of equal longitudinal and inclined width for the sub-panels. The

corrugated-plate webs of prestressed composite box girders are unlikely to fall in the region governed by

global buckling, and can therefore be designed with the higher resistance factors of shear yielding and

local buckling.

bw (mm)

Problems of large-scale fabrication of 8-10mm corrugated-plate webs should be addressed to provide

sufficient robustness and durability. Higher cost of fabrication is generally perceived to be the main

disadvantage of built-up corrugated-plate webs (36), although for a fabricator with joint-tracking welding

equipment (58) the cost difference should be small, as the vertical stiffeners are eliminated and the field

splices are much simpler. The webs may be fillet welded to the flanges on one side only (9), and I-girders

with corrugated-plate webs can therefore be economical when compared with stiffened-plate girders.

The flange plates are welded to the edges of the corrugated web panels after their pressing to shape.

Shear connectors may be welded to the flanges prior to welding the latter to the web panels. Web

20 | 3 2

Prestressed Composite Bridges with Steel Corrugated-Plate Webs | BEeM 101.01 November 2015

dimensions depend on commercial standards, and it is reasonable to assume that steel plates of width

hw up to about 3m, thickness t w up to 12mm, and length up to 15m, are available for corrugation.

Continuous, highly-automated manufacturing processes have been developed for fabrication of built-up

I-girders with 2-3mm corrugated webs for building and crane applications (59). At the beginning of the

assembly line, a de-coiler feeds the web plate into a stretch leveler followed by the corrugation unit. The

depth of the sinusoidal corrugation ranges between 30mm and 45mm, and the depth of the web may

reach 1500mm. While the finished web is transported through the assembly line continuously, both

flanges are placed into position and fixed

Figure 16: Pressing equipment

to the web by means of hydraulic clamps.

Together they pass through the welding

unit for continuous one-sided fillet welding

under submerged arc. The entire

manufacturing process takes place at a

speed of 2m per minute.

Cold pressing is likely to be the least

expensive method for forming the

corrugation of 8-12mm web plates for

bridge applications. The webs for the Cognac Bridge in France were corrugated by flipping the plate over

after each pressing. Eventually, one complete 4-fold corrugation was cold-pressed at a time by placing

the plate on rollers to avoid stretching, Figure 16.

Presses for steel plates up to 4m-wide are available in Europe. The pressing force Fp for the generation of

four cylindrical plastic hinges in the plate can be estimated by replacing the yield stress of steel with the

tensile strength fu to allow for strain hardening (36)

Fp fu

tw2 hw

af

(26)

Wp futw2 hw

(27)

For fu 510N mm2 , tw 8mm , hw 1000mm , 30 and bf 300mm , the pressing force and

energy are Fp 126kN and Wp 17.1 kJ . The cycle time is mainly governed by the time taken to move the

plate one wavelength between each stroke. Even if the cycle time is as short as 10 sec, the mean power

required for pressing is only 17.1 10 1.7 kW . At this rate, corrugation of a 14.5m-long plate would take

about 2 min and provide a 13.5m length of web (12 complete corrugations with 1120mm wavelength,

w 1.072). Heavier presses would be needed for a 12mm web plate, 2.0m wide. As b f is likely to be

proportional to t w , the pressing force is proportional to tw hw and so would be Fp 378kN in this case.

The angle is generally between 25 and 32. This enables a generous bend radius, such as 10 tw , to be

used for the folds, which also reduces the stress concentration in the flange-to-web welds at the folds.

The flange plates are welded orthogonal to the corrugated webs, and the box girders with inclined webs

are obtained with haunches in the concrete slabs at the web-slab nodes. Submerged-arc joint tracking

equipment (58) may be used for welding; profiled gas-shielded fillet welding is often used for the 3mm

corrugated webs used in buildings. Conventional weld control technology is applicable to these welds.

Handling and transport requirements and the wavelength of the folds govern the optimum length of the

web segments, which often governs the modularity of the slab segments of the prestressed composite

Marco Rosignoli, Dr.Ing., PE | Bridge Engineering eManuals All Rights Reserved

21 | 3 2

Prestressed Composite Bridges with Steel Corrugated-Plate Webs | BEeM 101.01 November 2015

box girder. The web segments used for the Charente Bridge in France were 12m long. Web segments

ranging from 10m to 14m were used for the Charolles Bridge in France in combination with 12m slab

segments. The web segments used for the Ginzan-Miyuki Bridge in Japan were 5.5m long in combination

with 11m slab segments. The web segments for balanced cantilever bridges are typically shorter to match

the length of the casting cell of the form travelers (1).

Web segments can be spliced by overlapping and double fillet welding or by slip-critical bolted

connections, with or without cover plates. Double fillet welds are designed for shear and the horizontal

bending (3) due to axial shortening of the box girder at the application of prestress. The flange plates are

rarely spliced. Field splicing is simpler and less expensive than for the I-girders of non-prestressed

composite bridges. Procedures for cambering corrugated webs (36) have been proposed; cambers are not

used in prestressed composite box girders built by incremental launching (2,3,4).

Prestressed composite box-girder bridges are typically constructed by incremental launching or balanced

cantilever casting (1). The casting yard organization for incremental launching construction (2,3,4) of a

prestressed composite box girder is similar to that for a conventional PC box girder, as casting and

prestressing requirements govern in both cases.

Field splicing of corrugated-plate webs is fast and inexpensive, and short web segments may be used to

simplify handling. Whatever the optimum length of the web segments may be, the length of the slab

segments is kept as constant as practical to avoid frequent repositioning of the casting cell bulkhead.

Field splices in the webs and construction joints in the slabs may be staggered longitudinally, although

web segments cantilevering out from the rear deck end complicate the use of rear thrust systems for

launching.

Staggered casting of the slab segments is an effective yard organization for the incremental launching

construction of prestressed composite box girders (4). In the rear casting cell, the web segments are

positioned on adjustable supports. Web flexibility simplifies plan and vertical alignment, and in-place

casting of the bottom slab relaxes the geometry tolerances in the steelwork and simplifies field splicing.

After alignment, the webs are fillet welded or bolted to the rear end of the completed deck. The top slab

may be cast in the same cell or in a front casting cell after segment extraction to stagger the two

operations for better labor rotation. The steel flanges may be welded or left discontinuous. Steel pier

diaphragms and tendon deviators are assembled in the rear casting cell to simplify handling and

connection.

The use of L-shape connectors with through bars complicates cage prefabrication for the bottom slab.

Channel connectors are preferable for this purpose. Cage fabrication is complicated by the restrained

work environment and the need to insert the bars under the bottom flanges of the webs. Concrete

vibration under the bottom flanges requires particular care to assure concrete penetration between the

connectors and absence of defects and honeycombs.

The soffit form includes two full-length extraction rails under the webs (4) and a central lowering form

table. Cambering is not used and the extraction rails are set along the local projection of the launch

trajectory. Steel-PTFE plates are aligned over the extraction rails to diminish the frictional resistance of

the casting cell during segment extraction.

In the front casting cell, the top slab is cast over the top flanges of the steel webs. The casting cell

includes two outer forms for the side wings and a central form table supported on the bottom slab. The

22 | 3 2

Prestressed Composite Bridges with Steel Corrugated-Plate Webs | BEeM 101.01 November 2015

form table is extracted backward after launch and repositioned for the new slab segment. Concrete

pouring in the two casting cells is staggered over time to optimize labor rotation.

Internal launch tendons (4) are anchored at the rear construction joint to simplify strand insertion and

tendon stressing from the rear anchorages. Internal tendons are spliced by coupling or overlapping and

may be tensioned after a short curing time. If the front casting cell is sufficiently far from the launch

abutment, internal launch tendons may cross 2 or 3 slab segments. External polygonal launch tendons

are anchored by splicing in double anchor beams, and temporary deviators made of steel or concrete are

necessary at the top slab level for deviation of antagonist tendons (4).

Incremental launching is likely to be the most competitive construction method for prestressed

composite box girders with simple geometry, 40-50m spans and a few hundred meters of length.

Launching the completed deck is simpler and more rational than launching the steel girder and

completing the cross-section by casting the concrete slabs in-place, although the deck is much heavier

during launch. Compared with the launch of the steel girder of a non-prestressed composite bridge, the

deck is several times heavier, the webs are thinner, and the launch stresses may therefore be critical.

The launch nose is typically quite long (2,3,4) to reduce the peaks of negative bending and shear in the front

deck region. A long launch nose is not particularly expensive with a lightweight deck cross-section, and the

steel corrugated-plate webs themselves can be used as a launch nose. The bottom slab is cast full-length

in the casting yard to achieve a regular launch surface for the deck, and the top slab of the front span is

cast in-place on launch completion. The front U-girder thus obtained is lighter than the completed deck,

and structurally more efficient under negative bending. Heavier top flanges are used for the webs in the

launch nose region, and temporary lateral braces and cross frames are applied to enhance stability.

The resistance to lateral torsion-flexure buckling of I-girders with corrugated-plate webs is different from

that of I-girders with stiffened-plate webs (60,61), and the critical moment is slightly higher. The equations

specified by the design standards for the equivalent moment factors of plane webs also seem to apply for

the analysis of the effects of moment gradients. However, the research available on lateral torsion-flexure

buckling of I-girders with corrugated-plate webs is minimal, and finite-element analysis is recommended

for analysis of launch nose stability.

When the bottom slab is wide and the front U-girder is therefore heavy, the use of a front cable-stayed

system (4) may be less expensive than a custom launch nose. This solution requires a load distribution

diaphragm under the mast, and the localized load applied to the deck disturbs the envelopes of launch

bending and shear. The deflection of the front cantilever may be recovered with a hydraulic pantograph

applied to the front deck end.All the thrust

Figure 17: Local eccentricity of support reactions

systems (3,4) for PC bridges may be used for

launching. Rear thrust beams applied to the

bottom slab are particularly effective, as the

launch force and the frictional resistance of

the launch bearings remain within the

bottom slab and do not generate interface

shear transfer at the bottom web-slab

nodes. When Eberspcher launchers (4) are

used at the abutment, PLC control of the

low-speed final approach of the support

saddles avoids sudden application of vertical

loads to the deck. The bottom flanges are

23 | 3 2

Prestressed Composite Bridges with Steel Corrugated-Plate Webs | BEeM 101.01 November 2015

located over the bottom slab to take advantage of slab thickness for longitudinal dispersal of the support

reaction within non-stiffened webs. Haunches may be used to further spread the load and to improve web

stability with a smaller panel depth.

Web corrugation makes the support reactions eccentric in the transverse plane, and the bottom slab

must therefore resist local bending, Figure 17. Lateral launch guides are used at every pier to avoid

additional load eccentricity. Haunches in the bottom slab increase the transverse flexural stiffness and

improve bottom flange stability far from the connectors. This scheme of web-slab node also improves

corrosion protection by moving the triple contact point far from the web-flange weld.

The absence of cambers avoids angle breaks in the launch surface, and fewer modes of instability can

arise in the web panels. Elastic stability of a corrugated plate is better than the one of a stiffened plate

because the distance between the folds is much shorter than the typical spacing of vertical stiffeners.

However, the corrugated-plate webs are thinner, and longitudinal dispersal of the support reactions

often requires the use of long launch bearings (4).

The high flexural stiffness of the box girder reduces the rotations of the support sections; in spite of this,

rocking launch bearings are often necessary to spread the support reactions uniformly. Articulated

bearings (1) soon become too flexible and expensive, and steel skids topped with polished stainless-steel

sheets for low-friction sliding of Neo-flon plates are placed onto longitudinal batteries of interconnected

jacks to create hydraulic hinges (1,4). Control valves between the two hydraulic launch bearings at each

pier can be used to generate torsional hinges.

The longitudinal axial stress in the bottom slab is significant in the negative bending regions. Although the

central region of the web panels is subject to negligible axial stress, the flanges and the adjacent web

regions undergo the same longitudinal strains as the concrete slabs. The local stresses are easy to

calculate under the assumption of strain compatibility; since they do not contribute to the elastic

equilibrium, they may be reduced by cutting the flanges at a regular distance. The flanges may also be left

discontinuous at the field splices, with additional labor savings. This solution was adopted in the 80m

balanced-cantilever spans of the Pont de la Corniche in France (39,62,63).

The prestressed composite box girders built by incremental launching resist full self-weight shear prior to

the application of polygonal tendons at the end of launch. The tangential stresses in the webs are high

during launch, and additional tangential stresses due to torsion and distortion should be avoided as much

as possible with accurate alignment of the launch bearings. Launch bearings on hydraulic jacks offer the

additional advantage of real-time monitoring and equalization of the support reactions.

Case studies

Prestressed composite box girders are also fit to balanced cantilever construction on medium spans. In

varying-depth bridges, steel corrugated-plate webs increase the cross-sectional flexural efficiency

significantly. The 496m Pont de la Corniche in France (39,62,63) includes with five 80m spans and two 48m

end spans. The top slab is 14.5m wide and the width of the bottom slab increases from 5.15m at the piers

to 7.2m at midspan, for a constant web inclination of 17. The overall depth of the cross-section is 2.5m

at midspan and 5.5m at the piers. The clear depth of the corrugated-plate webs between flanges ranges

from 1081mm at midspan to 4011mm at the piers. Plate thickness is 8mm for typical web segments,

10mm near the piers, and 12mm near the tendon deviation diaphragms.

The webs are welded to 350x14mm flanges equipped with 150x15 L-shape connectors spaced 430mm

and 370mm ( bf and af , respectively) and 200mm wide, and the depth of the transverse folds is 220mm.

Fold wavelength is 1600mm, and the web segments are 3280mm long for 80mm overlap at the field

24 | 3 2

Prestressed Composite Bridges with Steel Corrugated-Plate Webs | BEeM 101.01 November 2015

splices. The long-term flexural efficiency of the composite cross-section, equation (4), is f 0.625 at

midspan and f 0.788 at the piers. Longitudinal prestressing consists of three families of tendons:

rectilinear 12T15 cantilever tendons anchored at top slab joints during balanced cantilever construction,

rectilinear 12T15 continuity tendons in the bottom slab at midspan, and polygonal 19T15 tendons for

service loads, tensioned on deck completion. The following quantities of materials were reported per

square meter of deck surface: 0.57m of 35MPa concrete, 26kg of T15 strand, 124kg of reinforcing steel,

and 39kg of steelwork.

Construction on falsework is a viable option for short bridges that do not allow the investment required

by incremental launching technology. A three-span prestressed composite box girder was built on

falsework at Cognac, France on a 42.9m main span and two 32.5m end spans (64,65). The top slab is 11.7m

wide, the bottom slab is 4.17m wide, and the total depth of the cross-section is 2.285m. The thickness of

the top slab varies from 0.23m to 0.33m.

The folds in the 8mm web plates have longitudinal and inclined width of 353mm and are 150mm deep.

The net depth of the web panels is 1770mm, and the transverse inclination of the steel webs is 40. The

flange plates are 250x10mm at the top and 330x10mm at the bottom, and are equipped with 250mmwide, 100x9 L-shape connectors spaced 353mm at midspan and 159mm in the support regions. The

short-term flexural efficiency of the cross-section is f 0.659 . Eight 19T15 external tendons anchored

at the end diaphragms required the use of concrete deviation diaphragms. The following quantities of

materials were reported per square meter of deck surface: 0.41m of 40MPa concrete, 15.3kg of T15

strand, 67.3kg of reinforcing steel, and 31.5kg of steelwork.

A 30m, twin box-girder span was built in Japan (66,67,68) with 70 skew angle. The deck is 14.8m wide and

the bottom slab of each box girder is 2.1m wide. The box girders are 1.9m deep, and the height of the

corrugated-plate webs is 1183mm. Internal and external tendons were used for longitudinal prestressing.

So far, few prestressed composite box girders with steel corrugated-plate webs have been built by

incremental launching. Construction of the Maupre Bridge in France gave researchers (69,70,71,72,73) the

opportunity of comparing different types of prestressed composite box girders. The bid design proposed

two solutions: a stiffened-plate prestressed composite box girder built by incremental launching, and a

PC space frame built as balanced cantilevers. Among numerous alternatives, the solution of Figure 17 was

chosen for incremental launching construction of a seven-span continuous deck with spans ranging from

40.9 to 53.6m and a total length of 327m. With a top slab width of 10.75m, the cross-sectional depth is

3.05m for a 17.6 span-to-depth ratio. The Maupre Bridge was competed in 1987.

A 610mm diameter, 20.6mm-thick steel pipe replaced the bottom slab. Concrete filling stiffened the pipe

walls against instability and improved dispersal of the launch support reactions. The steel girder includes

two 45-inclined corrugated-plate webs shop-welded to the bottom pipe, so that complete V-units were

shipped to the site for assembly. The webs are 8mm thick, the longitudinal and inclined panel width is

284mm, the fold depth is 150mm, and the fold wavelength is 1050mm. The 300x10mm top flanges are

equipped with 100x10 L-shape connectors with constant 284mm spacing.

The top slab is 10.75m wide with 2.80m side wings, and its thickness ranges from 0.20m to 0.30m at the

flanges. Because of the triangular shape of the cross-section, the migration of launch support reactions

generates transverse tensile stresses in the slab strip between the flanges. Rectilinear HDPE-coated T15

mono-strands were used for transverse top slab post-tensioning.

The deck was built by welding the field splices of 10-13m girder segments and by casting the

corresponding segments of top slab and pipe infill. Pipe filling required the use of a vibrating feeding

25 | 3 2

Prestressed Composite Bridges with Steel Corrugated-Plate Webs | BEeM 101.01 November 2015

pipe. On filling completion, the hole left by the vibrating pipe was filled with high-pressure grout to

create a residual radial compression in the concrete infill.

The triangular cross-section is not subject to distortion during launch. In the absence of a bottom slab,

the flexural stiffness is relatively small, similar to the one of a non-prestressed composite bridge. Large

flexural rotations at the supports required the use of hydraulic launch bearings (4), and the concrete-filled

bottom pipe provided a major contribution to the dispersal of support reactions.

Launch prestressing was applied with 12 or 14 permanent horizontal external 6T13 tendons located near

the top slab and anchored from pier to pier to anchor beams protruding from the top slab. Transverse

post-tensioning in the concrete slab was increased at the anchor beams for enhanced dispersal of the

anchor loads. Prior to tensioning the launch tendons of the new segment, steel props supported on the

bottom pipe were used to reduce torsion in the rear anchor beam. The concrete slab of the front span

was cast on launch completion to use the lighter front deck portion as a launch nose.

On launch completion, prestressing was completed with four 19T15 external tendons anchored to the

end diaphragms of the bridge and deviated by steel pier diaphragms and steel saddles welded to the

bottom pipe at the span thirds. Polygonal post-tensioning balanced more than 80% of the permanent

loads and recovered most of self-weight deflections. The tendons were jacked vertically at the central

pier diaphragm to recover part of the friction losses in the 330m tendons.

The use of a concrete-filled pipe instead of a bottom slab assured dispersal of the support reactions and

avoided secondary transverse stresses. It also posed new problems, related to the long launch bearings,

the transverse deck stability during launch, and the need to assure a reliable connection between the

steel pipe and the concrete infill for control of local buckling. The following quantities of materials were

reported per square meter of deck surface: 0.25m of concrete, 1.5kg of transverse strand, 5.7kg of launch

strand, 8.5kg of polygonal strand, 58.6kg of reinforcing steel, and 95.2kg of steelwork. Steelwork includes

47.8kg of corrugated-plate webs, 28.3kg of steel pipe, 2.3kg of connectors, and 16.8 kg of diaphragms.

The Ginzan-Miyuki Bridge (74) was built by incremental launching in Japan. The 5-span box girder has a

total length of 210m and includes four 45.5m spans and a 27.4m span. The cross-section includes a 9.3mwide, 0.30m-thick top slab and a 3.9m-wide bottom slab whose thickness varies from 0.25m at midspan

to 0.50m in the support regions. The deck has a constant depth of 3.0m with a span-to-depth ratio of

15.2. Plate thickness in the 2210mm web panels varies from 9mm to 12mm, the plate folds have

longitudinal and inclined width of 300mm, and the fold depth is 150mm. External prestressing tendons

are as long as two spans to reduce friction losses at the deviation points.

The bridge includes 19 segments with constant 11m length. The 33m-long front section of the top slab

was cast on launch completion to avoid the use of a launch nose, and the weight of the bottom slab

required the use of a front cable-stayed system. The steel mast was located 2.2m behind the leading pier

when the front deck end was landing at the new pier. Comparisons between the dynamic deck behavior

predicted by finite-element analysis and the vibration modes measured with dynamic tests on the bridge

confirmed a significant influence of the shear strains on the vertical modes (75). However, the vibration

frequencies of the external tendons are much higher, and this prevents resonance effects.

Starting from these first applications, several prestressed composite box-girder bridges with steel

corrugated-plate webs have been built in Japan in the last 15 years (24). The 198m Hondani Bridge has a

97.2m central span, 11.4m-wide top slab, 6.2m-wide bottom slab, and box girder depth varying from

6.4m at the piers to 2.5m at midspan. The bridge used concrete dowel connectors (76,77,78,79).

26 | 3 2

Prestressed Composite Bridges with Steel Corrugated-Plate Webs | BEeM 101.01 November 2015

Symbols

a

af

cross-sectional area

Ac

As

bf

cf

Dx

Dz

em

efficiency of material

Ec

Es

E x ,eff

ultimate stress

fu

fy

force

Fh

anti-symmetrical force

Fp

Fs

Geff

Gs

hf

hw

kcr ,g

kcr ,l

Lw

mz

bending moment

27 | 3 2

Prestressed Composite Bridges with Steel Corrugated-Plate Webs | BEeM 101.01 November 2015

Mr

Pr

tb

tw

web thickness

torsional moment

shear force

Vb

Vt

Vw

Wp

zl

zu

corrugation angle

Poissons Ratio

1,2

tangential stress

cr

cr ,d

cr ,g

cr ,i

cr ,l

28 | 3 2

Prestressed Composite Bridges with Steel Corrugated-Plate Webs | BEeM 101.01 November 2015

y ,d

References

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

11.

12.

13.

14.

15.

16.

17.

18.

19.

20.

21.

22.

23.

24.

Rosignoli, M. (1998). Launched Bridges. ASCE Press.

Rosignoli, M. (2002). Bridge Launching. Thomas Telford.

Rosignoli, M. (2014). Bridge Launching, 2nd Edition. ICE Publishing.

Rosignoli, M. (1997). Prestressed composite box girders for highway bridges. IABSE Structural

Engineering International, (7) 4, pp. 278-283.

Boudot, J., Radiguet, B. and Thao, P.X. (1987). The Sylans and Glacires Viaducts. Contribution of the

French Group. AIPCIABSE Congress, Paris-Versailles.

Martin, R.A.; Raspaud, B.; Richard, P. (1982). Le pont de Bubiyan au Koweit. Travaux, November.

Rosignoli, M. (2001). Trusses instead of solid webs? Concrete International, May.

Elgaaly, M.; Seshadri, A. (1998). Steel Built-up Girders with Trapezoidally Corrugated Webs.

Engineering Journal, AISC, 1st Qtr., pp. 1-11.

Rothwell, A. (1968). The Shear Stiffness of Flat Sided Corrugated Webs. Aeronautical Quarterly, Vol.

19, Pt. 3, pp. 224-234.

Wu, C.L.; Duan, S.H. (2008). Buckling Behaviour of Composite Laminated Corrugated Panel with

Sinusoidal Profile. Part 1: Equivalent Stiffness Terms. Aircraft Strength Research Institute of China.

El Metwally, A.; Loov, R.E. (2003). Corrugated steel webs for prestressed concrete girders. Materials

and Structures/Materiaux et Constructions, Vol. 36, March, pp. 127-134.

Sherman, D.; Fisher, J. (1971). Beams With Corrugated Webs. Proceedings of the 1st Specialty

Conference on Cold-Formed Steel Structures. University of Missouri-Rolla, pp. 198-204.

Cheyrezy, M.; Combault, J. (1990). Composite bridges with corrugated steel webs achievement and

prospects. IABSE Symposium, Mixed Structures: Including New Materials. IABSE Reports, Brussels,

Belgium, pp. 479-484.

Elgaaly, M.; Dagher, H. (1990). Beams and Girders with Corrugated Webs. Proceedings of the SSRC

Annual Technical Session, Lehigh University, pp. 37-53.

Hamada, M.; Nakayama, K.; Kakihara, M.; Saloh, M.; Ohtake, F. (1984). Development of Welded IBeam with Corrugated Web. The Sumitomo Research, No. 29, pp. 75-90.

Heywood, P. (1987). Corrugated Box-Girder Webs Lower Bridge Weight and Cost. Engineering News

Record, December, 32.

Sayed-Ahmed E. Y. (2001). Behaviour of steel and (or) composite girders with corrugated steel webs.

Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering, Vol. 28, pp. 656-672.

Cafolla, J., Johnson, R.P. (1997). Corrugated webs in plate girders for bridges. Proceedings of the

Institution of Civil Engineers Structures and Buildings, May.

Rosignoli, M. (1998). Misplacement of launching bearings in PC launched bridges. ASCE Journal of

Bridge Engineering, November, pp. 170-176.

Hussain, M.I.; Libove, C. (1977). Stiffness Tests on Trapezoidal Corrugated Shear Webs. Journal of the

Structural Division, ASCE. St. 5, pp. 971-987.

Yoda, T.; Ohura, T. (1993). Torsional behaviour of composite PC box girders with corrugated steel

webs. Journal of Structural Engineering. 39A: pp. 1251-1258.

Moreau, P.; Thivans, P. (1983). Composite structures steelprestressed concrete. IABSE Proceedings,

February.

Mori, S.; Miyoshi, T.; Katoh, H.; Nishimura, N.; Nara, S. (2005). A study on local stresses of corrugated

steel webs in PC bridges under prestressing. Osaka University.

29 | 3 2

Prestressed Composite Bridges with Steel Corrugated-Plate Webs | BEeM 101.01 November 2015

25. Harrison, J.D. (1965). Exploratory Fatigue Tests of Two Girders with Corrugated Webs. British Welding

Journal. 12, No. 3, pp. 121-125.

26. Korashy, M.; Varga, J. (1979). Comparative Evaluation od Fatigue Strength of Beams with Web Plate

Stiffened in the Traditional Way and by Corrugation. Acta Technica Academiae Scientiarum

Hungaricae, pp. 309-346.

27. Rosignoli, M. (1999). Prestressed concrete box girders with folded steel plate webs. Proceedings of

the Institution of Civil Engineers Structures and Buildings, February.

28. Combault, J. (1988). Viaduct du vallon de Maupre, a Charolles. Travaux, January.

29. Aribert, J.M. (1988). Connexion au cisaillement des poutres fatigue determination experimentale de

la resistance. Annales ITBTP, September.

30. Johnson, R.P. (1997). Shear connection for composite bridges and Eurocode 4: Part 2. IABSE FIP-CEB

International Conference, Innsbruck, Austria.

31. Kristek, V., Vitek, J.L. (1997). Performance and stud failure in steel-concrete composite beams. IABSE

FIP-CEB International Conference, Innsbruck, Austria.

32. Rosignoli, M. (2015). Design and construction of launched bridges. Two-day class in New York City,

ASCE Continuing Education Program.

33. Libove, C. (1973). On the Stiffness, Stress and Buckling of Corrugated Shear Webs. Proceedings of the

2nd Specialty Conference on Cold Formed Steel Structures. University of Missouri-Rolla, pp. 259-301.

34. Libove, C. (1977). Buckling of Corrugated Plates in Shear. Proceedings of the International Colloquium

on Structural Stability. Structural Stability Research Council, Lehigh University, pp. 435-462.

35. Timoshenko, S.P.; Gere, J.M. (1981). Theory of Elastic Stability. 2nd edition, Mc-Graw Hill, New York.

36. Cafolla, J., Johnson, R.P. (1997). Fabrication of steel bridge girders with corrugated webs. The

Structural Engineer, April.

37. Galambos, T.V. (1988). Guide to stability design criteria for metal structures. John Wiley and Sons,

New York.

38. EN 1993-1-1:2005 (2005). Eurocode 3 Design of Steel Structures Part 1.1: General Rules and Rules

for Buildings. UNI, Ente Italiano di Unificazione.

39. Reinhard, J.M. (1994). Pont de la Corniche Dole. Ouvrages dArt 19, November, No. 19, pp. 14-19.

40. Easley, J.T. (1975). Buckling Formulas for Corrugated Metal Shear Diaphragms. Journal of the

Structural Division. ASCE, St. 7, pp. 1403-1417.

41. Easley, J.T.; McFarland, D.E. (1969). Buckling of light-gauge corrugated metal shear diaphragms. ASCE

Journal of Structural Engineering, 95(7), pp. 1497-1516.

42. Peterson, J.M.; Cord, M.E. (1960). Investigation of the Buckling Strength of Corrugated Webs in

Shear. Technical Note D-424. NASA.

43. Moreau, P.; Thivans, P. (1984). Structures composites acier-bton precontraint. Annales ITBTP,

January.

44. Bergfelt, A.; Leiva-Aravena, L. (1984). Shear Buckling of Trapezoidally Corrugated Girder Webs. Report

No. S84:2. Department of Structural Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, Gteborg,

Sweden.

45. Cheyrezy, M. (1987). Analyse des Conditions de Flambage des Ames Plissees. Actes du 3e colloque

Genie Civile et Recherche.

46. Johnson, R.P.; Cafolla, J. (1997). Corrugated webs in plate girders for bridges. Proceedings of the

Institution of Civil Engineering, Structures and Buildings. 123, pp. 157-164.

47. El Metwally, A.S.; Loov, R.E. (1998). Prestressed composite girders with corrugated steel webs.

Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Short and Medium Span Bridges. Calgary, pp.

1175-1187.

30 | 3 2

Prestressed Composite Bridges with Steel Corrugated-Plate Webs | BEeM 101.01 November 2015

48. Luo, R.; Edlund, B. (1994). Buckling of trapezoidally corrugated panels using pline finite strip method.

Thin Walled Structures, 18: 209-240.

49. Levia-Aravena, L. (1987). Trapezoidally Corrugated Panels Buckling Behaviour Under Axial

Compression and Shear. Division of Steel and Timber Structures, Chalmers University of Technology.

Publ. 87:1.

50. Johnson, R.P.; Cafolla, J. (1997-b). Local flange buckling in plate girders with corrugated webs.

Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineering, Structures and Buildings. 123, pp. 148-156.

51. Elgaaly, M.; Hamilton, R.; Seshadri, A. (1996). Shear Strength of Beams with Corrugated Webs.

Journal of Structural Engineering, ASCE, Vol. 122, No. 4.

52. Bergfelt, A.; Edlund, B.; Leiva-Aravena, L. (1985). Trapezoidally corrugated girder webs shear

buckling, patch loading. Summary Report S84:2. Division of Steel and Timber StructuresChalmers

University of Technology, Gteborg, Sweden.

53. Luo, R.; Edlund, B. (1996). Ultimate strength of girders with trapezoidally corrugated panels under

patch loading. Thin Walled Structures, 24: 135-156.

54. Elgaaly, M. (1983). Web Design Under Compressive Edge Loads. Engineering Journal, AISC, 4th Qtr.,

pp. 153-171.

55. Various Authors (1987). Innovation dans le domaine des structures mixtes: ponts mixtes metal-beton

precontraint. Annales ITBTP, OctoberNovember.

56. Cafolla, J., Johnson, R.P. (1997-c). Local flange buckling in plate girders with corrugated webs.

Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers Structures and Buildings, May.

57. El Metwally, A.S.; Loov, R.E. (1998-b). Composite girders High strength concrete combined with

corrugated steel webs. Proceedings of the International Symposium on High Performance and

Reactive Powder Concrete. Sherbrooke, Vol. 1, pp. 197-215.

58. Arsicault, M.; Lallemand, J.P. (1990). Joint Tracking with Self-Teaching Systems. Welding Journal,

December.

59. Siokola, W,; Poeter, H. (1999). Fabrication tools for corrugated web I-beams. Modern Steel

Construction, July.

60. Lindner, J. (1990). Lateral-Torsional Buckling of Beams with Trapezoidally Corrugated Webs.

Proceedings of the 4th International Colloquium on Stability of Steel Structures, Budapest, Hungary.

61. Sayed-Ahmed, E. Y. (2005). Lateral torsion-flexure buckling of corrugated web steel girders.

Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers, Structures & Buildings. 158, pp. 53-69.

62. Capra, A.; Leville, A. (1996). The bridge at Dole. Proceedings of the FIP Symposium, Post-Tensioned

Concrete Strucures. London, Vol 1., pp. 135-141.

63. Lebon, J. (1998). Steel corrugated web bridges first achievements. Proceedings of the 5th

International Conference on Short and Medium Span Bridges. Calgary, Proceedings CD.

64. Cassiau, A., Combault, J., Duviard, M. et al. (1988). Pont sur la Charente Cognac. Travaux, October.

65. Duviard, M. (1987). Le premier pont ames plisses Cognac. AIPCIABSE Congress, Paris-Versailles.

66. Naito, T.; Hattori, M. (1994). Prestressed concrete bridge using corrugated steel webs Shinkai

Bridge, XII FIP Congress. National Report, Washington, pp. 101-104.

67. Yoda, T.; Ohura, T.; Sekii, K. (1994). Analysis of composite PC box girders with corrugated steel webs.

Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Short and Medium Span Bridges. Halifax, pp. 11071115.

68. Yoda, T.; Ohura, T.; Sato, Y. (1994). Torsional behaviour of composite PC box girders with corrugated

steel webs. Proceedings of the 4th International Conference of the Association for Research in SteelConcrete Composite Structures. Kosci, Slovakia, pp. 458-461.

69. Bonnet, M., Bouvy, B., Causse, G. et al. (1988). Viaduc du vallon de Maupr, Charolles (Saone-etLoire). Travaux, October.

31 | 3 2

Prestressed Composite Bridges with Steel Corrugated-Plate Webs | BEeM 101.01 November 2015

70. Causse, G. and Duviard, M. (1987). Maupre viaduct near Charolles. A bridge deck with corrugated

steel plate webs constructed by the incremental launching technique. AIPCIABSE Congress, ParisVersailles.

71. Combault, J. (1988). The Maupre Viaduct near Charolles. AISC NEC/COP National steel construction

conference, 1988, Miami Beach, Florida.

72. Combault, J. (1988). The Maupre Viaduct Near Charolles, France. Proceedings of the AISC Engineering

Conference, 12.1-12.22.

73. Nadal, P. (1987). Le Viaduct de Maupr Charolles. Chantiers de France, November.

74. Isiguro, W., Murata, Y., Sugo, T. and Uehira, K. (1997). Stability of prestressed concrete bridge with

corrugated steel web. AIPCIABSE International Conference for Composite Construction

Conventional and Innovative. Innsbruck, pp. 205-210.

75. Tategami, H.; Hajikawa, Y.; Honda, H.; Euhira, K. (1997). Dynamic behaviour of a PC box girder bridge

using a corrugated steel web. Proceedings of the New Technology in Structural Engineering

International Conference. Lisbon, Vol. 2, pp. 715-722.

76. Leonhardt, F. (1987). New improved shear connector with high fatigue strength for composite

structures. Beton und Stahlbetonbau. Vol. 12, pp. 325-331.

77. Roberts, W.S.; Heywood, P. (1994). An investigation to increase the competitiveness of short span

steel concrete composite bridges. Developments in Short and Medium Span Bridge Engineering. pp.

1161-1171.

78. Yoda, T.; Ohura, H. (1995). Effects of shear connectors on mechanical behaviour of composite girders

with corrugated steel webs. Proceedings of the 4th Pacific Structural Steel Conference. Singapore, pp.

117-121.

79. Yoda, T.; Takeshita, A.; Sato, K.; Sakurada, M.; Shiga, H.; Nakasu, K. (1998). Fatigue tests of a new

type of shear connectors in a composite girder with a corrugated steel web. Proceedings of the 5th

International Conference on Short and Medium Span Bridges, Calgary, pp. 1651-1658.

32 | 3 2