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R O B E R T

B A R T L E T T

THE MAKING
OF E U R O P E
Conquest, Colonization
and Cultural Change
9 5 0 1350

Penguin Books Ltd.


London

1993

, ,

9 5 0 1350 .

2007

63.3(4) 4
24

Translation Project
( )

..
The moral right of the author has been asserted.


24
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. 950 1350 . / . . .:
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2007. 432 . .
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G e ra ld o f W ales , 1 4 6 -1 2 2 3 : T ria l b y F ire a n d
W a te r. T h e M e d ie v a l J u d ic ia l O rd e a l; M e d ie v a l F ro n tie r S o c ie tie s (
).
, .
1993 .

ISBN 978-5-8243-0852-5

1993 Robert Bartlett



, 2007


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3 : War
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Technique militaire et pouvoir politique, 900 1300, Annales:
conomies soci t s civilisations 41 (1986), 1135 1159.

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Helbig &
Weinrich

Ausgewhlte Quellen zur deutschen Geschichte des Mittelalters


Herbert Helbig and Lorenz Weinrich (eds.)r Urkunden und
erzhlende Quellen zur deutschen Ostsiedlung im Mittelalter
(AQ 26, 2 vols., Darmstadt, 1968-70)

J.-L.

Regesta pontificum Romanorum... ad annum... 1198,


ed. P. Jaff, rev. S. Loewenfeld et al.(2 vols., Leipzig, 18858)

Lacarra

Jos Maria Lacarra (ed.), 'Documentos para el estudio


de la reconguista y repoblacin del Valle del Ebro', Estudios
de Edad Media de la Corona de Aragon 2 (1946), pp. 469574
(docs. 193), 3 (1947-8), pp. 499727 (docs. 94286), 5 (1952),
pp. 511668 (docs. 287400); repr. in 2 vols. Textes medievales
623 (Saragossa, 1982-3)

MF

Mitteldeutsche Forschungen

MCH

Monumenta Germaniae historica

MPH

Monumenta Poloniae historica

n.s.

new series,

PL

Patrologiae, cursus completus, series latina,


ed. J.-P. Migne (221 vols., Paris, 1844-64)

Po.

Regesta pontificum Romanorum inde ab annum...


1198 ad a. 1304, ed. A Potthast (2 vols., Berlin, 1874-5)

RHC.Occ.

Recueil des historiens des croisades. Historiens occidentaux


(5 vols., Paris, 1844-95)

RS

Rerum Britannicarum Medii Aevi Scriptores ('Rolls Series')


(251 vols., London, 1858-96)

SRC

Scriptores rerum Germanicarum in usum scholarum separatim


editi (MGH)

SS

Scriptores (MGH)

UB

Urkundenbuch


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ed. Werner Trillmich, in Quellen des 9. und 1. Jahrhunderts zur Geschichte
der Hamburgischen Kirche und des Reiches ( 11, Darmstadt, 1961),
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344

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Italia sacra 2022, Padua, 1973) 1, pp. 2543.
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English Historical Review 26 (1911), pp. 43347, 64165, at p. 437.
9 Paul Freedman, The Diocese of Vic (New Brunswick, 1983), pp. 14
15.

.: Derek W. Lomax, The Reconquest of Spain (London,


1978); Charles J. Bishko, 'The Spanish and Portuguese Reconquest, 1095
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and Madison, 6 vols., 195589) 3: The Fourteenth and Fifteenth Centuries,
ed. Harry W. Hazard, pp. 396456; Angus MacKay, Spain in the Middle
Ages: From Frontier to Empire, 10001500 (London, 1977), pp. 178;
.: Diccionario de historia
eclesistica de Espafia, ed. Quintfn Aldea Vaquero et al. (4 vols., Madrid,
19725).
10 Privilegios reales y viejos documentes de Toledo, ed. Juan Francisco
Rivera Recio et al. (limited d., Madrid, 1963), no. 1.
11 De expugnatione Lyxbonensi: The Conquest of Lisbon, ed. and tr.
Charles W. David (New York, 1936), pp. 17880 and n. 5.
12 Primera crnica general de Espafia 1129, ed. Rarnon Menndez Pidal
(2 vols., Madrid, 1955), 2, p. 769.
13
.: Bernard Hamilton, The Latin Church in the Crusader States: The Secular
Church (London, 1980); Hans Eberhard Mayer, Bistmer, Klster und Stifte
im Knigreich Jerusalem (MGH, Schriften 26, Stuttgart, 1977), part 1; Jean
Richard, 'The Political and Ecclesiastical Organization of the Crusader
States', in Kenneth M. Setton (ed.), A History of the Crusades (Philadelphia
and Madison, 6 vols., 195589) 5: The Impact of the Crusades on the Near
East, ed. Norman P. Zacour and Harry W. Hazard, pp. 193250; Giorgio
Fedalto, La Chiesa Latina in Oriente (2nd ed., 3 vols., Verona, 1981);
R.L. Wolff, 'The Organization of the Latin Patriarchate of Constantinople,
12041261', Traditio 6 (1948), pp. 3360.
14 .: Innocent III, 14 July 1208, Sacrosancta
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215, col. 1433, cm.: Jean Longnon, 'L'organisation de l'glise d'Athnes par
Innocent , in Mmorial Louis Petit: Mlanges d'histoire et d'archologie
byzantines (Archives de l'Orient chrtien 1, Bucharest, 1948), pp. 33646;
Leo Santifaller, Beitrge zur Geschichte des Lateinischen Patriarchats von
Konstantinopel (12041261) und der venezianischen Urkunden (Weimar,
1938), pp. 13040; G.L.F. Tafel and G.M. Thomas (eds.), Urkunden zur
lteren Handels und Staatsgeschichte der Republik Venedig (3 vols., Fontes
rerum Austriacarum II, 1214, Vienna, 1856-7) 2, p. 101, no. 209.
15 .: Petersohn, Der sdliche Ostseeraum;
RBartlett, 'The Conversion of a Pagan Society in the Middle Ages', History
70 (1985), pp. 185201; Karl Jordan, Die Bistumsgrndungen Heinrichs des
Lwen (MGH, Schriften 3, Leipzig, 1939); Eric Christiansen, The Northern
Crusades (London, 1980).

345

16 .: Friedrich Benninghoven, Der Order der


Schwertbrder (Cologne and Graz, 1965).
,
: Hartmut Boockmann, Der Deutsche Orden (Munich, 1981).
17 Notker: Gesta Karoli 1.10, ed. Reinhold Rau, Quellen zur karolingi
schen Reichsgeschichte 3 (AQ7, Darmstadt, 1960), pp. 321427, at pp. 3346.
18 'Tota iatin itasOrderte Vitalis, Historia ecclesiastica 12.43, ed. Chibnall, 6, p. 364.
19 XIIXIII .: Robin Frame, Colonial
Ireland 11691369 (Dublin, 1981); idem. The Political Development of the
British Isles 11001400 (Oxford, 1990); AJ. Otway-Ruthven, A History of
Medieval Ireland (2nd ed., London, 1980); RBartlett, 'Colonial Aristocracies
of the High Middle Ages', in Robert Bartlett and Aigus MacKay (eds.). Me
dieval Frontier Societies (Oxford, 1989), pp. 2347.
20 Vita sancti Malachiae 8.16, in J. Leclerg and H.M. Rochais (eds.).
Opera 3 (Rome, 1963), pp. 295378, at p. 325.
21 ibid. 8.17, ed. Leclerq and Rochais, p. 326; . :
2:23.
22 Song of Dermot and the Earl, lines 4315, ed. and tr. Goddard H.
Orpen (Oxford, 1892), p. 34.
23 Walter Bower, Scotichronicon 12.27, ed. D.E.R. Watt, 6 (Aberdeen,
1991), p. 388 (Remonstrance of 131718).
24 Bernard, Vita sancti Malachiae 8.16, ed. Leclerq and Rochais, p. 325.
25 . KH.: Chanson de Roland, laisse 72, line 899, ed. F. Whitehead (Oxford, 1942), p. 27.
26 ]ohn of Salisbury, Letters, 1: The Early Letters (1153-61), ed. W.J. Millor, H.E. Butler and C.N.L. Brooke (London, etc., 1955), no. 87, p. 135.
27 Schlesisches UB, ed. Heinrich Appelt and Winfried Irgang (4 vols, to
date, Graz, Cologne and Vienna, 1963- ), 1, no. 11, pp. 89 (1143-5).
2
1 Philip of Novara (Philippe de Navarre), Les quatres ges de l'homme
1.16, ed. Marcel de Frville (Paris, 1888), p. 11.
2 .: Henri-Franois Delaborde, Jean de Joinville
et les seigneurs de Joinville (Paris, 1894)
3 Jean de Joinville, Histoire de Saint Louis XXXVI (167), ed. Natalis de
Wailly (Paris, 1874), p. 92.
4 Calendar of the Gormanston Register, ed. James Mills and M.J. McEnery (Dublin, 1916), p. 182.
5 Joinville, Histoire, ed. de Wailly, p. 545.
6 Orderte Vitalis, Historia ecclesiastica, ed. and tr. Marjorie Chibnall
(6 vols., Oxford, 1968-80), indices, s.v. 'Grandmesnil'; ,
ibid. 2, p. 370; Marjorie Chibnall, The World of Orderic Vitalis (Oxford,
1984), p. 227; Leon-Robert Mnager, 'Inventaire des familles normandes et
franques emigres en Italie mridionale et en Sicile (Xle-XIIe sicles)', in
Roberto il Guiscard e il suo tempo (Fonti e studi del Corpus membranarum

346

italicanm. Centro di studi normanno-suevi. Universita degli studi di Bari,


Rome, 1975), pp. 259-387, at pp. 316-18.
7 Orderte Vitalis, Historia ecclesiastica 3, ed. Chibnall, 2, p. 94.
8 'Funambuli': Gesta Franconun 9.23, ed. and tr. Rosalind Hill (London,
1962), p. 56; Baudri de Bourgueil, Historia jerosolimitana, RHC, Occ. 4,
pp. 1111, at pp. 645.
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10 .: Domesday Book, ed. Abraham Parley
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(Cambridge, 1977), p. 332, fig. Ill; Rees Davies, Conquest, Coexistence and
Change: Wales 10631415 (Oxford, 1987), pp. 3031, 823; John Le Patourel, The Norman Empire (Oxford, 1976), pp. 623, 31214.
11 .: Domesday Book 1, fols. 298, 3058, 373; Lewis
C. Loyd, The Origins of Some Anglo-Norman Families, ed. C.T. Clay and
D. C. Douglas (Harleian Society Publications 103, 1951), p. 99; Mnager, 'In
ventaire des familles normandes', p. 346; Red Book of the Exchequer,
ed. Hubert Hall (3 vols., RS, 1896), 2, p. 602; Register of the Abbey of
St Thomas Dublin, ed. John T. Gilbert (RS, 1889), nos. 106, 34950, pp. 92,
3024.
12 Derek W. Lomax, The Reconquest of Spain (London, 1978),p. 62.
18 Orderic Vitalis, Historia ecclesiastica, 13.5, ed. Chibnall, 6, p. 404.
14 Reinhold Rhricht, Beitrge zur Geschichte der Kreuzzge 2: Deut
sche Pilger- und Kreuzfahrten nach dem heiligen Lande (7001300) (Ber
lin, 1878), pp. 297359.
15 Pommersches UB 1: 7861253, ed. Klaus Conrad (2nd ed., Cologne
and Vienna, 1970), nos. 213, 485, pp. 2613, 57980.
16 O. Eggert, Geschichte Pommerns 1 (Hamburg, 1974), pp. 15060,
and also the bibliography cited there, pp. 2634.
17 Schlesisches UB, ed. Heinrich Appelt and Winfried Irgang (4 vols, to
date, Graz, Cologne and Vienna, 1963- ), 2, no. 346, p. 208 (1248).
18 Cm.: T.E. McNeill, Anglo-Norman Ulster: The History and Archaeol
ogy of an Irish Barony 11771400 (Edinburgh, 1980), esp. chapter 1; God
dard H. Orpen, Ireland under the Normans, 11691333 (4 vols., Oxford,
191120) 2, pp. 523, 11418, 13444; New History of Ireland 2: Medie
val Ireland, 1169-1534, ed. Art Cosgrove (Oxford, 1987), pp. 11416, 135.
19 . : R.Bartlett, 'Colonial Aristocracies of the High Middle
Ages', in Robert Bartlett and Angus MacKay (eds.), Medieval Frontier Socie
ties (Oxford, 1989), pp. 2347, at pp. 3141.
20 1201 . .: Annals of Ulster (Annla Uladh), ed. and tr.
William M. Hennessy and Bartholomew MacCarthy (4 vols., Dublin, 1887
1901), 2, pp. 2357; ibid. 2, p. 229.
21 Cm.: Wiliam Dugdale, Monasticon Anglicanum, ed. John Caley et al.
(6 vols, in 8, London, 1846), 6/2, p. 1125; Gearid MacNiocaill, 'Cartae
Dunenses XII-XIII Cad', Seanchus Ard Mhaca 5/2 (1970), pp. 41828, at
p. 420, nos. 45.
22 Cm.: Wiliam O'Sullivan, The Earliest Anglo-Irish Coinage (Dublin,
1964), pp. 15, 2021; plate 1.

347

23 .: Roger of Howden, Chronica, ed. William Stubbs (4 vois., RSr


186871), 4, pp. 176 and 25; cf. Jocelyn of Furness, Vita sancti Patricii,
Acta sanctorum Martii 2 (Antwerp, 1668), pp. 54080, at p. 540, who refers
to de Courcy as Ulidiae princeps.
24 Cm.: Eberhard Schmidt, Die Mark Brandenburg unter den Askanien
(11341320) (MF 71, Cologne and Vienna, 1973); Johannes Schultze, Die
Mark Brandenburg 1: Entstehung und Entwicklung unter den askanischen
Markgrafen (bis 1319) (Berlin, 1961); Hermann Krabbo and Georg Winter,
Regesten der Markgrafen von Brandenburg aus Askanischem Hause (Leipzig,
Munich and Berlin, 191055).
25 .: Schultze, Die Mark
Brandenburg 1, p. 74.
26 Henry of Antwerp, Tractatus de captione urbis Brandenburg, ed.
Oswald Holder-Egger, MGH, SS 25 (Hanover, 1880), pp. 4824, at p. 484.
27 Cronica principum Saxonie, ed. Oswald Holder-Egger, MGH, SS 25
(Hanover, 1880), pp. 47280, at p. 478.
28 .: Helga Cramer, 'Die Herren von Wedel
im Lande ber der Oder: Besitz und Herrschaftsbildung bis 1402', Jahrbuch
fr die Geschichte Mittel- und Ostdeutschlands 18 (1969), pp. 63129;
1212 : Hamburgisches UB (4 vols, in 7, Hamburg,
190767) 1, no. 387, pp. 3423. . ,
, : UB zur Geschichte des schlossgesessenen
Geschlechts der Grafen und Herren von Wedel, ed. Heinrich Friedrich Paul
von Wedel (4 vols, in 2, Leipzig, 188591).
29 Cm.: Pommersches UB 2 (Stettin, 18815, repr. Cologne and Graz,
1970), no. 891, pp. 21819.
30 ,
4: Cremzow (Krpcowo), Driesen (Drezdenko), Falken
burg (Zlocieniec), Freienwalde (Chociwel), Krtow (Korytowo), MrkischeFriedland (Miroslawiec), Neuwedel (Drawno), Schivelbein (Swidwin), Uchtenhagen (Krzywnica); Ihna (Ina), Netze (Note), Drage (Drawa).
31 Cm.: UB . . . von Wedel 2/1, no. 3, p. 3 (1272), nos. 78, p. 6 (1281).
32 ibid. no. 113, pp. 656.
33 .: Codex diplomaticus Brandenburgensis, ed. Adolph Friedrich
Riedel (41 vols., Berlin, 183849), A XVIII, pp. 1513, no. 87 (1388); ibid.,
pp. 1023, no. 5; ibid., pp. I l l 12, no. 22; ibid., pp. 21819, no. 9.
34 Cm.: Cramer, 'Die Herren von Wedel', p. 119: 'nahezu landes
herrliche Stellung'.
35 .: Leopoldo Usseglio, I marchesi di Monferrato in Italia ed in oriente durante i secoli XII e XIII, ed. Carlo Patrucco
(2 vols., Bibliotheca della societ storica subalpina 100101, Turin, 1926).
36 Cm.: William of Tyre, Chronicle 21.12(13), ed. R.B.C. Huygens
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348

38 Peire Vidal: Poesie, ed. D'Arco Silvio A valle (2 vols., Milan and
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56 Sachsenspiegel, Lehnrecht, ed. Karl August Eckhardt (Germanenrechte, n.s.. Gttingen, 1956), passim.
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61 Malaterra, De rebus gestis Rogerii 1.5, ed. Pontieri, p. 9.
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66 Geoffrey Barrow, The Anglo-Norman Erd in Scottish History (Oxford,
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77 sirgentes .
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83 Frank Stenton, The First Century of English Feudalism 10661166
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351

86 Catalogus baronum, ed. Evelyn Jamison (Fonti per la storia d'Italia


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92 Cm.: (Contributions to a) Dictionary of the Irish language (Royal Irish
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105 Chronicle of Morea, tr. Lurier, p. 165.


106 .: W.E. Wghtman, The Lacy Family in
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3
1 Codex iuris Bohemici, ed. Hermenegild Jiricek (5 vols, in 12, Prague,
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: 30 ; 4 ; 3 ;
2 ; , , ,
.. 11 .
,
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353

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25 Liber fundationis episcopatus Vratislaviensis, ed. H. Markgraf and
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354

27 Hariulf, Gesta ecclesiae Centulensis 4.2l r ed. F. Lot, Chronique de


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40 Cm.: Maurice Beresford, New Towns of the Middle Ages (London,
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41 Cronica Reinhardsbrurmensis, ed. Oswald Holder-Egger, MGH, SS
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355

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43 Michael Prestwich, War, Politics and Finance under Edward I (Lon
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44 T.F. Tout, 'The Fair of Lincoln and the "Histoire de Guillaume le
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49 Herbord, Dialogus de vita sancti Ottonis episcopi Babenbergensis
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50 Randall Rogers, Latin Siege Warfare in the Twelfth Century (Oxford,
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51 Francesco Gabrieli (ed.), Arab Historians of the Crusades (Eng. tr.,
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52 Elena Lourie, 'A Society Organized for War: Medieval Spain', Past
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56 Chronicon Livoniae 1.5-9, 9.3, 15.3 , 10.8 , 15.3 , 10.12, 23.8, 14.11,
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57 Gesta Stephani, ed. K.R. Potter and R.H.C. Davis (Oxford, 1976),
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58 Brut Tywysogyon, The Chronicle of the Princes: Red Book of
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59 Giolla Brighde Mac Con Midhe, Poems, ed. and tr. N.JA Williams
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60 Annals of Loch C, ed. and tr. William M. Hennessy (2 vols., RS,
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61 History of Gruffydd ap Cynan, ed. and tr. Arthur Jones (Manchester,
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62 Brut y Tywysogyon, ed. Jones, pp. 175, 177; Gerald of Wales, Itinerarium Kambriae, 2.6, ed. Brewer et al., p. 123; Richard A vent, Cestyll
Tywysogion Gwynedd / Castles of the Princes of Gwynedd (Cardiff, 1983),
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63 Song of Dermot and the Earl, 66670, ed. and tr. Goddard H. Orpen
(Oxford, 1892), p. 50.
64 Gerald of Wales (Giraldus Cambrensis), Descriptio Kambriae 2.8, in
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AB. Scott and F.X. Martin (Dublin, 1978), pp. 2468; John of Salisbury,
Policraticus 6.6, 16, ed. C.C.J. Webb (2 vols., Oxford, 1909), 2, pp. 18, 42
4; Gallus Anonymus, Chronicon 1.25; 3.23, ed. K. Maleczynski, MPH, n.s., 2
(Cracow, 1952), pp. 50, 152.
65 Matthew Paris, Chronica majora, ed. Luard, 5, p. 550.
66 Symeon of Durham, Historia regum, in Symeonis monachi
opera omnia, ed. Thomas Arnold (2 vols., RS, 1882-5), 2, pp. 3283, at
pp. 1912.
67 Turgot, Vita sancti Margaretae reginae, ed. James Raine in Symeonis
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51, 1868), pp. 23454, at p. 247.
68 Symeon of Durham (attrib.). De miraculis et translationibus sancti
Cuthberti 10, in Symeonis monachi opera omnia, ed. Thomas Arnold (2 vols.,
RS, 1882-5), 1, pp. 22961; 2, pp. 33362, at 2, p. 339.
69 Symeon of Durham, Historia regum, ed. Arnold, 2, p. 190.
70 Aelred of Rievaulx, De sanctis ecclesiae Haugustaldensis, ed. James
Raine in The Priory of Hexham (2 vols., Surtees Society 44, 46, 18645) 1,
pp. 172203, at p. 178; cf. Symeon of Durham, Historia regum, ed. Arnold,
2, pp. 367.
71 Symeon of Durham, De miraculis . . . sancti Cuthberti 10, ed. Arnold,
2, p. 339.
72 Gerald of Wales, Topographia Hibemica 2.54, ed. Brewer et al.,
p. 137; C.L. Saleh, 'La protection symboligue de la porte au Moyen Age
dans les chteaux-forts alsaciens', in Hommage Genevive Chevrier et
Alain Ceslan: tudes mdivales (Strasbourg, 1975), pp. 3944.

357

73 Symeon of Durham, Historia regum, ed. Arnold, 2, pp. 199200;


ibid., p. 211; Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, s.a. 1092, ed. C. Plummer and J. Earle,
Two of the Saxon Chronicles Parallel (2 vols., Oxford, 18929) 1, p. 227;
Symeon of Durham's continuator, Historia Dunelmensis ecclesiae, in
Symeonis monachi opera omnia, ed. Thomas Arnold (2 vols., RS, 18825), 1,
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74 Geoffrey Barrow, The Anglo-Norman Era in Scottish History (Oxford,
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ter 3; AAM. Duncan, Scotland: The Making of the Kingdom (Edinburgh,
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75 Early Scottish Charters prior to 1153, ed. Archibald C. Lawrie (Glas
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76 John of Hexham, Historia, in Symeonis monachi opera omnia, ed.
Thomas Arnold (2 vols., RS, 18825), 2, pp. 284332, at p. 290.
77 Richard of Hexham, Historia, ed. Richard Howlett in Chronicles of
the Reigns of Stephen, Henry II and Richard I (4 vols., RS, 18849) 3,
pp. 13778,at pp. 1567.
78 Aelred of Rievaulx, Relatio de Standardo, ed. Howlett, ibid.,
pp. 17999, at pp. 1878.
79 .: Richard of Hexham, Historia, ed.
Howlett, p. 157; John of Hexham, Historia, ed. Arnold, p. 291.
80 John of Hexham, Historia, ed. Arnold, p. 289.
81 Richard of Hexham, Historia, ed. Arnold, p. 145.
82 Aelred of Rievaulx, Relatio, ed. Howlett, pp. 18998.
: Henry of Huntingdon, Historia glomm, ed. Thomas Arnold (RS, 1879), p. 263.
83 Jordan Fantosme, Chronicle, 640-41, 266, 1242-9, 1766, 1828, 185867, ed. and tr. R.C. Johnston (Oxford, 1981), pp. 48, 20, 924, 132, 136,
138.
84 William of Newburgh, Historia rerum Anglicarum 2.33, ed. Richard
Howlett in Chronicles of the Reigns of Stephen, Henry II and Richard I
(4 vols., RS, 18849) 12, at 1, p. 184.
85 Cm.: Gesta rgis Henrici secundi Benedicti abbatis, ed. William
Stubbs (2 vols., RS, 1867), 1, pp. 678.
86 Cm.: Annals of Furess, ed. Richard Howlett in Chronicles of the
Reigns of Stephen, Henry II and Richard I (4 vols., RS, 18849) 2, pp. 503
83, at pp. 57071.
87 Saxo Grammaticus, Gesta Danorum 13.9.6, ed. J. Olrik and H. Raeder
(2 vols., Copenhagen, 1931-57), 1, pp. 3612; .
. : Saxo, Danorum regum heroumque historia, Books XXVI
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studi sull'alto medioevo 15, 2 vols., Spoleto, 1968) 1, pp. 22991, at


pp. 28890.
88 C m.: S.U. Palme, 'Les impts, le Statut d'Alsno et la formation des or
dres en Sude (12501350)', in R. Mousnier (ed.), Problmes de stratifica
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89 Karl Barteis, Deutsche Krieger in polnischen Diensten von Misika I.
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99 Libellus de institutione morum, ed. J. Balogh, Scriptores rerum Hungaricarum 2 (Budapest, 1938), pp. 61127, at p. 625.
4
1 Eleanor Knott, Irish Classical Poetry (Irish Life and Culture 6, Dublin,
1957), p. 59, . Maol Seachluinn Huiginn.
2 Geoffrey Malaterra, De rebus gestis Rogerii Calabriae et Siciliae comitis et Roberti Guiscardi ducis fratris eius, ed. Ernesto Pontieri (Rerum italicarum scriptores, n.s., 5/1, Bologna, 1928); William of Apulia, La geste de
Robert Cuiscard, ed. Marguerite Mathieu (Palermo, 1961); Amatus of Montecassino, Storia de' Normanni, ed. Vincenzo de Bartholomaeis (Fonti per la
storia dItalia 76, Rome, 1935).
3 De rebus gestis Rogerii 1.3, 7, 12, 38; 2.35; 3.13, 24, ed. Pontieri, pp. 9,
11, 14, 24, 46, 64, 71; see Ovidio Capitani, 'Specific Motivations and Con
tinuing Themes in the Norman Chronicles of Southern Italy in the Eleventh
and Twelfth Centuries', in The Normans in Sicily and Southern Italy (Lincei
Lectures 1974) (Oxford, 1977), pp. 146, at pp. 7, 3033, n. 15.
4 De rebus gestis Rogerii 1.9, ed. Pontieri, p. 13. Amatus, Storia de' Nor
manni 1.23; 2.17; 1.43; 2.8; 2.21; 2.22, ed. de Bartholomaeis, pp. 30, 75, 54
5, 67, 80, 83.
5 Wiliam of Apulia, La geste 3, lines 1012, ed. Mathieu, p. 168.
6 Malaterra, De rebus gestis Rogerii 1.7, ed. Pontieri, p. 11.
7 Wiliam of Apulia, La geste 3, line 217, ed. Mathieu, p. 176; cf. 1, line
320, p. 116.
8 ibid. 2, lines 4278, ed. Mathieu, p. 154.
9 Malaterra, De rebus gestis Rogerii 1.9, ed. Pontieri, p. 12.
10 ibid. 2.42, ed. Pontieri, p. 50.
11 William of Apulia, La geste 2, lines 3239, ed. Mathieu, p. 150.
12 ibid. 2, line 383, ed. Mathieu, p. 152.
13 Malaterra, De rebus gestis Rogerii 3.24, ed. Pontieri, p. 71.
14 Amatus, Storia de' Normanni 1.2, ed. de Bartholomaeis, pp. 1011.
15 Malaterra, De rebus gestis Rogerii 1.3, ed. Pontieri, p. 8.
16 ibid. 2.38; 3.7, ed. Pontieri, pp. 48, 60.

359

17 De expugnatione Lyxbonensi: The Conquest of Lisbon, ed. and tr.


Charles W. David (New York, 1936), p. 98; Hervey de Glanville's speech:
ibid., pp. 1067.
18 ibid., p. 120.
19 Orderte Vitalis, Historia ecclesiastica 11.24, ed. Chibnall 6, p. 102.
20 Amatus, Storia de1Normanni 1.21; 2.17, ed. de Bartholomaeis, pp. 27,
75.
21 Arma Comnena, Alexiad 10.5.4; 10.5.10; 10.6.4; 11.6.3 ed. B. Leib
(3 vols., Paris, 193745), 2, pp. 2067, 210, 211; 3, p. 28.
22 Francesco Gabrieli (ed.), Arab Historians of the Crusades (Eng. tr.,
Berkeley and London, 1969), p. 73.
23 Anna Comnena, Alexiad 10.5.10; 4.8.2; 13.10.5; 14.2.4, ed. Leib, 2,
p. 209; 1, p. 167; 3, pp. 123, 147.
24 Malaterra, De rebus gestis Rogerii 1.17, ed. Pontieri, p. 17.
25 Michael Attaleiates, Historia, ed. Immanuel Bekker (Corpus scriptorum historiae Byzantinae 50, Bonn, 1853), p. 107.
26 Memoirs of Usamah Ibn-Munqidh, tr. Philip K. Hitti (New York,
1929), p. 161.
27 Aelred of Rievaulx, Relatio de Standardo, ed. Richard Hewlett in
Chronicles of the Reigns of Stephen, Henry II and Richard I (4 vols., RS,
18849) 3, pp. 17999, at p. 185.
28 Deusdedit, Collectio canonum 3.284-5 (156-7), ed. Victor Wolf von
Glanveil, Die Kanonessammlung des Kardinals Deusdedit (Paderborn, 1905),
p. 393; Le liber censuum de l'glise romaine, ed. Paul Fabre et al. (3 vols.,
Paris, 18891910), 1, pp. 4212, nos. 1623.
29 Coleccin de documentes indites del archiva general de la Corona de
Aragon 4, ed. Prspero de Bofarull y Mascaro (Barcelona, 1849), no. 62,
pp. 16874.
30 Jonathan Riley-Smith, The Knights of St John in Jerusalem and Cy
prus c. 10501310 (London, 1967), pp. 667.
31 Coleccin de documentos . . . de la Corona de Aragon 4, ed. de Bo
farull y Mascaro, no. 43, pp. 939; Cartulaire gnral de l'ordre du Temple,
ed. Marquis d'Albon (Paris, 1913), no. 314, pp. 2045.
32 Lacarra, no. 94 (108694).
33 . no KH.: Henry of Livonia, Chronicon Livoniae 11.3, ed. Leonid
Arbusow and Albert Bauer (AO 24, Darmstadt, 1959), pp. 6870. (
. : . . ., 1938,
608 .)
34 William of Poitiers, Gesta Guillelmi ducis Normannorum 2.5, ed. Ray
monde Foreville (Paris, 1952), p. 158.
35 Rotuli chartarum in turri Londinensi asservati (11991216), ed. T.D.
Hardy (London, 1837), p. 66 (1200); Calendar of the Patent Rolls (1258-66)
(London, 1910), p. 674 (1266); Rees Davies, Domination and Conquest: The
Experience of Ireland, Scotland and Wales 11001300 (Cambridge, 1990),
p. 36.
36 Rotuli chartarum . . . (11991216), pp. 21819 (1215).

360

37 Register of the Abbey of St Thomas Dublin, ed. John T. Gilbert (RS,


1889), no. 44, pp. 423 (120317).
38 Irish Cartularies of Llanthony Prima and Secunda, ed. Eric StJohn
Brooks (Irish Manuscripts Commission, Dublin, 1953), no. 75, pp. 878
(c. 118191).
39 Amatus, Storia de' Normanni 2.29, ed. de Bartholomaeis, p. 94.
40 Malaterra, De rebus gestii Rogerii 1.29, ed. Pontieri, p. 22.
41 Amatus, Storia de' Normanni 5.1-2, ed. de Bartholomaeis p. 223.
42 William of Apulia, La geste, prologue, lines 25, ed. Mathieu, p. 98.
43 Fulcher of Chartres, Historia Hierosolymitana 1.29, ed. Heinrich
Hagenmeyer (Heidelberg, 1913), p. 305.
44 Wiliam of Tyre, Chronicle 20.14, ed. R.B.C. Huygens (2 vols., Corpus
Christianorum, Continuatio mediaevalis 6363 Tumhout, 1986), 2, p. 927.
45 Henry of Antwerp, Tractatus de captione urbis Brandenburg, ed.
Oswald Holder-Egger, MCH, SS 25 (Hanover, 1880), pp. 4824, at p. 484.
46 Primera crnica general de Espana 1125, ed. Ramn Menndez Pidal
(2 vols., Madrid, 1955), 2, p. 767.
47 Calendar of the Justiciary Rolls . . . of Ireland (12951303), ed.
James Mills (Dublin, 1905), pp. 2812.
48 Chartularies of St Mary's Abbey Dublin, ed. John T. Gilbert (2 vols.,
RS, 1884), 1, no. 254, pp. 2757.
49 Chronicle of Morea, tr. Harold E. Lurier, Crusaders as Conguerors
(New York, 1964), p. 171 and n. 40; Chronique de More 241, ed. Jean
Longnon (Paris, 1911), p. 87; Les assises de Romanie 71, 90, 95, 98, ed.
Georges Recoura (Paris, 1930), pp. 210, 220, 2223, 224.
50 Les assises, ed. Recoura, editorial comment at p. 40.
51 Chronicle of Morea, tr. Lurier, p. 196.
52 Walter of Guisborough, Chronicle, ed. Harry Rothwell (Camden 3rd
ser., 89, 1957), p. 216.
53 Placitorum abbreviate (Record Commission, London, 1811), p. 201.
54 Fulcher of Chartres, Historia Hierosolymitana, 1.29, ed. Hagenmeyer,
p. 304.
55 Usamah, tr. Hitti, An Arab-Syrian Gentleman, p. 178; cf. Joshua
Prawer, Crusader Institutions (Oxford, 1980), pp. 2534, n. 11.
56 Richard Butler, Some Notices of the Castle and of the Ecclesiastical
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Fedalto, La Chiesa Latina in Oriente (2nd ed., 3 vols., Verona, 1981) 1,
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57 Coleccin de documentes . . . de la Corona de Aragon 4, ed. de Bofarull y Mascaro, no. 62, p. 169.
58 Eric St J. Brooks, 'A Charter of John de Courcy to the Abbey of
Navanr, Journal of the Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland 63 (1933),
pp. 3845, at p. 39.
59 Dignitas decani, ed. Newport B. White (Dublin, 1957), no. Ill,
pp. 11213 (= Crede mihi, ed. John T. Gilbert (Dublin, 1897), no. 74,
p. 67).

361

60 Calendar of the Charter Rolls, 12261516 (6 vois., London, 190327)


I, pp. 23031.
61 Reports of the Deputy Keeper of the Public Records of Ireland 155
(Dublin, 18691923), 20, no. 130, pp. 578.
62 William Dugdale, Monasticon Anglicanum, ed. John Caley et al.
(6 vols, in 8, London, 1846), 6/2, p. 1131, calendared in Calendar of the Pat
ent Rolls (135861) (London, 1911), p. 488.
63 Close Rolls of the Reign of Henry III (125456) (London, 1931),
p. 413.
64 Geoffrey Hand, 'English Law in Ireland, 1172135, Northern Ire
land Legal Quarterly 23 (1972), pp. 393422, p. 401, PRO S.C. 1/23, no. 85;
Calendar of Documents relating to Ireland (11711307), ed. H.S. Sweetman
(5 vols., London, 187586), 2, pp. 2812, no. 1482 (1278).
65 Registrum vulgariter nuncupatum 'The Record of Caernarvon', ed.
Henry Ellis (Record Commission, London. 1838), p. 149.
66 Mecklenburgisches UB (25 vols, in 26, Schwerin and Leipzig, 1863
1977) 3, no. 1781, p. 164.
67 Robert of Clari, La conqute de Constantinople 1, ed. Philippe Lauer
(Paris, 1924), p. 1.
68 . KH.: Villehardouin, Geoffrey de, La conqute de Constanti
nople, d. Edmond Faral (2nd ed., 2 vols., Paris, 1961). ( .
: . . . ., 1993. 290 .)
69 Les gestes des Chiprois, ed. Gaston Raynaud (Publications de la
Socit de l'Orient latin. Srie historique 5, Geneva, 1887), pp. 5, 9, 17, 52;
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79 Gerald of Wales (Giraldus Cambrensis), Itinerarium Kambriae 1.12, in
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91) 6, pp. 1152, at p. 91.
71 Gerald of Wales, Expugnatio Hibemica 2.10, ed. AB. Scott and
F.X. Martin (Dublin, 1978), p. 156.
72 Song of Dermot and the Earl, lines 6445, 485, 1763, 407, 456, 820
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. : J. Long, 'Dermot and the Earl: Who Wrote the Song?', Proceed
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73 . KH.: Henry of Livonia, Chronicon Livoniae 10.15, ed. Arbusow and Bauer, p. 66. ( . : .
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74 ibid.
75 Livlndische Reimchronik, ed. Leo Meyer (Paderborn, 1876); cm.
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76 Song of Dermot, lines 125, 13641, 2823, 201, 1409, 308699, ed.
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77 Ibid., p. 303 (editorial note).
78 Expugnatio Hibemica 2.10, ed. Scott and Martin, p. 156.

362

79 .: Bartlett, R. Gerald of Wales 11461223 (Oxford, 1982),


pp. 21416, 178, n. 3.
80 Livlndische Reimchronik, lines 1034, 93, 12022, 66976,
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81 De expugnatione Lyxbonensi, ed. David, pp. 546, 104, 134, 106, 128,
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82 Ibid., pp. 132, 56, 68, 110112.
88 Peter Knoch, Studien zu Albert von Aachen (Stuttgart, 1966), chapter
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84 . : Reinhard Wenskus, Stammesbildung und Verfas
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85 Andr Miguel, La gographie humaine du monde musulman jusqu'au
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86 Humbert of Silva Candida, Adversus Graecorum calumnias, PL 143,
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87 Michael Attaleiates, Historia, ed. Bekker, index, s.v. 'Franci'; George
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scriptorum historiae Byzantinae 345, Bonn, 18389), 2, pp. 545, 617.
88 Gabrieli, Arab Historians, p. 27 (Ibn al-Qalnisi).
89 Ekkehard of Aura, Hierosolymita 16.2, RHC, Occ. 5, pp. 140, at
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90 Simon of Saint Quentin, Historia Tartarorum, ed. Jean Richard (Paris,
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91 Gesta Francorum 10.30, ed. and tr. Rosalind Hill (London, 1962),
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92 Raymond of Aguilers, Liber 10, ed. Hill and Hill, pp. 79, 83.
93 William of Tyre, Chronicle 11.12, ed. Huygens, 1, p. 513.
94 Ambroise, L'estoire de la guerre sainte, lines 8494-505, 8509-10, ed.
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95 Walter Map, De nugis curialium 2.18, ed. and tr. M.R. James, rev.
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96 Albert of Aachen, Historia Hierosolymitana 1.8, RHC, Occ. 4,
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(1964), pp. 371, at pp. 1617.

363

97 Brut Tywysogyon or The Chronicle of the Princes: Red Book of Hergest Version, ed. and tr. Thomas Jones (Cardiff, 1955), index, s.v. 'French'.
98 Donnch O Corrin, 'Nationality and Kingship in Pre-Norman Ire
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99 Walter of Coventry, Memoriale, ed. William Stubbs (2 vols., RS,
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100 Documentes de Don Sancho I (11741211) 1, ed. Rui de Azevado et
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101 Honorius III, 20 May 1224, Novit regia celsitudo, Po. 7258; Opera
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102 Chronicle of Morea, tr. Lurier, p. 157.
103 Helbig & Weinrich 2, nos. 29, 30, 36, 80, 81, 111, 114, pp. 1623,
180, 306, 310, 418, 430.
104 Louis Dermigny, La Chine et l'Occident: Le commerce Canton au
XVIIIe sicle 17191833 1 (Paris, 1964), p. 292.
5
1 Jos Maria Font Rius (ed.), Cartas de pobacin y franquicia de
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of Aragon, 1207).
2 Maurice Beresford, New Towns of the Middle Ages (London, 1967),
pp. 63741.
3 Daniel Waley, The Italian City Republics (London, 1969), p. 35.
4 Peter Spufford, Money and its Use in Medieval Europe (Cambridge,
1988), p. 243
5 Cambridge Economic History of Europe I: The Agrarian Life of the
Middle Ages, ed. M.M. Postan (2nd ed., Cambridge, 1966), p. 561; Josiah
Cox Russell, British Medieval Population (Albuquerque, 1948); cf.
J.Z. Titow, English Rural Society 12001350 (London, 1969), pp. 6673.
6 H.C. Darby, Domesday England (Cambridge, 1977), pp. 8791, 'Total
Population''.
7 Cambridge Economic History 1, ed. Postan, p. 562; M.M. Postan, The
Medieval Economy and Society (London, 1972), p. 31.
8 E.A Wrigley and R.S. Schofield, The Population History of England
15411871 (Cambridge, Mass., 1981).
9 J.Z. Titow, 'Some Evidence of the Thirteenth-Century Population In
crease', Economic History Review, 2nd ser., 14 (1961), pp. 21824.
10 Georges Duby, Rural Economy and Country Life in the Medieval West
(Eng. tr., London, 1968), p. 119.
11 Francesco Gabrieli (ed.), Arab Historians of the Crusades (Eng. tr.,
Berkeley and London, 1969), p. 3 (Ibn al-Athfr).
12 Charles Higounet, 'Mouvements de population dans le Midi de la
France du Xle sicle d'aprs les noms de personne et de lieu', in his

364

Paysages et villages neufs du Moyen Age (Bordeaux, 1975), pp. 41737, at


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13 Helbig & Weinrich 2, no. 1, p. 70.
14 Orderic Vitalis, Historia ecclesiastica 7.5, ed. and tr. Marjorie Chibnall (6 vols., Oxford 196880), 4, p. 12.
15 Regesta Regum Anglo-Normannorum 1, ed. H.W.C. Davis (Oxford,
1913), appendix, 2 bis, p. 118 (= calendar no. 33).
16 Jordan Fantosme, Chronicle, lines 788-9, 417-18, 994-8, ed.
R.C. Johnston (Oxford, 1981), pp. 589, 3031, 723.
17 Geoffrey Barrow, The Anglo-Norman Era in Scottish History (Oxford,
1980), pp. 446 and 57 (map 7); Acts of Malcolm IV, King of Scots, 1153
65, ed. Geoffrey Barrow (Regesta Regum Scottorum 1, Edinburgh, 1960), no.
175, pp. 21920; K.J. Stringer, Earl David of Huntingdon, 11521219:
A Study in Anglo-Scottish History (Edinburgh, 1985), app. no. 55, pp. 2545
(117299); A AM. Duncan, Scotland: The Making of the Kingdom (Edin
burgh, 1975), pp. 137, 138, 189.
18 Duncan, Scotland, p. 476; Walter of Guisborough, Chronicle, ed.
Harry Rothwell (Camden 3rd ser., 89, 1957), p. 275.
19 Helbig & Weinrich 2, no. 125, p. 474.
20 Liselotte Feyerabend, Die Rigauer und Revaler Familiennamen im 14.
und 15. Jahrhundert (Cologne and Vienna, 1985), p. 74.
21 Gervase of Rheims, Epistola de vita sancti Donatiani, ed. Oswald
Holder-Egger, MCH, SS 15/2 (Hanover, 1888), pp. 8546, p. 855.
22 Helbig & Weinrich 1, no. 6, p. 58; . : Schlesinger, 'Flemmin
gen und Khren: Zur Siedlungsform niederlndischer Siedlungen des 12. Ja
hrhunderts im mitteldeutschen Osten', in idem (ed.). Die deutsche Ost
siedlung als Problem der europischen Geschichte (Vortrge und Forschun
gen 18, Sigmaringen, 1975), pp. 263309.
23 Helbig & Weinrich 1, no. 8, pp. 624.
24 Walter Khn, 'Flmische und frnkische Hufe als Leitformen der mit
telalterlichen Ostsiedlung', in his Vergleichende Untersuchungen zur mit
telalterlichen Ostsiedlung (Cologne and Vienna, 1973), pp. 151.
25 Hermann Teuchert, Die Sprachreste der niederlndischen Siedlungen
des 12. Jahrhunderts (2nd ed., MF 70, Cologne and Vienna, 1972); Karl Bis
choff, Sprache und Geschichte an der mittleren Elbe und der unteren Saale
(MF 52, Cologne and Graz, 1967), chapter 4.
26 UB zur Geschichte der Deutschen in Siebenbrgen 1, ed. Franz Zim
mermann and Carl Werner (Hermannstadt, 1892), nos. 2, 45, pp. 25;
Karl Reinerth, 'Siebenbrger and Magdeburger Flandrenses-Urkunden aus
dem 12. Jahrhundert', Sdostdeutsches Archiv 8 (1965), pp. 2656.
27 Brut y Tywysogyon or The Chronicle of the Princes: Red Book of Hergest Version, ed. Thomas Jones (Cardiff, 1955), p. 53.
28 Cartulary of Worcester Cathedral Priory, ed. R.R. Darlington (Pipe
Roll Society, n.s 37, 1968 for 1962-3), no. 252, pp. 1345.
29 Pipe Roll 31 Henry I, ed. J. Hunter (Record Commission, London,
1833), p. 136.

365

30 Gerald of Wales (Giraldus Cambrensis), Itinerarium Kambriae 1.2, in


J.S. Brewer, J.F. Dimock and G.F. Warner (eds.), Opera (8 vols., RS, 1861
91) 6, pp. 1152, at pp. 879.
31 idem. Speculum Duorum, ed. Yves Lefvre and R.B.C. Huygens, gen
eral ed. Michael Richter (Cardiff, 1974), p. 36.
32 Brut y Tywysogyon, ed. Jones, p. 221.
33 Itinerarium Kambriae 1.13, ed. Brewer et al., p. 83.
34 Armais of the Kingdom of Ireland by the Four Masters, ed. and tr.
John O'Donovan (4 vols., Dublin, 1851), 2, p. 1173, s.a. 1169.
35 Recueil des historiens des croisades. Lois 2 (Paris, 1843), pp. 5289,
no. 44; Liber cartarum Sancte Crucis, ed. Cosmo Inns (Bannatyne Club,
Edinburgh, 1840), app. 2, no. 7, p. 213 (cf. Acts of William I, King of
Scots, 11651214, ed. Geoffrey Barrow (Regesta Regum Scottorum 2, Edin
burgh, 1971), no. 560, p. 477); Helbig & Weinrich 1, no. 130, pp. 48082.
36 Lacarra, no. 132; Coleccin de fueros municipales y cartas pueblos de
los reinos de Castilla, Leon, Corona de Aragon y Navarra, ed. Tomas Munoz
y Romero (Madrid, 1847), pp. 299300.
37 Schlesisches UB, ed. Heinrich Appelt and Winfried Irgang (4 vols, to
date, Graz, Cologne and Vienna, 1963), 3, no. 2, pp. 1516.
38 Cosmas of Prague, Chronica Boemorum 2.1, ed. Berthold Bretholz
(SRG n.s., Berlin, 1923), p. 83.
39 Geoffrey Malaterra, De rebus gestis Rogerii Calabriae et Siciliae
comitis et Roberti Guiscardi ducis fratris eius 2.36-7, ed. Ernesto Pontieri
(Rerum italicarum scriptores, n.s., 5/1, Bologna, 1928), p. 47.
40 Brut y Tywysogyon, ed. Jones, p. 145; cf. ibid., p. 109; Rees Da vies.
Conquest, Coexistence and Change: Wales 10631415 (Oxford, 1987),
pp. 119-20.
41 Malaterra, De rebus gestis Rogerii 4.16, ed. Pontieri, pp. 956.
42 Sachsenspiegel, Landrecht 3.79.1, ed. Karl August Eckhardt (Germa
nenrechte, n.s.. Gttingen, 1955), p. 262.
43 Helbig & Weinrich 2, no. 67, p. 256; Josef Joachim Menzel, Die schle
sischen Lokationsurkunden des 13. Jahrhunderts (Wrzburg, 1977), p. 184.
44 Inquisitio Eliensis, ed. N.E.S.A Hamilton, Inquisitio comitatus Cantabrigiensis, subjicitur Inquisitio Eliensis (London, 1876), pp. 97183, at
p. 97.
45 Alfred Haverkamp, Medieval Germany 10561273 (Eng. tr., Oxford,
1988), p. 301, referring to a scene in the Kleiner Lucidiarius of Seifried Helblinc.
46 Helbig & Weinrich 1, no. 24, p. 114.
47 .: Dietrich Claude, Geschichte des Erz
bistums Magdeburg bis in das 12. Jahrhundert (2 vols., MF 67, Cologne,
19725) 2, pp. 71175.
48 Helbig & Weinrich 1, no. 5, pp. 546; no. 10, pp. 6870; no. 11,
pp. 724; no. 12, p. 74; no. 13, pp. 7880.
49 UB des Erzstifts Magdeburg 1, ed. Friedrich Isral and Walter
Mllenberg (Magdeburg, 1937), no. 421, pp. 5546; Gesta archiepis-

366

Magdeburgensium, ed. Wilhelm Schum, MGH, SS 14 (Hanover,


1883), pp. 361486, at p. 416.
50 Helbig & Weinrich 2, no. 17, p. 134.
51 ibid. 1, no. 23, p. 108.
52 ibid. 2, no. 30, pp. 1646.
53 Menzel, Die schlesischen Lokationsurkunden, p. 250; Regesten zur
schlesischen Geschichte 3 (Codex diplomaticus Silesiae 7/3, Breslau, 1886),
no. 2251, p. 179 (Zator, 1292).
54 Helbig & Weinrich 2, no. 109, p. 412.
55 Menzel, Die schlesischen Lokationsurkunden, p. 250.
56 Helbig & Weinrich 1, no. 7, p. 62.
57 ibid. 1, no. 150, p. 546.
58 ibid. 2, no. 84, p. 320.
59 Julio Gonzalez, Repoblacin de Castilla la Nueva (2 vols., Madrid,
1975-6) 1, p. 333; cf. p. 153 and n. 402.
60 Emilio Sez (ed.), 'Fueros de Puebla de Alcocer y Ybenes', Anuario
de historia del derecho espanol 18 (1947), pp. 43241, at p. 438.
61 Menzel, Die schlesischen Lokationsurkunden, p. 247.
62 Lacarra, no. 374 (1154).
63 ibid., no. 275.
64 Gonzalez, Repoblacin 2, p. 50; Sez, 'Fueros de Puebla de Alcocer y
Ybenes', p. 438; cf. Gonzalez, Repoblacin 2, p. 191, n. 120.
65 ibid. 2, p. 188; Diccionario de la lengua espanola, ed. Real Academia
de Espana (19th ed., Madrid, 1970), p. 1360, s.v.
66 Walter Khn, 'Bauernhofgrossen in der mittelalterlichen Nordost
siedlung', in his Vergleichende Untersuchungen zur mittelalterlichen Ost
siedlung (Cologne and Vienna, 1973), pp. 53111.
67 E XIII
. ., 1947.
68 Robert Fossier, La terre et les hommes en Picardie jusqu' la fin de
XHIe sicle (2 vols., Paris and Louvain, 1968) 2, p. 647.
69 Helbig & Weinrich 1, no. 95, pp. 3568.
70 ibid. 1, no. 129, p. 478.
71 Menzel, Die schlesischen Lokationsurkunden, pp. 2348.
72 Level of dues in Silesia: Menzel, Die schlesischen Lokationsurkunden,
p. 236.
73 Postan, Medieval Economy and Society, p. 125
74 Fossier, La terre et les hommes en Picardie 2, pp. 63740.
74 Reginald Lennard, Rural England, 10861135: A Study of Social and
Agrarian Conditions (Oxford, 1959), p. 1.
76 Richard Hoffmann, Land, Liberties and Lordship in a Late Medieval
Countryside: Agrarian Structures and Change in the Duchy of Wroclaw
(Philadelphia, 1989), p. 127.
77 Gonzalez, Repoblacin 2, pp. 489.
78 Helbig & Weinrich 2, no. 45, p. 202 (Silesia, 1319).

367

79 Kevin Down, "The Agricultural Economy of Colonial Ireland', in


New History of Ireland 2: Medieval Ireland, 1169-1534, ed. Art Cosgrove
(Oxford, 1987), pp. 45081, at p. 465.
80 Helbig & Weinrich 2, no. 96, p. 364.
80 Font Rius, Cartas de poblacin 1/i, no. 327 (1274).
82 Coleccin de fueros . . ., ed. Munoz y Romero, pp. 51213 (1134).
83 Helbig & Weinrich 2, no. 10, p. 88 (1221); Stanislaw Trawkowski, 'Die
Rolle der deutschen Dorfkolonisation und des deutschen Rechtes in Polen
im 13. Jahrhundert', in Walter Schlesinger (ed.), Die deutsche Ostsiedlung
als Problem der europischen Geschichte (Vortrge und Forschungen 18, Sig
maringen, 1975), pp. 34968, at p. 362, n. 38.
Budziszw, Krzydlina Wielka Krzydlina Mala.
84 Helbig & Weinrich 2, no. 80, p. 306 (1290).
85 Hoffmann, Land, Liberties and Lordship in a Late Medieval Countryside, chapter 4, 'Locare iure Theutonico: Instrument and Structure for a
New Institutional Order', pp. 6192; Menzel, Die schlesischen Lokation
surkunden, pp. 22981.
86 Helbig & Weinrich 1, no. 95, pp. 3568.
87 Menzel, Die schlesischen Lokationsurkunden, p. 233, n. 351.
88 Quellenbuch zur Geschichte der Sudetenlnder 1, ed. Wilhelm
Weizscker (Munich, 1960), no. 19, p. 47 (1254 for Police [Plitz]).
89 Lacarra, no. 51 (1126).
90 Coleccin de fueros . . ed. Munoz y Romero, pp. 51213 (1134).
91 Helbig & Weinrich 2, no. 139, p. 524 (1247).
92 Lacarra, no. 391 (1174).
93 Sez (ed.), 'Fueros de Puebla de Alcocer y Ybenes', p. 439.
94 Helbig & Weinrich 2, no. 95, p. 364.
95 ibid. 2, no. 3, p. 76.
96 ibid. 1, no. 50, pp. 21214.
97 Lacarra, no. 17 (1120)
98 Recueil des historiens des croisades. Lois 2, pp. 5289, no. 4.
99 Helbig & Weinrich 2, no. 28, pp. 16062.
100 Schlesisches UB 3, no. 43, pp. 3940; ibid. 1, no. 254, pp. 1856;
ibid. 2, no. 86, pp. 567.
101 Helbig & Weinrich 1, nos. 112, 14, 18, 246, pp. 4276, 8082,
924, 11424; ibid. 2, no. 67, p. 258 (1266); ibid. 2, no. 75, p. 286; ibid. 2,
nos. 412, pp. 1926.
192 Lacarra, no. 51.
103 Coleccin de fueros . . ., ed. Munoz y Romero, pp. 51213; ibid.,
p. 421 (1127).
104 Helbig & Weinrich 2, no. 102, p. 388.
105 'Francos et ingenues', etc.: Coleccin de fueros . . ., ed. Munoz y
Romero, pp. 51213.
106 Helbig & Weinrich 2, no. 139, p. 524 (1247).
107 Gonzalez, Repoblacin 2, pp. 1412, n. 359.

368

6
1 Jos Maria Font Rius (ed), Cartas de poblacin y franquicia de
Cataluna (2 vols., Madrid and Barcelona, 1969) 1, no. 287, pp. 41619.
2 Schlesisches UB, ed. Heinrich Appelt and Winfried Irgang (4 vols, to
date, Graz, Cologne and Vienna, 1963), 2, no. 128, pp. 834; Helbig &
Weinrich 2, no. 20, p. 140; Liber fundationis episcopatus Vratislaviensis, ed.
H. Markgraf and J.W. Schulte (Codex diplomaticus Silesiae 14, Breslau,
1889), p. 6. Kopan;
Brzeziny; Czamolas;
Wielochw.
3 Annales Pegavienses, ed. Georg Heinrich Pertz, MGH, SS 16 (Hanover,
1859), pp. 23270, at pp. 2467.
4 Cartulario de Sont Cugat del Vallus, ed. Jos Rius Serra (3 vols., Bar
celona, 19457), 2, p. 112, no. 464; Font Rius (ed.), Cartas de poblacin
1/2, pp. 6812.
5 Pierre Bonnassie, La Catalogne de milieu du Xe la fin du Xle sicle
(2 vols., Toulouse, 1975) 1, p. 123 and map on p. 124.
6 Chronicle 15.25, ed. R.B.C. Huygens (2 vols.. Corpus Christianorum,
Continuatio mediaevalis 6363 Turnhout, 1986), 2, p. 708.
7 Recueil des historiens des croisades, Lois 2 (Paris, 1843), pp. 5289,
no. 44; Joshua Prawer, Crusader Institutions (Oxford, 1980), pp. 11926;
Jonathan Riley-Smith, The Knights of St John in Jerusalem and Cyprus
c. 10501310 (London, 1967), pp. 4357.
8 Cartularies de Santo Domingo de la Calzada, ed. Agustin Ubieto
Arteta (Saragossa, 1978), no. 99, p. 82.
9 Annales Wratislavienses antique and Annales magistratus Wratislaviensis, ed. Wilhelm Amdt, MGH, SS 19 (Hanover, 1866), pp. 52631, at
p. 528.
10 Frutolfi et Ekkehardi Chronica non Anonymi Chronica imperatorum, ed. Franz-Josef Schmale and Irene Schmale-tt (AQ 15, Darmstadt,
1972), p. 198; Annales Pegavienses, MGH, SS 16, p. 247.
11 . no KH.: Helmold of Bosau, Chronica Slavorum 1.57, ed. Heinz
Stoob (AO 19, Darmstadt, rev. ed., 1973), p. 210. ( . :
. ., 1963, 299 .)
12 ibid. 1.89, ed. Stoob, p. 312.
13 Helbig & Weinrich 1, no. 19, pp. 96102.
14 Gesta Friderici I imperatoris 1.32, ed. Georg Waitz and Bernhard von
Simson (SRG, Hanover and Leipzig, 1912), pp. 4950.
15 De profectione Ludovici VII in Orientem 2, ed. and tr. Virginia G.
Berry (New York, 1948), p. 32.
16 . no KH.: Helmold, Chronica Slavorum 1.64, ed. Stoob, pp. 2246.
( . : , . ., 1963.)
17 Alfonso Garcia-Gallo, 'Los Fueros de Toledo', Anuario de bistorta del
derecho espanol 45 (1975), pp. 341488, at p. 475.
18 UB des Hochstifts Hildesheim und seiner Bischfe 2, ed. H. Hoogeweg (Hanover and Leipzig, 1901), no. 445, pp. 20810.

369

19 Miracula sancti Annonis 2.43, ed. Mauritius Mittler (Siegburg, 1966


8), p. 114.
20 ibid., no. 932, pp. 4678 (1253).
21 Miracula sancti Annonis 2.43, ed. Mauritius Mittler (Siegburg, 1966
8), p. 114.
22 Codex diplomaticus Brandenburgensis, ed. Adolph Friedrich Riedel
(41 vols., Berlin, 183869), A 18, sect. 7, no. 3, pp. 4423 (Neumark,
1298).
23 Walter Khn, 'Flmische und frnkische Hufe als Leitformen der mit
telalterlichen Ostsiedlung', in his Vergleichende Untersuchungen zur mittel
alterlichen Ostsiedlung (Cologne and Vienna, 1973), pp. 151.
24 Fritz Curschmann, Die deutschen Ortsnamen im Norddeutschen Kolo
nialgebiet (Stuttgart, 1910), p. 41, n. 4.
25 Hans K. Schulze, 'Die Besiedlung der Mark Brandenburg im hohen
und spten Mittelalter', Jahrbuch fr die Geschichte Mittel- und Ost
deutschlands 28 (1979), pp. 42178, at p. 127.
26 Helbig & Weinrich 2, nos. 4952, pp. 21424.
27 ibid. 2, no. 31, p. 168.
28 ibid. 2, no. 9, p. 88.
29 Pommersches UB 2 (Stettin, 18815, repr. Cologne and Graz, 1970),
no. 616, p. 27.
30 Helbig & Weinrich 2, no. 100, pp. 37884.
31 Codex diplomaticus Brandenburgensis A 1, sect. 7, no. 9, p. 458.
32 Helbig & Weinrich 2, no. 32, p. 170.
33 Khn, 'Flmische und frnkische Hufe', p. 3.
34 . .: Helmold, Chronica Slavorum 1.92, ed. Stoob, p. 318.
( . : , . ., 1963); Hel
big & Weinrich 1, no. 82, p. 316 (Rgen, 1221); 2, no. 98, p. 374.
35 78:55.
36 Khn, 'Flmische und frnkische Hufe', p. 4; Schlesisches UB 4,
no. 278, p. 188 (1276).
37 . .: Helmold, Chronica Slavorum 1.92, ed. Stoob, p. 318
( . : , .., 1963.) 1.84.
38 Liber fundationis . . . Heinrichow 1.9, ed. Grodecki, p. 296; Helbig &
Weinrich 2, no. 13, p. 118.
39 Preussisches UB (6 vols, to date, Knigsberg and Marburg, 1882)
1/i, no. 283, pp. 21415.
40 Helbig & Weinrich 1, no. 121, pp. 44850.
41 ibid. 1, no. 143, pp. 52430.
42 Henri Bresc, 'Fodalit coloniale en terre d'Islam: La Sicile (1070
1240)', in Structures fodales et fodalisme dans l'Occident mditerranen
(Xe-XIIIe s.) (Paris, 1980), pp. 63147, p. 635.
43 Julio Gonzalez, Repoblacin de Castilla la Nueva (2 vols., Madrid,
1975-6) 1, p.159.
44 Lacarra, nos. 56 (1103, 1105).
45 Helbig & Weinrich 2, no. 22, p. 144.

370

46 Gonzalez, Repoblacin 2, p. 184.


47 Lacarra, nos. 91 (1138), 138 (1127).
48 Helbig & Weinrich 2, no. 20, p. 140 (1237).
49 ibid. 2, no. 96, p. 366 (1265).
50 ibid. 2, no. 96, p. 366 (1265).
51 Helbig & Weinrich 2, nos. 95 (1252), 98 (1291), pp. 36064, 3726.
52 Gonzalez, Repoblacin 2, p. 168; Lacarra, no. 216 (1140).
53 Lacarra, no. 127 (1125).
54 Helbig & Weinrich 2, nos. 478, pp. 21014 (1236).
55 ibid. 2, no. 25, p. 154 (Silesia, 1250).
56 ibid. 2, no. 95, pp. 3624 (1252).
57 Jean Gautier-Dalch, 'Moulin eau, seigneurie, communaut rurale
dans le nord de l'Espagne (IXeXlle sicles)', in tudes de civilisation
mdivale, IXeXII sicles: Mlanges offerts Edmond-Ren Labande (Poi
tiers, 1974), pp. 33749, at p. 340.
58 Robert Fossier La terre et les hommes en Picardie jusqu' la fin de
XlIIe sicle (2 vols., Paris and Louvain, 1968) 2, p. 448.
59 Lacarra, no. 4 (1102).
60 Helbig & Weinrich 2, nos. 1069, pp. 40212 (125670).
61 ibid. 1, no. 131, p. 484.
62 Siegfried Epperlein, Bauembedrckung und Bauemwiderstand im
hohen Mittelalter: Zur Erforschung der Ursachen buerlichen Abwanderung
nach Osten im 12. und 13. Jahrhundert (Berlin, 1960).
63 Osnabrcker UB 2, ed. F. Philippi (Osnabrck, 1896), no. 380,
pp. 2989.
64 UB des Hochstifts Hildesheim 2, no. 795, pp. 4034 (1247).
65 Historia monasterii Rastedensis 35, ed. Georg Waitz, MGH, SS 25
(Hanover, 1880), pp. 495511, at p. 509.
66 Walter Khn, 'Die Siedlerzahlen der deutschen Ostsiedlung', in Stu
dium Sociale: Karl Valentin Mller dargebracht (Cologne and Opladen,
1963), pp. 13154; idem, 'Ostsiedlung und Bevlkerungsdichte', in Ver
gleichende Untersuchungen zur mittelalterlichen Ostsiedlung (Cologne and
Vienna, 1973), pp. 173210.
67 AJ. Otway-Ruthven, 'The Character of Norman Settlement in Ire
land', in J.L. McCracken (ed.). Historical Studies 5 (London, 1965), pp. 75
84, at pp. 77, 83 (cf. her A History of Medieval Ireland (2nd ed., London,
1980), pp. 11316); RE. Glasscock, 'Land and People c.1300', in New His
tory of Ireland 2: Medieval Ireland, 11691534, ed. Art Cosgrove (Oxford,
1987), pp. 20539, at p. 213.
68 Gerald of Wales, Expugnatio Hibemica 1.3, 16, ed. AB. Scott and
F.X. Martin (Dublin, 1978), pp. 30, 64.
69 Geoffrey Martin, 'Plantation Boroughs in Medieval Ireland, with a
Handlist of Boroughs to c. 1500', in David Harkness and Mary O'David
(eds.). The Town in Ireland (Historical Studies 13, Belfast, 1981), pp. 2553.

371

70 J A Watt, The Church and the Two Nations in Medieval Ireland


(Cambridge, 1970), esp. chapters 3 and 8: idem, The Church in Medieval
Ireland (Dublin, 1972), pp. 87109.
71 Rotuli chartarum in turn Londinensi asservati (11991216), ed.
T.D. Hardy (London, 1837), p. 96 (1200).
72 Close Rolls of the Reign of Henry III (124751) (London, 1922),
p. 480.
73 Rotuli litterarum clausarum in turn Londinensi asservati (120427),
ed. T.D. Hardy (2 vols., London, 183344), 1, p. 394.
74 Red Book of Ormond, ed. Newport B. White (Irish Manuscripts Com
mission, Dublin, 1932), pp. 117, 1983, 12735, 14558.
75 ibid., pp. 257.
76 ibid., pp. 334, 153; 1326 .
: 14
.: Edmund Curtis, 'Rental of the Manor of Lisronagh, 1333, and
Notes on "Betagh" Tenure in Medieval Ireland', Proceedings of the Royal
Irish Academy 43 (19357) C, pp. 4176.
77 Red Book of Ormond, ed. White, pp. 647.
78 ibid., pp. 3441, 415, 467, 7483; C.A Empey, 'Conquest and
Settlement: Patterns of Anglo-Norman Settlement in North Munster and
South Leinster', Irish Social and Economic History Journal 13 (1986), pp. 5
31, pp. 267 and n. 67.
79 Red Book of Ormond, ed. White, pp. 10811.
80 Thomas McErlean, "The Irish Townland System of Landscape Organi
zation', in Terence Reeves-Smyth and Fred Hamond (eds.), Landscape Ar
chaeology in Ireland (British Archaeological Reports, British Series 116, Ox
ford, 1983), pp. 31539, at p. 317, table 1; T. Jones Hughes, 'Town and
Bade in Irish Place-Names', in Nicholas Stephens and Robin E. Glasscock
(eds.), Irish Geographical Studies in Honour of E. Estyn Evans (Belfast,
1970), pp. 24458.
81 Els Furs de Valencia 35, ed. Rafael Gayano-Uuch (Valencia, 1930),
p. 206.
82 Ulrich Bentzien, Haken und Pflug (Berlin, 1969); Walter Khn, 'Der
Pflug als Betriebseinheit in Altpreusseri and 'Der Haken in Altpreussen', in
his Vergleichende Untersuchungen zur mittelalterlichen Ostsiedlung (Co
logne and Vienna, 1973), pp. 11340, 14171; Andr G. Haudricourt and
Mariel Jean-Brunhes Delamarre, L'homme et la charme travers le monde
(4th d., Paris, 1955).
83 . .: Helmold, Chronica Slavorum 1.12, 14.88, ed. Stoob,
pp. 70, 74, 312. ( . : .
., 1963.)
84 Die Urkunden Heinrichs des Lwen, ed. Karl Jordan, MGH,
Laienfrsten- und Dynastenurkunden der Kaiserzeit (Leipzig and Weimar,
19419), no. 41, pp. 5761; Mecklenburgisches UB (25 vols, in 26,
Schwerin and Leipzig, 18631977) 1, no. 65, p. 58; ibid., no. 375, p. 376
(. 1230).
85 Pommersches UB 6 (Stettin, 1907, repr. Cologne and Graz, 1970),
no. 3601, pp. 11011 (1322).

372

86 Schlesisches UB 1, no. 82, p. 54 (1202).


87 Preussisches UB, 1/i, no. 74, pp. 545.
88 Codex diplomaticus Warmiensis 1, ed. Cari Peter Woekly and Johann
Martin Saage (Mainz, 1860), no. 42, pp. 7980.
89 Kong Voldemars Jordebog, ed. Svend Aakjaer (3 vols., Copenhagen,
19261943), 2, pp. 5052.
90 Pommersches UB 5 (Stettin, 1905, repr. Cologne and Graz, 1970), no.
3234, pp. 40815.
91 Preussisches UB 1/i, no. 105, pp. 7781, p. 80; ibid. 1/i, no. 74,
pp. 545; ibid. 1/ii, no. 612, pp. 3878; ibid. 1/ii, no. 67, pp. 623.
92 Codex diplomaticus Maioris Poloniae, ed. Ignacy Zakrzewski and
Franciszek Piekosinski (5 vols., Poznan, 18771908), 1, no. 402, pp. 3545.
93 Preussisches UB 1/ii, no. 366, pp. 24751, p. 248.
94 UB zur Geschichte der Herzoge von Braunschweig und Lneburg und
ihrer Lande 1, ed. H. Sudendorf (Hanover, 1859), no. 122, pp. 756.
95 Codex diplomaticus Warmiensis 1, no. 214, pp. 3668 (1323).
96 Preussisches UB 1/i, no. 140, p. 105 (1242).
97 ibid. 1/i, no. 74, pp. 545; ibid. 1/i, no. 105, pp. 7781, p. 80; ibid.
1/ii, no. 366, pp. 24751, p. 248.
98 Visitationes bonorum archiepiscopatus nec non capituli Gnesnensis
saeculi XVI, ed. Boleslaw Ulanowski (Cracow, 1920), p. 365.
99 Schlesisches UB 1, no. 164, p. 117 (1217).
100 Helbig & Weinrich 2, no. 1, p. 72.
101 Helbig & Weinrich 1, no. 40, p. 178; Preussisches UB 1/i, no. 74,
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102 Codex diplomaticus Brandenburgensis A 10, no. 9, p. 75 (1173).
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104 Mecklenburgisches UB 1, no. 255, p. 240 (1219); Helbig & Weinrich,
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195 Liber fundationis . . . Heinrichow 2, preface, ed. Grodecki, p. 309; cf.
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106 'Rocznik lubi^ski 12411281, oraz wiersz pierwotnych zakonniach
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108 'Rocznik lubi^ski . . .' ed. Bielowski, p. 710; .: Grecki,
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109 Codex iuris Bohemici, ed. Hermenegild Jiricek (5 vols, in 12, Prague,
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110 Helbig & Weinrich 1, no. 2, p. 46.
111 H.E. Hallam, Settlement and Society: A Study of the Early Agrarian
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112 M.M. Postan, The Medieval Economy and Society (London, 1972),
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115 . . ,
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116 Vladimir Nekuda, 'Zum Stand der Wstungsforschung in Mhren
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117 Peter Wade-Martins, "The Origins of Rural Settlement in East An
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118 Martin Bom, Geographie der lndlichen Siedlungen 1: Die Genese
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119 Edward Miller and John Hatcher, Medieval England: Rural Society
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120 .: Brian K. Roberts, The Green Villages of County Durham (Dur
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122 Wolfgang Prange, Siedlungsgeschichte des Landes Lauenburg im
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123 Miller and Hatcher, Medieval England, p. 86.
124 .. XIII . T. 1. ., 1915,
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125 . : Hans-Jrgen Nitz (ed.).
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126 .: Hans-Jrgen Nitz, 'The Church as
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127 Eilert Ekwall, The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Place Names (4th
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128 Adolph Bach, Deutsche Namenkunde (2nd ed., 3 vols., Heidelberg,
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129 ibid., pp. 12936.
130 ibid., p. 125.
131 no jQj : Helmold, Chronica Slavorum 1. 12, ed. Stoob, p. 68.
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132 Liber fundationis episcopatus Vratislaviensis, p. 168; Helbig and Weinrich 2, no. 39, p. 188.
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134 C m.: Adriaan von Mller, 'Zum hochmittelalterlichen Besiedlung des
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.: .. XIII ;
.: Helbig & Weinrich 1, no. 63, pp. 26066.
136 Cartae et alia munimenta . . . de Glamorgan, ed. George T. Clark
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137 Annales Pegavienses, MGH, SS 16, p. 247.
138 Charles Higounet, Die deutsche Ostsiedlung im Mittelalter (Berlin,
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139 Gonzalez, Repoblacin 1, p. 172; 2, pp. 27199.
140 Repartimiento de Sevilla, ed. Julio Gonzalez (2 vols., Madrid, 1951),
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375

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3 R.E. Glasscock, 'England circa 1334', in H.C. Darby (ed.), A New His
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4 G. Jacob (ed.), Arabische Berichte von Gesandten an germanische
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5 Jiri Kejf, 'Die Anfnge der Stadtverfassung und des Stadtrechts in den
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6 Gearid MacNiocaill, Na Buirgist (2 vols., Dublin, 1964) 1, pp. 78
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7 Geoffrey Martin, 'Plantation Boroughs in Medieval Ireland, with a
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8 Karl Hoffmann, 'Die Stadtgrndungen Mecklenburg-Schwerins in der
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9 John Bradley, 'Planned Anglo-Norman Towns in Ireland', in Clarke
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10 Henri Bresc, 'Fodalit coloniale en terre d'Isiam: La Sicile (1070
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11 Liv-, esth- und curlndisches UB, ed. F.G. von Bunge et al. (1st ser.,
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12 Alfonso Garcfa-Gallo, 'Los Fueros de Toledo', Anuario de historia del
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13 Domesday Book, ed. Abraham Parley (2 vols., London, 1783), 1,
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14 Mary Bateson, 'The Laws of Breteuil', English Historical Review 15
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45.

376

15 Das alte Lbische Recht, ed. Johann Friedrich Hach (Lbeck, 1839), p.
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16 Codex iuris municipalis regni Bohemiae 2, ed. JaromiT Celakovsk
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17 Helbig & Weinrich 2, no. 15, pp. 12431 (1235); Lawrence of
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18 Zbigniew Zdrjkowski, 'Miasta na prawie Sredzkiiri, Slqski kwartalnik
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19 Coleccin de fueros municipales y cartas pueblos de los reinos de
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20 Schlesisches UB 3, no. 373, pp. 2412.
21 Quellenbuch zur Geschichte der Sudetenlnder 1, ed. Wilhelm
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22 Wilhelm Ebel (ed.), Lbecker Ratsurteile (4 vols., Gttingen, 1955
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24 Helbig & Weinrich 2, no. 41, pp. 1925.
25 Andr Joris, Huy et sa charte de franchise, 1066 (Brussels, 1966).
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27 Chronicle of Morea, tr. Harold E. Lurier, Crusaders as Conquerors
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31 Lacarra, no. 187.
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34 .: ibid. 2, p. 95.
35 Jos Maria Font Rius (d.), Cartas de poblacin y franquicia de
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36 Primera crnica general de Espana 1071, ed. Rarnon Menndez Pidal
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37 . .: Repartamiento de Sevilla, ed. Julio Gonzalez


(2 vois., Madrid, 1951), 1, opposite p. 314.
38 Codex diplomaticus et epistolaris regni Bohemiae, ed. Gustavus Frie
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39 Annales capituli Cracoviensis (Rocznik Kapitulny Krakowski), ed. Au
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49 Tafel and Thomas, Urkunden . . . der Republik Venedig 2, no. 232,
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51 Edith Ennen, Die europische Stadt des Mittelalters (4th ed.,
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56 Baiard, La Romanie gnoise 1, pp. 1545.

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58 ibid. 1, pp. 199202, 23548, 33941; Michel Balard (d.), Gnes et
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.: John . Pryor, Geography, Technology and War: Studies in the
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63 Gabrieli, Arab Historians, p. 340 (Tashrf).
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24 Frantisek Graus, Die Nationenbildung der Westslawen im Mittelalter
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26 Davies, Conquest, p. 17.
27 Gearoid MacNiocaill, Na Buirgisi (2 vols., Dublin, 1964) 2, no. 77,
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381

28 Jonathan Riley-Smith, The Knights of St. John in Jerusalem and Cy


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29 Regesta diplomatica nec non epistolario Bohemiae et Moraviae, ed.
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30 Peter of Zittau, Chronicon Aulae Regiae 1.68, ed. Ernler, p. 83.
31 Utes res gestae inter Polonos Ordinemque Cruciferorum (2nd ser.,
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32 Ranald Nicholson, 'A Sequel to Edward Bruce's Invasion of Ireland',
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33 Walter Bower, Scotichronicon 12.32, ed. D.E.R. Watt, 6 (Aberdeen,
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34 William Stubbs (ed.). Select Charters (9th ed., Oxford, 1913), p. 480.
35 Annales capituli Cracoviensis (Rocznik Kapitulny Krakowski), ed. Au
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36 Karl Gottfried Hugelmann, 'Die Rechtsstellung der Wenden im deut
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37 Historical Manuscripts Commission, Wth Report, appendix 5 (Lon
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38 Perroy, L'Angleterre et le Grand Schisme, pp. 3945 (cf. p. 403).
39 James Lydon, 'The Middle Nation', in idem (ed.), The English in Me
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40 Historical Manuscripts Commission, 10th Report, app. 5, p. 308.
41 William R. Schmalstieg, Studies in Old Prussian (University Park, Pa.,
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42 Reinhold Olesch (ed.). Fontes linguae dravaeno-polabicae minores et
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43 Julio Gonzalez, Repoblacin de Castilla la Nueva (2 vols., Madrid,
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44 Helbig & Weinrich 2, no. 93, p. 352.
45 Pomerellisches UB, no. 159, pp. 1334.
46 Friedrich Lotter, 'The Scope and Effectiveness of Imperial Jewry Law
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47 Helbig & Weinrich 1, no. 36, p. 158.
48 Coleccin de fueros municipales y cartas pueblos de los reinos de
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49 Das alte Lbische Recht, ed. Johann Friedrich Hach (Lbeck, 1839), p.
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382

Ebel, Lbisches Recht (I) (Lbeck, 1971), pp. 2756; Wolfgang Zorn, 'Deut
sche und Undeutsche in der stdtischen Rechtsordnung des Mittelalters in
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51 Alfonso Garcia-Gallo, 'Los Fueros de Toledo', Anuario de historia del
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52 ibid., app., doc. 1, p. 460.
53 ibid., doc. 3, p. 463.
54 Gonzalez, Repobacin 2, pp. 946; Maria Luz Alonso, 'La perduracin
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55 Garcia-Gallo, 'Los Fueros de Toledo', doc. 6, p. 467.
,
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58 Luz Alonso, 'El Fuero Juzgo', pp. 3469, and doc. 1, pp. 3745.
57 Coleccion de fueros ed. Munoz Romero, pp. 41517.
58 Boswell, Royal Treasure, p. 131, n. 79 (1348).
59 Las Siete Partidas 7.24. 1, ed. Real Academia de la Historia (3 vols.,
Madrid, 1807), 3, p. 676.
60 Rees Davies, 'The Law of the March', Welsh History Review 5 (1970
71), pp. 130, at p. 4; . : R. Bartlett, Gerald of Wales 11461223
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(11 vols., Record Commission, 181028) 1, pp. 5568 (12 Edward I), at
p. 68.
61 Davies, 'Law of the March', p. 16; idem., Lordship and Society in the
March of Wales 12821400 (Oxford, 1978), pp. 14975, 'Judicial Lordship',
and pp. 31012.
62 Helbig & Weinrich 2, no. 138, p. 520.
63 Coleccion de fueros, ed. Munoz y Romero, pp. 41517.
64 Jos Maria Font Rius (ed.), Cartas de poblacin y franquicia de
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65 Francisco Fernandez y Gonzalez, Estado social y politico de los
mudjares de Castilla (Madrid, 1866), p. 119, n. 2.
66 Helbig & Weinrich 1, nos. 132 (1286), 141 (1351), pp. 48890, 522.
67 Fernandez y Gonzalez, Estado de los mudjares, doc. 24, p. 325.
68 Helbig & Weinrich 2, no. 93, p. 354.
69 Heibig & Weinrich 2, no. 77, p. 294; . actor forum rei, etc.
Codex Iustinianus 3.13.2 and 3.19.3, ed. Paul Krueger (Corpus iuris civilis 2,
Berlin, 1895), pp. 1289, IX; .:
Gregory IX's Decretals 2.2.5, ed. Emil Friedberg (Corpus iuris canonici 2,
Leipzig, 1881), col. 249 ( III).
.
70 Helbig & Weinrich 2, no. 93, p. 354.
71 Sachsenspiegel, Landrecht 3.6970, ed. Karl August Eckhardt (Ger
manenrechte, n.s., Gttingen, 1955), pp. 2546.

383

72 Coleccin de fueros, ed. Munoz y Romero, pp. 41517.


73 Iura Prutenorum 18, ed. Jzef Matuszewski (Towarzystwo Naukowe w
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74 Liv-, esth- und curlndisches UB, ed. F. G. von Bunge et al. (1st ser.,
12 vols., Riga and Reval, 18531910), 1, no. 435, cols. 54950; no. 437,
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75 Fueros de Seplveda, ed. Emilio Sez (Segovia, 1953), p. 74 ('Fuero
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76 Mecklenburgisches UB (25 vols, in 26, Schwerin and Leipzig, 1863
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77 Rotuli chartarum in turn Londinensi osservati (11991216), ed.
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Prutenorum 89, ed. Matuszewski, p. 49.
78 Thomas Glick, Islamic and Christian Spain in the Early Middle Ages
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79 Historical Manuscripts Commission, 10th Report, app. 5, p. 323.
80 Sachsenspiegel, Landrecht 3. 71, ed. Eckhardt, pp. 2567.
81 Richard Siebert (ed.), 'Elf ungedruckte Urkunden aus einem im Her
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82 Wales: Rees Davies, "The Twilight of Welsh Law, 12841506', His
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83 Breslauer UB 1, ed. G. Km (Breslau, 1870), no. 121, pp. 11011.
84 Codex iuris Bohemici, ed. Hermenegild Jiricek (5 vols, in 12, Prague,
186798), 2/2, p. 125 (Majestas Carolina 19).
85 Roger of Wendover, Flores historiarum, ed. H.G. Hewlett (3 vols., RS,
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86 Foedera, conventiones, litterae et acta publica, ed. Thomas Rymer
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87 Rotuli litterarum clausarum in turn Londinensi osservati (120427),
ed. T.D. Hardy (2 vols., London, 183344), 1, p. 497.
88 Hand, English Law, p. 1.
89 Bower, Scotichronicon 12.2632, ed. Watt, 6, pp. 384402; Hand,
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90 Kenneth Nicholls, 'Anglo-French Ireland and After', Peritia 1 (1982),
pp. 370403, at pp. 3746.
91 Hand, English Law, p. 199. 1301 .
92 Calendar of the Justiciary Rolls of Ireland (12951303), ed. James
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93 ibid., p. 14.

384

94 Katherine Walsh, A Fourteenth-Century Scholar and Primate: Richard


Fitz Ralph in Oxford, Avignon and Armagh (Oxford, 1981), p. 334.
95 Statutes of the Parliament of Ireland: King John to Henry V, p. 210.
96 Bower, Scotichronicon 12.28, ed. Watt, 6, p. 390.
97 Hand, English Law, p. 202, . 1301.
98 Calendar of the Justiciary Rolls of Ireland (12951303), p. 156.
99 Calendar of Archbishop Alen's Register, ed. Charles McNeill (Dublin,
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100 Hand, English Law, p. 208; Foedera 2. 1, pp. 2934.
101 Gearyid MacNiocaill, 'The Interaction of Laws', in James Lydon
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102 Statutes of the Realm 1, p. 68.
103 Preussisches UB (6 vols, to date, Knigsberg and Marburg, 1882)
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104 Iura Prutenorum 25, ed. Matuszewski, p. 31.
105 Codex iuris Bohemici 2/2, p. 167 (Majestas Carolina 82).
16 Das Magdeburg-breslauer systematische Schffenrecht 3.1.4, ed. Paul
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(Berlin, 1838), p. 53.
107 Helbig & Weinrich 1, no. 66, p. 270.
108 ibid. 2, no. 25, p. 154.
109 AJ. Otway-Ruthven, "The Request of the Irish for English Law,
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also Aubrey Gwynn, 'Edward I and the Proposed Purchase of English Law
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pp. 11127.
110 MacNiocaill, Na Buirgeisi 2, p. 336, n. 21; Geoffrey Hand, 'English
Law in Ireland, 1172135, Northern Ireland Legal Quarterly 23 (1972),
pp. 393422, p. 413 and n. 3.
111 Hand, English Law, p. 409.
112 Statutes of the Parliament of Ireland: King John to Henry V, p. 324.
113 Frederick Pollock and Frederic William Maitland, The History of
English Law before the Time of Edward I (2nd ed., 2 vols., Cambridge, 1898,
reissued 1968) 1, p. 91.
114 Mercedes Gaibrois de Ballesteros, Historia del reinado de Sancho IV
de Castilla (3 vols., Madrid, 19228) 3, doc. 295, pp. 1845.
115 Davies, 'Twilight'; idem. Conquest, pp. 4224; Oxford Book of
Welsh Verse, ed. T. Parry (Oxford, 1962), p. 139.
116 Statutes of the Realm 3, pp. 5639 (27 Henry VIII c. 26), pp. 563,
567.
9

1
Cosmas of Prague, Chronica Boemorum 2.23, cd. Bertold Bretholz
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2 Chionicon, ed. Wilhelm Wattenbach, MGH, SS 17 (Hanover, 1861),


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3 Cosmas of Prague, Chronica Boemorum 1. 23, 31, ed. Bretholz,
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4 Symbolum Electorum 1.28, in J.S. Brewer, J.F. Dimock and
G.F. Warner (eds.). Opera (8 vols., RS, 186191) 1, pp. 197395, p. 306.
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cerning Ireland 6401261, ed. Maurice P. Sheehy (2 vols., Dublin, 1962
5), 1, nos. 1678, pp. 2535.
6 Frantisek Graus, Die Nationenbildung der Westslawen im Mittelalter
(Nationes 3, Sigmaringen, 1980), p. 97, n. 78.
7 Codex diplomaticus Lusatiae superioris 1, ed. Gustav Khler (2nd ed.,
Grlitz, 1856), no. 86, pp. 1378.
8 Helbig & Weinrich 1, no. 85, pp. 3246 (1237); Jrgen Petersohn, Der
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und Dnemarks vom 10. bis 13. Jahrhundert (Cologne and Vienna, 1979),
pp. 3234.
9 UB des ehemaligen Cistercienserstiftes Goldenkron in Bhmen, ed.
M. Pangerl (Fontes rerum Austriacarum II, 37, Vienna, 1872), no. 79, p. 146,
n. 3.
10 Peter of Zittau, Chronicon Aulae Regiae 1.68, ed. J. Emier, Fontes
rerum Bohemicarum 4 (Prague, 1884), pp. 1337, p. 84.
11 Codex diplomaticus Maioris Poloniae, ed. Ignacy Zakrzewski and
Franciszek Piekosinski (5 vols., Poznan, 18771908), 1, no. 551, pp. 510
15; of 1326: ibid. 2, no. 1061, p. 396.
12 Monumenta Poloniae Vaticana 3: Analecta Vaticana, ed. Jan Ptasnik
(Cracow, 1914), pp. 82, 90, 86, 889, 87, 90, 92, 93, 845.
13 Patent Rolls of the Reign of Henry III (121632) (2 vols., London,
19013) 1, p. 23; cf. p. 22; J.A Watt, The Church and the Two Nations in
Medieval Ireland (Cambridge, 1970), pp. 6984; idem. The Church in Me
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14 Ralph V. Turner, Men Raised from the Dust: Administrative Service
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Rotuli chartarum in turn Londinensi asservati (11991216), ed. T.D. Hardy
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15 Honorius III, 6 August 1220, Pervenit ad audientiam nostram, Po.
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16 Patent Rolls of the Reign of Henry III 2, p. 59 (1226); cf. Rotuli litterarum clausarum in turn Londinensi asservati (120427), ed. T.D. Hardy
(2 vols., London, 183344), 2, pp. 29, 31 (1225).
17 J.A Watt, 'English Law and the Irish Church: The Reign of Edward ,
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to A. Gwynn (Dublin, 1961), pp. 13367, at pp. 15051, n. 51; cf. Cale
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(5 vols., London, 187586), no. 2, p. 10.

386

18 Edouard Perroy, L'Angleterre et le Grand Schisme d'Occident (Paris,


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19 Innocent III, 14 September 1204, Venientes ad apostolicam, Po. 2280;
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21 W. Moir Bryce, The Scottish Grey Friars (2 vols., Edinburgh and Lon
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22 Heinrich Finke (ed.), Ungedruckte Dominikanerbriefe des 13. Jahr
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23 John Freed, The Friars and German Society in the Thirteenth Century
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24 ibid., pp. 745.
25 Regesta diplomatica nec non epistolario Bohemiae et Moraviae, ed.
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p. 1078; Graus, Nationenbildung, p. 97, n. 79.
26 Codex diplomatics Maioris Poloniae 1, no. 551, p. 513. Brzsc:
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27 R.W. Southern, Western Society and the Church in the Middle Ages
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28 Aubrey Gwynn and R. Neville Hadcock, Medieval Religious H oses:
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29 Watt, Church and Two Natios, chapter 4, pp. 85107, 'The Crisis of
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39
Stephen of Lexington, Registrum epistolarum, ed. P. Bruno Griesser,
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Barry O'Dwyer, Letters from Ireland 12281229 (Kalamazoo, Mich., 1982).
31 Registrum, p. 81, no. 85; p. 93, no. 95; cf. p. 92, no. 94; p. 47, no. 37;
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32 Dalimil Chronicle, ed. J. Jiricek, Fontes rerum Bohemicarum 3 (Pra
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33 Geoffrey Malaterra, De rebus gestis Rogerii Calabriae et Siciliae
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(Rerum italicarum sciptores, n.s., 5/1, Bologna, 1928), p. 64.
34 Peter of Zittau, Chronicon Aulae Regiae 3.2, 12, ed. Elmer, pp. 320,
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35 Regesta diplomatica nec non epistolario Bohemiae et Moraviae 2,
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Zittau, Chronicon Aulae Regiae 1.126, ed. Emler, p. 228.

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36 Chronicon principum Polonie 23, ed. Zygmunt Wclewski, MPH 3


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37 Chronica Poloniae Maioris 116, ed. Krbis, p. 105.
38 ibid. 156, ed. Krbis, p. 124; see Paul Knoll, 'Economic and Political
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39 Annales capituli Posnaniensis, ed. Brygida Krbis, MPH, n.s., 6 (War
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40 Francis of Prague, Cronicae Pragensis libri III 3.12, ed. J. Emler, Fon
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42 Peter of Zittau, Chronicon Aulae Regiae 3.2, ed. Emier, p. 320.
43 Filippo Buonaccorsi, alias Callimachus, Vita et mores Gregorii Sanocei, ed. Ludwik Finkei, MPH 6 (Cracow, 1893, repr. Warsaw, 1961),
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.
44 Domesday Book, ed. Abraham Parley (2 vols., London, 1783), 1,
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45 Michael Richter, Sprache und Cessellschaft im Mittelalter (Stuttgart,
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46 H.E. Shields, "The Walling of New Ross a Thirteenth-Century
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48 Calendar of Ancient Petitions relating to Wales, ed. William Rees
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49 Pommerellisches UB, ed. Max Perlbach (Danzig, 18812), no. 465,
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50 Raimund Friedrich Kaindl, Geschichte der Deutschen in den
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52 Liber actorum, resignationum nec non ordinationum civitatis Cracoviae, ed. Franciszek Piekosinski (Monumenta Medii Aevi historica res
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53 Liber actorum . . . Cracoviae, ed. Piekosinski, p. 39; Wolfgang Zorn,
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388

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54 Paul Johansen and Heinz von zur Mhlen, Deutsch urid Undeutsch im
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55 Dalimil Chronicle (German version), prose 49, ed. Jiricek, pp. 2834;
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56 De Theutonicis bonum dictamen: ed. Wilhelm Wostry, 'Ein
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, (Graus, Nationenbildung, . 14, pp. 2213) 138093.
57 Werner Vogel, Der Verbleib der wendischen Bevlkerung in der Mark
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58 Codex diplomaticus Brandenburgensis, ed. Adolph Friedrich Riedel
(41 vols., Berlin. 183869), A 20, pp. 35051, no. 16 (1353), pp. 3657,
no. 38 (1387).
59 ibid., A 14, pp. 2412 (Neustadt Salzwedel, 1428).
60 Vogel, Verbleib, pp. 1278, n. 9; Dora Grete Hopp, Die Zunft und
die Nichtdeutschen im Osten, insbesondere in der Mark Brandenburg (Marburg/Lahn, 1954), p. 98, n. 84.
61 Liv-, esth- und auslndisches UB, ed. F.G. von Bunge et al. (1st ser.,
12 vols., Reval and Riga, 18531910), 3, no. 1305, col. 642 (art. 7).
62 Das Ofner Stadtrecht 32, ed. Karl Mollay (Weimar, 1959), p. 70.
63 Katherine Walsh, A Fourteenth-Century Scholar and Primate: Richard
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389

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10

1 William of Malmesbury, Gesta regum 4, ed. William Stubbs (2 vols.,


RS, 1887-9), 2, p. 396 (Urban II at Clermont).
2 Robert the Monk, Historia Iherosolimitana 2.20, RHC, Occ. 3,
pp. 711882, p. 751; 'the Roman Church which holds . . .': Fulcher of Char
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3 Gregory VII, Registrum 3.6*, ed. Erich Caspar (MGH, Epistolae selectae, 2, Berlin, 192023), p. 253.
4 John Mundy: Europe in the High Middle Ages (London, 1973), p. 26;
2- .: 1991, p. 16.
5 . .: Registrum 1.7; 1.11; 1.21; 1.19; 7.14;
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312, 4856, 145, 236, 463, 3437 (cf. 1112), 52830, 4735.
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(Madrid, 1767), pp. 30510, at p. 309.
7 Gregory VII, Registrum 1.64, ed. Caspar, pp. 924; cf. 1.63, pp. 912.
8 ibid. 9.2, ed. Caspar, pp. 56972.
9 Richard W. Southern, Western Society and the Church in the Middle
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14 Registrum 1.17, ed. Caspar, p. 27.
15 ibid., ed. Caspar, p. 28.
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28
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27
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391

28 Gregory VII, Epistolae Vagantes, ed. Cowdrey, no. 65, p. 146; Arnold
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40 Raymund of Aguilers, Liber (Historia Francorum) 18, ed. Hill and
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41 Baudri de Bourgueil, Historia Jerosolimitana, RHC, Occ. 4, p. 9.
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45 Stephen de Salaniaco, De quattuor in qiiibus Deus Praedicatorum Ordinem insignivit 1.7r ed. T. Kaeppeli (Monumenta ordinis fratrum praedica
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55 ibid. 1.1, RHC, Occ. 4, p. 124.
56 Orderic Vitalis, Historia eccesiastica 9.1, ed. and tr. Marjori Chibnall (6 vols., Oxford, 196880), 5, p. 4.
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