Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 18

Basic Electronics Communication Systems

Communication Systems
Syllabus: Communication Systems: Introduction, Elements of Communication Systems,
Modulation: Amplitude Modulation, Spectrum Power, AM Detection (Demodulation), Frequency
and Phase Modulation. Amplitude and Frequency Modulation: A comparison. (6 Hours)

Introduction
One of the greatest applications of electrical technology is communication systems.
Communication is the process of transferring information from one point to the other.
Information may be in the form of voice, text, picture or a combination of these.

Elements of Communication System


Fig. 1 shows a block diagram of a communication system.

Modulator Demodulator
Source and Channel and Destination
Transmitter Receiver

Noise

Fig. 1 Block diagram of a communication system


Source: The aim of a communication system is to convey a message and this message
originates from a source. Common examples of source are analog audio, video or some
digital data.
Modulator and Transmitter: It processes the message signal from the source and makes it
suitable for transmission over the channel. The transmitter consists of encoders, decoders,
transducers, amplifiers, etc.
Channel: It is the physical medium that connects transmitter and receiver. Communication
channels can be a pair of conductors, optical fiber or just free space.
Noise: Noise is random, unwanted energy that gets added to the message signal during
transmission over the channel.
Demodulator and Receiver: It performs the reverse process of modulation and transmission.
The receiver processes the signal and gets back the actual message that is transmitted. It
performs demodulation and extracts the message signal from the carrier wave. The receiver
consists of amplifier, detector, mixer, oscillator, transducer, etc.

Modulation
Baseband Communication
A signal in its original frequency is called a baseband signal and transfer of these
signals directly over the channel is called baseband communication.

Shrishail Bhat, Dept. of ECE, AITM Bhatkal 1


Communication Systems Basic Electronics

However, the baseband signals are not suitable for transmission, as they get
attenuated and cannot travel longer distances. Hence modulation is used.

Modulation
Modulation is a process in which some characteristic or property of a high frequency
signal called carrier signal is varied in accordance with the instantaneous amplitude of the
message signal. The message signal is called the modulating signal.
The carrier signal is a sinusoidal signal that can be represented as
𝒗𝒄 (𝒕) = 𝑽𝒄 𝐬𝐢𝐧(𝝎𝒄 𝒕 + 𝜽) (1)
where 𝑣𝑐 (𝑡) is instantaneous voltage as a function of time
𝑉𝑐 is peak amplitude
𝜔𝑐 is angular frequency (rad/s), 𝜔𝑐 = 2𝜋𝑓𝑐 where 𝑓𝑐 is carrier frequency in Hz
𝑡 is time in seconds
𝜃 is phase angle in radians
The characteristic of the carrier wave that is modified may be amplitude 𝑉𝑐 , frequency
𝑓𝑐 or phase angle 𝜃. Accordingly, we have three types of modulation:
1. Amplitude Modulation
2. Frequency Modulation
3. Phase Modulation
The modulated signal is not a single frequency signal and it occupies a great
bandwidth. The bandwidth of the modulating signal also depends on the modulating signal
frequency range and the modulating scheme in use. Table 1 gives the commonly used
frequency ranges and their applications.
Table 1 Commonly used frequency ranges and applications

Frequency Range Applications


Super high frequencies (3 GHz – 30 GHz) Radar
Communication satellites, cellular phones,
Ultra high frequencies (300 MHz – 3 GHz)
personal communication systems
Very high frequencies (30 MHz – 300 MHz) TV and FM broadcast
High frequencies (3 MHz – 30 MHz) Short-wave broadcast commercial
Medium frequencies (300 kHz – 3 MHz) AM broadcast
Low frequencies (30 kHz – 300 kHz) Navigation, submarine communications
Very low frequencies (3 kHz – 30 kHz) Submarine communications, navigation
Audio, submarine communications,
Voice frequencies (300 Hz – 3 kHz)
navigation
Extremely low frequencies (30 Hz – 300 Hz) Power transmission

2 Shrishail Bhat, Dept. of ECE, AITM Bhatkal


Basic Electronics Communication Systems

Need for Modulation


Since the baseband signals are incompatible for direct transmission over the channel,
modulation technique is used. The advantages of using modulation are as listed below:
1. Reduces the height of antenna: The minimum height of antenna required is given as 𝜆/4.
𝑐
The wavelength 𝜆 is given as 𝜆 = 𝑓 where 𝑐 is the velocity of light and 𝑓 is the frequency.
Modulation increases the frequency of the signal to be radiated and thus reduces the
wavelength, which reduces the size of the antenna required.
2. Avoids mixing of signals: Different signals from different sources can be sent over the
same channel by using different carrier frequencies for these signals. This avoids mixing
of signals.
3. Increases the range of communication: Modulation increases the frequency of the signal
to be radiated and thus increases the distance over which the signals can be transmitted.
4. Allows multiplexing of signals: Multiplexing means transmission of two or more signals
simultaneously over the same channel. Different signals from different sources can be sent
over the same channel by using different carrier frequencies for these signals.
5. Allows adjustments in the bandwidth: Bandwidth of a modulated signal can be made
smaller or larger than the original signal. Signal to noise ratio (SNR), which is a function
of bandwidth, can thus be improved.
6. Improves quality of reception: Modulation reduces the effect of noise to great extent and
thus improves the quality of reception.

Amplitude Modulation
Amplitude Modulation is a process in which the amplitude of the carrier signal is
varied in accordance with the instantaneous amplitude of the message signal.
Fig. 2 shows a modulating signal, a higher frequency carrier and the amplitude
modulated signal.
The instantaneous value of the message signal (modulating signal) is
𝒗𝒎 (𝒕) = 𝑽𝒎 𝐬𝐢𝐧 𝝎𝒎 𝒕 (2)
where 𝑣𝑚 (𝑡) is instantaneous amplitude of modulating signal
𝑉𝑚 is peak amplitude of modulating signal
𝜔𝑚 is angular frequency (rad/s), 𝜔𝑚 = 2𝜋𝑓𝑚 where 𝑓𝑚 is modulating frequency in Hz
The instantaneous value of the carrier signal is
𝒗𝒄 (𝒕) = 𝑽𝒄 𝐬𝐢𝐧 𝝎𝒄 𝒕 (3)
where 𝑣𝑐 (𝑡) is instantaneous voltage of carrier signal
𝑉𝑐 is peak amplitude of carrier signal
𝜔𝑐 is angular frequency (rad/s), 𝜔𝑐 = 2𝜋𝑓𝑐 where 𝑓𝑐 is carrier frequency in Hz

Shrishail Bhat, Dept. of ECE, AITM Bhatkal 3


Communication Systems Basic Electronics

𝒗𝒎 (𝒕)

𝑉𝑚

𝒗𝒄 (𝒕)

𝑉𝑐

𝒗𝑨𝑴 (𝒕)

𝑉𝑐 + 𝑉𝑚 𝑉𝑚

Fig. 2 Amplitude modulation

The amplitude of amplitude modulated signal is then given by


𝑉𝐴𝑀 = 𝑉𝑐 + 𝑣𝑚 (𝑡) (4)
Using Eqn. (2) in (4) 𝑉𝐴𝑀 = 𝑉𝑐 + 𝑉𝑚 sin 𝜔𝑚 𝑡 (5)
The instantaneous value of amplitude modulated signal is then given by
𝑣𝐴𝑀 (𝑡) = 𝑉𝐴𝑀 sin 𝜔𝑐 𝑡 (6)
Using Eqn. (4) in (6) 𝒗𝑨𝑴 (𝒕) = (𝑽𝒄 + 𝑽𝒎 𝐬𝐢𝐧 𝝎𝒎 𝒕) 𝐬𝐢𝐧 𝝎𝒄 𝒕 (7)
Eqn. (7) is the equation of the AM wave.

Modulation Index
Modulation index is defined as the amount by which the carrier amplitude gets
modified by the modulating signal. It is also called modulation factor, modulation coefficient
or the degree of modulation.
For amplitude modulation, the modulation index is given by
𝑽𝒎
𝒎= (8)
𝑽𝒄

where 𝑉𝑚 is peak amplitude of modulating signal


4 Shrishail Bhat, Dept. of ECE, AITM Bhatkal
Basic Electronics Communication Systems

𝑉𝑐 is peak amplitude of carrier signal


The modulation index of AM is a number between 0 and 1 and is often expressed as a
percentage and called the percentage modulation.

Modulation Index in terms of 𝑽𝒎𝒂𝒙 and 𝑽𝒎𝒊𝒏


Fig. 3 shows amplitude modulated wave in time domain.

Fig. 3 Amplitude modulated wave


From Fig. 3,
𝑽𝒎𝒂𝒙 −𝑽𝒎𝒊𝒏
𝑽𝒎 = (9)
𝟐

and 𝑉𝑐 = 𝑉𝑚𝑎𝑥 − 𝑉𝑚 (10)

Substituting Eqn. (9) in Eqn. (10),


𝑉𝑚𝑎𝑥 −𝑉𝑚𝑖𝑛
𝑉𝑐 = 𝑉𝑚𝑎𝑥 − ( )
2

2𝑉𝑚𝑎𝑥 − 𝑉𝑚𝑎𝑥 + 𝑉𝑚𝑖𝑛


𝑉𝑐 =
2
𝑽𝒎𝒂𝒙 +𝑽𝒎𝒊𝒏
𝑽𝒄 = (11)
𝟐

Now we have modulation index


𝑉𝑚𝑎𝑥 − 𝑉𝑚𝑖𝑛
𝑉𝑚 2
𝑚= =
𝑉𝑐 𝑉𝑚𝑎𝑥 + 𝑉𝑚𝑖𝑛
2
𝑽 −𝑽
𝒎 = 𝑽𝒎𝒂𝒙 +𝑽𝒎𝒊𝒏 (12)
𝒎𝒂𝒙 𝒎𝒊𝒏

Shrishail Bhat, Dept. of ECE, AITM Bhatkal 5


Communication Systems Basic Electronics

Overmodulation
In AM wave, overmodulation takes place when modulation index 𝑚 > 1, i.e. when
𝑉𝑚 > 𝑉𝑐 . In overmodulated AM wave, loss of information takes place and hence it must be
avoided. Fig. 4 shows an overmodulated wave when 𝑚 = 1.25.

Fig. 4 Overmodulated AM wave


Fig. 5 shows an AM wave when 𝑚 = 1.

Fig. 5 AM wave when 𝑚 = 1

Frequency Spectrum
We know that the amplitude modulated signal is
𝒗𝑨𝑴 (𝒕) = (𝑽𝒄 + 𝑽𝒎 𝐬𝐢𝐧 𝝎𝒎 𝒕) 𝐬𝐢𝐧 𝝎𝒄 𝒕

6 Shrishail Bhat, Dept. of ECE, AITM Bhatkal


Basic Electronics Communication Systems

We also know that modulation index is given by


𝑽𝒎
𝒎=
𝑽𝒄
∴ 𝑽𝒎 = 𝒎𝑽𝒄 (13)
Using Eqn. (13) in equation for 𝑣𝐴𝑀 (𝑡), we get
𝑣𝐴𝑀 (𝑡) = (𝑉𝑐 + 𝑚𝑉𝑐 sin 𝜔𝑚 𝑡) sin 𝜔𝑐 𝑡
𝒗𝑨𝑴 (𝒕) = 𝑽𝒄 (𝟏 + 𝒎 𝐬𝐢𝐧 𝝎𝒎 𝒕) 𝐬𝐢𝐧 𝝎𝒄 𝒕 (14)
𝒗𝑨𝑴 (𝒕) = 𝑽𝒄 𝐬𝐢𝐧 𝝎𝒄 𝒕 + 𝒎𝑽𝒄 𝐬𝐢𝐧 𝝎𝒎 𝒕 𝐬𝐢𝐧 𝝎𝒄 𝒕 (15)
1
Using the trigonometric relation sin 𝐴 sin 𝐵 = 2 [cos(𝐴 − 𝐵) − cos(𝐴 + 𝐵)], we get
𝒎𝑽𝒄 𝒎𝑽𝒄
𝒗𝑨𝑴 (𝒕) = 𝑽𝒄 𝐬𝐢𝐧 𝝎𝒄 𝒕 + 𝐜𝐨𝐬(𝝎𝒄 − 𝝎𝒎 )𝒕 − 𝐜𝐨𝐬(𝝎𝒄 + 𝝎𝒎 )𝒕 (16)
𝟐 𝟐

Carrier Lower side band Upper side band


Similarly, if 𝒗𝒎 (𝒕) = 𝑽𝒎 𝐜𝐨𝐬 𝝎𝒎 𝒕 and 𝒗𝒄 (𝒕) = 𝑽𝒄 𝐜𝐨𝐬 𝝎𝒄 𝒕, then

𝑣𝐴𝑀 (𝑡) = (𝑉𝑐 + 𝑚𝑉𝑐 cos 𝜔𝑚 𝑡) cos 𝜔𝑐 𝑡

𝑣𝐴𝑀 (𝑡) = 𝑉𝑐 cos 𝜔𝑐 𝑡 + 𝑚𝑉𝑐 cos 𝜔𝑚 𝑡 cos 𝜔𝑐 𝑡


1
Using the trigonometric relation cos 𝐴 cos 𝐵 = 2 [cos(𝐴 − 𝐵) + cos(𝐴 + 𝐵)], we get
𝒎𝑽𝒄 𝒎𝑽𝒄
𝒗𝑨𝑴 (𝒕) = 𝑽𝒄 𝐜𝐨𝐬 𝝎𝒄 𝒕 + 𝐜𝐨𝐬(𝝎𝒄 − 𝝎𝒎 )𝒕 + 𝐜𝐨𝐬(𝝎𝒄 + 𝝎𝒎 )𝒕 (17)
𝟐 𝟐

Carrier Lower side band Upper side band

From Eqn. (16) and (17), we can say that the first term represents unmodulated carrier
and two additional terms represent two sidebands. The frequency of lower sideband is
𝑓𝐿𝑆𝐵 = 𝑓𝑐 − 𝑓𝑚 and the frequency of upper sideband is 𝑓𝑈𝑆𝐵 = 𝑓𝑐 + 𝑓𝑚 .

Fig. 6 represents the frequency spectrum of AM wave.

Fig. 6 Frequency spectrum of an AM wave

Shrishail Bhat, Dept. of ECE, AITM Bhatkal 7


Communication Systems Basic Electronics

Bandwidth of AM Wave
The bandwidth of an AM wave is given by
𝐵𝑊 = 𝑓𝑈𝑆𝐵 − 𝑓𝐿𝑆𝐵
𝐵𝑊 = (𝑓𝑐 + 𝑓𝑚 ) − (𝑓𝑐 − 𝑓𝑚 )
𝑩𝑾 = 𝟐𝒇𝒎

Spectrum Power
The AM wave has three components: unmodulated carrier, lower sideband and upper
sideband. Therefore, the power of an AM wave is the sum of carrier power 𝑃𝑐 , power in lower
sideband 𝑃𝐿𝑆𝐵 and power in upper sideband 𝑃𝑈𝑆𝐵 .
The total transmitted power is given as
𝑷𝑻𝒐𝒕𝒂𝒍 = 𝑷𝒄 + 𝑷𝑳𝑺𝑩 + 𝑷𝑼𝑺𝑩 (18)
𝑉
If average carrier voltage is ( 𝑐 ), average carrier power is given by
√2

𝑉 2
( 𝑐)
𝑃𝑐 = √2
𝑅
𝑽𝒄 𝟐
𝑷𝒄 = (19)
𝟐𝑹
𝑚𝑉𝑐

Similarly, if average sideband voltage is ( 2


) , average power in lower sideband and upper
√2

sideband,

𝑚𝑉𝑐 2
( 2 )
√2
𝑃𝐿𝑆𝐵 = 𝑃𝑈𝑆𝐵 =
𝑅
𝒎𝟐 𝑽𝒄 𝟐
𝑷𝑳𝑺𝑩 = 𝑷𝑼𝑺𝑩 = (20)
𝟖𝑹

We can also write


𝑚2 𝑉𝑐 2 𝑚2 𝑉𝑐 2
𝑃𝐿𝑆𝐵 = 𝑃𝑈𝑆𝐵 = = ×
8𝑅 4 2𝑅
𝑉𝑐 2
But = 𝑃𝑐 . Therefore
2𝑅

𝒎𝟐
𝑷𝑳𝑺𝑩 = 𝑷𝑼𝑺𝑩 = 𝑷𝒄 (21)
𝟒

By using Eqn. (19) and (20) in Eqn. (18) , the average total transmitted power is then
given by,
𝑉𝑐 2 𝑚2 𝑉𝑐 2 𝑚2 𝑉𝑐 2
𝑃𝑇𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 = + +
2𝑅 8𝑅 8𝑅

8 Shrishail Bhat, Dept. of ECE, AITM Bhatkal


Basic Electronics Communication Systems

𝑉𝑐 2 𝑚2 𝑚2
𝑃𝑇𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 = (1 + + )
2𝑅 4 4

𝑉𝑐 2 𝑚2
𝑃𝑇𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 = (1 + )
2𝑅 2
𝒎𝟐
∴ 𝑷𝑻𝒐𝒕𝒂𝒍 = 𝑷𝒄 (𝟏 + ) (22)
𝟐

Modulation Index in terms of 𝑷𝑻 and 𝑷𝒄


We know that total transmitted power
𝑚2
𝑃𝑇𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 = 𝑃𝑐 (1 + )
2
𝑃𝑇𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 𝑚2
= 1+
𝑃𝑐 2
𝑚2 𝑃𝑇𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙
= −1
2 𝑃𝑐
𝑃𝑇𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙
𝑚2 = 2 ( − 1)
𝑃𝑐
𝑷𝑻𝒐𝒕𝒂𝒍
𝒎 = √𝟐 ( − 𝟏) (23)
𝑷𝒄

Transmission Efficiency
The transmission efficiency of AM wave is defined as the ratio of the transmitted
power which contains the information to the total transmitted power. In an AM wave, the
information is contained in the sidebands.
The transmission efficiency is then given by,
𝑷𝑳𝑺𝑩 +𝑷𝑼𝑺𝑩
𝜼= (24)
𝑷𝑻𝒐𝒕𝒂𝒍

Using Eqn. (21) and (22) in Eqn. (24), we get


𝑚2 𝑚2
𝑃 +
𝜂= 4
𝑐 4 𝑃𝑐
𝑚2
𝑃𝑐 (1 + 2 )

𝑚2 𝑚2
𝑃𝑐 ( 4 + 4 )
𝜂=
𝑚2
𝑃𝑐 (1 + 2 )

𝑚2 𝑚2
𝜂= 2 = 2
𝑚 2 2 + 𝑚2
1+ 2 2
𝒎𝟐
𝜼= (25)
𝟐+𝒎𝟐
Shrishail Bhat, Dept. of ECE, AITM Bhatkal 9
Communication Systems Basic Electronics

The percentage transmission efficiency is given as


𝒎𝟐
%𝜼= × 𝟏𝟎𝟎 %
𝟐 + 𝒎𝟐
Improvement Techniques
The modulating signal is band of frequencies with varying amplitude of ∆𝜔
components. The spectrum of the modulating signal is shown in Fig. 7 (a). The corresponding
spectrum of the modulated signal is shown in Fig. 7 (b).

𝑚𝑉𝑐
𝑉𝑚 2

(a) Modulating signal (b) Modulated signal

(c) DSB-SC (d) SSB


Fig. 7 AM improvement techniques
We observe that the information is contained only in the sidebands and the carrier
contains no information. Hence to improve the power efficiency, the carrier need not be
transmitted, but only two sidebands are transmitted. This is called double sideband
suppressed carrier (DSB-SC) technique as shown in Fig. 7 (c). DSB-SC requires less
transmission power, but the carrier has to be generated at the receiving end by a high
frequency oscillator.
Furthermore, as upper and lower sidebands are mirror images of each other, it is
sufficient to transmit only the upper sideband. This is called Single Side Band (SSB) as shown
in Fig. 7 (d). The detector at the receiving end becomes complicated.

AM Detection (Demodulation)
Detection or demodulation is the process of recovering the original modulating signal
from the received signal at the receiver. The simplest demodulator for AM is the envelope
detector.

10 Shrishail Bhat, Dept. of ECE, AITM Bhatkal


Basic Electronics Communication Systems

Fig. 8 shows a demodulation circuit. It consists of a diode as half wave rectifier and
RC circuit as a low pass filter. The received signal is passed through a diode to cut-off the
lower half and the peaks detected and smoothed out by a parallel RC circuit.

Fig. 8 Demodulation circuit


The time constant RC must meet the following condition:
𝑻𝒄 ≪ 𝑹𝑪 ≪ 𝑻𝒎
1 𝜔
where 𝑇𝑐 is carrier time period, 𝑇𝑐 = 𝑓 = 2𝜋𝑐
𝑐

1 𝜔𝑚
𝑇𝑚 is time period of modulating signal, 𝑇𝑚 = 𝑓 =
𝑚 2𝜋

The condition can also be written as


𝝎𝒄 𝝎𝒎
≪ 𝑹𝑪 ≪
𝟐𝝅 𝟐𝝅
Fig. 9 shows the demodulator waveforms.

Shrishail Bhat, Dept. of ECE, AITM Bhatkal 11


Communication Systems Basic Electronics

Fig. 9 Demodulator waveforms

Frequency and Phase Modulation


The frequency and phase of the carrier signals are closely related, since frequency is
the rate of change of phase angle. If either frequency or phase is changed in a modulation
system, the other will change as well. So frequency modulation and phase modulation are
generally known as angle modulation.

Frequency Modulation
Frequency Modulation is a process in which the frequency of the carrier signal is
varied in accordance with the instantaneous amplitude of the message signal.
Fig. 10 shows a sine wave modulating a higher frequency carrier signal with frequency
modulation.
The frequency modulated signal is represented by
∆𝒇
𝒗(𝒕) = 𝑨 𝒔𝒊𝒏 [𝝎𝒄 𝒕 + 𝒇 𝒔𝒊𝒏 𝝎𝒎 𝒕]
𝒎

𝒗(𝒕) = 𝑨 𝒔𝒊𝒏[𝝎𝒄 𝒕 + 𝒎𝒇 𝒔𝒊𝒏 𝝎𝒎 𝒕]


where 𝝎𝒄 = 2𝜋𝑓𝑐 is the angular frequency of carrier signal
𝝎𝒎 = 2𝜋𝑓𝑚 is the angular frequency of modulating signal
∆𝑓 is the frequency deviation
𝑚𝑓 is the modulation index of FM

12 Shrishail Bhat, Dept. of ECE, AITM Bhatkal


Basic Electronics Communication Systems

𝑉𝑚

𝑉𝑐

𝑉𝑐

Fig. 10 Frequency modulation

Frequency Deviation
The amount of change in carrier frequency produced by the modulating signal is
known as frequency deviation. Maximum frequency deviation occurs at the maximum
amplitude of the modulating signal.

Modulation Index
Modulation index of FM is the ratio of the frequency deviation to the modulating
frequency.
∆𝒇
𝒎𝒇 =
𝒇𝒎
where ∆𝑓 is the frequency deviation
𝑓𝑚 is the modulating frequency

Bandwidth of FM Wave
The bandwidth of an FM signal is given by

𝑩𝑾 = 𝟐[𝒎𝒇 + 𝟏]𝒇𝒎
∆𝑓
𝐵𝑊 = 2 [ + 1] 𝑓𝑚
𝑓𝑚
𝑩𝑾 = 𝟐[∆𝒇 + 𝒇𝒎 ]

Shrishail Bhat, Dept. of ECE, AITM Bhatkal 13


Communication Systems Basic Electronics

Phase Modulation
Phase Modulation is a process in which the phase angle of the carrier signal is varied
in accordance with the instantaneous amplitude of the message signal.
The phase modulated signal is represented by

𝒗(𝒕) = 𝑨 𝒔𝒊𝒏[𝝎𝒄 𝒕 + 𝒎𝒑 𝒔𝒊𝒏 𝝎𝒎 𝒕]


where 𝝎𝒄 = 2𝜋𝑓𝑐 is the angular frequency of carrier signal
𝝎𝒎 = 2𝜋𝑓𝑚 is the angular frequency of modulating signal
𝑚𝑝 is the modulation index of PM
Fig. 11 shows a modulating sine wave and a phase modulated signal.

Fig. 11 Phase modulation


Here the positive half cycle of modulating signal produces a lagging phase shift and
negative half cycle produces a leading phase shift.
As the modulating signal goes positive, amount of phase lag increases with the
increase of modulating signal. This results in lower frequency of the modulated signal.
As the modulating signal goes negative, amount of phase lead increases with the
increase of modulating signal. This results in higher frequency of the modulated signal.

Amplitude and Frequency Modulation: A Comparison


Table 2 gives a comparison of amplitude modulation and frequency modulation
techniques with reference to different characteristics.

14 Shrishail Bhat, Dept. of ECE, AITM Bhatkal


Basic Electronics Communication Systems

Table 2 Comparison between AM and FM

Characteristics Amplitude Modulation Frequency Modulation

Wave equation 𝑣(𝑡) = 𝑉𝑐 [1 + 𝑚 sin 𝜔𝑚 𝑡] sin 𝜔𝑐 𝑡 𝑣(𝑡) = 𝐴 𝑠𝑖𝑛[𝜔𝑐 𝑡 + 𝑚𝑓 𝑠𝑖𝑛 𝜔𝑚 𝑡]

The amplitude of the carrier The frequency of the carrier


varies in accordance with the varies in accordance with the
Principle message signal. Carrier
message signal. Carrier
frequency remains constant. amplitude remains constant.

Modulation index can be


Modulation index is always
Modulation index either less than one or more
between zero and one
than one

Only two sidebands are A large number of sidebands


No. of sidebands
produced are produced

FM has larger bandwidth


AM has smaller bandwidth, because it produces a larger
Channel bandwidth
𝐵𝑊 = 2𝑓𝑚 number of side bands.
𝐵𝑊 = 2[∆𝑓 + 𝑓𝑚 ]

FM utilizes higher carrier


Operating carrier AM utilizes lower carrier frequency (above 30 MHz)
frequency frequency because of its higher
bandwidth

AM has lesser transmission


Transmission efficiency FM has better efficiency
efficiency

AM has poor noise FM has better noise


Noise performance
performance performance

Common Channel Due to CCI, distortion occurs FM is better due to capture


Interference (CCI) in AM effect

FM receiver responds slightly


to noise pulses generated by
Externally generated In AM, such tuning is not external sources, but if it is
noise pulses essential slightly mistuned, then its
ability to suppress noise pulses
is highly reduced

FM is limited to a small
AM covers more distance than
Area of reception distance; as distance increases,
FM
signal quality becomes poorer

Shrishail Bhat, Dept. of ECE, AITM Bhatkal 15


Communication Systems Basic Electronics

Questions
1. Define communication. (Dec ’17)
2. With a neat block diagram, explain the elements of communication system.
(Dec ’17 – 6M, Jun ’17 – 6M, Dec ’16 – 5M, Jun ’16 – 6M, MQP ’15 – 5M)
3. What are commonly used frequency ranges in communication system? Mention the
application of each range. (Dec ’17 – 4M, Dec ’14 – 5M, MQP ’14 – 4M)
4. What is modulation? Explain the need for modulation. List the different types of
modulation schemes.
(Jun ’17 – 4M, Jun ’16 – 5M, Dec ’15 – 5M, Jun ’15 - 6M, Dec ’14 – 4M)
5. What is amplitude modulation? Explain with neat waveforms and derive the
expression for the AM wave. Also draw the frequency spectrum.
(Dec ’17 – 8M, Jun ’17 – 8M, Dec ’16 – 6M, Jun ’16 – 5M, Dec ’15 – 8M, Jun ’15 – 8M,
Dec ’14, MQP ’15 – 5M, MQP ‘14)
6. Define amplitude modulation. Draw the AM signal and its spectrum. For an
μ2
amplitude modulated wave, prove that total power is given by Pt = Pc [1 + ], where
2
μ is the modulation index. (Dec ’17 – 6M)
7. Define modulation index. Obtain the expression for modulation index of AM wave in
terms of 𝑉𝑚𝑎𝑥 and 𝑉𝑚𝑖𝑛 . (Dec ‘15)
8. Derive an expression for modulation index in AM. (Dec ’16 – 6M)
9. Derive the expression for the total power transmitted in an AM wave.
(Jun ’17, Dec ’14 – 5M, MQP ’14 – 6M)
10. With a neat diagram, explain demodulation (detection) of an AM wave.
(Jun ’17 – 4M, Jun ’16 – 5M)
11. Explain frequency modulation with neat waveforms.
(Jun ’17 – 6M, Dec ’16 – 5M, Dec ’15 – 8M, MQP ’15 – 5M)
12. Mention the advantages of frequency modulation. (Jun ’16 - 5M)
13. Differentiate between amplitude modulation and frequency modulation.
(Dec ’17 – 6M, Jun ’17 – 4M, Dec ’16 – 5M, Dec ’15 – 4M, Jun ’15 – 8M, Dec ’15 – 5M,
MQP ’15 – 6M, MQP ’14 – 4M)
14. A carrier of 10 V peak and frequency 100 kHz is amplitude modulated by a sine wave
of 4 V and frequency 1000 Hz. Determine the modulation index for the modulated
wave and draw the amplitude spectrum. (Dec ’16 – 6M)
15. An audio frequency signal 5 sin 2π(1000)t is used to amplitude modulate a carrier of
100 sin 2π(106 )t. Assume modulation index of 0.4. Find
i) Sideband frequencies
ii) Bandwidth required
iii) Amplitude of each sideband
16 Shrishail Bhat, Dept. of ECE, AITM Bhatkal
Basic Electronics Communication Systems

iv) Total power delivered to a load of 100Ω (Dec ’17 – 6M)


16. An audio frequency signal 10 sin(2π × 500)t is used to amplitude modulate a carrier
of 50 sin(2π × 105 )t. Calculate
i) Modulation index
ii) Sideband frequencies
iii) Bandwidth
iv) Amplitude of each sideband
v) Total power delivered to a load of 600Ω
vi) Transmission efficiency (Dec ’16 – 8M, Jun ’15 – 6M)
17. A carrier of 1 MHz, with 400 W of its power is amplitude modulated with a sinusoidal
signal of 2500 Hz. The depth of modulation is 75%. Calculate the sideband frequencies,
the bandwidth, the power in the sidebands and the total power in the modulated
wave. (Jun ’16 – 5M)
18. A 1 MHz carrier is amplitude modulated by a 40 kHz modulating signal with a
modulation index of 0.5. The unmodulated carrier is having a power of 1 kW.
Calculate the power of the amplitude modulated signal. Also find the sideband
frequencies. (Jun ’16 – 5M)
19. A 500 W, 1 MHz carrier is amplitude modulated with a sinusoidal signal of 1 kHz.
The depth of modulation is 60%. Calculate the bandwidth, power in the sidebands
and the total power transmitted. (Dec ’15 - 7M)
20. The total power content of an AM signal is 1000 W. Determine the power being
transmitted at carrier frequency and at each of the sidebands when percentage
modulation is 100%. (Dec ’14 – 5M)
21. A 500 W, 100 kHz carrier is modulated to depth of 60% by modulating signal of
frequency 1 kHz. Calculate the total power transmitted. What are the side band
components of the AM wave? (MQP ’15 - 6M)
22. Calculate the percentage power saving when one side band and carrier is suppressed
in an AM signal with modulation index equal to 1. (MQP ’14 - 5M)
23. If an FM wave is represented by the equation V = 10 sin(8 × 108 + 4 sin 1000t),
calculate
i) Carrier frequency
ii) Modulating frequency
iii) Modulation index
iv) Bandwidth (Dec ’17 – 6M)
24. A 15 kHz audio signal is used to frequency modulate a 100 MHz carrier, causing
deviation of 75 kHz. Determine modulation index and bandwidth of the FM signal.
(Dec ’16 – 4M)

Shrishail Bhat, Dept. of ECE, AITM Bhatkal 17


Communication Systems Basic Electronics

References
1. D.P. Kothari, I. J. Nagrath, “Basic Electronics”, McGraw Hill Education (India) Private
Limited, 2014.
2. Simon Haykins, “Communication Systems”, 5th Edition, John Willey India Pvt. Ltd.,
2009.
3. Simon Haykins, “An Introduction to Analog and Digital Communication”, John
Wiley India Pvt. Ltd., 2008

18 Shrishail Bhat, Dept. of ECE, AITM Bhatkal