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NYLON 6

Imrananwar_112ntu@yahoo.com

NATIONAL TEXTILE UNIVERSITY

FAISALABAD

PAKISTAN

Nylon 6

Nylon 6 or polycaprolactam unlike most other nylons,

not a condensation polymer, but formed by ring-

opening polymerization

It was given the trademark Perlon in the year 1952

It is a semi crystalline polyamide

Repeating Unit

Repeating Unit

Application

Thread in bristles for toothbrushes

Surgical sutures

Strings for acoustic (Guitars, Violins, Violas)

Variety of threads, ropes, filaments & nets

Tire cords

Hosiery and Knitted garments

Gun frames

Properties

Glass transition temperature: 47 o C

Melting temperature: 220 o C

Amorphous density at 25 o C: 1.084 g/cm 3

Crystalline density at 25 o C: 1.23 g/cm 3

Molecular weight of repeat unit: 113.16 g/mol

Degraded by light as natural fibers

Permanent set by heat and steam

Properties

Tenacity-elongation at break ranges from

8.8g/d-18% to 4.3 g/d-45%.

Its tensile strength is higher than that of wool, silk,

rayon, or cotton.

100% elastic under 8% of extension

Specific gravity of 1.14

Extremely chemically stable

No mildew or bacterial effects

4 - 4.5% of moisture regain

Properties

Abrasion resistant

Lustrous- Nylon fibers have the luster of silk

Easy to wash

Can be pre colored or dyed in wide range of colors; dyes are applied to the molten mass of

nylon or to the yarn or finished fabric.

Resilient

Filament

yarn

lasting fabrics

provides

smooth,

soft,

long

Spun yarn lend fabrics light weight and warmth

Synthesis of Nylon 6

Nylon 6 is only made from one kind of monomer, a monomer

called caprolactam whereas Nylon 6,6 is made from two

monomers, adipoyl chloride and hexamethylene diamine

a monomer called caprolactam whereas Nylon 6,6 is made from two monomers, adipoyl chloride and hexamethylene

Caprolactam is firstly heated to about 250 o C with about 5-10% water thrown in. The carbonyl oxygen looks around, and sees

a water molecule & steal one of the water's hydrogen atoms

thrown in. The carbonyl oxygen looks around, and sees a water molecule & steal one of

The carbonyl oxygen donates a pair of electrons to the hydrogen atom of water results in protonated carbonyl, and a free hydroxyl group. Carbonyl oxygen having positive charge, swipes a pair of electrons from the carbonyl double bond, leaving the positive charge on the carbonyl carbon atom

charge, swipes a pair of electrons from the carbonyl double bond, leaving the positive charge on

Carbocation in a molecule allows nucleophile to come

along and attack it. Hydroxide ion whose proton was

stolen by caprolactam attacks the carbocation

nucleophile to come along and attack it. Hydroxide ion whose proton was stolen by caprolactam attacks

An unstable gem diol is formed. The nitrogen atom donates a

pair of electrons to a hydrogen atom on one of the hydroxyl groups, stealing it away. The electrons that the hydrogen

shared with its oxygen shift to form a double bond between

the oxygen and the carbon atom. And lastly, the electrons

shared by the carbon and the nitrogen shift completely to the

nitrogen, severing the carbon-nitrogen bond

the electrons shared by the carbon and the nitrogen shift completely to the nitrogen, severing the

Caprolactam circle brakes & makes it linear amino

acid which react with other caprolactam molecule.

Caprolactam molecule will steal the acid hydrogen

form the linear amino acid. The carbonyl oxygen

donates a pair of electrons to that hydrogen,

stealing it away from the amino acid

linear amino acid. The carbonyl oxygen donates a pair of electrons to that hydrogen, stealing it

The electrons rearrange to form the carbocation

The electrons rearrange to form the carbocation

This carbocation is still an open invitation to any nucleophile

around, but this time, there's a new nucleophile on the block.

That's the amino acid that just lost its acid hydrogen

but this time, there's a new nucleophile on the block. That's the amino acid that just

Very unstable ammonium species are formed. Ring nitrogen

steals a hydrogen from the ammonium nitrogen. In addition,

the bond joining the carbon and the nitrogen disengaged,

opening the ring

from the ammonium nitrogen. In addition, the bond joining the carbon and the nitrogen disengaged, opening

Carboxylate group at the end of the molecule is going to sweep around and steal the alcohol hydrogen

Carboxylate group at the end of the molecule is going to sweep around and steal the

This makes a new carbonyl group in the middle of the

molecule, and regenerates the carboxylic acid. As an acid , it is

sure to react again with another caprolactam molecule, and

then another, and another, until we get long chains of nylon 6

sure to react again with another caprolactam molecule, and then another, and another, until we get

Pre-Treatment Flow Process

Padding

Heat-setting

Preliminary scouring with non-ionic detergent

Bleaching

SCOURING

Before heat-setting and dyeing it is advisable

to remove the finishing oil from the polyamide

yarn

Scouring in a solvent with perchloroethylene in continuous scouring machines.This is the

best method of removing finishes from nylon

yarns with a silicone oil base

HEAT - SETTING

This process is required for fixing the final dimensions

of the fabrics

Heat-setting is normally carried out before dyeing, but

can also be performed at the end of the process.

The setting times and temperatures are as

180°C-190°C for 20-40 sec

BLEACHING

Polyamide yarns tend to yellow when heat-set

In nylon multifilament fabrics, a protection agent

may have to be used to reduce the possibility of

yellowing during heat-setting e.g.

Spanscour GR

Sybron Tanatex

Conditions for Bleaching are

stabilised sodium hydrosulphite - 2-3 g/l

pH = 4,5 5

Temperature:

Time:

90°C - 95°C

minutes

30-45

DYEABILITY

Nylon is a synthetic fiber, but its unique chemistry

means that it can be dyed, easily and well, using

the same acid dyes that are commonly used on

wool and other animal fibers.

DYEABILITY

The dyeing efficiency of nylon fibers is enhanced due to the end groups -COOH and -NH 2 , which exhibit polar and hydrophilic characteristics.

Dye diffusion into fibers is closely related to the rate

of dyeing, level of dyeing through dye migration, wet

fastness properties of dyes, etc.

DYEABILITY

Earlier studies were made about the diffusion of

disperse dyes on nylon 6 and found that the actual

diffusivity on nylon 6 fibers is not always independent

on dye concentration

DYEABILITY

It was further reported that both dyeing rate and dye

saturation of 1,4 -diaminoanthraquinone (1,4-DAA)

were improved considerably in the presence of

didodecyldimethlammonium bromide (DDDMAB).

DYEABILITY

This suggests that there might be fairly strong

interaction between DDDMAB and the fiber by virtue

of electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions.

There have been many attempts to improve nylon's

dyeability or at least to point out the factors and

mechanisms acting in nylon dyeing.

DYEABILITY

It has been shown that acrylonitrile and styrene radiation grafting on the polymer

could improve the dye ability of nylon .

Another approach to higher dye ability of nylon 6 is by copolymerization.

In this case, the dye ability can be improved

at

viscosity

the

expense

and

resistance.

of

of

a

decrease

heat

and

of specific

hydrolysis

DYEABILITY

Other treatments, such as plasma etching and

superheated steaming have proved to decrease nylon

dye ability. Superheated steaming of the fibers leads to higher

shrinkage and to higher crystallinity and crystal size,

which contribute to decrease dye ability.