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MONGOLICA-XI

130- . . (18831943)

St. Petersburg
2013

: . . . (), . . . ,
. . . , . . . , . . . .
: . . . . , . . .
E d i t e d b y: D. S. (Philology) I. V. Kulganek, D. S. (Philology) L. G. Skorodumova, D. S. (History) T. D. Skrynnikova,
D. S. (History) R. V. Orlova, Ph. D. N. S. Yakhontova
P e e r - r e v i e w e d b y: Ph. D. M. Petrova, Prof. S. G. Klyashtorny

-XI: . . .: , 2013. 104 .


Mongolica 130-
-, , , (18831943),
, XX . : , , , , ,
, , . . . , - , , .
-, , , .
The eleventh issue of Mongolica is dedicated to 130th anniversary of a prominent Russian mongolist-philologist, a
brilliant expert in spoken Mongolian, a lecturer at Leningrad State University active in its social life Alexei Vasilievich
Burdukov (18831943). He passed away in the prime of his plans and was posthumously rehabilitated after the XXth
Congress of CPSU. The issue has the following parts: Historiography and Textology, Literature, Folklore, Linguistics, Reviews and Scholarly Life, and Our Translations. The articles are written both by competent and young Russian scholars in the field of Mongolian studies. Reviews of new books make the issue topical. The articles are written in
the mainstream of the modern scientific priorities considering the modern state of Mongolian studies within which historical and cultural problems of Mongolian speaking peoples are being very important. The articles have not only pure scholarly significance but a general historical as well.
The issue should be of interest not only to Mongolists but to all specialising in philology, history, culture, to those who
are interested in the history of the Mongolian peoples and Central Asia.
. .
. .
. .

198152, , -, / 111
e-mail: pvcentre@mail.ru; web-site: http://www.pvost.org
31.03.2014. 6090 1/8.
. . 13 . . 0000


199034, -, 9 , 12/28

ISSN 2311-5939

, 2013
, 2013
, 2013


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. -
(1717) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . : .-. aram ' ( ) [?] . . . . . . .
. . . (XIII ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . []: Kalmyk Folklore and Folk Culture in the mid-19th Century. Philological Studies On the
Basis of Gbor Blint of Szentkatolnas Kalmyk Texts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

97
99


. (-) ( . ) . . . . . . . . . .
. . ( . ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . ( . ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

100
101
103

Contents
Foreword . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

I. V. Kulganek. A. V. Burdukov a Mongolist of Difficult and Interesting Destiny. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


B. M. Narmayev. T. A. Burdukova: Biographical Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

6
11

HISTORIOGRAPHY, SOURCE STUDIES


T. V. Ermakova. The Role of the Russian Geographic Society in Investigation of Buddhist Ethnic Culture of Central Asia
A. Sh. Kadyrbaev. The Idea of Pan-mongolism: from the Ataman Semenov and Baron Ungern to its Collapse . . . . . . .
I. F. Popova. Trade in Russia and China through the Kyakhta Maymaychen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

15
21
28

LITERARY STUDIES, FOLKLORE STUDIES, LINGUISTICS


A. V. Zorin, A. A. Sizova. The First Beijing Editions of the Gzungs dus Collection in Tibetan and Mongolian. . . . . . .
E. A. Kantor. Mani Kabum in Tibet and Mongolia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
D. A. Nosov. Folktale with Unstable Male/Female Main Character in Mongolian Peoples Folklore . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Munkhceceg Enkhbat. Onomatopoetic Words in the Manchu-Mongolian Dictionary Compiled under the Emperors Order (1717) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
P. O. Rykin. On a Turkic Loanword in the Secret History of the Mongols: MMo. aram (cattle) pen [?]. . . . . . . . . . .
A. D. Tsendina. The Didactic Literature in Mongolia (XIIIthe middle of XX centuries) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
N. V. Yampolskaya. A Recently Discovered Khalkha Translation of the Aashasrik Prajpramit . . . . . . . . . .

37
45
52
56
64
73
85

FROM THE ARCHIVES OF THE ORIENTALISTS


T. I. Yusupova. Modern Scientific Committee, with further development, is converted into the national Academy of Sciences and arts Program for the development of the Academic Committee of Mongolia by Ts. Zhamysarano . . . .

91

REVIEW AND SCIENTIFIC LIFE


K. V. Orlova. A Review of Publications on Kalmykovedeniye in Russian . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
I. V. Kulganek. Review: Kalmyk Folklore and Folk Culture in the mid-19th Century. Philological Studies on the Basis of
Gabor Balint of Szentkatolnas. Budapest, 2011. 380 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
OUR TRANSLATIONS
L. Dashnam. Three Hours with the Devil. Story-recollection (translation from Mong. by A. Solovieva) . . . . . . . . . .
T. Bayansan. Hunger and Emptiness (translation from Mong. by . Sapozhnikova) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
B. Dogmid. Mongolian Temper (translation from Mong. by T. Podoliskaya) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
List of Contributors

97
99

100
101
103

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T. V. Ermakova
The Role of the Russian Geographic Society in Investigation of Buddhist Ethnic Culture
of Central Asia
An article deals with scientific and organizational context of expeditions to Mongolia and Tibet which were
initiated or supported by the Russian Geographic Society (RGS). It was explained that at the margine of XIX
XX c. RGS was very active in the process of expeditional explorations of territories along Russian Asiatic borders
in looking forward to future trade and diplomatic relations. At the base of works by A. M. Pozdneev, G. Tcybicov,
B. Baradiin forming of methods of field research of Tibetan and Mongolian everyday life was explicated and personal contribution of above mentioned travellers into Buddhist monasteries exploration was evaluated. Exeptional
role of RGS publishing was demonstrated, especially current publishing of expeditional results.
Key words: Russian Geographic Society (RGS), Central Asia expeditions, Buddhist culture, A. M. Pozdneev,
G. Tcybicov, B. Baradiin.

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, 2001: . .
().
67. .: , 2001.
, 1921: .
1921. 206. 25 .
, 2010: . // . 2010.
4.
, 1912: / . . . ( ) . ., 1912.
, 2004: . . // . . .
ICANAS XXXVII. . II. ., 2004.
, 1972: . . .
. 44. ., 1972.

, 1991: . ? //
. 1991. 3.
, 2004: . ;
()
,
. 31 1921 .; . .
29 1921 . ;
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// . .,
2004.
, 2010: . .
(19201930- .). , 2010.
: - (). . 1482. . 54; . 39454. . 1.
. 2.

A. Sh. Kadyrbaev
Idea of Pan-mongolism from Russian generals Semenov and Ungern to her collapse
This article devote to history of Mongolia during 1919 year when general Ungern one leader of Russian
contre-revolution in Western Siberia attacked Mongolian capital Urga, where were Chinese troops. Ungern
wanted to reestablish pan-mongolian impire in Central Asia but he lost the war and his idea of Pan-mongolism
came to collapse.
Key words: panmongolism, history, White Guard movement, Baron R. F. Ungern, national movement, revolution, Japan, Mongolia, Alash-Orda, Asian division, panasiatism, Halha, bogdo-gegen.

. .



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XX . - :
. . . / . . . . . : , 1989. . 1550.
, 1832: . // . 13 14
1832 .
Klaproth, 1824: Klaproth J. De la frontire russe et chinoise.
Notes recueillies pendant un voyage en Sibrie en 1806 //
Mmoires relatifs a l'Asie. Tome 1. Paris: A la librarie
orientale de Dondey-Dupr pre et fils, 1824. P. 180.
, 2013: .


[ .
]. URL: http://blog.163.com/cholgol1998_tiger/blog/static/ 135221108201010131068991/
( 11.12.2013).
-, 2002: - .
[ ]
, 2002.

I. F. Popova
Trade in Russia and China through the Kyakhta and Maymaychen
The paper overviews the history of Russian-Chinese commerce through border towns Kyakhta and Maimaicheng. Focusing on the non-published archives and valuable printed materials it studies the main stages of rise,
evolution and decay of the Kyakta trade, which till the middle of 19 c. made a considerable part of the whole foreign trade of Russia. In the heyday of Kyakhta the value of commodity there reached millions of rubles. Through
Kayakhta Russia exported furs, baize, pelts, and imported mainly tea. In Kyakhta the Tea Road stared and
spread over whole Russia and Europe.
Key-words: Russian-Chinese relations, Kyakhta, Maimaicheng, Kyakhta trade.

, ,

. . , . .



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XVII ., , . ,
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1962], . [1955], . .
[Heissig & Bawden, 1971], . [Bese, 1977],
. . [, 2001], . .
[Uspensky, 1999].

[http://imbtarchive.ru].
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chag, f. 4a14a2].

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P. 147170], .
1
. 1 (1) 11:
. 1r11v29 12: Qutu-tu manusiri-yin ner-e-yi
neger gleki <1>; . 1r: - 2.
. 12 (1):
. 67v168v29: Qutu-tu yeke kt kemegdek yeke klgen sudur <25>; . 67r: (?)V39 / 533.
. 14 (1):
. 84r185r30: Qutu-tu egi erket amoga basa-yin irken neret tarni <31>; . 84r: ( ) 10.
. 15 (1):
. 86v189r18: Qutu-tu samanda badra-yin tarni
kemegdek <32>;
(. 89r1115).
. 16 (1):
. 90v191v12: Qutu-tu arban virabani-yin irken <33>;
. 91v1392v17: Mengge-yi dabquaulusan kilingten- qaan-i mataal tarni <34>.
. 17 (1, 2):
. 93v196v29 (1, 2): Qutu-tu vir l iladaqu al
met sayitur mungqaraului neret tarni <35>.
. 18 (1, 2):
. 97v198r29 (1, 2): Qutu-tu arvis tarnis-un qaan
yekede amuului neret <36>.
. 19 (1, 2):
. 99v1100r24 (1, 2): Qutu-tu olan kbegn-t
bratisari neret tarni <37>.
. 20 (1, 2):
. 101v1103r14 (1, 2): Qutu-tu busudta l iladaqu ayul gei-yi gggi neret tarni <38>;
. 103r15103v19 (1, 2): Mingan bolai neret
tarni <39>.
. 21 (1):
. 104v1106r21: Qutu-tu ii qariulun ilaui
neret <40>.
. 22 (1):
. 107v1108r11: Qutu-tu ii qariului kt
kemegdek <41>; (
) ;
. 108r12109r17: (108r12) ayaan-i tidker-i teyin bged arilai neret tarni orosiba 13; (108r17)
Qutu-tu iles-n qamu tidker-i teyin bged arilai
neret tarni <42>;
. 109r18110v29...: Qutu-tu bayilduan-i ilaui
neret tarni <43>.
11

.
, , , 52,0/58,2
18,8/23,0 .
13
.
12

. 26 (2):
. 121v128...: Qutu-tu erdeni-lge tegsgsen neret tarni <47>.
. 31 (2):
. 156v1158r24: Odun-u eke neret tarni <71>.
. 32 (2):
. 159v1163v29...: Virun qosiu neret luus-un
tangari buyu <72>.
. 50 (1):
. 225v1227r27: Vir-iyar teyin bged +ebdegi 14
+ neret tarni <106>;
(227r2526).
. 51 (1):
. 228v1235r21: Qutu-tu sayin galab-ud-tur
neret yeke klgen sudur <107>;
. 235r22236v6: Ilau tegs ngigsen eke bilig-n
inadu kiaar-a krgsen ool irken <108>;
. 236v7236v29: Ilau tegs ngigsen eke
bilig-n inadu kiaar-a krgsen ool irken <109>.
. 53 (1):
. 245v1250v26: (. 250v2526) Ilau tegs
ngigsen otai burqan-u sudurun ang yosun irken-
quriyangui indamani kemek <113>;
. 250v27252v24: (. 250v27) otu indan orosiba; (. 252r29v1) Qutu-tu urban oin kemegdek
yeke klgen sudur <114>.
2
. 56 (1, 2):
. 1415v114 (1): Nigen silgt <120>; . 14r: - nigen
silgte;
. 14v1515r9 (1): Qoyar silgt tarni <120>;
. 15r1015r25 (1): Drben silg-t <120>;
. 15r2635v29 (1) / . 23r127v29 (2):
Qutu-tu bilig-n inadu kiaar-a krgsen quriyangui
silg <121>.
. 57 (1, 2):
. 42r143v29 (1) / . 37v151v29 (2):
Qutu-tu vir-iyar otalui bilig-n inadu kiaar-a krgsen neret yeke klgen sudur <122>.
. 61 (2):
. 86r187v26: (. 87v26) Ger dabqucaulusan
sudur <126>;
- om mani bad me hung.
. 62 (2):
. 89r191v15: (. 91v9) Mayidari-yin igsen
naiman nom neret <127>

43

. 91v1691v29: Qutu-tu sagar-a luus-un


qaan-u igsen neret yeke klgen sudur <128>
. 63 (2):
. 93v195r24: Qutu-tu urban erdeni-dr itegel
yabuulqui neret yeke klgen sudur <129>.
. 64 (2):
. 96v197r19: Naran-u sudur <130>;
. 97r2097v28: Saran-u sudur <130>.
. 65 (2):
. 98v1107v28: Qutu-tu erdeni saran kbegn-
igsen neret yeke klgen sudur <131>.
. 66 (1, 2):
. 112r1113v26 (1) / . 108v1113v26 (2):
Qutu-tu emegen- igsen neret yeke klgen sudur
<132>; . 112r: ( ) 17.
. 67 (1, 2):
. 114v1116v22 (1, 2): (. 116v2122) Bodistvyin ndsn-ee eng uridu onol-un il <133>;
. 116v23122v28 (1, 2): Qutu-tu em-e bars-un
igsen neret yeke klgen sudur <134>.
. 68 (1,2):
. 123v1124v29 (1) / . 123v1126v29 (2):
Dbang skong neret mrgl buyu <135>.
. 69 (1, 2):
. 133r1133v29 (1) / . 127v1128v29..,
130r1141r29 (2): Qutu-tu ker-n aula-dur vivagirid-i glgsen neret yeke klgen sudur <136>.
. 70 (2):
. 142v1149r29: Qutu-tu arban g-n quriyangui-yi masida arilai neret yeke klgen sudur <137>.
. 71 (2):
. 150v1150v28: Qutu-tu deged modun-i imeg neret yeke klgen sudur <138>.
. 74 (1):
. 165r1168v29: Yeke qar-a kin tngri enggegi unis-a neret tarni <144>
. 75 (1):
. 178r1183r29: inasi qariului maui
tarnis-n krdn kemek <146>
. 76 (1):
. 184v1202v29: Gra odud-un ariun-a bridkeki okiyal-un sudur <148>; . 184v49:
gtsug glag 'phrul gyi gyur
rtsis srid pa lha'i skad du kong tsi ling tse mer ma rol mo
zhes bya ba | gser gyi mdo thig gza skar gsang ba'i zu
tse bskol kyi mdo zhes bya bai gzung+s; . 184r: - ariun altan
dusul orosiba.

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. ., 2011.
http://imbtarchive.ru [15.01.2014]:
.

A. V. Zorin, A. A. Sizova
The First Beijing Editions of the Gzungs dus Collection in Tibetan and Mongolian
The paper focuses on the initial phase of the formation of the Imperial Beijing Redaction of the so-called
Gzungs dus, the collection of minor canonical, post-canonical and apocryphal Buddhist texts, first printed in the
Tibetan monastery Rtag brtan in the second quarter of the 17th century, and the core of collection had been previously composed by Trantha, the famous founder of the monastery. Very soon, no later than 1673, the collection
was translated into Mongolian, as a manuscript copy of the Gzungs dus kept at the IOM RAS (call number K6)
refers to this year in the colophon. This edition shares some typical features of the contents of the Imperial Beijing
Redaction of the Tibetan Gzungs dus but the first dated version of this redaction appeared in 1674 only, i. e. a
year after the Mongolian one. The authors of the paper make a hypothesis that this redaction could appear because
of the Mongolian edition of the collection while the Mongols special interest in the Gzungs dus must have been
connected with the fact that Zanabazar, the Khalkha Buddhist hierarch, was recognized as Tranthas reincarnation.
The paper is supplied with the archaeographic description of the block print edition of the Mongolian Gzungs
dus (ca. 1673?) represented with two incomplete copies at the IOM RAS collection (call numbers Q2580/2587,
Q2586).
Key words: Gzungs dus, Trantha, Tibetan and Mongolian Buddhist Literature, Tibetan and Mongolian
Textology, the IOM RAS collection

. .

-
- (. Ma ni
bka bum) . , -,
, (. gter ma), .
, , , , 1593 . -
, (1608) (1644).
: - , , , , .

1, -
(. Ma ni bka bum),
2 , - (VII .).
,
, -
,
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.
-
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3 4. , , . (. gter
kha), , , 1

(. om ma
ni pad me hum).
2
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) , .
3
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.
4
(. bon) [, 2005. . 358]. ,
.

5.

. :
(. smon lam dbang bskur) ,
. (. gter ston).
XIX . (. Kong sprul blo
gros mtha' yas (18131899))
[] (. Rin chen gter mdzod), . -
.
-
(. skor):
1. (. mdo skor),
-.
,
: - (.
Phags pa za ma tog bkod pa zhes bya ba theg pa chen
poi mdo) [Suzuki, 1962. C. 117. 784]
(.
Phyag stong spyan stong gi gzungs) [Suzuki, 1962.
C. 54. 368].
2. (. sgrub thabs kyi skor), ,
.
5

(. Pad ma 'byung gnas)


, - VIII . (. rnying ma).

46

. .

3. (. zhal gdams kyi skor),


150
, -. -.
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(. rgya che ba gzhan don du gdams pa)
(. zhal gdams zab
don chung tshoi skor) [MKB, 701710b].
16 , 6.
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gab pa mngon phyung gi skor). , [Kapstein, 2003.
. 524].

-.
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gung thang), (. Brug yul), (. sDe
dge), (. 'Bras spungs).
,
. 1521 . [Ehrhard, 2000. . 206].
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XVII . ( ),
XVIII .,
[Macdonald, 1968/1969. . 529]. . .

[, 1962. . 143].
-
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dngos grub (XII .)), (. Nyang
ral nyi ma od zer (1124/351204))
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mtsho (16171682)) - 6 : 6

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[Ishihama Yumiko,
1993. . 55; Richardson, 2003. . 559].
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(Bla ma brgyud pai gsol debs lo rgyus dkar
chag bzhugs [MKB, 701710b]): []
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mhog). (. Grub
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11
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bzhi bya bral ba),


(. bSod nams seng ge).
(. bKra shis rgyal mtshan),
(. Blo gros rgyal mtshan),
(. Nor bu bzang po) [MKB,
710a710b]. ,
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, 12
XIV 13 C . ,
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14.
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, XII .,
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(. chos kyi rgyal po).
12

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VI XV ., - (.
'Gos lo-tsa-ba gzhon-nu-dpal (13921481)).
13
XIV.
[. . 528558].
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<> (. Dngos
Grub) . - (. Rog shes rab od)
, , (. sPa rNams).
.
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<> [. . 528].
, . (. Chos kyi Grags pa),
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1094 . 1186 [.
. 529531]. -
[MKBT, Contents of Mani Kabum].
[MKB, 701710b].
15
- (. Kraavyha Stra; . 'Phags pa za ma tog bkod pa shes bya ba
theg pa chen po'i mdo)
. ,

- (. Lha tho tho ri gnyan btsan). , ,
,
. . -.

47

-, , XVI .,
.
- , 1578 .
- (15071583)
-.
XIII .

, .
.
XVI ., , , .
,

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, . , ,
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, .
- XVI XVII .
- ( XVI XVII .).
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(. Aba-a-yin darqan
manjusiri blam-a) . , (.
Drben aba-a) 16. ,
- 17 [, 2003.
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, 2003. . 61]. . -

16
Aba-a - (.
bg Q).
17
- (. Pad ma bka thang) , .
18
(. liger-n dalai)
(. mDzangs blun gyi
mdo).

48

[Damdinsurung, 1971/1972. . 5]. .


- .


Q 402 [, 2003. C. 74. 4370]. , ,
-. . . 12 ,
. ka da. 438. , 30. ,
, , , .
[MG-I, Da, 8a9a].
- (. ul krim bl grs kemek manjusiri darqan blam-a)
(. o-tu mergen ubasi). ,

(. drben aba-a). (.
Bingtu bdisung nom-ci abaqai) (. Dorji secen hung tayiji
samsu abaqai), ,
.
-
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(. o-tu jamdang).
( ) ,
,
(. qarain moai jil), . . 1653 . [, 2003. . 74.
4370]. ,
1593 .
, , kindkeg enedkeg (.
Enedkeg ). . -,
XVIXVII . [Kollmar-Paulenz, 2002. . 164].

i. ,
- (. Srong btsan sgam po)
Srong iban isgambo. , ,
, 1644 . [Kollmar-Paulenz, 2008. . 141]. , .
- (. . 7).
- ,
-o.

. .

(. Gsi corji riilasvaraba), (. Manjusiri gsi corji),


(. iditu abju) [, 1978. . 187; , 1926. . 218]. .
XVI XVII . ,
(. Yamandaga-yin sudur), 1587 ., , 19 1618 . . ,
1620 ., ,
20 -
(16041634) [, 1978. . 188].

- (. Bsod nams rgya mtsho
(15431588)) 1579 . [, 1978. . 72]. - 21, -
(15341586/1588) - ,
[, 1926. . 217218; , 1978. . 188189]. , , , 100 000 , , 22 .
, -,
[, 1976. . 503; , 1978.
. 197; , 1992. . 55]. . (Mani
bka bum (Mani ambum)-un oriul-a-yin tegsgel-t
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, , , , -
. - 23.

( 19

(. Mi lai rnam thar)


(. Mi la
ras pa (1152/11401135/1123)), ,
(. bKa
rGyud).
20
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(. bsTan gyur ),
225 .
21
. Qalq-a mongol-un oron-du anq-a burqan ajin
eki olusan trl teke; basa yeke adistid-tu sitgen Erdeni
j-yin btgeki yeke tuuji [, 1926. . 217].
22
(. mGur bum )
, , .
23
. . , .

49

XVI XVII .).


, , ,
(. Rgyal
rabs chos byung gsal bai me long) -
(. Pad ma bka thang) [, 1976. . 202203].
- : ,
. , []
, , 24. ,
. 1564 . [, 1992. . 56]. ,
16071608 . (15651624) -. ,
-, . , 25 - 26 1614 . [, 1992.
C. 58], . . 6 .

1614 .
,
-, 1607
1608 . ,
, 1608 ., , - 1614 ., .
, ,

,
.

-.
, ,

.
24

Drben nooan ke quluuna-yin: din dtger ting


qonin jil-un: tgemel arban qoyar sarada ekilej: tritkel gei
oo bein jil-un qobi sara-yin:: alur yabuci ejelegsen naiman
inede: ayalu tegs gi os rji oriulju: ayalulun saky-a
don grub gi nkeldgsen-i: ariun biirel-iyer qataujin
kiiyej tegsgebei [Damdinsuren, 1959. . 293].
25
. bou-tu tchakravar-un nom-un jinung qaan; tara eke-yin qubilan tayiqal neret jnggen qatun.
26
-
1604 . -
.

- - (15991662), 27 - , , 28.
- 29

. ,
(. Nam mkhai rgya mtsho
).
1639 ., . ,
-, 1691 ., .
, - 180
[,
1999. . 5363].
, , , (. Altan gerelt), (. Paoi)
(. Buoi),
(. Dzongkaba-yin tuuji) -
(. Sonomjamo-yin tuuji), (. Dalai blam-ayin jokiyasan qoyar yosun-u sural)
.
-, ,
-. , , : - []: , . [
]: , [-] ,
. - [] :
-. ,
. ,
[-] , - [. . 54].
- - 1644 . :
[-] (1644) - 30 [
], -. <> -
, [. . 57].
- -, 27

. rab byams pa ,

[, 2000. . 201202].
28

(. nam mkhai rgya mtsho), - , .
29
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.
30
- -. 1666 . -
-.

50

. .

, . : 1712, 17171718,
1736 ., ,
31.
-, -, ,

-, . [, 2003. C. 73.
4366, I 78],
609,
[MG, XI,
8a11a]. , , :
,
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, :
. . [] ,
[] . [] . , ,

-,
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-- - , .
, ,
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!

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32.
31

1712 . [, 2003. C. 71. 4363. K 8,


. 1] 17171718 . [, 2003. . 72. 4364.
K 9] . 1736 .
[Uspensky, 2001.
C. 249250. 178] [, 2003. C. 72.
4365. E 1, . 1]. [Uspensky, 2001. C. 250251.
179] [, 2003. . 73. 4366].
[, 2003. . 73, 4367. K 14].
32
Ar-a bilig-un egden-ee ariun oron-a amitan-i uduridui: aldarisan dalai darqan orji amitan-u tula duradusandur-i:: erket burqan-u jarli onoqui-a mai berke kiged: ene
eke biig aldan-i mai yeke bol-un: erin onoqui ber-n oyun
mai moqoda-un tula: egn-i oriulquy-a ayul mai yeke


-. . , , - [, 1999. . 186]. 33, - [, 1999. . 166].
-- -- 16431644 . , (. Qonji) . ,
, , .
, [, 1999. . 206]. , ; ,
, .
-
. (.
Ombo), , ,
, ,
- [, 1999.
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- ,

, , ,
, . -

.
,
,

.
trbe u:: eyin iled kemen orji-yin jarli yekede kiiyegsen
kiged: ene jg-n tegs qubi-tan-a tusa bolqui ba: erdeni dalai
lam-a-yin erdem glen daurisqaqu-yin tula: erked-n rab
byam ba os rji ja ya bandida oriulun:: em-e usun qonin jil
toorbin er-e temr bein jil-n ebl: eldeb jimis-t al dar qanu baraun eteged: eris mren- ljei-t keyid-de saun: erdini
lam-a kiged deged urban-u atistid-iyar saun nayiraulbai::
eke biig aldai mr mr tasurasan kiged: erte-ee mungqaurusan minu oyun moqoda-un-tula: endel aldal eldeb
bolusan bui: endegrel gei uqaatan eneriki sedkil-iyer
jasan soyorqatun:: gken olosan qubi jokibasu: nen
uqa-a-tan injilen onoju: lemji daan bayasulaqui durail
egsgen: r-e yeke niglesgi-yin qutu olqu boltuai::
onto-a gei ssg-t uran qonin teriglen samurtaad: uri
manjuiri met bilig-t aabad delgerenggi aldar biigei:
ombo samur-a-tur baulaqui tegsgen iled: uralan aasun-a toyin oi dorji biibe [MG, XI, 10b11a].
33
-,
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Elena Alekseevna Kantor


Mani kabum in Tibet and Mongolia
This article investigates a Tibetan literary monument Mani kabum (tib. Ma ni bka bum) and its translations into the Mongolian language. Several issues are dealt with, e. g. the Tibetan versions of Mani kabum, certain features of this collection of texts in the context of Tibetan Terma tradition, the structure of the collection.
Material concerning the study of its Mongolian translations is summarized as well. It is based on analysis of colophons corresponding to three different translations, i. e. that of Manjusiri Darhan-lama Zun Avgyn Tsultimlodoi
and Tsogtu Mergen Ubashi (1593), the translation by Gushi Tsorji and Sakya Dondub (1608) and Zaya Pandita
Namkhai-gyamtsos translation (1644).
Key words: Tibeto-mongolian literature, buddhistic literature, terma, tibeto-mongolian studies

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, 1940: . . - . .; ., 1940.
, IV: -
. . IV. ., 2002.
, 2007: . . .
. ., 2007.
, 2004: . ., 2004.
, 1930: . . . .
., 1930.

, 1931: . . . .
., 1931.
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. . I. . 1. , 1889.
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D. Nosov
Folktale with unstable male/female main character in Mongolian peoples folklore
The article deals with three buriat folktales and one folktale of khalh-mongols, taken down in the XIXXX-th
centuries. Comparative analysis of these narratives reveals the phenomenon of unstable gender mark of the main
character in mongolian folktales of the same plot.
Key words: mongolian peoples folklore, folk-tale, system of characters, gender parallels.


- (1717)
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1978. C. 320, Gorelova, 2002. . 336341]. . , , :
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[, 1879. C. 317319].
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sembi , .
: rab , rab sembi , kanggr kinggr , kanggr kinggr
sembi [Mllendorff, 1892. C. 13].
, . ,
, , 400

.

( - ),

seme ,
sembi
[Hermes, 1940. C. 379].

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. 44].
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kus seme injehe

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4.

ser seme agambi

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5.

sor sar seme nimarambi

ar ar ki asu orumui.

59

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ge sigmilel-n il). , , , .

60

ulu fala

ala bala

wucu faka

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ongsin ungsin


30 .
(. jilgan
asuki-i hacin, . daun imegen- il)
229 . 5 , , . , , , 28 ,
, .

(. jilan, . daun), ,
(
). ,
. (. mudan, .
ayalu), (. uran, . anir), ,
(. urkin, ..tiben). ,
:
(. jilgan, ..daun) ,
;
(. jilgambi, ..dongudumui);
(. mudan, ..ayalu) ;
(. uran, . anir) , ;
(. urambi, ..anirlamui);
, (. urkin, ..tiben) ;
(. urkingga, . tibentei);
(. urkilambi, . tibegelemi).
, . ,
, , (. jilgan, . daun):
(. gilajin, . singgen) ;
(. lurgin, . dken) ;
(. narhn, . narin) ;
(. bolgo, .
irau) ;
(. boncihiyan, ..argiy-a).

(. asuki, . imege)
, :

(. asuki, . imege) ,
;
(. asukinngga, ..imegetei);
(. asukilambi, . imegelemi).
. ,
.
, . , , ,
, -, , ,
( 40 ). :
, , -
: . bun bun, . bung bung;
,
: . kuwang cang, . tng
ang;
: . tab tib, . ib ib;
, : . wotor, .
boriginan;
, , : . tong tong, . tong tong.
,
( ). , ,
, , , , , .
, , , (, ), , ,

( 44 ). :
. miyar miyar, . miy-a miy-a , .
, ;
. ung ang, . surqiran ;
. ker, . er ;
. ha, . qa , , , , .
:
. gar, . ai , , ;
. gje, . au au
;
. o, . , ();

- (1717)

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25 ). :
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;
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;
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;
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;
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),
, 65 . 23 , .
:
. per par, . per per ;
. goko, . uuu ;
. giyab, . gab ;
. hiyor hiyar, . quuqirun kkirn
;
. jang ing, . yang ing
.
:
. kogsimbi, . uulamui (
);
. gwambi, . quamui ( ,
);

61

. kiyarimbi, . aalamui (
, );
. ulimbi, . irgimi (
).
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. basa). , .
kr kar, . kr qar
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(. jilgan, . daun), (.
mudan, . ayalu), (. uran, . anir),
(. asuki, . imege).

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:
. pocog yaya jaqa muke-de tuhehe jilgan, .
pol aliba yumun-u usan-dur unusan daun ,
, ;
. giyang indahn-i giyangsire jilgan, .
gang noqai-yin gangginaqu daun
.

(. jilgan, .
daun) (29 ), (. mudan,
. ayalu) (15 ). :
. ho ha umesi beyehe-de tucire jilgan, . qo
qa masi daarasan-du arqu daun , (), .
,
, (.
jilgan, . daun . mudan, . ayalu):
. ei ei niyalma-be basure mudan, . ei ei
kmn- eleglek ayalu , -;
. ee niyalma-be daburaku tucire jilgan, .
ee kmn-i touqu gei arqu daun , () .
(. jilgan, .
daun) (39 ) (. asuki, . imege)

62

(25 ), (. uran, . anir) (1 ).


(17), , . :
. or ar amba edun dara, aga agara asuki,
. oor ar yeke salkin salkilaqu ba borua oruqu
imege
;
. hwar hir yabure-de etuku adu hishabure
asuki, . uwar sir yabuqu-du qubasu qunar
trgdek imege, ,
- ;
. tag yaya wili jaka-be woriha-de guwendere
jilgan, . tag aliba ulu yaum-a-yi oqiqu-dur
duuaraaqu daun ;
. tur tar geren miyoocan-i sasari sindaha uran,
. tr tr olan buu-yin uqaar talbiqsan anir
.
, , : ,
,
. , ,
, . .
-

, ,
( ),


, . , ,
.
,
, (
,

). , ,
, ,
, ,
, , .
.
, , (
), ,

.

, 2000: . .
. .: , 2000.
, 1849: . - . , 1849.
, 1879: . . .: .
, 1879.
, , 1964: . ., . . . ., 1964.
, 1873: . .
., 1873.
, 2010: . .
. .: . .,
2010.
, 1963: . . . .:
. ., 1963.
, 1938: . . -
. .; .: . , 1938.
, 1940: . .
// . . 1. .: .
, 1940.
, , 2001: . ., . . - . .: , 2001.
, 1941: . . - . .; .: . , 1941.

, 1951: . .
. .: . ,
1951.
, 1947: . . () . .: . .-. -, 1947.
, 1958: . . //
. .: . ., 1958.
, 1963: . . // XXV . , 916 1960. . III: X, XI, XIII. .:
. ., 1963.
Chinggaltai, 1963: Chinggaltai. A Grammar of the Mongol
Language. New York: Frederick Ungar Publishing Co,
1963.
Gorelova, 2002: Gorelova Liliya M. Manchu grammar. Leiden; Boston; Kln: Brill, 2002.
Hermes, 1940: Hermes Peeters. Manjurishe Grammatik //
Monumenta Serica. Vol. 5, nr 1/2. . Monumenta
Serica Institute, 1940.
Tserenpil, Kullmann, 2008: Tserenpil D., Kullmann R. Mongolian Grammar. Ulaanbaatar: Admon, 2008.
Mllendorff, 1892: P. G. von Mllendorff. Manchu grammar.
Shanghai: American presbyterian mission press, 1892.

- (1717)


.
.

Munkhceceg Enkhbat
Onomatopoetic Words in the Manchu-Mongolian Dictionary
compiled under the Emperors order (1717)
Every language has its own onomatopoetic words which are used to denote different sounds which people utter purposely or involuntary, cries of birds and animals, sound of different kinds of natural fenomena or moving
objects. These words sometimes are included into a wider group of special words, sometimes they are considered
as interjections.
The Manchu-Mongolian dictionary is one of the main dictionaries of that period. It is composed according to
different subjects, and among the wide variety of topics the central one is a man. Still there are chapters which can
be considered as grammar ones. All such chapters (pronouns, particles, numerals) are placed within the large part
Man. The chapter about the onomatopoetic words is called Sound and Noise (Ma. jalgan asuki-i hacin), it
contains the description of different noises made by a man, an animal or an object (total 221 words). The list of
words in the dictionary differs from the known ones (e. g. that of Zakharov). The fact that they were described in a
special chapter shows the high level of the linguistic knowledge of the period.
Key words: onomatopoetic words, Mongolian language, Manchu language, Manchu-Mongolian dictionary

63

. .

:
.-. aram ( ) [?] 1
aram, hapax legomenon ( 124). , .
, aram , .-. aran , , . .
: , , - .

1 hapax legomena, ( ), , .

, ( 124):
alaqiut qonind-i aduulau
aram drges
qoqoqiut qonind-i aduulau
qoton drges

[] aram.
-
[] .
[. . III. . 45b24] 2.

, aram,
, . ,
,
; ,
.
1


-
-
(XIIIXVI .), 13-04-00211.
2
1936 .,
([
, 1936]; . : [ , 1975. . 1308]).
.

1. . ln -:
alan (. , . . , . . ) [,
1941. C. 231; Haenisch, 1962. S. 4; Poppe, 1955b. P. 38];
alam (. , . , . ,
, , . , . , ., . , . , , . , , . , . . ) [Pelliot, 1949.
P. 32; Ligeti, 1964. P. 65; 1971. P. 81; Rachewiltz, 1972.
P. 52; Bayar, 1981. T. 1. C. 380; Irinin, 1987. C. 91;
, 1990. C. 209; Gadamba, 1990. C. 59;
Eldengtei, Oyundalai, Asaraltu, 1991. C. 165; Onon,
2001. P. 105, note 264; Kuribayashi, Choijinjab, 2001.
P. 150; Kara, 2001. P. 79; 2007. P. 115; Kuribayashi,
2009. P. 20; 2012, P. 51; ongqor, 2002. C. 124; , 2009. C. 66; Street, 2013. Line 3457];
aral (, ) (.: [Rachewiltz,
2004. Vol. 1. P. 463]);
aram (. , . ,
.) ([Eldengtei, Ardaab, 1986. C. 332; eringsodnam, 1993. C. 93]; . : [Rachewiltz, 2004.
Vol. 1. P. 463]).
*aral
. ral
- XIIIXIV .

ln, : 1) ln
sh l , ,
,
3 (, = aral [HY. . 1.
3

sh (LiquidaIndex . ) l -

: .-. aram ( ) [?]

. 09b1]; = yaaral ; ,
[. . IX. . 47b5]); 2) l

sh l (, = qural

[. . III. . 12a4]; = Maral (


) [. . VIII. . 25b4]; =
yaaral ; , [. . XII.
. 38a3]). ,

.
*alan
ln [lam] (ZY, MZ)
[m] [n].
,
- , , XVI XVII .
/ , ,
, ulan caia
(), .: [DY. 322],
lan 4.
XVI XVII . m > -n,

XVII . (.: [Td, 1964. P. 3536;
Coblin, 2000. P. 539]). ,
[m] [n]. ,
lan ln (.,
, ln = Alan ( )
[. . I. . 4b5, 5b2, 6b2, 7a2, 10a5, 10b5, 11a4,
12b1, 14a1, 14b1, 14b4; . II. . 8b1]; ln =
ala-n -CVB.MOD [. . IV. . 46a3;
. V. . 3a5, 3b1]; = dalan 70 [. . IV.
. 4b5; . VII. . 18b5, 19b2, 21b3; . VIII. . 19b1;
. IX. . 31a4; . X. . 2b2]), [lan] (ZY, MZ).
*alan, ,
.
, *alam
*aram. , HY lam (,
= ulam [. . VII.
. 3b5]),

sh ram (, = qarambai
[. . VIII. . 12b5]) rom

(, = qorom , ; .: [Mostaert, 1927. P. 233, 251;


Haenisch, 1931. S. 5253; 1952. S. 3134; Lewicki, 1949.
P. 85, 8788]. l .
4
,
/ , - , . ., : [Ligeti,
1971. P. 17].

65

[. . XII. . 24a5]) 5. / sh.


, ,
,
,
(., : [Haenisch, 1931. S. 53]) 6. *alam Altan tobi , , , .
alam [Altan tobi, 1937. T. 1. C. 72;
Ligeti, 1974. P. 83]. , Altan
tobi , ... , [Ligeti, 1974. P. 7]. ,
*alam *aram
,
.
2. . :
(1) (. , . , . . , . . , . , . , . )
[Haenisch, 1962. S. 4; Pelliot, 1949. P. 156; Poppe,
1955b. P. 38; Cleaves, 1982. P. 56; Taube, 1989. S. 56;
Onon, 2001. P. 104; Rachewiltz, 2004. Vol. 1. P. 50];
(. , , ,
. ) [Haenisch, 1948. S. 34; 1962. S. 4; Poucha,
1955. P. 59; Rachewiltz, 2004. Vol. 1. P. 463]; (?); , (. . ) [, 1941. C. 580]; (. ) [Kauyski, 1970. P. 67];
(2) (. . ) [, 1941. C. 109];
( .) [Eldengtei, Ardaab,
1986. C. 335; Eldengtei, Oyundalai, Asaraltu, 1991.
C. 165]; , (. ) [eringsodnam, 1993. C. 350, . 188];
; , (. )
[ 1997. . 16];
(3) , , (. , . ) [, 1979. C. 52; Gadamba, 1990. C. 314];
, (.-. , . ) [Even, Pop,
1994. P. 88]; , (. )
[Dorjgotov, Erendo, 2007. P. 70];
(4) (, ) (.: [Rachewiltz, 2004. Vol. 1. P. 463]);
() [Mansang, 1985. C. 95];
(5) (. , .-. , . . ) [Damdingsrng, 1947. C. 80;
5
, lom, HY .
6
. . . : : r,
(l r) [,
1993. C. 319].

66

. .

, 1990. C. 58; , , 1990. C. 70d];


() (. . , . )
[, , 2003. C. 91];
(6) () (. . ) [, , 1990. C. 70bc; , 2008. C. 168].
, (5) (6),
. (6) *alam/*aram ayil ~ ai[l] , , ; , , , [. . II. . 17a1, 21b3;
. III. . 20a5; ZyY. 142; YY. 56; YB. 198;
BLK. 56] < M *al .; . .-. al
[. . 18; EDT. P. 83b] < *al.
yn ~
yn l, , , yn (.-. [jin]
ZY, [jin] MZ) yn (.-. [jin] ZY, MZ)
-
lam ram.
(5) ,
*alam/*aram < .-. aru [. . I.
. 37b1; . VII. . 29a2; HY. . 1. . 23b4; MA.
. 103b4]; . . . aru , , ; , , ; ; ,
[. . 1. . 148]; , ; ,
;
[L. P. 54b]; . ar ; ; , ; , , ;
; [. T. 1. C. 116a117a].

( , 7 ),
( ).

(4),
*alam/*aram .-. aral [HY.
. 1. . 09b1]. ,
*aral;
,
.
(3), , *alam/*aram alam
, , ,
, [. . 1. . 70]. .
alam . . alm-a , ,
[L. P. 32b],
*alma 8, *alam.
.
7

, aru ,
/ , ()

.
8
.

, (1),
. ,
chd , .

. ,
,
, , . . XIV . [Haenisch, 1931.
S. 57; Hung, 1951. P. 460461; Rachewiltz, 2004.
Vol. 1. P. xlv]. ,
, , [Rachewiltz, 199394. P. 3; 1995. P. 282283,
note 11] 9. *alam/*aram

drge- , .

,
. , ,
(1)

, , , , . :

*alam/*aram , .. qoton ( ) 10, drge-
.
, (1) - : , * , .-. *alam/
*aram. . . ,
, *alan, .-., ., ., .,
9


, [Eldengtei, Oyundalai, Asaraltu, 1991],
.
[Rachewiltz, 2004].
., : [Vietze, 1990; , 2008].
10
.-. qoton ~ qotan ( ), , , .: [Poppe, 1955a. P. 29; Rachewiltz, 2004. Vol. 1. P. 463; Vol. 2. P. 894; Rybatzki, 2006.
S. 476b477a].

: .-. aram ( ) [?]

., . aln 1) , , (., ., ., .); 2) (.); 3) , (.-.) [Poppe,


1955b. P. 38].
, .
, .-. aln , , [. C. 52] ,

.
. ,
.-. ala , ( ), ([Kara, 2001.
P. 79]; .: [. . 33; EDT. P. 147a]).

: .
, ,
, , , , ( ), , , ,
. . [, 1974. . 135].
, . (semantically difficult) [Kara, 2001. P. 79].
, la
lng, .-. [la] (ZY, MZ)

(., , = irqala
[. . III. . 39b4; . X. . 1b4], = ola
[. . II. . 15a4; . V. . 28b3]).
,
, (2). , ,
.
,

,
1980 . -, 1991 . -,
,

. . . ,
. aran , , ,
, , , , [Eldengtei, Oyundalai, Asaraltu, 1991. C. 165]. .

[eringsodnam, 1993. C. 350, . 188]. , ,
11,
11

. :
[Poppe, 1955b; , 1995; Rybatzki, 2011],

67

.
, , . .-. aran , [. . 51], [EDT. P. 232b;
. C. 85],
[. C. 51]. aran : . . ., ., . ., ., ., .,
., ., . ., ., . ., . aran,
. . aram 1) (. , ., . ., ., . ( )); ,
(. .); ,
(. .); (., ., . .,
. .); ( ) (. .); (.); (. .); (., ., ., .); (.); 2)
(., .); , (., . .); (. .); (. .);
3)
(.); ,
, (.) ([,
1997. C. 523524]; . : [. T. 1. C. 251;
VEWT. S. 23b]).


. , aram, , , [Eldengtei, Oyundalai, Asaraltu, 1991. C. 165] 12. ,


, .
, ( ), aram
qoton, ().
. ,
-n > -m
: [Eldengtei,
Oyundalai, Asaraltu, 1991. C. 127148; , 2004. C. 75
102].
12
aram . , .-. aran
(phonetically too distant) , alam [Kara, 2007. P. 115].

68

. .

,
aram; . ,
([, 1955. C. 177]; . :
[, 1970. C. 170; , 1984. C. 336]).
: .-. aram .-. *aram < aran. ,
,
. -n ~ -m ,
, .: [, 1929.
C. 357358; Poppe, 1955a. P. 101102]; .
.-. nadun [. . 1013] ~ naadun
[HY. . 2. . 04b3] 13 ~ nadum [. C. 442] ,
, . :
.-. aram < *aran .-. aran. , ,
, .
.-. aran
.-. haran , , ; , . . arad
, , . ard , ; , .-. (., ., ., .) haran
; , ; ; . (.: [Poppe, 1964. P. 34; , 1971. C. 173; 1972. C. 237; , 1984. C. 33];
. [. T. 2. C. 317a]). ,
: 1) aram .-. aran 2) haran 14 <
*paran.
: .-. aram , .-. haran

, h-, *p-. ,

, - . ( , .-. haran -
=> => .)
- .

. . ,
,
(too specific to be dismissed) [Rachewiltz, 2004. Vol. 1.
P. 463]. , , , - ,
: ? , , , ,
. ,
. aram
: aram *aral.
*aral , ;
. . ara ~ arar
, (), tierge ara
[SM. P. 9, 11] 15, . aral
; , ()
[. T. 1. C. 125a], . . aral ,
[. C. 55]. .-. *aral, -, . , .-.
aral (. ),
-
, . , ,
,
.


.
.-.
.
.
. .
.
. .
. -

13
HY . naadum [Kuribayashi, 2003. P. 66, 146], dn [tun] (ZY, MZ) ~ [dun] (MZ),
naadun.
14
.: [Eldengtei, Oyundalai, Asaraltu, 1991. C. 329; , 1991. C. 146147. 42; Rachewiltz,
2004. Vol. 1. P. 277; , 2004. C. 1820; Rybatzki, 2006. S. 162ab].
15
,
: aral ~ ral 1) ; 2) [MK. P. 9, 237].
*aral - ,
. [Nugteren, 2011.
P. 271].

: .-. aram ( ) [?]

.
.
. (= )
.
.
.
.-.

.-.
.
. .

69

.
.-. -
. .
. .
.
. .
.
.
.
.
.
.

, , 2003: [
] /
. . -; . . , . .
, 2003.
, 2004: .
[
]. , 2004 (-
; 3.)
, 1929: . .
: . ., 1929 ( - . . . ; 33.)
, 2008: . . : . , 2008.
, , 1990: :
1240 .: , , , /
. . ., . . . . .
. . . , 1990.
, 2009: . :
[ : ] / . . 2- . , 2009.
, , 2003: ., . - - [ ]. , 2003.
, 1973: . -
[
]. ,
1973. ( ; 54.)
, 1941: . . : 1240 . Mongol-un niua
tobiyan. :
. .; ., 1941. . 1: . . ,
., , . (. / -
; . 34.)
, 1971: . . -, // .
., 1971. . 164175.
, 1972: . . - , //
. .,
1972. . 224256.
, 2010:
-
.
( ): 3 . / . .
. . ; . . . ; .
. . . ; . . . ,

. . , . . . ., 2010. . 1.
( ; 128/1.)
, 1993: . . - - //
Mongolica: 750- . .,
1993. . 294327.
, 1979: ii [ ] / . ; . , . . , 1979.
, 1904: .
// . . - . . . -. 1904. . 15, . 2/3. . 75172.
, 1990: [
] / .-. . -, 1990.
, 1908: . . , 1897/98 . /
. . . . , . . . , 1908. . 3.
, 1938: . . -. .;., 1938. . 13. (. / - ; . 14.)
, 1995: . . // : , , / . . . . . . , . .
. . . , 1995. . 108115.
, 2004: . .
: (

): . . .
. . ., 2004.
, 2008: . . abulin eme // .: . . 2007 . / . . . . ,
. . . ., 2008. . 362368.
, 1955: .
/ . . . . ; ., . . . . . .,
1955.
, 1990: . : Mongol-un niua tobiyan: Y [ :
: ]. , 1990.
, 1997: .
[
] / . . . ,
. , . . , 1997.
, 2002: .
: ,

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Pavel Rykin
On a Turkic Loanword in the Secret History of the Mongols: MMo. aram (cattle) pen [?]
The article deals with the Middle Mongolian word aram which occurs as a hapax legomenon in the Secret History of the Mongols ( 124). The author examines the problems of phonetic reconstruction and semantics of the
keyword which provoke controversy among the researchers of the monument. The conclusion is made that aram
is an occasional Turkic loanword which is borrowed from Old Turkic aran a stable, cattle pen, a stake with a
loop for tethering animals. The difference in the final consonants between the Old Turkic and the Middle Mongolian forms is explained too.
Key words: Middle Mongol, the Secret History of the Mongols, Turkic-Mongol language contacts.

. .

(XIII )
, XIII .
., , , , .
: , , .



, , ,
.
. , 28 ,
, -, , [Damdinsrng, 1959.
. 459], . ,
, . , .
, , ,
.
,
, . , ,
, , ,
( ),
.
- .

(., : [, 1977; , 1982;
1985]).
, , . , ,
, -


, , , , , , , , .
.
,
. , ,
,
, .
(XIII .). ,
(., : [, 1977. . 70]),
.
. . , (sural) ( 78,
126, 174, 276, 277) [, 1941. . 34].
,
. . .
,
( 78), -
( 126), -
- ( 174) , , , ( 276, 277),
,
,
.
, . . , , -,
( 22), -
( 199). , , - -

74

, . , ,
,
, . . [, 1963. . 43],
-, ,
. . [,
2002. . 307].
, , , XIIIXV .,

XVIXIX . (
) -.
,
. -
[Heissig, 1979. S. 1418]:
, , -,
- -, , , . ,
. , . . ,
-,
, [,
1937. . 6], .
. . [, 2002. . 62].
- , ,
- -, ,
.
-
, -
,
, , -. , , , , ,
. ., . . -.
, ,
,
, , .
-, . . , :
- :
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, 1963: . . . . I. ., 1963.
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- // Mongolica. . . . . 18841931. ., 1986.
. 232251.
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.-. , . . . .-. -. -, 1966.


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, 1941: . . . 1240 . Mongol-un niua
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). . I. .; ., 1941.
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. 635641.
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84

. .

, 1998: .-.
( ). (-), 1998.
, 1982: . ( ) //
Studia Mongolica. T. IX (17), fasc. 118, 1982. . 210
245.
, 1985: .
//
. ., 1985. . 128144.
, 1995: . .
( . ) //
( ). , 1995.
, 2008: .
- // : 100- . .,
2008.
-, 1997: - . // : XIII
. ., 1997. . 162176.
, 1984: . .
,
// . . . : . . . .,
1984. . 136137.
, 1991: . . // -


. ., 1991. . 88102.
, 1997: . .
XVIIXIX . - // : XIII . ., 1997. . 177208.
, 1977: .
( ) //
( ). . II. , 1977.
, 1987: . .
XIIIXX ( XIII
XX .). , 1987.
, 2008: . .
. . // : 100 . ., 2008. . 236249.
Damdinsrng, 1959: Damdinsrng e. Mongol uran jokiyal-un degeji jaun bilig orusibai ( ) // Corpus scriptorium mongolorum.
1959. T. XIV.
Heissig, 1979: Heissig W. Die mongolischen Heldenepen
Struktur und Motive. Oplanden, 1979.
ljei1, 996: ljei M. S. Mongolud-un tbed-iyer tuurbisan uran jokiyal-un sudulul. (Begejing), 1996.
ombojab, 1959: ombojab. Mongolud-un tbed kele-ber
jokiyasan jokiyal-un jil ( , ) // Studia Mongolica. T. I,
fasc. 28. , 1959.

A. D. Tsendina
The didactic literature of Mongols (XIIIthe middle of XX centuries)
In the article the history of the Mongolian didactic literature since the 13th century and till the middle of the
20th century, stages of its development, genres, themes, and ideas are briefly discussed.
Key words: Mongolian literature, didactic treatises, poetic teachings

. .



2011 . () , . -. ( , ) .
: , , , -, , , .

2011 .
() (. Aashasrik Prajpramit; . shes rab kyi pha rol tu phyin pa brgyad
stong pa). , , , 1. , - (. darpa pandita).

,
,
-, (16371702) [, 2004. . 189
194]. , 1678 . , 1678
1702 .
, , 1

, , :
, (1599
1603) [Yampolskaya, 2012], (1608), ( XVII .),
( XVII .), ( XVII .), ,
- ( XVII .)
( XVII XVIII .)
[Yampolskaya, 2013].
.
.
( ).

. 318 ,
3435 . ,
, 2.
(. 317v318r)
, , , (1r3r) 3.
-
, :
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.

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kt sayin qaan sayin noyan),
. - (.
uqunuqu, . 1534), (. geresene)
- (. dayan qaan).
- -, 2

.
3
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86

. .

-- (. sayin noyan
qaan): ,
-, sayin qaan sayin
noyan.
- --
(. tsiyet sayin qaan gombodori,
. 1594, 16361655), (.
idori, . ye shes rdo rje, . janavajr,
) - - (. ndr
gegen anabaar, 16351723).
-
- (. ieng noyan) (. udbala) (. sayin iaur-du arban urban
qad) c--- (.
sayin kndlen gkr noyan). sayin kndlen
gkr noyan (. tmengkin kndleng gkr, 1558
1640) [Kmpfe, 1983.
C. 153, nr 470]. , -

-:
(. kandusab erdeni ieng noyan)
[Kmpfe, 1983. C. 157, nr 598] (. reya otu ieng noyan) [Kmpfe, 1983.
C. 159, N 601].
,
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- (. ayusi ieng noyan)
[Kmpfe, 1983. C. 160, nr 840] .
,
, . qasui kn-yin belir: , (. belir)
. (: )
, ,
kn (,
gn).


.

[1r] qamu amitan-i sana-a-bar/ glgi burqan erdeni:


asalang-du orilang-aa ooata/ arai nom erdeni:
ayiqamsi-du deged qutu-dur/ uduridui quvara erdeni-dr:
qatauiqui ssg sedkil/-iyer mrgm aburan soyurq-a::

-,
,
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asangki olan alab-dur/ buyan-u iulan-i yosuar sayitur


tegskeged:
aliba trl/-dr alal ilil gei berke qadauil-iyar amurlin:
adalidqa/i gei naiman tmen drben mingan nom-i
dotoraban bataan:/
alasal gei mani<-yi> edr-n iruan-ta ayilidui a-a
y-a muni/-dur albarimui::
asaraqui sedkil-iyer urban yeke alab-dur/ buyan-i iulan-i dgrge burqan boluad:
alimad qamu amitan-i/ deged qutu-dur uduridqu-yin
tula a-a lan-dur gede/ bolu:
asaraqui nigleski-ber ene qoyitu qoyar bkn-dr enerin/
aburai mayidari imadur:
ay-a qoqoi kemen irken-eegen dau/dan mrgm:
nigl-d mani aburan soyurqa::
eki kiaar gei/ orilang-aa ooata arbau:
edge manu yabudal samau b/ bolusan a-dur:
erten- qamu sayibar odusad-aa ilede/ mandur:
enerin ilede aburai bcngapa
imadur mrgn albari/mui:
qaril gei-yin qutu-i olbau:
qarin qarin gede/ bolui pann dalai blam-a:
qamu sayin qubitan-u aak nidn/
urban yirtin-yin oro-yin imeg sumati c-a-na kiged:/
qamu amitan-aa ilanguy-a
qalq-a tmen-i iulan aburai/ rc bjun ampa blam-adur:
1

tungalta gei.

qami-a gede bolbasu tere/ oron-dur


qamtu nigen oroiqu-yin qutu-i in albarimui::/
qoor-tu doin imnusi elgegi baatur da-a inis kiged
kin/ tngri:
qoosuraul-un tidgin-i nesn tobra bolai bgj/
terigten nom-un sakiulsud:
qoyitu ene qoyar trln qoorlan/ todqariduin-u utumsi
bolai ta bkn-dr:
qoyar gei sed/kil-iyer ssl-n mrgmi saalal gei nken soyorqa::
kn/ teglder krdn oriului inggis qaan tere inu:
kir tabun/ ngge drben qari-yi eele brn:
ksegsen qamu kereg-d-iyen/ sayitur tegsken btge
iraad:
knd yeke tr-e yosun-iyan/ tbsin-e barisan auu:
aldarsisan tere yeke qaan-aa/ inasi ndsle brn:
asuru yeke kt sayin qaan [1v] sayin noyan trged:
almayidal gei asin tr-e qoyar-i/ qoslan bariu:
adalidqai gei qalq-a tmen-i sayitur ira/ulusan blge::
tegn-ee qoyin-a dtger y-e-yin a/-dur inu:
degdegerel gei yeke boda rc bjun ampa blam-a/
tegi nigeski-ber amitan-i tusa-yin tulada gede boluad:/
tegs-iyer iraulun ain-i arban g-dr maida delgere/glbei::
sayin kndlen gkr noyan-u re sadun inu:
samau/ral gei aan buyan-u ai re-yin iltaan-iyar:
sayiqan/ nabi seeg met sayitur sauran delgere:
sayin iaur-du/ arban urban qad bolusan-aa ndslegseger::
teglder ssg/-d ieng noyan udbala qoyar-un duradusan-dur:
tegs ira/lang sanasaar bolumu kemen sedki arpa
pandita biber:
tegs/ olan ge udqasi yeke ese medebe:
tedi ediken medegden/ ge udqasi inu tokiyalduulu
brn::
ketrkei yeke erdem/ bilig ese tegsgsen u bolba:
ken uirasan glige-yin een-/ arli-aa l dabaqu-yin
tula:
gem-d urban qoora-yin/ eldeb kilinesi ese tebigsen u
bolba:
getlgegi deged aky-a/ muni-yin adistid-dur ituu
oriulbai::
erten- sayin buyan/-iyar uirasan noyan qutu-tu un
a-a rgy-a m/ kemekd eblen:
edge rd rj rgy-a m kemek ba ubasi/ qoyaula sambura-dan:
edi tedi bi<i>gein naiman mingan silg-t kemek-yi:
erten- yosuar ene es-n kereg-n tula debterle/glbei::
burqan-u arli inu masi yeke gn narin boluad:/
bodatay-a burqan bodi satuva-nar-aa busu medeky-e
berke-yin/ tulada:
buruu aliyas ese mede gem aldal bolusan bges:
busu/ erten- kelemrin-ee gem bolusan busu bui::
osaldau gem aldal/-nuud bolusan tedeger bgde-yi:
lemi uqaan-u oron-a/ geyigsen merged asan soyorq-a:
ken edi tedi onou/ b bolusan bges:
olan amitan-i burqan-u qutu-dur udu/ridqu-yin nds
boltuai::
2

87

-,
,
,
.
, , ,
, []-
, ,
,
,
! [] !
-

[],
, , ,
.

, , , ,
,
.

-
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-


[ ] .
,
-
[ ] ,
, -,
,
,
.
[] ,
,
[] ,
[] []
,
[],
.
- , ,
2
[] []
.
[] ,
-, ,
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.
, ,
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[] !

sambura-tan, . . .
, , .

88
geyigsen yeke merged egni asaqu/-aa busu eleglek
qami-a bolqu:
geneken oyutan ken medegsen-i/ nomirqan yabuid
sigl gei angqaraqui kereg:
kerbe-e b/ buruu-yi inu l ingilen glegi adqulang
sedkil-den/ sunibasu:
gegen yeke telk gei-dr iruan geig-den-u [2r]
mri mskigsen met boluuin::
eke bilig-n inadu kiaar/ krgsen naiman mingan
ilg-d kemek egni:
edge naiman ilge/ arban uiral-du trl olosan ene adaan:
ene es qoyarun/ tula takiqu mrgk
ungiqu terigten-i ese iledbes egn-ee/ degere ar-a
gei-yin tula:
edge olusan bey-e-ben/ eldeb il ile iled olusan
erdeni met egni d/ gei bolaqula bui-a::
tegn- tula tegnilen iregsen akyamuni-yin/ edge
mandur bkn-ee lemi keregselen talbisan egni
tengsel/ gei orilang-un ig bai-aa mai sayitur irkenee/ igsigrken:
tengeky-e berke orilang-aa ngik burqan-u/ qutu
terigten-i olqu-yin tula:
tedi edi orilang-un d/ gei yabudal-i orkin egn-ee
l qaaaqu ber ledltei::
ay-a/ lsgsen umtaasusan amitan sayiqan idege
umdaan-lua uirasan/ met:
ay-a uirai gei indamani erdenis-n <erdeniin> saba-yin
aman nekeg/sen met:
ay-a qola bglegde-ee ina amara-ud-un ge kr/
iregsen met:
ay-a tungala tolin-u dotora okistai itei/ dri drs
egdegsen met:
ay-a ayiqamsi-du bilig-n inadu/ kiaar krgsen naiman mingan ilg-d egni:
ali inegeber biik/ takiqu mrgk ungiqu sanaqu
sslk tedeger-i:
amin-daan krbe/ aida-yin kereg-i sanan aliqan inegeber iledn:
akanista-yin/ oron-dur drbel gei trglgi eke egni
iledltei ene bui-a::/
ene qutu-tu-yin nom-i oriulusan buyan-iyar:
eige eke bolu/san iruan il amitan:
eed qad teriglen bida bgdeger:/
es-dr burqan-u qutu-i trgen-e olqu boltuai::
tungala sayin/ ssg-iyer duradusan buyan-iyar:
toolasi gei alab-dur/ iledgsen nigl manu ariluad:
tonilusi gei urban mau ayaan/-dur oroisan amitan-i:
toolusan burqan-u qutu-dur uduridqu/ boltuai::
uridu alasi gei sayin irger-n buyan-u kn-iyer:/
oloi gei kmn tngri-yin trli olosan buyan inu:
ulam ulam/ neme baural gei delgeren arbiiad:
orilang-un obalang-aa/ amitan-i sayitur uduridqu boltuai::
ai ayiqamsi-du egn- k/-ber ene trl-ee busu orondur l absarlaqu ber:
ai ayiqamsi/-du ilausad-un deged mayidari inu lmei-yin emn-e dergede/ iqam drbel gei trn:
ai ayiqamsi-du bodi satuva sedkil [2v] -lu-a qoslasan
ene qoosun inar-i tan-u gegen-ee ayiladqan:/
ai ayiqamsi-du mayidari i inu ene jambu-a tiib-dur gede/ bolqu a-dur erkim kbegn bolun::
asuru ene orilang-dur/ inuqayiran abtasan sedkil minu

. .

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sularan nimgedn:
asanggi urban alab/-dur a-a ky-a muni tan-u buyan-u
iulan yambar quriyasan tere/ yosuar:
aliqan bkn-iyen burqan-u qutu amitan-u tula tungalta/
gei 1 gk ledk ber:
ai ayiqamsi-du a-a ky-a muni-lu-a/ adali bolqu keiy-ede bolqu bolumui::

erketen dutau amitan-i erke/-den bridged:


eldeb ebein-iyer enelgid ebedin-ee tonilu:
ed/ mal-iyar geyiregsed erdeni-yin sang-i oload:
enelgsen obalang/-tan asalang-aa tonilqu boltuai::
amin nasun inu adalidqai/ gegy-e ni urtu boluad:
aliba ksegsen kereg-d inu nom-un/ yosuar sayitur btged:
aali aburi inu albaravaras modun-u nayilala/ met boluad:
abida burqan-u dergede bgdeger trgen-e trk bol/tuai::
gegen ene sudur-un yeke ai re ber:
kei qura a a/-dur sayitur orou:
kelk yeke altan delekei-dr tariyan ebesn uru/ad:
keb keiy-e ed mal-iyar bayain amuulang iraqu boltuai::/
altan delekei met auu yeke bolun:
ariun yeke otarui met batu/ boluad:
ayul-du orilang qoosun boltala bk amitan-a:
asuru yeke/ tusalai inu bi boltuai::
erte bodi satuva sedkil trglgsen-ee/ burqan-u qutu
krtele:
erket a-a ky-a idai amitan-u tusa yambar/ iledgsen
met:
erdeni deged a-a ky-a muni-yin vir-du kln linqu-a/dur ituu:
edge bi u tere yosuar iledk minu boltuai::
egn-ee/ terigle keiy-e bodi qutu-dur krn krtele:
egride tidgi qamu/ ada todqar-nuud-aa sayitur
ayilaulun:
erkin deged bodi qutu-un/ ile-dr l saadaulun:
edr sni nasuda buyan-du deged yabudal-iyar/ edleglk
boltuai::
arslan a ky-a muni teriglen arban g-n urban/ a-dur
oroisan qamu burqad:
asuru mingan alab-un deged n/dsn- blam-a kiged
burqan bodi satuva-nar:
aliba kiling-du da-a/ kinis kin tngri bgc teriglen nomun sakiulsud:
adalidqasi gei/ lei qutu <delgeren arbidquyin lei
qutu> orosiqu boltuai::
lemi deged ene sudur-un sayin buyan/-iyar:
ni-de ai kluus-un qad teriglen aar-un eed:
glige-yin/ een qamu amitan-dur qoor l iledn:
rgli-de nken es/-dr burqan-u qutu-dur krtgei
erge ber::
tegsi qamu amitan-i [3r] beyen-dr urban bey-e-yin lei
qutu orosituai:
degderel/ gei bkn- kelen-dr urban surauli-yin lei qutu oroitu/ai::
temdegtey-e qamu bgde-yin sedkil-dr urban aabad-un/ lei qutu oroituai:
tere urbaula-yin lei qutu bgde/-dr tgemel orosiqu
boltuai::

89

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90

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qamu amitan a-a ky-a idai yirtin/-dr gede


boluad bolusan met iraad:
qamu ain naran-u gerel/ met (erased) sayitur sauraad:
qamu ain-i bariid:/ eige kbegn met mai yosuar
okildun:
qamu adistid-un lei/ qutu trl tutum rgli-de oroiqu
boltuai::
aulas-un/ qaan smbr aula-yin drben tiib-un deged
cambu-a tiib-un/ oron-a:
auu yeke qalq-a tmen- oron-u deged qangai/ qan-u
aru-dur:
asuru sayiqan oi seeglig lges-iyer/ imegsen qasui knyin belir-e:
ay-a ayiqamsi-du/ deged ene qutu-du-yin nom-i btgebei:: : ::

!
!
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.

, 2004: .
: XVIIXX .
, yy y, 2004.
Kmpfe, 1983: Kmpfe H-R. Das Asarai neret yin teke
des Byamba erke daiing alias amba asa (Eine mongolische Chronik des 17. Jahrhunderts) (Wiesbaden: Otto
Harrasowitz, 1983).
Yampolskaya, 2012: Yampolskaya N. A Rare Mongolian
Translation of the Aashasrik Prajpramit sutra //

Proceedings of the 10th International Congress of Mongolists. Vol. II: Mongolian Language and Culture and their
Urgent Problems. Ulaanbaatar, 2012.
Yampolskaya, 2013: Yampolskaya N. Ashtashasrik Prajpramit in Mongolia: Some Problems of Interpretation //
Mongolian Studies: Journal of The Mongolia Society.
Vol. XXXIII. Bloomington, 2013.

N. Yampolskaya
A Recently Discovered Khalkha Translation of the Aashasrik Prajpramit
In 2011 a previously unknown Mongolian translation of the Aashasrik Prajpramit sutra was found in
a private collection in Khovsgol province, Mongolia. The translation is ascribed to the Khalkha translator Thar pa
pandita. The source (an illustrated manuscript which has only been partly available for research) has a lengthy
colophon, composed in verse by Thar pa pandita himself.
Key words: Ashtasahasrika, Prajnyaparamita, colophon, Thar-pa pandita, Zanabazar, Tushietu-khan, Khalkha.

. .

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., : [ 2010; , 2011. . 189202; , 2008; , , 1999; , 1998. . 555;
1994. . 108115; , 1991; Rupen, 1956.
P. 126145].

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. 185194.
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96

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1953. ., 2006.
, 2011: . . . . //

. 2011. 4. . 189
202.
Rupen, 1956: Rupen A. Cyben Zamcaranovic Zamcarano
(18801940) // Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies. 1956.
Vol. 19, nr 1/2, June. P. 126145.

T. I. Yusupova
In the Future, the Scientific Committee will converted
into the National Academy of Sciences and Arts:
A long-term Programme for the Development of the Mongolian
Scientific Committee by Ts. Zhamtsarano
The article briefly examines the activity of Tsyben Zhamtsarano at the position of the academic secretary of
the Mongolian Scientific Committee in the early 1920s. It was noted that in his work Tsyben Zhamtsarano relied
on the advice and support of the academician S. F. Oldenburg. In organizing the activities of the Scientific
Committee Tsyben Zhamtsarano sought to apply the experience of the Russian Academy of Sciences in
accordance with national, cultural and economic conditions. To this end he developed a long-term plan for the
development of the Scientific Committee and consistently implemented it.
As an attachment the program for the development of the Mongolian Scientific Committee written by Tsyben
Zhamtsarano in 1924 is published.
Key words: Mongolian Scientific Committee, Tsyben Zhamtsarano, S. F. Oldenburg, long-term plan of the
Scientific Committee.

. .


:
1. . .
( XVII XX .). : -
. -, 2012. 203 .
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. .

Kalmyk Folklore and Folk Culture in the mid-19th Century.


Philological Studies On the Basis of Gbor Blint
of Szentkatolnas Kalmyk Texts
. . . : Kalmyk Folklore and Folk
Culture in the mid-19th Century. Philological Studies
On the Basis of Gbor Blint of Szentkatolnas Kalmyk Texts / Ed. by . Birtalan with the collaboration
of Tamara Gorjajevna Basangova (Bordanova) and
with the assistance of Baira Basangovna Gorjajeva.
Budapest, 2011. 380 p. (
XIX , () /
. . .
. . . , 2011. 380 .)

.

-,
XIX . .
.
,
,
(18711874). .


. ,
, 2009 .
,
Eotvos
Lorand (Birtsalan A. Gbor Blint of
Szentkatolna. A Romanized Grammar of the East-and
West-Mongolian Languages. With popular Chrestomathies of both Dialects. Budapest Oriental Reprints. Series
B. Library of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences
Csoma de Krs Society. Budapest, 2009). -

. .


(, , , ), 2009 .

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