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Ahn, J. (2011). The effect of social network sites on adolescents' social and
academic development:
Current theories and controversies. Journal Of The American Society For
Information Science And Technology, 62(8), 1435-1445.
This paper is a rather comprehensive literature review of the effects that
social networking sites have on adolescents social and academic
development. It outlines the theoretical frameworks that researchers have
developed have developed, which seems to be a lot on this topic. The
concepts of social capital, privacy, youth safety, psychological well-being, and
educational achievement. It mentions cross-section analyses and longitudinal
studies, which I pointed out about in Lee, S.-J., Bartolic, S., & Vandewater, E.
A. (2009).
Apaolaza, V., Hartmann, P., Medina, E., Barrutia, J. M., & Echebarria, C. (2013). The
relationship between
socializing on the Spanish online networking site Tuenti and teenagers
subjective wellbeing: The roles of self-esteem and loneliness. Computers In
Human Behavior, 29(4), 1281-1289.
This Spanish study examines the relationship between usage intensity of
Tuenti, a Spanish social networking site (SNS) and their psychological
wellbeing. 344 (52% female, 48% male) adolescent students between the
ages of 12-17 were given self-administered surveys with questions about
levels of socialization, loneliness, self-esteem, subjective well-being, and
perceived support. Several of the hypotheses were confirmed.
Bakker, T. P., & de Vreese, C. H. (2011). Good News for the Future? Young People,
Internet Use, and
Political Participation. Communication Research, 38(4), 451-470.
This is a great study completed in the Netherlands that studies how four
forms of media affect young peoples (16-24 years) offline and online forms of
political participation. The findings derived from the 2409 completed surveys
show that a variety of internet uses are significantly and positively related
with different forms of political participation.
Barker, V. (2009). Older adolescents' motivations for social network site use: the
influence of gender,
group identity, and collective self-esteem. Cyberpsychology & Behavior : The
Impact Of The Internet, Multimedia And Virtual Reality On Behavior And
Society, 12(2), 209-13. doi:10.1089/cpb.2008.0228

This study used 803 college freshman as the sample to study their motives to
use SNSs. The studied motives included group belonging, collective selfesteem, and different gender effects. Results show that females are more
likely to report high positive collective self-esteem and greater overall use to
communicate with peers. Males were more likely to report negative collective
self-esteem and SNS use for social compensation and identity gratifications.

Best, P., Manktelow, R., & Taylor, B. (2014). Online communication, social media and
wellbeing: A systematic narrative review. Children And Youth Services
Review, 41, 27-36. doi:10.1016/j.childyouth.2014.03.00
This literature review was done to synthesize empirical research on the
impact of online social technologies and the impact it has on the mental
wellbeing of young people. Eight databases were used to collect 43 pieces of
research done between 2003 and 2013. The benefits found were increased
self0esteem, perceived social support, increased social capital, safe identity
experimentation, and increased opportunity for self-disclosure.
Bleakley, A., Jordan, A. B., & Hennessy, M. (2013). The Relationship Between
Parents' and Children's
Television Viewing. Pediatrics, 132(2), E364-371.
I like how this article organizes information on the abstract page. It gives a
brief introduction to what is known on the subject of the study, and what this
study in particular adds. Keywords and abbreviations are also given. The
study itself samples 1550 parents with children among 3 different age groups
ranging from 5-17 years. It proves that parent television time is associated
with child television time, among other relationships.
Boyd, D. M., & Ellison, N. B. (2007). Social Network Sites: Definition, History, and
Scholarship. Journal Of
Computer-Mediated Communication, 13(1), 210-230.
This paper gives a comprehensive definition of social network sites, which
ended up being a point of focus in terms of what sources I searched for and
selected throughout my research process. I figured this was a good reference
to have if we must write about social networking sites, which there is a high
chance of us doing. It also talks future research that needs to be done, even
though it is from 2008, it may give some ideas on what we could research.
Bryant, M. J., Lucove, J. C., Evenson, K. R., & Marshall, S. (2007). Measurement of
television viewing in

children and adolescents: a systematic review. Obesity Reviews, 8(3), 197209. doi:10.1111/j.1467-789X.2006.00295.x
This paper builds off of other studies done that examined overweight children
and their TV viewing habits. They systematically reviewed and evaluated the
previous measures and methods used, they found that the reliability and
validity were not often examined. Instead of actually performing a study with
improved measures/methods they criticize past experiments and give
suggestions on how future studies on the topic of television viewing and
children can be done.
Dolev-Cohen, M., & Barak, A. (2013). Adolescents use of Instant Messaging as a
means of emotional
relief. Computers In Human Behavior, 29(1), 58-63.
This article is cool because it uses questionnaires and textual analysis to
examine a control group and a dependent group. It studies how the use of
instant messaging by distressed and un-distressed adolescents affects their
wellbeing. Their wellbeing can be improved by the ability to self-disclose,
vent negative emotions, and receive social support.
Ellison, N. B., Steinfield, C., & Lampe, C. (2007). The Benefits of Facebook Friends:
Social Capital and
College Students Use of Online Social Network Sites. Journal Of ComputerMediated Communication, 12(4), 1143-1168. doi:10.1111/j.10836101.2007.00367
This study examines the concept of social capital and how it is formed and
maintained through the use of Facebook. Surveys were given to 286
undergraduate students and regression analyses were performed. The results
shows a strong association between Facebook and three types of social
capital and psychological well-being.
Fioravanti, G., Dttore, D., & Casale, S. (2012). Adolescent Internet Addiction:
Testing the Association
Between Self-Esteem, the Perception of Internet Attributes, and Preference for
Online Social Interactions. Cyberpsychology, Behavior & Social Networking,
15(6), 318-323. doi:10.1089/cyber.2011.0358
I chose this article because it is a contrast to other articles that study positive
effects of internet usage on adolescents. It reviews the definition of addiction
to the internet and studies the instruments of internet use, self-esteem,
preference for an online social interaction, and internet addiction. 264
students randomly selected between 3 schools completed the survey.

Somewhat significant results were found for females, and no significant

results were found for males.
Gross, E. (2004). Adolescent Internet use: What we expect, what teens report.
Journal Of Applied
Developmental Psychology, 25(6), 633-649.
This article reviews the predictions from previous studies about the impact of
social internet use on adolescents and then conducts a study with measures
on internet usage and well-being. I appreciate how Gross used students from
a range of socioeconomic schools/neighborhoods to answer his
questionnaires. No significant relationship between internet use and wellbeing were found in the study.
Gross, E. F., Juvonen, J., & Gable, S. L. (2002). Internet use and well-being in
adolescence. The Journal Of
Social Issues, 58(1), 75-90.
This study first reviews evidence from previous research that suggests
internet use among adolescents decreases well-being. I chose this article
because it focuses on the negative effects of internet use, whereas other
tend to focus more on positive effects. Their measures/methods did not find a
link between internet use and daily well-being, nor did it find a link between
internet use and negative outcomes.

Hook, M., Baxter, S., & Kulczynski, A. (2016). Children's participation in brand-based
social networks:
examining the role of evaluative social identity, self-esteem and anticipated
emotions on commitment and desire to recommend. International Journal Of
Consumer Studies, 40(5), 552-561. doi:10.1111/ijcs.12300
(REQUESTED FROM RI LIBRARIES) I found this article in the reference section
of another article about SNSs. The title alone caught my interest, I had not
seen any studies that included children as consumers, especially not in
relation to social networks. This article produced in 2016 seems highly
relevant to the project, and to my career interests.
Jordan, A., Bleakley, A., Manganello, J., Hennessy, M., Steven, R., & Fishbein, M.
(2010). The Role of

Television Access in the Viewing Time of US Adolescents. Journal Of Children

And Media, 4(4), 355-370. doi:10.1080/17482798.2010.510004
(REQUESTED FROM RI LIBRARIES)I found this article in the reference section
of another article about television. I requested it from the RI Libraries
because I feel as though it may have useful because it comes from a journal
with a highly relevant title, and the focus on US adolescents.
Kenski, K., & Stroud, N. J. (2006). Connections Between Internet Use and Political
Efficacy, Knowledge,
and Participation. Journal Of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 50(2), 173-192.
Although this article didnt focus on youth, it is useful because it shows a
strong relationship between internet use and exposure to information about a
presidential campaign and political efficacy, knowledge, and participation.
The researchers used a year-long rolling cross-sectional survey, which was
the largest academic survey on political attitudes and behavior ever
conducted of the US population.
Kirzinger, A. E., Weber, C., & Johnson, M. (2012). Genetic and Environmental
Influences on Media Use
and Communication Behaviors. Human Communication Research, 38(2), 144171.
The literature review is robust with previous research about motivations to
consume media. This article focuses heavily on how genes affect media
habits and to discover the sources of motivations to consume media and
commit other communication behaviors. The results emphasize how
environmental factors alone cannot sufficiently explain media consumption
Ko, H-C, & Kuo, F-Y. (2009). Can blogging enhance subjective well-being through selfdisclosure?
Cyberpsychology & Behavior : The Impact Of The Internet, Multimedia And
Virtual Reality On Behavior And Society, 12(1), 75-79.
This is another study about internet use being a vehicle for self-disclosure
and how it may affect well-being. It is a Taiwanese study, so it adds some
diversity to my bibliography. In particular, I like the map the researchers have
in the results section of the article and how it shows the statistical
significance of each hypothesis that proposed a relation between two

Lee, S.-J., Bartolic, S., & Vandewater, E. A. (2009). Predicting children's media use in
the USA: Differences
in cross-sectional and longitudinal analysis. British Journal Of Developmental
Psychology, 27(1), 123-143. doi:10.1348/026151008X401336
This is one of the better studies Ive come across. The methods they used to
analyze two separate large groups of American children (2300 or more) were
more than just a questionnaire/survey, which I see more often than not. They
aim to examine the predictors of childrens media use by comparing crosssectional and longitudinal analyses of 24 hour time use diaries. They studied
socio-demographics, neighborhood quality, parental limits, and family
conficlit, and the relationships with television, video games, computers, and
Mayer-Brown, S., Lawless, C., Fedele, D., Janicke D.M., & Dumont-Driscoll, M. (2016).
The effects of
media, self-esteem, and BMI on youth's unhealthy weight control behaviors.
Eating Behaviors, 21, 59-65. doi:10.1016/j.eatbeh.2015.11.010
This study examines methods that youth uses to manage their weight,
particularly unhealthy behaviors, and the effect of media influence on the
participants. 179 children between ages 10-17 filled out questionnaires
designed to asses frequency of unhealthy behaviors and their perceptions of
media influence.
Noar, S. M., Zimmerman, R. S., Palmgreen, P., Cupp, P. K., Floyd, B. R., & Mehrotra, P.
Development and Implementation of Mass Media Campaigns to Delay Sexual
Initiation Among African American and White Youth. Journal Of Health
Communication, 19(2), 152-169. doi:10.1080/10810730.2013.811318
This article explains the process of researching public service
announcements, creating new public service announcements, and evaluating
them. The public serve announcements for this study were televised mass
media campaigns to delay initiation of sexual intercourse about American
adolescents. The evaluation method was said to be rigorous, it was a 21month interrupted time series design with a control community.
Pasek, J., Kenski, K., & Romer, D. (2006). America's Youth and Community
Engagement: How Use of
Mass Media Is Related to Civic Activity and Political Awareness in 14- to 22Year-Olds. Communication Research, 33(3), 115-135.

This study examines mass media roles in young peoples awareness and
activity in civics and politics. 1501 people from all over the country between
the ages of 14-22 answered telephone surveys about 12 different uses of
mass media as well as questions about political awareness. The researchers
focused heavily on research done by Putnam. The results found that heavy
use of mass media may interfere with political activity, however they also
found that the overall effect of media use is favorable in terms of
political/civic awareness and activity.
Pea, R., Nass, C., Meheula, L., Rance, M., Kumar, A., Bamford, & H., Zhou, M. (2012).
Media use, face-toface communication, media multitasking, and social well-being among 8- to
12-year-old girls. Developmental Psychology, 48(2), 327-336.
This is one of the better studies I came across while researching. It examines
3461 North American girls between the ages of 8-12 (would prefer an older
age) and how their use of 10 different forms of media. I thought the sample
number, the samples geographic location, the amount of mediums covered,
and the comparison of digital/electronic mediums to face-to-face
Penney, J. (2015). Social Media and Symbolic Action: Exploring Participation in the
Facebook Red Equal
Sign Profile Picture Campaign. Journal Of Computer-Mediated Communication,
20(1), 52-66. doi:10.1111/jcc4.12092
This empirical study examines subjective experiences about symbolic action
and political participation on social media platforms. There is criticism about
minor political participation on social media, known as slacktivism, however
there are also models that suggest that that kind of participation is positive
because citizens participating in slacktivism wouldnt otherwise be involved
at all. The campaign that is being examined here is the Red Equal Sign Profile
Picture Campaign, symbolic for the support of gay marriage.
Rice, E.S., Haynes, E., Royce, P., & Thompson, S.C. (2016). Social media and digital
technology use among
Indigenous young people in Australia: a literature review. International Journal
For Equity In Health, 15, (81), 1-16. doi:10.1186/s12939-016-0366-0
This is a literature review about social media use by socially disadvantaged
indigenous young people in Australia. 22 pieces of literature about social
media/digital technologies and indigenous Australians were found using 3
databases and a technique called citation snowballing.

Salmon, J., Timperio, A., Telford, A., Carver, A., & Crawford, D. (2005). Association of
Family Environment
with Children's Television Viewing and with Low Level of Physical Activity.
Obesity Research, 13(11), 1939-1951. doi:10.1038/oby.2005.239
(REQUESTED FROM RI LIBRARIES)I requested this item from the RI Libraries
because of the proposed connection between family environment, television
viewing, and levels of physical activity. Instead of solely focusing on
psychological media effects, this article may focus more on the physical
effects of prolonged media usage among children/youth.

Valkenburg P.M., Peter J., & Schouten, A.P. (2006). Friend networking sites and their
relationship to
adolescents' well-being and social self-esteem. Cyberpsychology & Behavior :
The Impact Of The Internet, Multimedia And Virtual Reality On Behavior And
Society, 9(5), 584-590.
This study sampled 881 adolescents (10-19 years old) who had online social
networking site profiles. It used structural equation modeling to the frequency
adolescents use the site. They found that use of the site had an indirect, yet
positive, relationship with effects on well-being and self-esteem. They found
that negative feedback on profiles decreased self-esteem/well-being.
Valkenburg, P. M., Sumter, S. R., & Peter, J. (2011). Gender differences in online and
offline selfdisclosure in pre-adolescence and adolescence. British Journal Of
Developmental Psychology, 29(2), 253-269. doi:10.1348/2044-835X.002001
This study in the Netherlands builds off previous research about selfdisclosure among pre-adolescents and adolescents. It aims to answer how
boys and girls online self-disclosure develops between the ages of 10-17 and
how online and offline self-disclosure interact with each other. The
researchers used 690 students at three time points each a half year apart.
The results show significant differences between males and females.
However, perhaps the most interesting finding was that both male and
females used online self-disclosure to rehearse offline self-disclosure skills.
van Kruistum, C., Leseman, P. P., & de Haan, M. (2014). Youth Media Lifestyles.
Human Communication
Research, 40(4), 508-529. doi:10.1111/hcre.12033

This article studies the concept of media lifestyles to explore youths use of
communication media. The study is done on 503 8 th graders (separated by
lower and higher education tracks) in the Netherlands using different types of
media technology. The ratio of girls to boys is relatively even, which adds
credibility. They apply the results the results to the Uses and Gratifications
Theory. Started with a pilot, then used a questionnaire about media activities
which was designed in accordance with Guttmanns Facet Theory.
Van Zutphen, M., Bell, A. C., Kremer, P. J., & Swinburn, B. A. (2007). Association
between the family
environment and television viewing in Australian children. Journal Of
Paediatrics And Child Health, 43(6), 458-463. doi:10.1111/j.14401754.2007.01111.x
This study is rather similar to other studies I found about childrens television
viewing time and physical health. Since the other one that focused on
physical health rather than mental health had to be requested, I also cited
this one. The researchers studied 1926 children and their parents between
ages of 4-12. They found that overweight or obese children had more TV time
than healthy weight children. This study concludes that there are messages
that need to be sent to parents and children to decrease amount of television
viewing and increase the amount of physical activity.
York, C., & Scholl, R. M. (2015). Youth Antecedents to News Media Consumption:
Parent and Youth
Newspaper Use, News Discussion, and Long-Term News Behavior. Journalism
And Mass Communication Quarterly, 92(3), 681-699.
This study explores a possible correlation between parent news reading and
their childrens propensity to consume news as they develop into adults and
into adulthood. Using a recursive path model, theyre able to demonstrate
direct/indirect effects of parents on the frequency of youth news use. They
were able to predict news use among the same people used in the study 7
years later.
Zimmerman, R. S., Palmgreen, P. M., Noar, S. M., Lustria, M. L. A., Lu, H.-Y., &
Horosewski, M. L. (2007).
Effects of a Televised Two-City Safer Sex Mass Media Campaign Targeting
High-Sensation-Seeking and Impulsive-Decision-Making Young Adults. Health
Education And Behavior, 34(5), 810.
This study is interesting because they are studying the effects of an actual
particular message constructed for the experiment. Random samples of 100
young adults were surveyed in different cities each month for 21 months as

part of an interrupted-time-series design with a control community. Analysis

of the results found that the PSA campaign message about safe sex actually
increased condom use, condom use self-efficacy, and behavioral intentions
among the target groups. These results demonstrate how carefully crafted
mass media campaigns can have an effect on young adults.