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84

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86


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87

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92


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: p/ + gh + V2/2 = const.
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- , - .

93

, . , // .

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/, /,

/.95/.
/ 2.4 2.5/,
p + gh + V2/2 = const, p -
/ /, gh , h -
//, V2/2 .
(p + gh), . , h p,
V.
/ /,
p h /.96/.
:
p + V2/2 = = const.
p , V2/2
- . .

/,
- /.

.98. / / L
// S = (p1 - p2).

94

/.97/.
, .

gh p /.97/.

95

: = gH. , V = (2gH)0,5 - [76, 77].



/.99/. , .
2.4.3.

2.4.2.
V
/.98/. , 1 = 2 + V2/2 ,
,
. , V = [2(1 - 2)/] 0,5 = (2/) 0,5,
- .
4
/.94/.
F = ma,
F= (p1 - p2)S - ,
// L S, m = SL -
. , L a = (p1 - p2)S/SL = /L.
V(t) = at L(t) = at2/2, L(t) - , t, V = (2/) 0,5. L, S. ,

.
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.99.
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- , 1 /
2.4.8/, 2 - .

V1,
g, /.100/.
, V2 = ( V1 + gt ), ,
S2 V2 = V1 +[2g(H2 - H1)]0,5 = [2gH1]0,5 +
[2g(H2 - H1)]0,5. , , . ,
V2 = [2gH2]0,5,
H1 H2 /.100/.
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//
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h
h. -,
V2S2
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V1S1 = V2S2 .100. ,
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96


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97

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98


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99

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100


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= gh
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101

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,
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h V = (2gh)0,5. //
,
G = 0,66b(2g)0,5H1,5, b - [68].
, /, - / /.109/.

102


.110.
/ /.


.
V = [2g(H - h)]0,5, G = bh[2g(H - h)]0,5.
-, H
h, . , , h =
0,66H.
[68].

[60].
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/ / , // /
/. , 108 109 , .107 , .110 - //. h2 /.110/ H, .
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103

/ /.
3, ,
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9, 12 11. 12 // 9, //
12, 11.
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5.
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104


.112.
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5 . 5 5
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H h /.112- .112-/, V1 V2,
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: 1 2 -
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105

.114. : - ,
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1- , 2 - ,
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106


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107

.117. ,
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V2.


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2.4.9.
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5 /.111/.
, , , 2 /.115/.

V1,
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108

109

.119. .

V2
//
/.117/. V2 , .
V = [2(1 - 2)/] 0,5 = (2/) 0,5 /. 2.4.2/.

- , / / /.
.130/. , 62% ,
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/ / /.118/.
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/.119/, /.120/.

/.2 .115/
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.120.
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.121. / ,
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[79].

// //
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2.4.10. , , .
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110


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[80].

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[80]. /,
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// , // .
/ /, rot V(x,y,z) = 0.
/-curl/ ,
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/ /
rotz V(x,y,z) = (Vx/y - Vy/x). , .
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- //
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, V = grad , rot grad = 0 / - ,
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111

,
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/.125-/.
, , h(r) = h(0) + 2r2/2,
- , r - , - //
/ / .
(r) = const. ,
V(r) =
r. 2r,
//

gh(r).
- (r) = const,
/ / . ,
,
.

/ ,
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1 .
1, , 2 / / /.125-/.

/ /
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// , [79].

112


.125.
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3 /.125-/, // . ,
Vr = const.
/ , /. , .
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[83].
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113

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2.5.

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[83]. 1 //
, 2 - , 3 - , 4 -
, 5 - .

114


.127. : -
, -
//
//. Vx() -
.


.
/,
, ../.
/.127-/. / / /
/. F = KF, K - /,
/, F - / V2 = 0
N/.
(V1 - V2).
. //. -
.
/ / 1 2
F1-2 = (V1 - V2)/(1-2) = [dVx(y)/dy], - .
(V1 - V2)
(1-2) ,
(V1 - V2) /. 127-/ (1-2)
/ dVx(y)/dy /.
- //
// . ,
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//, , - /.
1.5/.
// , .

115

2.5.1.
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.128.
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116


.129.
[80].

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, 128, , , . , - . // ,
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, ,
R /.129/. , / - / /, /: V(0,r) = V = const . ,

. /
.129/. ,
(,R), // ,
V(,r).
.130. : -
Vx(r), - Vx(r) , -
Vx(r) .

117

(,0) , dP(, 0)/dx. ,


(,r).
//
V(,r) = V(r) dP(x,r)/dx = const.
dP(x,R)/dx = const =
. ,
, . ,
, , . ,
. , r F(r) = r2.
F(r) = 2r[dVx(r)/dr].
/ / F(r) = F (r),
Vx(r) = (/4)(R2 - r2).
[80]. V. , , ,
, dP(x,R)/dx = const.

, Vx(r) Vx(r)
[86] /.130-/. , , Vx(r) /.130-/.
2.5.2.
.127- ,
F1-2 F2-3,
.131.
//
/,
/. 1 - , 2 - , 3 -
[63].

118


.132. -
,

Re =
2300 .

. , , .
.
. , ,
,
. ,
, .
. //
. .
, rot V(x,y,z) , (Vx/y - Vy/x ) /. 2.4.10/. Vy/x = 0, Vx/y /. 130-/.
x / /
Vx/y, x = (Vx/y) = (Vx/y),
= - , - , - , Vx/y -
/ / //
// //
(
Vx/y ),
Vx/y . /. 2.5.3/ Re = VL/ //
.

V2/2
V/ L ( L - ),
Re = VL/, ,

119

/ / / /.
Re

/, , /. V, L Re :
- / - / -
// , Re = 2300,
- -
/, / ,
Re = 40,
- -
, Re = 500000 /.131/.
, 20
10 0,5 /, 500 1,5 / /. .137/. . ,
/ /.
//
- ,
// /.131/. , 1
,
. 3,
/.132/.
.133.
// [61].

20 / 1 /, .

120


.134.

[61]. . 133.

133

.

Re<1 . / / V. ,
F = 3Vd, d - .

F = CdDL(V2/2) = (V2/2), Cd -
/.134/, D - , L - , -
, (V2/2) - / /. ,
Cd
/ Re/. ,
= /Re = Re-1, - .
Re = (10-20)
, Re = (40-100)
. Re > 100 Cd . , F
, / /.
, , Re = 105.

, . /.133/ , 2.4. ,

121

- .
. [61].
2.5.3.
/. 2.4.1/,
, . - , ,
(p + gh + V2/2) = V(Vx/y) + (/L)(Vx/y) ,
L - ,
// - ,
(p + gh + V2/2).

p = V(Vx/y) / /.
p = (/L)(Vx/y) //. (p)/(p) = Re = VL/. p p
, (p + gh + V2/2) = const .

.135. 0,120,12 / /
400,
0,5 /3
/ = 0,4 2/: 1 -

V /, 2 -

V /, 3 - = V2/2
V /.

122

p p
(p1 + gh1 + V12/2) = (p2 + gh2 + V22/2) + p + p,
1 2 // . (h1 = h2 V1 = V2),
(p1 - p2) = p = (p + p). ,
(p + p) // . p - , p - . ,
.
, .
p, //,
p = (V2/2),
V.
-
= ((l/d), - , l - , d - , (l/d) -
/ /. ,
V, d.

= 64(l/d)/(Vd) = 64(l/d)/Re, = 64/Re, Re = Vd/
( L = d
.119). // p/l = 32V/d2 = 128G/d4, V /, G -
3/, - [87].
.136. //
p/l
1
[71].
d (140, 200
300).

.

123

.137.
,
Re = 2300 [49].

,

/.135/.
/, / = 0,32(l/d)Re-0,25,
= 0,32Re-0,25.

p/l = 0,160,250,75V1,75d-1,25 [63].


p/l = 8.10-30,85V1,92d-1,28 [49].
/. 136/.
/ V < 0,5
/ Re < 2300/ /.137/.
p/l
, . , V1,75 , V1,92.

104 - 105 /
/,
, /.131/.
,
. , ,
2

2.
> 2
.

124


.138.

Re. 1 -
, 2 -

, 3 -
[72]. 3

(a/d), a - ,
d - .


.138
/
/. Re / /

/ 1/. Re
/ 2/. Re = 2300 / lgRe = 3,36/
3.
3
. , , , (/d) < 0,001 / - , d /,
lgRe = 4,6 ( Re = 40000) . Re. ,
(/d) > 5% Re = 2300,
/.138/.
-
.

/.135/. //
.
-

125


p, -
,
// .
2.5.4.

,

/ /.
//,
// // . .

/.118-121/.

//,
- [88]. // , - ,
.

.139.
,
V
.

126

127

.140.

: -
//, - , -
R=0,1d, - R=0,5d, -
45.

- p = (V2/2), - .
..,

.
, , .
/ Re/ -
[72]. ,
, ,
Re > 104 -105 [89-91].
, ,
/.139/.
p = p = [(V2/2)] .
= 0,5,
= 1,5, = 1,5, = 0,5, = 4 = 1 = 10.
2 / 20 .
10
5 /.136/. , ,

.141. .

, - .
,
.
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.


, .
, ,

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/ / .

128


.142.

[71].

,



/.140/.
/ / .
,
, .
/ / 20-50% , . ,
/.142/.
,
/ - /,
.

. /
/

,
,

.

.143. [90].

129


. ,
= 1.
, = 1,1. = (1,1 - 2,0).
= 1,5, - = 2 [49].
//. 30 90
/.143/.

/.117/ , /. 2.4.9/.
// G = G =
S(2p/)0,5, G = S(2p/)0,5 - , - , S - , S - /. . 108/.
,
/
.118/.
, .
G = G = G,
- , , =

.144. [94]: - , - .

130


.145.
: - V(r) = Vo, - V(r) = Vo[1 - (r/R)2].

.
= (1 + )-0,5,
V2/2 = p - p = p - (V2/2). = 0,62, = 0,98, = 0,61, = 0,06
Re [90].

/.125-/. ,
, .
, , [90]: /d = 0,5V0,56(gd)-0,28, d - , V - / 0,5d /.
, , /.118/ ,
, ,
.
,
: = 1,0, = 0,82, = 0,82, = 0,49 [63].

.
/.139-/
,
= 0,5
= (1 + )-0,5 = 1,5-0,5 = 0,82.

. 146.
, ,

//
//.

131

.147.

. - . - /) .

[89-92].
,
.
,
, , [93]. [94]
/.144/. ,
/- /.
2.5.5.
2.4.2 - 2.4.4 ,
, ,
,
/.99, 100, 115, 117/. , . //

-

.148.
,
do Vo. -

Vx = 6Vo(d/x).exp(-74,5y2/x2).

132


.149. .

.
,

/,
/. , , [90].
. // ,
/ /,
,
/.145/.
,
, . ,
p + V2/2 = const.
, ,
. ,
/.146/.
, // .
. ,
.
/.147/. .
/
- /.
. 150.


.

133

. 151.

// .

, 2
/.115/ // /.145-/
,
x = 6do
/.148/.

, ,
250. , 1 /, 10 28 3/, 3 1,2 , 0,2 / 280 3/. ,
, = (G/Go)/(x/do) = 0,34 [70].
/. 149/.

p = (V2/2).


/.150/.
.152. 2
1 < 30 .
/ /
> 300 / /
[91].

134


. 153. : 1 - /, /, 2 -
, 3 - //, 4 -
/ /, 5 -
, 6 - , 7 - . - // , 1 - , 2 - .

.
.
2.5.6.
/ - -/ , /, / .
, / /, - / /.
, /.151/.
/ / /
250/, -
, .154.

: - , - , - .

135

.155.
: - //
, - //
. 1 - , 2 - , 3 , 4 - // , 5 - // , 6 -
, 7 -
, 8 - , 9 ,
10 - .

, , /.152/.
, // . , 5
/.153/.
4. 6
7 / /,
3 /, /.
, (
4)
( 4). ,
// - [63].

/.154/.
, 3, /.154-/. ,

-

//. .156. ()
() // ,
.

136

.157. // : , [72].

/.154-/
/.154-/. ,
.154- ,
.154- .154- .
,

/. 155-157/. /.155-/ 1
3 / ,
/
22-25% .
10,
.
42-45% ,
// . ,
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.


. 6 //,

4.
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137

.159.
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.


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