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Unit Two: Multiple Choice Questions


1. Why did the authors of the Articles of
Confederation create a weak central government?
(1) They did not understand state problems.
(2) They anticipated the threat of foreign invasion.
(3) They relied on advice from royal governors.
(4) They feared the kind of rule experienced under
the British monarchy.

(4) limiting the population of large states.


6. According to the Constitution, the president is
required to
(1) sign or veto bills passed by Congress
(2) establish income tax rates
(3) review Supreme Court decisions
(4) raise money for political parties

2. One way in which the U.S. Constitution differed


from the Articles of Confederation was that the
Constitution
(1) made slavery illegal.
(2) eliminated the possibility of making
amendments.
(3) created a national government having three
branches.
(4) increased the powers of the states.

7. A constitutional power specifically delegated to


the federal government is the power to
(1) regulate marriage and divorce
(2) establish education standards
(3) declare war
(4) issue drivers licenses

A bicameral legislature is created in which states


have equal representation in the Senate, but
representation in the House depends on population.
An enslaved person is counted as three-fifths of
one person for purposes of representation and
taxation.
3. These two statements describe
(1) grievances included in the Declaration of
Independence
(2) provisions found in the Articles of
Confederation
(3) compromises reached at the Constitutional
Convention
(4) amendments included in the Bill of Rights
4. At the Constitutional Convention, the delegates
agreed that Congress should have the power to
(1) declare laws unconstitutional
(2) levy and collect taxes
(3) select the president
(4) eliminate slavery in the states
5. The Great Compromise settled the issue of
representation in Congress by
(1) giving each state two senators and a number of
representatives based on population.
(2) allowing all the states to have equal
representation in Congress.
(3) having an equal number of members in each
house of Congress.

8. What was the primary objection of the


Antifederalists to ratification of the Constitution?
(1) They opposed a bicameral legislature.
(2) They believed the rights of the people were not
protected.
(3) They feared a weak central government.
(4) They wanted to give more power to the
executive branch.
9. The Three-fifths Compromise was included in
the Constitution to resolve a conflict over the
(1) counting of enslaved persons in relation to
taxation and representation
(2) reimbursement of plantation owners for
runaway slaves
(3) number of votes needed to approve a treaty in
the Senate
(4) number of states needed to ratify a proposed
amendment
The accumulation of all powers, legislative,
executive, and judiciary, in the same hands,
whether of one, a few, or many, and whether
hereditary, self-appointed, or elective, may justly
be pronounced the very definition of tyranny.
James Madison
10. Which feature of the United States Constitution
was included to address the concern expressed by
James Madison?
(1) electoral college
(2) checks and balances
(3) Bill of Rights
(4) amendment process

11. Which statement most accurately describes


federalism?
(1) The judicial branch of government has more
power than the other two branches.
(2) The president and vice president divide
executive power.
(3) Power is divided between the national
government and the states.
(4) Power is shared between the two houses of
Congress.
12. Which action can be taken by the United States
Supreme Court to illustrate the concept that the
Constitution is the supreme law of the land?
(1) hiring new federal judges
(2) voting articles of impeachment
(3) declaring a state law unconstitutional
(4) rejecting a presidential nomination to the
cabinet
13. The amendment process was included in the
Constitution to
(1) allow for change over time
(2) expand the powers of the president
(3) increase citizen participation in government
(4) limit the authority of the Supreme Court
14. Which action is an example of the system of
checks and balances?
(1) An individual pays both a state and a federal
income tax.
(2) New York State requires at least 180 school
days per year.
(3) The House of Representatives votes to expel
one of its members.
(4) The Senate approves a presidents nominee to
the Supreme Court.

15. The main purpose of the Bill of Rights is to


(1) guarantee economic security to all citizens.
(2) define the responsibilities of each branch.
(3) protect people against government abuse.
(4) give people the right to vote.
. . . no warrants shall issue, but upon probable
cause, . . . and particularly describing the place to
be searched, and the persons or things to be
seized.
16. This section of the 4th Amendment to the
United States Constitution addresses the issue of
(1) states rights
(2) separation of powers
(3) implied powers
(4) limits on governmental power
17. The right to remain silent in the 5th
Amendment and the right to an attorney in the 6th
Amendment were designed to
(1) protect freedom of expression
(2) assure that laws are properly enacted
(3) ensure fair treatment for those accused of
crimes
(4) provide for judicial review of laws
18. In New Jersey v. T.L.O. (1985) the United
States Supreme Court ruled that
(1) student rights may be limited in school
(2) school locker searches are unconstitutional
(3) public schools have the right to promote school
prayer
(4) schools must obtain a court order to implement
drug testing

Unit Two Assessment Task


Alexander Hamilton and Thomas Jefferson were both advisors in President George
Washingtons Cabinet, despite holding very different opinions about how much power the
federal government should possess. Read the documents below, and answer the questions
that follow each document. You will use this information to write an essay in which you argue
whose ideas about government are best Hamiltons or Jeffersons and explain how this
persons ideas are demonstrated in the Constitutions rules on how the government works.
ISSUE 1: The role of the government in relation to the people
During the debates over the ratification of the Constitution, Hamilton and Jefferson had very
different views about how much control the federal government should have over the people.

Alexander Hamilton, The Federalist, 1788 (modified)


In [creating] a government the great difficulty lies in this: You must first enable the government to control
the people, and in the next place, [force] it to control itself.
In your own words, what is Alexander Hamilton saying in this quote?
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According to Hamilton, what is the main responsibility of the government?
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Thomas Jefferson, letter to Archibald Stewart, 1791 (modified)


What more is necessary to make us a happy and [successful] people? A wise and [careful] government,
which shall restrain men from injuring one another, which shall leave them otherwise free to regulate their
own pursuits of industry and improvement.... I would rather be exposed to the [problems caused by] too
much liberty than those [caused by] too small a degree of it.
In your own words, what is Thomas Jefferson saying in this quote?
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According to Jefferson, what is the main responsibility of the government?
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Do you agree more with Jefferson or Hamilton? Explain why.
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ISSUE 2: Should the federal government or the people have more power?
Hamilton and Jefferson had fundamentally different beliefs about the trustworthiness of the
people and their proper role in the government.

Alexander Hamilton, The Federalist #31, 1788 (modified)


A government [should have all the power it needs] to complete the [duties] for which it is responsible, free
from every other control but a regard to the public good and to the sense of the people.
In your own words, what is Alexander Hamilton saying in this quote?
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According to Hamilton, who should have more power, the government or the people? Explain.
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Thomas Jefferson, letter to John Cartwright, 1824 (modified)


All power is [given to] the people; that they may exercise it by themselves, in all cases to which they think
themselves competent, as in electing their [representatives], and deciding by a jury of themselves...
In your own words, what is Thomas Jefferson saying in this quote?
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According to Jefferson, who should have more power, the government or the people? Explain.
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Whose argument do you agree with more? Explain your reasoning.


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ISSUE 3: What does the Constitution say about government power?


While Hamilton was Secretary of Treasury and Jefferson was Secretary of State in George
Washingtons administration, they disagreed over whether the federal government had the
Constitutional authority to create a National Bank.

Alexander Hamilton, letter to President George Washington, 1791


It is not denied that there are implied as well as express powers, and that the former are as effectually
delegated as the latter. ... Then it follows, that as a power of erecting a corporation [the National Bank] may
as well be implied as any other thing, it may well be employed as an instrument or mean of carrying into
execution any of the specified powers.
In your own words, what is Alexander Hamilton saying in this quote?
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What does Hamilton believe the Constitution says about the power of the federal government?
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Thomas Jefferson, letter to President George Washington, 1791


I consider the foundation of the Constitution as laid on this ground that all powers not delegated to the U.S.
by the Constitution, not prohibited by it to the states, are reserved to the states or to the people. To take a
single step beyond the boundaries thus specially drawn around the power of Congress, is to take
possession of a boundless field of power, no longer susceptible of any definition. [Therefore] the
incorporation of a bank, and other powers assumed by this bill have not, in my opinion, been delegated to
the U.S. by the Constitution.
In your own words, what is Thomas Jefferson saying in this quote?
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What does Jefferson believe the Constitution says about the power of the federal government?
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Whose argument do you agree with more? Explain why.


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Essay Question
On separate paper, write an essay in response to the following question:

Whose point of view about the power of the federal government is


best, that of Thomas Jefferson or Alexander Hamilton?
Your essay should be based on the documents above and on your knowledge of the
United States Constitution. In your essay be sure to do the following:
1. Describe what both Jefferson and Hamilton say about the power of the federal
government (be sure to refer to the points of view expressed in the documents).
2. Present an argument justifying your own answer to the essay question. Be certain
to support your response with examples.
3. Describe how the ideas of the person with whom you agree are exemplified in the
Constitution itself. You may use examples from constitutional principles such as
separation of powers, checks and balances, federalism, or the Bill of Rights.
Your essay should have an introduction, a conclusion, and at least three body
paragraphs. Use the attached Argumentative Essay Organizer and/or step-by-step
instructions to help organize your ideas