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# Title

## Concentric Tube Heat Exchanger

Experiment Aim
This experiment offers the determination of performance of a concentric tube heat exchanger.
Experiment Objective
To determine of heat transfer working principle of a concentric tube heat exchanger under
parallel flow and counter flow condition.
Theory
The equations for calculating the performance characteristics: power emitted (Qe), power
absorbed (Qabs), power lost, efficiency (), logarithmic mean temperature (Tm), and overall
heat transfer coefficient (U).

The power emitted is given below (where Vh is the volumetric flow rate of the hot
fluid):
Power Emitted (Qe) = V h Cph (Th in Th out)

The power absorbed is given below (where Vc is the volumetric flow rate of the cold
fluid):
Power Absorbed (Qabs) = V c Cpc (Tc out Tc in)

## The power lost is therefore:

Power Lost = Power Emitted Power Absorbed

## The overall efficiency () is:

= (Power Absorbed / Power Emitted) 100

## The logarithmic mean temperature difference (Tm) is:

Tm = (T1 T2) / ln (T1/T2)
= [ (Th in Tc out) (Th out Tc in)] / ln [(Th in Tc out) / (Th out Tc in)]

## The overall heat transfer coefficient (U) is:

U = Power Absorbed / As. Tm

Where the surface area (As) for this heat exchanger is:
As = DL

Experiment Apparatus
The experiment set-up consists of:

## Table 1: List of Part in Free & Forced Convection Unit.

No
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14

Item
Hot tank cover
Water tank level sensor
Heating element
Storage tank
Bypass valve
Suction pipe
pump
Temperature sensor
valve
Temperature sensor
Valve
Temperature controller
Temperature display
Concentric tube

No
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27

Item
Temperature selector
Temperature sensor
Temperature sensor
Selector valve
Temperature sensor
Hot flowmeter
Control valve
Cold water inlet
Cold water outlet
Temperature sensor
Control valve
Cold Flowmeter

Procedure
1. Configure the experiment for parallel flow heat exchanger operation such as the heating
elements to heat the fluids was turning ON.
2. Required temperature controller was set to T = 60 C with the decade switch.
3. The initial hot water and cold water volumetric flow rate were set to V= 2 L/min. 5
minutes were required before the six temperature readings are recorded.
4. The 2-3 steps were repeated with changing the hot water and cold water volumetric flow
rate to 3, 4, and 5 L/min.
5. The steps from 2-4 were repeated for volumetric flow rate, V of 2, 3, 4, and 5 L/min for
counter flow heat exchanger. The temperature readings were recorded in the table.
6. After finishing the experiment, the heating elements were turned OFF and the valve for hot
and cold water was closed.

## Data and Results

1) Parallel

Parallel
Vh (L/min)
2
3
4
5

Th in (C)
56.8
58.8
59.0
59.0

Hot
Cold
Th mid (C)
Th out (C)
Tc in (C)
Tc mid (C)
51.4
48.4
36.3
32.6
53.4
50.1
35.8
32.4
53.8
50.7
35.8
32.5
53.8
50.7
35.7
32.4
Table 2: Experiment Results for parallel flow

Tc out (C)
27.4
27.5
27.6
27.7

Parallel
V (m3/s)
3.33E-05
5.00E-05
6.67E-05
8.33E-05

(kg/m)
984.516
983.756
983.680
983.680

Hot
Cp (J/kg.K)
(kg/s)
(kg/m)
4183.720
0.033
993.506
4184.520
0.049
993.696
4184.600
0.066
993.696
4184.600
0.082
993.734
Table 3: Properties of saturates water for parallel flow

Cold
Cp (J/kg.K)
4178.260
4178.160
4178.160
4178.140

(kg/s)
0.033
0.050
0.066
0.083

V (m3/s)
3.33E-05
5.00E-05
6.67E-05
8.33E-05

## Qe (J/s) Qabs (J/s)

1153.303 -1231.501
1790.698 -1723.006
2277.690 -2269.662
2847.113 -2767.973

Parallel
Power loss (J/s)
(%)
Log mean T dif, tm (C)
-78.198
106.780
20.749
67.692
96.220
22.799
8.028
99.648
23.150
79.139
97.220
23.150
Table 4: Experimental analysis for parallel flow

Coefficient (W/ m. C )
926.099
1179.188
1529.787
1865.679

## Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient, U (W/ m. C )

2000
1800
1600
1400
1200
1000
800
600
400
200
0
1.00E-06 2.00E-06 3.00E-06 4.00E-06 5.00E-06 6.00E-06
Velocity (m/s)

Counter
Th in (C)
58.7
58.7
58.0
57.9

Hot
Th mid (C)
53.5
53.8
53.3
53.4

Th out (C)
49.2
49.7
49.4
49.8

Tc in (C)
27.7
27.7
27.7
27.7

Cold
Tc mid (C)
32.2
32.0
31.8
31.7

Tc out (C)
36.8
36.0
36.0
35.9

## Figure 2: Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient, U (W/ m. C) vs Velocity (m/s)

2) Counter

Vh (L/min)
2
3
4
5
Table 5: Experiment Results for counter flow

Counter
(kg/m)
V (m3/s)
983.794
3.33E-05
983.794
5.00E-05
984.060
6.67E-05
984.098
8.33E-05

Hot
Cp (J/kg.K)
4184.480
4184.480
4184.200
4184.160

(kg/s)
0.033
0.049
0.066
0.082

(kg/m)
996.460
996.460
996.460
996.460

Cold
Cp (J/kg.K)
4178.920
4178.920
4178.920
4178.920

(kg/s)
0.033
0.050
0.066
0.083

## Qe (J/s) Qabs (J/s)

V (m3/s)
1303.611 1263.118
3.33E-05
1852.50
1728.113
5.00E-05 0
6.67E-05
2360.70
2304.150
8.33E-05 2
2779.39
2845.487
6

## Power loss (J/s)

40.493

Counter
(%) Log mean T dif (tm)
96.894
21.699

Coefficient (W/ m. C )
908.273

124.387

93.285

22.348

1206.563

56.552

97.604

21.850

1645.455

-66.091

102.378

22.050

2013.579
Table 7: Experimental analysis for counter flow

## Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient vs Velocity

2500
2000
1500
Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient, U (W/ m. C )

1000
500
0
0.00E+00

2.00E-06

4.00E-06

Velocity (m/s)

6.00E-06

## Figure 3: Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient, U (W/ m. C) vs Velocity (m/s)

Sample Calculation

## From table A-9 (Properties of saturated water)

1. Parallel
V = 2 L/min = 2 L/min 1 min/60 s 1 m/1000 L
= 3.333E-5 m/ s

At Tc,in = 36.3 C
Parallel
Temp
Tc in
35

Cold

Cp
994
4178
c
Cpc
40
992.1
4179
Table 8: Properties of saturates water
c = (((36.3 C 35 C) / (40 C 35 C)) (994 kg / m 992.1 kg / m)) + 992.1 kg / m
= 993.506 kg / m
Cpc = (((36.3 C 35 C) / (40 C 35 C)) (4179 J/kg.K 4178 J/kg.K)) + 4178 J/kg.K
= 4178.260 J/kg.K

At Th,in = 56.8 C
Parallel
Temp
Th in
55

Hot

Cp
985.2
4183
h
Cph
60
983.3
4185
Table 9: Properties of saturates water
h = (((56.8 C 55 C) / (60 C 55 C)) (983.3 kg / m 985.2 kg / m)) + 985.2 kg / m
= 984.516 kg / m
Cph = (((56.8 C 55 C) / (60 C 55 C)) (4185 J/kg.K 4183 J/kg.K)) + 4183 J/kg.K
= 4183.720 J/kg.K

## a) Power Emitted = V h Cph (Th,in Th,out)

= (3.333E-5 m/s) (984.516 kg/m) (4183.720 J/kg.K) (56.8 C
48.4 C)
= 1153.303 W
b) Power Absorbed = V c Cpc (Tc,out Tc,in )
= (3.333E-5 m/s) (993.506 kg/m) (4178.260 J/kg.K) (27.4 C
36.3 C)
= -1231.501 W
c) Power Lost = Power Emitted Power Absorbed
= 1153.303 W 1231.501 W
= -78.198 W
d) Overall Efficiency, = (Power Absorbed / Power Emitted) 100
= (1231.501 W/ 1153.303) 100
= 106.780 %
e) Logrithmic Mean Temperature Difference, Tm = (T1 T2) / ln (T1/T2)
T1 = Th,in Tc,in = 56.8 C 36.3 C
= 20.5 C
T2 = Th,out Tc,out
= 48.4 C 27.4 C
= 21 C
Tm = (T1 T2) / ln (T1/T2)
= (20.5 C 21 C) / ln [(20.5 C/21 C)
= 20.749 C
f) Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient, U = Power Absorbed / As Tm
= 1231.501 W / (0.06408849 m20.749 C)
= 926.099 W/ m. C

2. Counter

## V = 2 L/min = 2 L/min 1 min/60 s 1 m/1000 L

= 3.333E-5 m/s

At Tc,in = 27.7 C
Counter
Temp
Tc in
25

Cold

Cp
997
4180
c
Cpc
30
996
4178
Table 10: Properties of saturates water
c = (((27.7 C 25 C) / (30 C 25 C)) (996 kg / m 997 kg / m)) + 997 kg / m
= 996.460 kg / m
Cpc = (((27.7 C 25 C) / (30 C 25 C)) (4178 J/kg.K 4180 J/kg.K)) + 4180 J/kg.K
= 4178.920 J/kg.K

At Th,in = 58.7 C
Counter
Temp
Th in
55

Hot

Cp
985.2
4183
h
Cph
60
983.3
4185
Table 11: Properties of saturates water
h = (((58.7 C 55 C) / (60 C 55 C)) (983.3 kg / m 985.2 kg / m)) + 985.2 kg / m
= 983.794 kg / m
Cph = (((58.7 C 55 C) / (60 C 55 C)) (4185 J/kg.K 4183 J/kg.K)) + 4183 J/kg.K
= 4184.480 J/kg.K

## a) Power Emitted = V h Cph (Th,in Th,out)

= (3.333E-5 m/s) (983.794 kg/m) (4184.480 J/kg.K) (58.7 C
49.2 C)
= 1303.611 W
b) Power Absorbed = V c Cpc (Tc,out Tc,in )
= (3.333E-5 m/s) (996.460 kg/m) (4178.920 J/kg.K) (36.8 C
27.7 C)
= 1263.118 W
c) Power Lost = Power Emitted Power Absorbed
= 1303.611 W 1263.118 W
= 40.493 W
d) Overall Efficiency, = (Power Absorbed / Power Emitted) 100
= (1303.611 W/ 1263.118) 100
= 96.894 %
e) Logrithmic Mean Temperature Difference, Tm = (T1 T2) / ln (T1/T2)

## T1 = Th,in Tc,out = 58.7 C 36.8 C

= 21.9 C
T2 = Th,out Tc,in
= 49.2 C 27.7 C
= 21.5 C
Tm = (T1 T2) / ln (T1/T2)
= (21.9 C 21.5 C) / ln [(21.9 C/21.5 C)
= 21.699 C
f) Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient, U = Power Absorbed / As Tm
= 1263.118 W / (0.06408849 m 21.699 C)
= 908.273 W/ m. C

Discussion

## 1. Comment on variation of temperature for parallel and counter flow.

From all of the parallel flow configurations, the exit temperature of the hot fluid is
always hotter than the exit temperature of the cold fluid. This supports the Clausius
Statement in which heat may not spontaneously transfer from a colder body to a hotter
body. Meanwhile, the counter flow configuration is also capable of have a cold fluid exit
temperature that is higher than the hot fluid exit temperature.
2. Using your on word, define the overall heat-transfer coefficient. Why we use log mean
temperature different method to find the overall heat-transfer coefficient in the experiment?
The overall heat transfer coefficient represents the total resistance to heat transfer from
one fluid to another. The overall heat transfer coefficient is influenced by the thickness
and thermal conductivity of the mediums through which heat is transferred. The larger the
coefficient, the easier heat is transferred from its source to the product being heated. The
functional form of U or the product UA, may be derived for any particular geometry by
performing a standard conduction analysis on the system of interest. Heat exchangers are
usually analysed using either the Logarithmic Mean Temperature Difference (LMTD) or
the Effectiveness Number of Transfer Units (-NTU) methods. The LMTD method is
convenient for determining the overall heat transfer coefficient based on the measured
inlet and outlet fluid temperatures. LMTD method can be extended to more complex heatexchanger designs for example multi-pass and cross-flow systems using a correction
factor.

## 3. List all factors that will be affecting the convection process.

Convection is the transfer of thermal energy through movement of particles from one
location to another. In other word, convection is the transfer of internal energy into or out
of an object by the physical movement of a surrounding fluid that transfers the internal
energy along with its mass. Although the heat is initially transferred between the object
and the fluid by conduction, the bulk transfer of energy comes from the motion of the
fluid. Convection can arise spontaneously (or naturally or freely) through the creation of
convection cells or can be forced by propelling the fluid across the object or by the object
through the fluid. Spontaneous convection is driven by buoyancy for the most part and

surface tension to a lesser extent. The h is a function of the properties of the system and
depends on several factors such as geometry of the system (for example a characteristic
length L), physical properties of the fluid (for example viscosity, density, heat capacity,
and thermal conductivity), fluid regime (for example a characteristic velocity v),
conductivity (when conductivity is high, there is no need for convection), and
acceleration due to gravity.
4. What will be happen if we increase the flow rate of cold water in the experiment.
Temperatures for the extended plate heat exchanger increase as the flow rate ratio for
cold fluid increases. This is as a result of increase in the cold water flow rate while the hot
water flow rate is kept constant at a low temperature. The intermediates temperatures
decrease as the flow rate ratio between the cold to hot stream increases.

5. Compare your results, which type of double-pipe heat exchanger is more effective a
parallel flow or counter flow heat exchanger.
From this experiment, there are many errors that occur when do the experiment.
Based on the calculation, the percentage efficiency in this experiment are more than
100% for few cases but it still we can prove that the counter flow is more efficiency
between parallel and counter flow. It is because the percentages efficiency of counter flow
is progressively increase when the flow rate increase. Therefore, the counter flow is better
that parallel flow.

6. Explain any unusual difficulties or problems which may have led to poor results.
Based on the calculation, power absorbed is slightly lower than power emitted for
most of cases. Therefore, the students assume that there could be external or internal
factors that could contribute to this kind of phenomena. It is determined that the
efficiency of the heat exchanger is above 100% for few cases in the experiment. However,
in reality, it is impossible to get an equipment to operate in ideal condition with efficiency
of 100%. Thus, the assumption is proven that the equipment or the process encounter
some problems which make something impossible to be possible.
The first factor that could contribute to this problem is surely due to the human error.
The students might have misread the temperature of hot fluid making the temperature

difference for hot water too small whereas temperature difference for cold water larger
than the hot water which lead to power emitted larger than power absorbed for most of
cases. The students could misunderstand of how the heat exchanger works and the
indication of the symbol TT1 until TT6 which make the recorded data is in error state. In
addition, during the experiment, the indicator that shows the flow rate for the hot water
always move up and down.
The second factor that could contribute to this problem is the equipment itself. The
external surface of the heat exchanger is insulated so that no heat from outside will affect
the temperature of the cold water. However, the insulation may have undergone some
problem like there is an opening at some part of the insulation which lead to the cold
water absorbed heat not only from the hot water but also from the surrounding. This could
have explained why the power absorbed by the cold water is slightly lower than the
power emitted by the hot water for most of cases.
Besides that, another reason is that there could be leakage at the tube which holds the
flow of the hot water. The hot water might enter the cold water flow region and resulting
in increasing of the outlet cold water temperature. Thus, making the temperature
differences of the cold water greater that what it should be. However, this reason can only
be proven by inspection and maintenance by the lab technician since the students are not
allowed to disclose any part of the heat exchanger by themselves.

7. Sketch and explain the heat transfer process occurred between fluid and tube wall of heat
exchanger in the experiment.
A heat exchanger can have several different flow patterns. Counter flow, parallel flow,
and crossflow are common heat exchanger types. A counter flow heat exchanger is the
most efficient flow pattern of the three. It leads to the lowest required heat exchanger
surface area because the log mean temperature drop is the highest for a counter flow heat
exchanger. A counter flow heat exchanger has the hot fluid entering at one end of the heat
exchanger flow path and the double pipe heat exchanger cold fluid entering at the other
end of the flow path. Counter flow is the most common type of liquid-liquid heat
exchanger, because it is the most efficient. A double pipe heat exchanger is usually
operated as a counter flow heat exchanger, as shown in the diagram at the left. A picture of
a double pipe heat exchanger is shown in figure 4. The flow pattern in a shell and tube

heat exchanger with a single tube straight tube heat exchanger pass will be approximately
counter flow if it is long in comparison with its diameter. Because of the baffles and the
need to distribute the flow of the shell side fluid over the cross-section of the shell, the
flow is not as close to counter flow in a shell and tube heat exchanger as it is in a double
pipe heat exchanger. The bottom diagram on the left shows approximately counter flow in
a straight tube, one tube pass shell, and tube heat exchanger.

## Figure 4: Counter flow

A double pipe heat exchanger can be operated in parallel flow mode as shown in the
figure 5. Similarly, a shell and tube heat exchanger can be operated in approximately parallel
flow by having both fluids enter at one end and exit at the other end. With parallel flow the
temperature difference between the two fluids is large at the entrance end, but it becomes
small at the exit end as the two fluid temperatures approach each other. The overall measure
of heat transfer driving force, the log mean temperature difference is greater for counter flow,
so the heat exchanger surface area requirement will be larger than for a counter flow heat
exchanger with the same inlet and outlet temperatures for the hot and the cold fluid.

## Figure 5: Parallel flow

Conclusion

It can be concluded that the experiment is done successfully. The power emitted and
power absorbed are increased when we compared the effect of changing the volumetric flow
rate of the hot fluid and cold fluid for both counter and parallel flow. Besides, the power lost
that we get shows decreasing value unless the last reading give some increased value for
parallel flow, while the counter flow shows that the power lost is increase sharply, decrease
and lastly slightly. This is maybe because of the error while doing the experiment that may
cause by conduction and convection between hot and cold fluid while doing counter flow
operation. The overall efficiency is reasonable for most of cases but for parallel V=2 L/min
and for counter V=5 L/min does exceed the 100%. Thus, the assumption is proven that the
equipment or the process encounter some problems which make something impossible to be
possible. From our experiment, the overall heat transfer coefficient will increase when the
volumetric flow rate of the hot fluid is increase for both parallel and counter flow. So that, the
conclusion that can be done is the overall heat transfer coefficient, the power emitted and
power absorbed are influenced by the changing of volumetric flow rate of the hot fluid.

Reference
1. Y. Cengel, Heat transfer, 1st ed. Boston: McGraw-Hill, 2003.
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http://www.engineeringtoolbox.com/overall-heat-transfer-coefficient-d_434.html. [Accessed:
20- Nov- 2016].
3. G. Nellis and S. Klein, Heat transfer, 5th ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press,
2009.
4. "Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient | TLV - A Steam Specialist Company (International)",
Tlv.com, 2016. [Online]. Available: http://www.tlv.com/global/TI/steam-theory/overall-heattransfer-coefficient.html. [Accessed: 20- Nov- 2016].