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Experiment Aim

This experiment offers the determination of performance of a concentric tube heat exchanger.

Experiment Objective

To determine of heat transfer working principle of a concentric tube heat exchanger under

parallel flow and counter flow condition.

Theory

The equations for calculating the performance characteristics: power emitted (Qe), power

absorbed (Qabs), power lost, efficiency (), logarithmic mean temperature (Tm), and overall

heat transfer coefficient (U).

The power emitted is given below (where Vh is the volumetric flow rate of the hot

fluid):

Power Emitted (Qe) = V h Cph (Th in Th out)

The power absorbed is given below (where Vc is the volumetric flow rate of the cold

fluid):

Power Absorbed (Qabs) = V c Cpc (Tc out Tc in)

Power Lost = Power Emitted Power Absorbed

= (Power Absorbed / Power Emitted) 100

Tm = (T1 T2) / ln (T1/T2)

= [ (Th in Tc out) (Th out Tc in)] / ln [(Th in Tc out) / (Th out Tc in)]

U = Power Absorbed / As. Tm

Where the surface area (As) for this heat exchanger is:

As = DL

Experiment Apparatus

The experiment set-up consists of:

No

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

Item

Hot tank cover

Water tank level sensor

Heating element

Storage tank

Bypass valve

Suction pipe

pump

Temperature sensor

valve

Temperature sensor

Valve

Temperature controller

Temperature display

Concentric tube

No

15

16

17

18

19

20

21

22

23

24

25

26

27

Item

Temperature selector

Temperature sensor

Temperature sensor

Selector valve

Temperature sensor

Hot flowmeter

Control valve

Cold water inlet

Cold water outlet

Temperature sensor

Control valve

Cold Flowmeter

Procedure

1. Configure the experiment for parallel flow heat exchanger operation such as the heating

elements to heat the fluids was turning ON.

2. Required temperature controller was set to T = 60 C with the decade switch.

3. The initial hot water and cold water volumetric flow rate were set to V= 2 L/min. 5

minutes were required before the six temperature readings are recorded.

4. The 2-3 steps were repeated with changing the hot water and cold water volumetric flow

rate to 3, 4, and 5 L/min.

5. The steps from 2-4 were repeated for volumetric flow rate, V of 2, 3, 4, and 5 L/min for

counter flow heat exchanger. The temperature readings were recorded in the table.

6. After finishing the experiment, the heating elements were turned OFF and the valve for hot

and cold water was closed.

1) Parallel

Parallel

Vh (L/min)

2

3

4

5

Th in (C)

56.8

58.8

59.0

59.0

Hot

Cold

Th mid (C)

Th out (C)

Tc in (C)

Tc mid (C)

51.4

48.4

36.3

32.6

53.4

50.1

35.8

32.4

53.8

50.7

35.8

32.5

53.8

50.7

35.7

32.4

Table 2: Experiment Results for parallel flow

Tc out (C)

27.4

27.5

27.6

27.7

Parallel

V (m3/s)

3.33E-05

5.00E-05

6.67E-05

8.33E-05

(kg/m)

984.516

983.756

983.680

983.680

Hot

Cp (J/kg.K)

(kg/s)

(kg/m)

4183.720

0.033

993.506

4184.520

0.049

993.696

4184.600

0.066

993.696

4184.600

0.082

993.734

Table 3: Properties of saturates water for parallel flow

Cold

Cp (J/kg.K)

4178.260

4178.160

4178.160

4178.140

(kg/s)

0.033

0.050

0.066

0.083

V (m3/s)

3.33E-05

5.00E-05

6.67E-05

8.33E-05

1153.303 -1231.501

1790.698 -1723.006

2277.690 -2269.662

2847.113 -2767.973

Parallel

Power loss (J/s)

(%)

Log mean T dif, tm (C)

-78.198

106.780

20.749

67.692

96.220

22.799

8.028

99.648

23.150

79.139

97.220

23.150

Table 4: Experimental analysis for parallel flow

Coefficient (W/ m. C )

926.099

1179.188

1529.787

1865.679

2000

1800

1600

1400

1200

1000

800

600

400

200

0

1.00E-06 2.00E-06 3.00E-06 4.00E-06 5.00E-06 6.00E-06

Velocity (m/s)

Counter

Th in (C)

58.7

58.7

58.0

57.9

Hot

Th mid (C)

53.5

53.8

53.3

53.4

Th out (C)

49.2

49.7

49.4

49.8

Tc in (C)

27.7

27.7

27.7

27.7

Cold

Tc mid (C)

32.2

32.0

31.8

31.7

Tc out (C)

36.8

36.0

36.0

35.9

2) Counter

Vh (L/min)

2

3

4

5

Table 5: Experiment Results for counter flow

Counter

(kg/m)

V (m3/s)

983.794

3.33E-05

983.794

5.00E-05

984.060

6.67E-05

984.098

8.33E-05

Hot

Cp (J/kg.K)

4184.480

4184.480

4184.200

4184.160

(kg/s)

0.033

0.049

0.066

0.082

(kg/m)

996.460

996.460

996.460

996.460

Cold

Cp (J/kg.K)

4178.920

4178.920

4178.920

4178.920

(kg/s)

0.033

0.050

0.066

0.083

V (m3/s)

1303.611 1263.118

3.33E-05

1852.50

1728.113

5.00E-05 0

6.67E-05

2360.70

2304.150

8.33E-05 2

2779.39

2845.487

6

40.493

Counter

(%) Log mean T dif (tm)

96.894

21.699

Coefficient (W/ m. C )

908.273

124.387

93.285

22.348

1206.563

56.552

97.604

21.850

1645.455

-66.091

102.378

22.050

2013.579

Table 7: Experimental analysis for counter flow

2500

2000

1500

Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient, U (W/ m. C )

1000

500

0

0.00E+00

2.00E-06

4.00E-06

Velocity (m/s)

6.00E-06

Sample Calculation

1. Parallel

V = 2 L/min = 2 L/min 1 min/60 s 1 m/1000 L

= 3.333E-5 m/ s

At Tc,in = 36.3 C

Parallel

Temp

Tc in

35

Cold

Cp

994

4178

c

Cpc

40

992.1

4179

Table 8: Properties of saturates water

c = (((36.3 C 35 C) / (40 C 35 C)) (994 kg / m 992.1 kg / m)) + 992.1 kg / m

= 993.506 kg / m

Cpc = (((36.3 C 35 C) / (40 C 35 C)) (4179 J/kg.K 4178 J/kg.K)) + 4178 J/kg.K

= 4178.260 J/kg.K

At Th,in = 56.8 C

Parallel

Temp

Th in

55

Hot

Cp

985.2

4183

h

Cph

60

983.3

4185

Table 9: Properties of saturates water

h = (((56.8 C 55 C) / (60 C 55 C)) (983.3 kg / m 985.2 kg / m)) + 985.2 kg / m

= 984.516 kg / m

Cph = (((56.8 C 55 C) / (60 C 55 C)) (4185 J/kg.K 4183 J/kg.K)) + 4183 J/kg.K

= 4183.720 J/kg.K

= (3.333E-5 m/s) (984.516 kg/m) (4183.720 J/kg.K) (56.8 C

48.4 C)

= 1153.303 W

b) Power Absorbed = V c Cpc (Tc,out Tc,in )

= (3.333E-5 m/s) (993.506 kg/m) (4178.260 J/kg.K) (27.4 C

36.3 C)

= -1231.501 W

c) Power Lost = Power Emitted Power Absorbed

= 1153.303 W 1231.501 W

= -78.198 W

d) Overall Efficiency, = (Power Absorbed / Power Emitted) 100

= (1231.501 W/ 1153.303) 100

= 106.780 %

e) Logrithmic Mean Temperature Difference, Tm = (T1 T2) / ln (T1/T2)

T1 = Th,in Tc,in = 56.8 C 36.3 C

= 20.5 C

T2 = Th,out Tc,out

= 48.4 C 27.4 C

= 21 C

Tm = (T1 T2) / ln (T1/T2)

= (20.5 C 21 C) / ln [(20.5 C/21 C)

= 20.749 C

f) Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient, U = Power Absorbed / As Tm

= 1231.501 W / (0.06408849 m20.749 C)

= 926.099 W/ m. C

2. Counter

= 3.333E-5 m/s

At Tc,in = 27.7 C

Counter

Temp

Tc in

25

Cold

Cp

997

4180

c

Cpc

30

996

4178

Table 10: Properties of saturates water

c = (((27.7 C 25 C) / (30 C 25 C)) (996 kg / m 997 kg / m)) + 997 kg / m

= 996.460 kg / m

Cpc = (((27.7 C 25 C) / (30 C 25 C)) (4178 J/kg.K 4180 J/kg.K)) + 4180 J/kg.K

= 4178.920 J/kg.K

At Th,in = 58.7 C

Counter

Temp

Th in

55

Hot

Cp

985.2

4183

h

Cph

60

983.3

4185

Table 11: Properties of saturates water

h = (((58.7 C 55 C) / (60 C 55 C)) (983.3 kg / m 985.2 kg / m)) + 985.2 kg / m

= 983.794 kg / m

Cph = (((58.7 C 55 C) / (60 C 55 C)) (4185 J/kg.K 4183 J/kg.K)) + 4183 J/kg.K

= 4184.480 J/kg.K

= (3.333E-5 m/s) (983.794 kg/m) (4184.480 J/kg.K) (58.7 C

49.2 C)

= 1303.611 W

b) Power Absorbed = V c Cpc (Tc,out Tc,in )

= (3.333E-5 m/s) (996.460 kg/m) (4178.920 J/kg.K) (36.8 C

27.7 C)

= 1263.118 W

c) Power Lost = Power Emitted Power Absorbed

= 1303.611 W 1263.118 W

= 40.493 W

d) Overall Efficiency, = (Power Absorbed / Power Emitted) 100

= (1303.611 W/ 1263.118) 100

= 96.894 %

e) Logrithmic Mean Temperature Difference, Tm = (T1 T2) / ln (T1/T2)

= 21.9 C

T2 = Th,out Tc,in

= 49.2 C 27.7 C

= 21.5 C

Tm = (T1 T2) / ln (T1/T2)

= (21.9 C 21.5 C) / ln [(21.9 C/21.5 C)

= 21.699 C

f) Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient, U = Power Absorbed / As Tm

= 1263.118 W / (0.06408849 m 21.699 C)

= 908.273 W/ m. C

Discussion

From all of the parallel flow configurations, the exit temperature of the hot fluid is

always hotter than the exit temperature of the cold fluid. This supports the Clausius

Statement in which heat may not spontaneously transfer from a colder body to a hotter

body. Meanwhile, the counter flow configuration is also capable of have a cold fluid exit

temperature that is higher than the hot fluid exit temperature.

2. Using your on word, define the overall heat-transfer coefficient. Why we use log mean

temperature different method to find the overall heat-transfer coefficient in the experiment?

The overall heat transfer coefficient represents the total resistance to heat transfer from

one fluid to another. The overall heat transfer coefficient is influenced by the thickness

and thermal conductivity of the mediums through which heat is transferred. The larger the

coefficient, the easier heat is transferred from its source to the product being heated. The

functional form of U or the product UA, may be derived for any particular geometry by

performing a standard conduction analysis on the system of interest. Heat exchangers are

usually analysed using either the Logarithmic Mean Temperature Difference (LMTD) or

the Effectiveness Number of Transfer Units (-NTU) methods. The LMTD method is

convenient for determining the overall heat transfer coefficient based on the measured

inlet and outlet fluid temperatures. LMTD method can be extended to more complex heatexchanger designs for example multi-pass and cross-flow systems using a correction

factor.

Convection is the transfer of thermal energy through movement of particles from one

location to another. In other word, convection is the transfer of internal energy into or out

of an object by the physical movement of a surrounding fluid that transfers the internal

energy along with its mass. Although the heat is initially transferred between the object

and the fluid by conduction, the bulk transfer of energy comes from the motion of the

fluid. Convection can arise spontaneously (or naturally or freely) through the creation of

convection cells or can be forced by propelling the fluid across the object or by the object

through the fluid. Spontaneous convection is driven by buoyancy for the most part and

surface tension to a lesser extent. The h is a function of the properties of the system and

depends on several factors such as geometry of the system (for example a characteristic

length L), physical properties of the fluid (for example viscosity, density, heat capacity,

and thermal conductivity), fluid regime (for example a characteristic velocity v),

conductivity (when conductivity is high, there is no need for convection), and

acceleration due to gravity.

4. What will be happen if we increase the flow rate of cold water in the experiment.

Temperatures for the extended plate heat exchanger increase as the flow rate ratio for

cold fluid increases. This is as a result of increase in the cold water flow rate while the hot

water flow rate is kept constant at a low temperature. The intermediates temperatures

decrease as the flow rate ratio between the cold to hot stream increases.

5. Compare your results, which type of double-pipe heat exchanger is more effective a

parallel flow or counter flow heat exchanger.

From this experiment, there are many errors that occur when do the experiment.

Based on the calculation, the percentage efficiency in this experiment are more than

100% for few cases but it still we can prove that the counter flow is more efficiency

between parallel and counter flow. It is because the percentages efficiency of counter flow

is progressively increase when the flow rate increase. Therefore, the counter flow is better

that parallel flow.

6. Explain any unusual difficulties or problems which may have led to poor results.

Based on the calculation, power absorbed is slightly lower than power emitted for

most of cases. Therefore, the students assume that there could be external or internal

factors that could contribute to this kind of phenomena. It is determined that the

efficiency of the heat exchanger is above 100% for few cases in the experiment. However,

in reality, it is impossible to get an equipment to operate in ideal condition with efficiency

of 100%. Thus, the assumption is proven that the equipment or the process encounter

some problems which make something impossible to be possible.

The first factor that could contribute to this problem is surely due to the human error.

The students might have misread the temperature of hot fluid making the temperature

difference for hot water too small whereas temperature difference for cold water larger

than the hot water which lead to power emitted larger than power absorbed for most of

cases. The students could misunderstand of how the heat exchanger works and the

indication of the symbol TT1 until TT6 which make the recorded data is in error state. In

addition, during the experiment, the indicator that shows the flow rate for the hot water

always move up and down.

The second factor that could contribute to this problem is the equipment itself. The

external surface of the heat exchanger is insulated so that no heat from outside will affect

the temperature of the cold water. However, the insulation may have undergone some

problem like there is an opening at some part of the insulation which lead to the cold

water absorbed heat not only from the hot water but also from the surrounding. This could

have explained why the power absorbed by the cold water is slightly lower than the

power emitted by the hot water for most of cases.

Besides that, another reason is that there could be leakage at the tube which holds the

flow of the hot water. The hot water might enter the cold water flow region and resulting

in increasing of the outlet cold water temperature. Thus, making the temperature

differences of the cold water greater that what it should be. However, this reason can only

be proven by inspection and maintenance by the lab technician since the students are not

allowed to disclose any part of the heat exchanger by themselves.

7. Sketch and explain the heat transfer process occurred between fluid and tube wall of heat

exchanger in the experiment.

A heat exchanger can have several different flow patterns. Counter flow, parallel flow,

and crossflow are common heat exchanger types. A counter flow heat exchanger is the

most efficient flow pattern of the three. It leads to the lowest required heat exchanger

surface area because the log mean temperature drop is the highest for a counter flow heat

exchanger. A counter flow heat exchanger has the hot fluid entering at one end of the heat

exchanger flow path and the double pipe heat exchanger cold fluid entering at the other

end of the flow path. Counter flow is the most common type of liquid-liquid heat

exchanger, because it is the most efficient. A double pipe heat exchanger is usually

operated as a counter flow heat exchanger, as shown in the diagram at the left. A picture of

a double pipe heat exchanger is shown in figure 4. The flow pattern in a shell and tube

heat exchanger with a single tube straight tube heat exchanger pass will be approximately

counter flow if it is long in comparison with its diameter. Because of the baffles and the

need to distribute the flow of the shell side fluid over the cross-section of the shell, the

flow is not as close to counter flow in a shell and tube heat exchanger as it is in a double

pipe heat exchanger. The bottom diagram on the left shows approximately counter flow in

a straight tube, one tube pass shell, and tube heat exchanger.

A double pipe heat exchanger can be operated in parallel flow mode as shown in the

figure 5. Similarly, a shell and tube heat exchanger can be operated in approximately parallel

flow by having both fluids enter at one end and exit at the other end. With parallel flow the

temperature difference between the two fluids is large at the entrance end, but it becomes

small at the exit end as the two fluid temperatures approach each other. The overall measure

of heat transfer driving force, the log mean temperature difference is greater for counter flow,

so the heat exchanger surface area requirement will be larger than for a counter flow heat

exchanger with the same inlet and outlet temperatures for the hot and the cold fluid.

Conclusion

It can be concluded that the experiment is done successfully. The power emitted and

power absorbed are increased when we compared the effect of changing the volumetric flow

rate of the hot fluid and cold fluid for both counter and parallel flow. Besides, the power lost

that we get shows decreasing value unless the last reading give some increased value for

parallel flow, while the counter flow shows that the power lost is increase sharply, decrease

and lastly slightly. This is maybe because of the error while doing the experiment that may

cause by conduction and convection between hot and cold fluid while doing counter flow

operation. The overall efficiency is reasonable for most of cases but for parallel V=2 L/min

and for counter V=5 L/min does exceed the 100%. Thus, the assumption is proven that the

equipment or the process encounter some problems which make something impossible to be

possible. From our experiment, the overall heat transfer coefficient will increase when the

volumetric flow rate of the hot fluid is increase for both parallel and counter flow. So that, the

conclusion that can be done is the overall heat transfer coefficient, the power emitted and

power absorbed are influenced by the changing of volumetric flow rate of the hot fluid.

Reference

1. Y. Cengel, Heat transfer, 1st ed. Boston: McGraw-Hill, 2003.

2. "Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient", Engineeringtoolbox.com, 2016. [Online]. Available:

http://www.engineeringtoolbox.com/overall-heat-transfer-coefficient-d_434.html. [Accessed:

20- Nov- 2016].

3. G. Nellis and S. Klein, Heat transfer, 5th ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press,

2009.

4. "Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient | TLV - A Steam Specialist Company (International)",

Tlv.com, 2016. [Online]. Available: http://www.tlv.com/global/TI/steam-theory/overall-heattransfer-coefficient.html. [Accessed: 20- Nov- 2016].

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