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Fuji Electric

Ultrasonic Flowmeters

September 23, 2004

Introduction
Ultrasonic waves travel in the same manner as
light or microwaves, however being elastic
waves, they can propagate through any
substance whether solid, liquid & gases. And by
utilizing the properties of ultrasonic waves clamp
on flowmeters with unique feature of being able
to measure fluid flow in the pipe externally was
developed.

In 1975, Fuji Electric introduced its first ultrasonic


flowmeter and since then Fuji Electric USFMs
have been very successfully in many
applications both domestically and
internationally.
September

Contents

1.

Why use ultrasonic flowmeter?

2.

Who needs ultrasonic flowmeter?

3.

Whats unique in Fujis ultrasonic flowmeter?

4.

References

5.

Application notes

September

1.1 Why use ultrasonic


flowmeter?
Benefits of A NON-INTRUSIVE sensor (CLAMP-ON
type)
Cost saving
Easy maintenance (No moving parts)
No pressure loss
No plugging/clogging
No corrosion
No leakage
IT IS AN IDEAL SOLUTION TO PROBLEMS OF ORDINARY
INTRUSIVE/SPOOL PIECE TYPE OF FLOWMETERS.
Differential Pressure, Magnetic Flow, Turbine, Coriolis & Etc.

September

1.2 Why use ultrasonic


flowmeter?
Wide operating conditions more than your
expectations
Temperature
Pipe Diameter
Flow Velocity
Measured Fluid
bubbles.
Accuracy
Response Speed

:
:
:
:

-40 ~ +200 C
13mm ~ 6000mm
0.3 ~ 32m/s (High turndown ratio)
Sound conductive fluids even with

: 0.5 ~ 1.0%
: 0.5second

September

1.3 Why use ultrasonic


flowmeter?

Check if you have right choice of flowmeter


on line!

Ultrasonic

Electromagnet
ic

Differential
Pressure

Vortex

Fluid

Gas

Vapor

Slurry

Control

Monitor

Supply

-40 to 200 C

-20 to 120 C

-40 to 600 C

-10 to 200 C

-1 to 2MPa

-0.1 to 42MPa

5MPa

Pressure loss

None

None

Yes

Yes

Rangeability

Large

Large

Large

Large

13 ~
6,000mm

2.5 ~ 300mm

25 ~ 3,000mm

4 ~ 100mm

10D/5D

5D/2D

10D/5D

7D/3D

Not Required

Required

Required

Required

0.5 % of
rate

0.5 % of
rate

2.0 % of FS

1.0 % of rate

-32 to 32m/s

0 to 15m/s

0.3 to 4m/s

Measuring
Media

Application

Temperature
Operating
Condition

Pressure

Bore
Installation
Condition

Upstream/Downstre
am
Piping works
Explosion proof

6 Performanc
e

Accuracy
Velocity range

September

1.4 Why use ultrasonic


Cost
Comparison
flowmeter?
50,000

MAGFLOW
USFM

(US$)

40,000

30,000

20,000

10,000

Pipe

September

2.1 Who needs ultrasonic


Increasing
demands by 11% per year through 2001
flowmeter?
(Forecasted by ARC, USA Advisory Group)
Government regulation requires reporting the amount of
discharged fluid from plants.
(Especially in Chemical + Refining + Wastewater)
Improving efficiency of plant operation needs measuring
flow rate of the process which is not measured currently.

September

2.2 Who needs ultrasonic


Applications
flowmeter?

Pulp & Paper


Chemical Plants
Power Plants & Generating
Facilities
Water Service & Sewage
Treatment
Semiconductor Manufacturing
Plating & Finishing Operations
Food and Beverage Process
Building Maintenance
Pumping Efficiency
Leakage Detection

September

2.3 Who needs ultrasonic


Shipments
Worldwide By Applications
flowmeter?
Total 36,900 units sold in 1996
19.1

Process Monitoring
10.4

Process Control

11.1

Nonconductive Liquids
Leak Detection

1.4
9.5

Utilities
7.5

Custody Transfer
3

Stack Monitoring
CEM
Check Metering

1.3
4.2

25

Influent & Effluent


3.7

Sewer Monitoring
Other
0

3.9
5

10

15

20

25

(%)

September

2.4 Who needs ultrasonic


Shipments
Worldwide by Industry since 1996
flowmeter?
7.5

Oil & Gas

10.2

Refining

13.3

Chemical
5.8

Food & Beverage


Pharmaceutical

2.6
5.7

Pulp & Paper


1.1

Metals & Mining

Power

36.8

Water & Wastewater


3.8

District Heating

6.2

Other
0

10

15

20

25

30

35

40
(%)

September

3.1 Whats Unique in Fujis USFM

Full Range Line-Up Of Fuji Electric USFM!

Fixed Type For Monitoring & Control (Model FLV/W)


Fixed Multi-Channel

(Model FLH/W)

Portable Type For Checking

(Model FLC/D)

Open Channel
M-Flow Low Cost Version

(Model FLH/X)
(Model FLS/R)

September

3.2 Whats Unique in Fujis USFM


Fuji Electrics USFM
Family

Time Delta (FLV/W)

Multi Channel (FLH3)

Portaflow-X (FLC/D)

Open
Channel
(FLH/X)

M-Flow

September

3.3 Whats Unique in Fujis USFM


Superior Measurement Performance by High Speed Digital Signal
Processing
(MPU: DSP-Digital Signal Processor- Texas Instruments 32bit)

Basic principle = Transit time difference


High accuracy (0.5%) & quick response (0.5second)
Broad measuring range (0.3~32m/s)
Real time auto temperature and pressure compensation
Auto calculation for unknown sonic velocity
Advanced anti-bubble measurement (Up to 12% volume)

September

3.4 Whats Unique in Fujis USFM

Basic Principle = Transit Time Difference Type


Upstream Sensor
Clamp-on sensors
Oscillator
Wedge
Transit Time Difference Method
Principle Expression
Cross-sectional areaAverage velocity
on cross section
D2
Q=
x x

D
T
x
sin2f (T0-)2

Average velocity
on propagation
path

Q : Flowrate
D : Inner pipe diameter
K : Conversion factor
of average velocity
f: Incident angle into
liquid

T1, T2 : Transit time


T0 : Transit time between sensors
when flow is at rest
((T1+ T2 )/2)
: Transit time in pipe walls &
sensors

/2

Pipe

/2

Downstream
Sensor

T1
T2

T=T2 T1
(Note)
Ultrasonic waves are
carried with the motion
of fluid.

September

3.5) Whats Unique in Fujis USFM


Flow profile :

Flow Profile Compensation


Reynolds Number :
Non-dimensional figure to determine flow
profile
Re =

VxD

Turbulent flow
(Trapezoidal)
Laminar flow
(Parabolic)

V : Average velocity
D : Inner diameter
: Kinematics viscosity

Conversion factor of average velocity :


Turbulent flow (Re5000)
K=

2n+1
2n

n = 2.1 log Re-1.9


,

Laminar flow (Re2300)


K=

Enough straight pipe length should be taken so that laminar flow will be well
developed.

Laminar
flow
1.4

Transition region

1.3
1.2

Turbulent flow

1.1
10

10

10

10

September

10

Re

3.6 Whats Unique in Fujis USFM


High accuracy (0.5%) & quick response (0.5second)
Comparison Test Data in Actual Flow

Accuracy(% of rate)

Flow (%) Standard


FMQ
0
0.06
5
5.18
10
10.17
25
24.60
50
50.41
100
95.91

Pipe: 80mm
Pipe material: SGP
Range: 0~2m/s

15

FLC

10

Product C

5
0
-5
0

Output (%)
Accuracy (% Of Rate)
FLC
Product C
FLC
Product C
-0.01
0.06
-0.01
0.06
5.17
5.82
-0.19
12.36
10.13
10.84
-0.39
6.59
24.62
24.46
0.08
-0.57
50.42
51.04
0.02
1.25
95.93
98.74
0.02
2.95

10

25

50

100

Flow (%)

September

3.7 Whats Unique in Fujis USFM

Real time auto temperature & pressure compensation


Upstream Sensor
Pipe

Principle Expression:
D2
Q=
4

1
x

Effect of temperature
& pressure change

x f (Tx0-)2
sin2

D
1
Cf
T
=
4
x 2 sin
x f Tx0-
(Cf: Sound velocity in measured liquid)
Compensation for liquid temperature & pressure change
Physical Phenomena:

temperature
Change
Fluid
Real time
compensation (Applied
For Patent)
& pressure
change

of Cf

Change
of f &

Q
Cf

/2

/2
T1
T2

Output change

Calculation
path and fluid
sound velocity every output cycle
Measuredof propagationSuccessive
calculation
Compensated
values T1 & T2
of Cf , f &

Downstream
Sensor

September

output

Sound Velocity of Water

Note:
In general, the
dependence
of sound velocity to fluid
temperature and/or
pressure is not well
known
except for a few liquids,
such as water and sea
water.
Sound Velocity Vs Water Temperature
(Extracted From Steam Tables )

September

3.8 Whats Unique in Fujis USFM


Real time Auto Temperature & Pressure Compensation
8

40

35

Error (% Of Rate)

30

5
4

FLC
Product C
TEMP.

3
2
1

25
20
15
10

0
-1

-2

0
200

50

100

150

Temperature( )

Comparison Test Data For Temperature Effects

Time(Minutes)

September

3.9 Whats Unique in Fujis USFM

Advanced Anti Bubble Measurement (Up to 12% Volume)


Digital sampling of received signals :
Ultrasonic Oscillator 2MHz For Small Sensor
1MHz For Large Sensor
Sampling Rate 16MHz
Synchronized summation of received signals :
Normal propagation
flow

Received signal :

bubble

Interrupted propagation
v

Received signal :

flow
bubble

Nothing!

In case of analog system


measurement failure will
occur

Summed
128 or 256
times for
one output

Digital data of
received signals :

t
Enough level can be
achieved for signal
processing.

September

3.10 Whats Unique in Fujis USFM


Advanced Anti Bubble Measurement (Up to 12% Volume)

Permissible Air Volumerate (vol% )

RESULTS OF BUBBLE IMMERSION TEST (New Time Delta UFM)

12

12.0
Traditional type
New type

10
8

7.0

6
4
2

4.0
1.2

0
1.0

0.4
2.0

0.03
3.0

1.5
0.02
4.0

1.0
0.02
5.0

Flow Velocity (m/ s)

September

Common Features Fujis USFM Series


High accuracy & quick response
Compact & lightweight
Excellent air bubble resistance (Advanced ABM)
Excellent temperature characteristics
(New sound velocity measurement)
OFFERED BY 32BIT DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSOR

September

Wet Calibration
1. Weighing method
2. Volumetric method
3. Comparative method

September

Wet Calibration
Weighing method
Upper Tank
Water
Stop Valve

USF to be
calibrated

Measure the Mass of


Water Flowed into Primary
Weighing Tank for certain
period.
Compare the Indication of
USFM and Mass of Water.

Thermometer

Primary Volumetric Tank

September

Wet Calibration
Volumetric method
Upper Tank
Water
Stop Valve

USF to be
calibrated

Thermometer

Measure the Level of Water


Flowed into Primary
Volumetric Tank for certain
period.
Compare the Indication of
USF and Volume of Water.

Level Meter

Primary Volumetric Tank

September

Wet Calibration
Stop Valve

Primary Flowmeter

USF to be
calibrated

Comparative method
Measure the Flow Rate by
Primary Flowmeter for
reference.
Compare the Indication of
USFM and the Primary
Flowmeter

September

Wet Calibration
Fujis USFM calibration (Upon request) by
Volumetric method
With 2.5 to 300mm pipes (1 to 12 inch )
with primary tank inspected by Japanese Authority of
Measurement.
Comparative method
With electromagnetic flowmeter calibrated within 0.2%
FS.
For larger bore pipes than 300mm
Dry calibration based on the wet calibration for 300mm
pipe according to Japanese Standard JEMIS032.

September

References

Australia
Bangladesh
Brunei
Indonesia
Japan
Malaysia
Myanmar
New Zealand
Pakistan
Philippines
Singapore
Thailand
Vietnam
All countries

Please kindly click on the


individual country to view
customers database.

September

The End

September