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# DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION

STEEL DESIGN
CE LICENSURE EXAMINATION PROBLEMS
STEEL DESIGN

BENDING IN BEAMS
5.

## A 10 m steel wide flange beam is laterally supported. The depth of

the beam is 700 mm and the web thickness is 10 mm. If Fy is equal
to 250 MPa, the allowable bending stress is: (N94 D 22)
a.
180 MPa
c.
165 MPa
b.
150 MPa
d.
200 MPa

6.

## The structural I-beam supporting a floor carries a floor load of 4.6

kN/m2. The beams span 6.0 m and are simply supported at their
ends. Determine the centerline spacing if the allowable stress in the
beam is 120 MPa and the section modulus is 534 x 103 mm3. (M95
D 9)
a.
3.75 m
c.
4.0 m
b.
3.45 m
d.
3.0 m

7.

## A simple beam has a span of 5.0 m. The maximum moment in the

beam is 69.0 kN-m. The allowable bending stress is 138 MPa. The
required section modulus is: (M96 D 3)
a.
2.0 x 103 mm3
c.
250 x 103 mm3
6
3
b.
9.522 x 10 mm
d.
500 x 103 mm3

8.

## A simply supported steel beam has a span of 6 m and is subjected

to a vertical concentrated load of 150 kN acting at midspan. An
allowance of 100% for impact is made for the concentrated load
only. The beam is laterally supported only at the supports. The
1992 National Structural Code of the Philippines states that the
allowable tensile stress for laterally unsupported members subject
to bending is 0.60Fy while the allowable compressive stress for
laterally unsupported members subject to bending is given by the
equation:
Fb = [ 2/3 Fy (L/rt)2 / 10,550,000 Cb ] Fy
where Cb may be taken as 1.0 since the maximum moments does
not occur at the supports. rt is the radius of gyration comprising the
compression flange and 1/3 of the compression web area, taken
about the axis in the plane of the web.

STEEL PROPERTIES
1.

2.

## The coefficient of expansion of structural steel per degree

centigrade is: (N95 D 32)
a.
0.25
c.
11.25 x 10-6
b.
0.0000473
d.
0.3
The coefficient of expansion of steel per degree Centigrade is:
(N96 D 25)
a.
0.000005
c.
11.25 x 10-6
b.
0.0025
d.
0.00125

3.

4.

## The section modulus Sx of a channel with a web depth of h and

thickness tw, and flange width b and thickness tf is: (N94 D 24)
a.
h2 (6 b tf + h tw) / 12
c.
2 b tf + h tw
b.
h (6 b tf + h tw) / 6d.
(2 b tf + h tw3) / 3
A BW 775 x 287 steel I beam has the following dimensions:
Total beam depth, H
= 775 mm
Web thickness, tw
= 19 mm
Flange width, B
= 360 mm
Flange thickness, tf
= 32 mm
The moment of inertia Ix about the principal axis is: (N95 D 21)
a.
375,086 cm4
c.
375,086 mm4
6
b.
375,086 mm
d.
none in the list

------- 1 -------

## DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION

STEEL DESIGN
Steel is A36 with yield strength Fy = 248 MPa. Which of the
following most nearly gives the most economical (lightest) section
that will limit the flexural stress to the allowable value? (N97 D
24)
a.
W18x76; beam weight = 1108 N/m, rt = 75 mm,
Sx = 0.00239 m3
b.
W21x62; beam weight = 911 N/m, rt = 53 mm,
Sx = 0.0023 m3
c.
W24x68; beam weight = 1000 N/m, rt = 57 mm,
Sx = 0.00253 m3
d.
W27x84; beam weight = 1234 N/m, rt = 63 mm,
Sx = 0.0035 m3
Situation:

9.

## A simply supported beam with span of 8 meters is

subjected to a uniform vertical downward load equal to
50 kN/m acting on the plane of the minor axis of the beam
section, which includes the beam weight. The beam is
restrained against lateral buckling on the top and bottom
flanges for the entire span. The material is A36 steel with
Fy = 248 MPa and modulus of elasticity = 200 GPa. The
allowable flexural stress for laterally braced compact
sections is 0.66Fy. The allowable deflection is 1/360 of the
span. Three compact sections are being considered, as
follows, with their respective properties relevant of this
problem (length units are in meters):
Section
Moment of Inertia (Ix)
Beam depth (d)
W24x55
0.000558
0.598
W21x62
0.000554
0.533
W21x68
0.000616
0.537

## Which of the following most nearly gives the minimum section

modulus (Sx), in m3, such that the maximum flexural stress will not
be exceeded? (M98 D 13)
a.
0.0018
c.
0.0024
b.
0.0015
d.
0.0021

10.

11.

## Which of the following most nearly gives the minimum moment of

inertia (Ix), in m4, such that maximum deflection will not be
exceeded? (M98 D 14)
a.
0.00065
c.
0.00060
b.
0.00050
d.
0.00055
Assuming that shear stress is not critical, which of the sections
being considered is the most economic section that is adequate for
the given load? (M98 D 15)
a.
W21x62
b.
W24x55
c.
W21x68
d.
none of the sections are adequate

Situation:

## A floor is made up of a 150 mm thick concrete slab and a

50 mm thick floor finish both of which has a unit weight
of 24 kN/m3. The floor also carries a ceiling whose weight
is 720 Pa and a live load of 2400 Pa. The floor is
supported by simply supported steel beams with a span of
6 m spaced at 3 m on centers. The beam is W14x30, with
weight of 440 N/m, depth of 352 mm, and moment of
inertia I = 0.000121 m4.

12.

## Which of the following most nearly gives the uniform pressure

carried by the floor in Pa? (N99 D 7)
a.
8200
c.
7840
b.
7200
d.
7920

13.

## Which of the following most nearly gives the uniform weight

carried by the beam in kN/m? (N99 D 8)
a.
32
c.
18
b.
24
d.
28

14.

## Which of the following most nearly gives the maximum flexural

stress in the beam in MPa? (N99 D 9)
a.
160
c.
210
b.
140
d.
120

------- 2 -------

STEEL DESIGN
Situation:

16.

17.

Situation:

## The properties of W21x147 are as follows:

d = 560 mm
tw = 18 mm
Ix = 1,511 x 106 mm4

## Which of the following most nearly gives the minimum section

modulus Sx, in m3, such that the maximum flexural stress will not
be exceeded? (M00 D 25)
a.
0.00382
c.
0.00523
b.
0.00376
d.
0.00315
Which of the following most nearly gives the minimum moment of
inertia Ix, in m4, such that the maximum deflection will not be
exceeded? (M00 D 26)
a.
0.00128
c.
0.00104
b.
0.00098
d.
0.00117
Assuming that shear stress is not critical, which of the sections
being considered is the most economic section that is adequate for
the given load? (M00 D 27)
a.
W30x74
b.
W24x62
c.
W26x66
b.
none of the sections are adequate

## A simply supported beam has the cross-section shown in

the figure. The section is W21x147 A36 steel, compact
section with Fy = 248 MPa and reinforced with 12 mm x
360 mm A36 steel plate at the top and bottom. The beam
is laterally supported over the entire span of 6 m and
carries a uniformly distributed load of 360 kN/m including
its own weight. The allowable bending stress for laterally
supported compact section is 0.66Fy and allowable
shearing stress is 0.4Fy. Allowable deflection is 1/360 of the
span.

560 mm

15.

## A simply supported beam with span of 10 m is subjected

to a uniform vertical downward load equal to 50 kN/m
acting on the plane of the minor axis of the beam section,
which includes the beam weight. The beam is restrained
against lateral buckling on the top and bottom flanges for
the entire span. The material is A36 steel with Fy = 248
MPa and modulus of elasticity = 200 GPa. The allowable
flexural stress for laterally braced compact sections is
0.66Fy. The allowable deflection is 1/360 of the span. Three
compact sections are being considered, as follows, with
their respective properties relevant of this problem (length
units are in meters):
Section
Moment of Inertia (Ix)
Beam depth (d)
W26x66
0.00124
0.654
W30x74
0.00146
0.772
W24x62
0.00119
0.618

12 mm x 360 mm
Y

18.

m3? (M01 D 28)
a.
0.0076
c.
0.0054
b.
0.0095
d.
0.0058

19.

## Which of the following gives the maximum deflection of the beam

in mm? (M01 D 29)
a.
12.1
c.
15.9
b.
13.7
d.
14.8

------- 3 -------

STEEL DESIGN
20.

## Which of the following statements is true for the given section?

(M01 D 30)
a.
The section is adequate for flexure only.
b.
The section is adequate for shear and deflection only.
c.
The section is adequate for deflection only.
d.
The section is not adequate for flexure, shear, and
deflection.

Situation:
1.
2.

## Section 4.5.1.4 of NSCP states the following for bending

of laterally unsupported beam:

## Or, when the compression flange is solid and

approximately rectangular in cross section and
its area is not less than that of the tension flange:
Fb =

83000 Cb Af
Ld

(4.5-7)

In the foregoing:
l
distance between cross-section braced against twist or
lateral displacement of the compression flange, mm. For
cantilevers braced against twist only at the support, l may
conservatively be taken as the actual length.

Tension:
Fb = 0.60Fy
Compression:
a.
For members meeting the requirements of Sect.
4.9.1.2, having axis of symmetry in, and loaded
in, the plane of their web, and compression on
extreme fibers of channels bent about their major
axis:
The larger value computed by formula (4.5-6a)
or (4.5-6b) and (4.5.7), as applicable (unless a
higher value can be justified on the basis of a
more precise analysis), but not more than 0.60Fy.

When

703000 Cb
L

Fy
rT
Fb =

2
3

When
L
>
rT

3520000 Cb
Fy

Fy ( L / rT )2
10.55 x 106 Cb

Fy

(4.5-6a)

3520000 Cb
Fy

Fb =

1170 x 103 Cb
( L / rT )2

rT

## radius of gyration of a section comprising the

compression flange plus 1/3 of the compression web area,
taken about an axis in the plane of the web, mm.

Af

Cb

## = 1.75 + 1.05(M 1/M2) + 0.3(M1/M2)2 but not more than

2.3, where M1 is the smaller and M2 the larger bending
moment at the ends of the unbraced length, taken about
the strong axis of the member, and where M1/M2 the ratio
of end moments, is positive when M1 and M2 have the
same sign (reverse curvature bending) and negative when
they are of opposite signs (single curvature bending).
When the bending moment at any point within an
unbraced length is larger than that at both ends of this
length, the value of Cb shall be taken as unity. When
computing Fbx and Fby to be used in formula (4.6-1a), Cb
may be computed by the formula given above for frames
subject to joint translation, and it shall be taken as unity
for frames braced against joint translation. Cb may
conservatively be taken as unity for cantilever beams.

## W21x62 steel is used as a beam simply supported over a span of 8

m. The beam is laterally unsupported over the entire span. Fy =
250 MPa.

(4.5-6b)

------- 4 -------

## DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION

STEEL DESIGN
The properties of the section are as follows:
Depth, d = 533 mm
Flange width, bf = 210 mm
Flange thickness, tf = 15.6 mm
Web thickness, tw = 10.2 mm
Radius of gyration, rT = 53.34 mm
Section modulus, Sx = 2,077 x 103 mm3
21.

22.

23.

## Section 4.5.1.4.5 of the 1992 NSCP gives the allowable stresses, in

MPa, for beams not restrained against lateral buckling as follows:
1.

Fb = 0.60Fy
2.

Which of the following gives the value of the ratio L/rT? (N01 D
28)
a.
130
c.
170
b.
150
d.
160
Which of the following gives the allowable bending stress in MPa
in accordance with the provisions of the National Structural Code
of the Philippines? (N01 D 29)
a.
150
c.
52.01
b.
78.21
d.
63.77
Which of the following gives the safe uniformly distributed load
that the beam can carry in kN/m? (N01 D 30)
a.
19.98
c.
16.56
b.
15.21
d.
18.32

Situation:

Tension:

## A simply supported beam with span of 8 m is subjected to

a counterclockwise moment at the left support and a
clockwise moment at the right equal to 25% of the
moment at the left support, both acting in the plane of the
minor axis of the beam. The beam is not restrained against
lateral buckling. The beam is A36 steel with yield strength
Fy = 248 MPa. The provisions of the 1992 National
Structural Code of the Philippines relevant to this problem
are given below. The beam is a W21x62 steel shape,
whose relevant properties for this problem are:
rT = 0.053 m
d = 0.533 m
bf = 0.210 m
tf = 0.016 m
S = 0.002077 m3
------- 5 -------

Compression:
The larger value computed by formula (4.5-6a) or (4.56b) and (4.5-7), as applicable, but not more than 0.60Fy.

When

703000 Cb
L

Fy
rT
Fb =

2
3

When
L
>
rT

3520000 Cb
Fy

Fy ( L / rT )2
10.55 x 106 Cb

Fy

(4.5-6a)

3520000 Cb
Fy

Fb =

1170 x 103 Cb
( L / rT )2

(4.5-6b)

## Or, when the compression flange is solid and approximately

rectangular in cross-section and its area is not less than that of the
tension flange:
Fb =

83000 Cb Af
Ld

(4.5-7)

Where
Cb
= 1.75 + 1.05(M 1/M2) + 0.3(M1/M2)2 but not more than
2.3, where M1 is the smaller and M2 the larger bending
moment at the ends of the unbraced length, taken about
the strong axis of the member, and where M1/M2 the ratio
of end moments, is positive when M1 and M2 have the
same sign (reverse curvature bending) and negative when
they are of opposite signs (single curvature bending).
When the bending moment at any point within an
unbraced length is larger than that at both ends of this

STEEL DESIGN

rT

24.

25.

26.

## length, the value of Cb shall be taken as unity. When

computing Fbx and Fby to be used in formula (4.6-1a), Cb
may be computed by the formula given above for frames
subject to joint translation, and it shall be taken as unity
for frames braced against joint translation. Cb may
conservatively be taken as unity for cantilever beams.
radius of gyration of a section comprising the
compression flange plus 1/3 of the compression web area,
taken about an axis in the plane of the web, mm.

depth of beam

bf

width of flange

tf

thickness of flange

Situation:

## A simply supported beam with span of 8 m is subjected to

a counterclockwise moment at the left support and a
counterclockwise moment at the right support equal to
25% of the moment at the left support, both acting in the
plane of the minor axis of the beam. The beam is not
restrained against lateral buckling. The beam is A36 steel
with Fy = 248 MPa. The provisions of the 1992 NSCP is
given below. The beam is a W21x62 whose relevant
properties are:
rT = 0.053 m
d = 0.533 m
bf = 0.210 m
tf = 0.016 m
S = 0.002077 m3

## Which of the following most nearly gives the slenderness ratio,

above which the beam is long with respect to lateral buckling?
(M03 D 22)
a.
146
c.
86
b.
221
d.
373
Which of the following most nearly gives the allowable flexural
stress in the compression flange, in MPa? (M03 D 23)
a.
71.5
c.
98.5
b.
64.9
d.
83.1

## Section 4.5.1.4.5 of the 1992 NSCP gives the allowable stresses, in

MPa, for beams not restrained against lateral buckling as follows:
1.
2.

Tension:
Fb = 0.60Fy
Compression:
The larger value computed by formula (4.5-6a) or (4.56b) and (4.5-7), as applicable, but not more than 0.60Fy.

When

## Which of the following most nearly gives the maximum value of

the moment at the left support, in kN-m? (M03 D 24)
a.
82
c.
205
b.
193
d.
378

703000 Cb
L

Fy
rT
Fb =

2
3

When
L
>
rT

Fy ( L / rT )2
10.55 x 106 Cb

Fy

3520000 Cb
Fy

Fb =

------- 6 -------

3520000 Cb
Fy

1170 x 103 Cb
( L / rT )2

(4.5-6b)

(4.5-6a)

## DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION

STEEL DESIGN
Or, when the compression flange is solid and approximately
rectangular in cross-section and its area is not less than that of the
tension flange:
Fb =

83000 Cb Af
Ld

## Which of the following most nearly gives the allowable flexural

stress in the compression flange according to equation 4.5-6a or
equation 4.5-6b, as applicable? (N03 D 17)
a.
99.9 MPa
c.
68.7 MPa
b.
86.3 MPa
d.
75.4 MPa

29.

## Which of the following most nearly gives the maximum value of

the moment at the left support, in kN-m? (N03 D 18)
a.
254.7
c.
302.1
b.
275.8
d.
287.4

(4.5-7)

Where
Cb
= 1.75 + 1.05(M 1/M2) + 0.3(M1/M2)2 but not more than
2.3, where M1 is the smaller and M2 the larger bending
moment at the ends of the unbraced length, taken about
the strong axis of the member, and where M1/M2 the ratio
of end moments, is positive when M1 and M2 have the
same sign (reverse curvature bending) and negative when
they are of opposite signs (single curvature bending).
When the bending moment at any point within an
unbraced length is larger than that at both ends of this
length, the value of Cb shall be taken as unity. When
computing Fbx and Fby to be used in formula (4.6-1a), Cb
may be computed by the formula given above for frames
subject to joint translation, and it shall be taken as unity
for frames braced against joint translation. Cb may
conservatively be taken as unity for cantilever beams.

27.

28.

rT

## radius of gyration of a section comprising the

compression flange plus 1/3 of the compression web area,
taken about an axis in the plane of the web, mm.

depth of beam

bf

width of flange

tf

thickness of flange

SHEAR IN BEAMS
30.

## The shear capacity V of a steel wide flange section, 600 mm deep

whose web is 9 mm thick, is closest to: (Assume Fy = 200 MPa)
(N94 D 36)
a.
486 kN
c.
432 kN
b.
864 kN
d.
684 kN

31.

## A structural steel I-beam is subjected to a shear of 90 kN. The top

and bottom flanges are 12 mm by 150 mm, while the web is 9 mm
by 300 mm. The average shearing stress is V/dtw or 33.33 MPa. The
moment of inertia I of the section is 108 x 106 mm4 and the first
moment of the area Q above the neutral axis is 382,050 mm3.
However, the maximum shearing stress is: (M95 D 8)
a.
35.37 MPa
c.
33.33 MPa
b.
14.29 MPa
d.
7.77 MPa

32.

## A floor is made up of a 150-mm thick concrete slab and 50-mm

thick floor finish both of which has a unit weight of 24 kN/m3. The
floor also carries a ceiling whose weight is 720 Pa and a live load
of 2,400 Pa. The floor is supported by simply supported steel
beams with a span of 10 m spaced at 4.6 m on centers, with
compression flange rigidly attached to the concrete floor. The steel
is A36 with yield strength Fy = 248 MPa. The allowable shear
stress specified in the 1992 National Structural Code of the
Philippines is 0.40Fy. Considering the weight of the beam, which
of the following sections is the most economic (lightest) section for

## Which of the following most nearly gives the slenderness ratio,

below which the beam is short with respect to lateral buckling?
(N03 D 16)
a.
65.8
c.
86.3
b.
75.9
d.
95.7

------- 7 -------

## DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION

STEEL DESIGN
the given load, assuming that shear stress governs the design?
(N97 D 9)
a.
W12x19; beam weight = 278 N/m, depth = 309 mm,
web thickness = 6 mm
b.
W10x33; beam weight = 484 N/m, depth = 247 mm,
web thickness = 7 mm
c.
BW300x41; beam weight = 407 N/m, depth = 300 mm,
web thickness = 6 mm
d.
BW300x47; beam weight = 460 N/m, depth = 300 mm,
web thickness = 6 mm
Situation:

33.

34.

35.

## BOLTED AND RIVETED CONNECTIONS

36.

A steel plate is 360 mm wide and 20 mm thick with four bolt holes
cut into a plate as shown in the figure. The general expression for
the specification method for computing the net area is:
An = T [ B summation (H) + summation (S2/4g) ]
where T = thickness of the plate, B is the width, H = diameter of
the holes, S = pitch, and g = gage.
Which of the following most nearly gives the critical net area (An)
of the section in accordance with the 1992 National Structural
Code of the Philippines? (N97 D 1)

## A beam has a T-section built up by two plates as follows:

a 200 mm x 40 mm plate as flange and a 100 mm x 20 mm
plate as web. The maximum shear force acting on the
beam is 60 kN.

45 mm 45 mm

## Which of the following most nearly gives the moment of inertia of

the section about the neutral axis, in mm4? (M03 D 7)
a.
10,600,000
c.
8,700,000
b.
39,000,000
d.
24,500,000

25 mm hole typ.
3 @ 90 mm

Which of the following most nearly gives the shear stress at the
neutral axis, in MPa? (M03 D 8)
a.
4.63
c.
1.94
b.
3.28
d.
2.71
Which of the following most nearly gives the shear stress on the
web at the junction of the flange and the web, in MPa? (M03 D 9)
a.
19.6
c.
31.8
b.
48.2
d.
52.2

60 mm
a.
b.
Situation:

------- 8 -------

An = 4,125 mm2
An = 5,625 mm2

c.
d.

An = 4,625 mm2
An = 5,125 mm2

## A plate with width of 300 mm and thickness of 20 mm is

to be connected to two plates of the same width with half
the thickness by 25 mm diameter rivets, as shown. The
rivet holes have a diameter 2 mm larger than the rivet
diameter. The plate is A36 steel with yield strength Fy =
248 MPa, allowable tensile stress of 0.60Fy, and
allowable bearing stress of 1.35Fy. The rivets are A502,
Grade 2, hot-driven rivets with allowable shear stress of
150 MPa.

400 mm

300 mm

## DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION

STEEL DESIGN

60 mm

1
2

P
P

/2

/2

100 mm
100 mm

100 mm

37.

38.

39.

/2
Which of the following most nearly gives the maximum load, in
kN, that can be applied to the connection without exceeding the
allowable tensile stress in the plates? (M98 D 4)
a.
750
c.
700
b.
780
d.
730
Which of the following most nearly gives the maximum load, in
kN, that can be applied to the connection without exceeding the
allowable shear stress in the rivets? (M98 D 5)
a.
640
c.
550
b.
590
d.
700
Which of the following most nearly gives the maximum load, in
kN, that can be applied to the connection without exceeding the
allowable bearing stress between the plate and the rivets? (M98 D
6)
a.
670
c.
620
b.
650
d.
700

Situation:

150 mm
P
40.

t = 12 mm

t = 12 mm

P
Which of the following most nearly gives the value of b in
millimeters? (M02 D 10)
a.
28.6
c.
52.1
b.
37.4
d.
19.7

41.

Which of the following most nearly gives the value of the net area
for tension in plates in square millimeters? (M02 D 11)
a.
3,624
c.
3,867
b.
3,214
d.
4,178

42.

Which of the following most nearly gives the value of P so that the
allowable tensile stress on net area will not be exceeded? (M02 D
12)
a.
575 kN
c.
539 kN
b.
687 kN
d.
424 kN

## A plate with width of 400 mm and thickness of 12 mm is

to be connected to a plate of the same width and thickness
by 34 mm diameter bolts, as shown in the figure. The
holes are 2 mm larger than the bolt diameter. The plate is
A36 steel with yield strength Fy = 248 MPa. Allowable
tensile stress is 0.60Fy. It is required to determine the
value of b so that the net width along bolts 1-2-3-4 is
equal to the net width along bolts 1-2-4.
------- 9 -------

## DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION

STEEL DESIGN
BEAM-COLUMN CONNECTION
Situation:

## A W16x58 is connected to W18x31 as shown in the figure.

The material is A36 steel with Fy = 248 MPa. The
allowable bearing stress is 1.35Fy. The rivets are A502
Grade 2 hot-driven rivets with allowable shearing stress
of 120 MPa. The support is to be designed using the full
strength of the W16x58 beam based on gross section. The
properties of the section are:
W16x58
Total depth, d = 403 mm
Thickness of web, tw = 10 mm
W18x31
Flange thickness, tf = 11 mm
W18x31
W16x58

2 angles
90 x 90 x 10
43.

## Which of the following most nearly gives the minimum diameter

of the rivets without exceeding the allowable shearing stress in the
rivets? (N98 D 10)
a.
20 mm
c.
23 mm
b.
25 mm
d.
28 mm

44.

## Which of the following most nearly gives the minimum diameter

of the rivets without exceeding the allowable bearing stress in
steel? (N98 D 11)
a.
30 mm
c.
25 mm
b.
22 mm
d.
36 mm

45.

## Which of the following most nearly gives the required diameter of

the rivets? (N98 D 12)
a.
23 mm
c.
30 mm
b.
28 mm
d.
25 mm
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