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CONSTRUCTION

SAFETY PROGRAM

Revised 11/2008

TABLE OF CONTENTS
SECTION 1 BLOOM OBJECTIVES
SAFETY AND HEALTH POLICY ............................................................................................5
SAFETY RULES ......................................................................................................................6
SAFETY DICIPLINE................................................................................................................9
SAFETY AND HEALTH OBJECTIVES ..................................................................................10
JOB SAFETY TRAINING......................................................................................................10

SECTION 2 PREVENTATIVE ACTION


ACCIDENT PREVENTION PROGRAM..............................................................................11
PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT..............................................................................12
FOOT PROTECTION ...............................................................................................12
HEAD PROTECTION ...............................................................................................12
EYE & FACE PROTECTION.....................................................................................13
BODY PROTECTION...............................................................................................13
LINEMANS BELT & SAFETY STRAP ........................................................................14
WORKING OVER OR NEAR WATER .....................................................................15
FALL PROTECTION .................................................................................................15
UNPROTECTED SIDES & EDGES ............................................................................15
POWER TOOL SAFETY.......................................................................................................16
PORTABLE POWER TOOLS, CONTROLS...............................................................17
HAND TOOL SAFETY ..............................................................................................18
HANDLING & STORING GASES, LIQUID FUELS & COMPRESSED CYLINDERS .............20
HANDLING & STORING FLAMMABLE & COMBUSTIBLE LIQUIDS ......................20
HANDLING & STORING COMPRESSED GAS CYLINDERS ..................................21
ELECTRICAL HAZARDS .....................................................................................................22
WELDING AND BURNING ................................................................................................24
HOUSEKEEPING.................................................................................................................26
LADDER SAFETY ................................................................................................................27
SAFETY PRECAUTIONS...........................................................................................27

SELECTING THE RIGHT LADDER ............................................................................27


INSPECTING THE LADDER .....................................................................................27
USING THE LADDER SAFELY ..................................................................................27
TIPS FOR CLIMBING DOWN..................................................................................27
STORING A LADDER ..............................................................................................28
HOISTING AND RIGGING ................................................................................................28
RIGGING WITH WIRE ROPES.................................................................................29
RIGGING WITH FIBER ROPES ................................................................................30
HOISTING AND RIGGING REVIEW .......................................................................32
MECHANICAL SWING STAGE..........................................................................................33
DANGER OVERHEAD .......................................................................................................35
SCAFFOLD SAFETY............................................................................................................36
ITS THE LAW ...........................................................................................................36
SAFETY GUIDELINES ...............................................................................................36

SECTION 3 - PROCEDURES
LIFTING & BACK SAFETY ...................................................................................................36
PROPER LIFTING TECHNIQUES..............................................................................36
UNLOADING TECHNIQUES ...................................................................................37
SAFETY TIPS .............................................................................................................37
POWER LOCKOUT PROCEDURE .....................................................................................38
PURPOSE.................................................................................................................38
MANAGEMENT RESPONSIBILITIES ........................................................................38
EMPLOYEE RESPONSIBILITY...................................................................................38
GENERAL ................................................................................................................39
LOCKING OUT AND ISOLATING THE POWER SOURCE .....................................40
PERFORMING TEST AND ADJUSTMENTS DURING LOCKOUT ............................41
EMERGENCY SAFETY LOCK REMOVAL...............................................................41
CONFINED SPACE ENTRY ................................................................................................42
GENERAL CONFINED SPACE ENTRY PROCEDURE ............................................42

SECTION 4 WRITTEN HAZARD COMMUNICATION PROGRAM


I.

HAZARD DETERMINATION .........................................................................44

II.

LABELING.....................................................................................................44

III.

MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEETS (MSDS) ..................................................44

IV.

EMPLOYEE INFORMATION AND TRAINING .............................................45

V.

HAZARDOUS NON-ROUTINE TASKS ..........................................................45

VI.

INFORMING SUBCONTRACTORS..............................................................46

VII.

EMERGENCY PROCEDURES ......................................................................46

VIII.

LIST OF HAZARDOUS CHEMICALS ............................................................48

SECTION 5 EMERGENCY PROCEDURES AND FIRST AID


FIRST AID GENERAL TIPS ...................................................................................................49
ARTIFICIAL RESPIRATION ..................................................................................................49
BLEEDING ..........................................................................................................................50
UNCONSCIOUSNESS ........................................................................................................50
ELECTRIC SHOCK AND BURNS ........................................................................................51
EYE INJURIES ......................................................................................................................52
LIMBS CAUGHT IN MACHINERY ......................................................................................52
MOVING THE VICTIM .......................................................................................................53
HEAT STROKE/HEAT EXHAUSTION ...................................................................................53
HEART ATTACK ..................................................................................................................54
FRACTURES (BROKEN BONES).........................................................................................54
SHOCK ...............................................................................................................................57
HEAD TRAUMA..................................................................................................................58
TRAUMATIC AMPUTATION...............................................................................................59
SUMMARY..........................................................................................................................60
MIOSHA PROGRAM PHONE DIRECTORY ...................................................................61
ACCIDENT INVESTIGATION .............................................................................................65

SECTION 6 FORMS
ACCIDENT REPORT...............................................................................................................
INCIDENT REPORT.................................................................................................................
3

JOBSITE SAFETY INSPECTION CHECKLIST............................................................................


SAFETY MEETING RECORD FORM.......................................................................................

SECTION 7 SAFETY SIGNS & POSTERS


CHOCK EM! At least two wheels before loading or unloading!
DANGER DO NOT ENTER
Dont Take Shortcuts on the Job
How Most Fire Extinguishers Work
DANGER HARD HAD AREA
Lock it Out! Save a Live
Remember..Machines Dont Think
MSDS(s) For This Workplace Are Located At..
New or Revised MSDS(s) (list)
DANGER NO SMOKING, MATCHES OR OPEN FLAMES
SAFETY FIRST ALWAYS! Dont Learn Safety Accidentally!
Scaffold Safety
DANGER This Unsupported Wall is Unstable in Windy Conditions
Watch Your Step!
Michigan Whistleblowers Protection Act Poster

CONTRACTOR SAFETY PROGRAM


SAFETY AND HEALTH POLICY

Bloom General Contracting, Inc. believes that NO JOB OR TASK IS MORE IMPORTANT
THAN WORKER HEALTH AND SAFETY.
If a job represents a potential safety or health threat, every effort will be made to plan
a safe way to do the task.
Every procedure must be a safe procedure. Shortcuts in safe procedures by either
foremen or workers will not be tolerated.
If a worker observes any unprotected job, which may pose a potential threat to their
health or safety, he or she must inform management and management must take
adequate precautions.

IF A JOB CANNOT BE DONE SAFELY, IT WILL NOT BE DONE!


OUR FUTURES ARE ONLY BUILT THROUGH OUR PEOPLE. WE AIM TO PROTECT THEM.

SAFETY RULES
ALL OF OUR SAFETY RULES MUST BE OBEYED. FAILURE TO DO SO WILL RESULT IN
STRICT DISCIPLINARY ACTION BEING TAKEN.

1.

Keep your mind on your work at all times.

No horseplay on the job.

Injury or

termination or both can be the result.


2.

Personal safety equipment must be worn as prescribed for each job, such as: safety
glasses for eye protection, hard hats at all times within the confines of the construction
area where there is a potential for falling materials or tools, gloves when handling
materials, and safety shoes are necessary for protection against foot injuries.

3.

Precautions are necessary to prevent sunburn and to protect against burns from hot
materials.

4.

If any part of your body should come in contact with an acid or caustic substance, rush
to the nearest water available and flush the affected part.

Secure medical aid

immediately.
5.

Watch where you are walking. Dont run.

6.

The use of illegal drugs or alcohol or being under the influence of the same on the
project shall be cause for termination.

Inform your supervisor if taking strong

prescription drugs that warn against driving or using machinery.


7.

Do not distract the attention of fellow workers. Do not engage in any act that would
endanger another employee.

8.

Sanitation facilities have been or will be provided for your use. Defacing or damaging
these facilities is forbidden.

9.

A good job is a clean job, and a clean job is the start of a safe job. So keep your
working area free from rubbish and debris.

10.

Do not use a compressor to blow dust or dirt from your clothes, hair or hands.

11.

Never work aloft if you are afraid to do so, if you are subject to dizzy spells, or if you are
apt to be nervous or sick.
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12.

Never move an injured person unless it is absolutely necessary. Further injury may
result.

Keep the injured as comfortable as possible and utilize job site first-aid

equipment until an ambulance arrives.


13.

Know where firefighting equipment is located and be trained on how to use it.

14.

Lift correctly with legs, not the back. If the load is too heavy, GET HELP. Stay fit.
Control your weight.

Do stretching exercises.

Approximately twenty percent of all

construction related injuries result from lifting materials.


15.

Nobody but operator shall be allowed to ride on equipment unless proper seating is
provided.

16.

Do not use power tools and equipment until you have been properly instructed in the
safe work methods and become authorized to use them.

17.

Be sure that all guards are in place. Do not remove, displace or destroy any safety
device or safeguard furnished or provided for use on the job, nor interfere with the use
thereof.

18.

Do not enter an area, which has been barricaded.

19.

If you must work around power shovels, trucks and dozers, make sure operators can
always see you. Barricades are required for cranes.

20.

Never oil, lubricate or fuel equipment while it is running or in motion.

21.

Before servicing, repairing or adjusting any powered tool or piece of equipment,


disconnect it, lock out the source of power and tag it out.

22.

Barricade danger areas. Guardrails or perimeter cables may be required.

23.

Trenches over five feet deep must be shored or sloped. Excavated or other material
shall not be stored nearer than two feet from the edge of the excavation. Excavations
less than five feet may also require cave in protection in some instances.

24.

Use the four and one rule when using a ladder. One foot of base for every four feet of
height.

25.

Portable ladders in use shall be equipped with safety feet unless ladder is tied, blocked
or otherwise secured. Stepladders shall not be used as a straight ladder.

26.

Ladders must extend three feet above landing or roof for proper use.

27.

Defective ladders must be properly tagged and removed from service.

28.

Keep ladder bases free of debris, hoses, wires, materials, etc.

29.

Build

scaffolds

according

to

manufacturers

recommendations

and

MIOSHA

Construction Safety Standard Part 12 Scaffolding.


30.

Scaffold planks shall be properly lapped, cleated or otherwise secured to prevent


shifting.

31.

Use only extension cords of the three-prong type. Use ground fault circuit interrupters
at all times and when using tools in wet atmosphere (e.g. outdoors) or with any
temporary power supply. Check the electrical grounding system daily.

32.

The use of harnesses with safety lines when working from unprotected high places is
mandatory. Always keep your line as tight as possible.

33.

Never throw anything overboard. Someone passing below may be seriously injured.

34.

Open fires are prohibited.

35.

Know what emergency procedures have been established for your job site. (Location of
emergency phone, first aid kit, stretcher location, fire extinguisher locations, evacuation
plan, etc.)

Never enter a manhole, well, shaft, tunnel or other confined space which could possibly have a
non-respirable atmosphere because of lack of oxygen, or presence of toxic or flammable gas,
or has a possibility of engulfment by solids or liquids. Make certain a qualified person tests the
confined area with an appropriate detector before entry, that the necessary safety equipment is
worn. Standby person may be required to be stationed at the entrance.

SAFETY DISCIPLINE
Three-Step System

First Violation:

Written warning; copies to employee and employees


file.

Second Violation:

Written warning; suspension for or full day without


pay.

Third Violation:

Written report for file and immediate termination.

Four-Step System

First Violation:

Oral warning; notation for personnel files.

Second Violation:

Written warning; copy for file or personnel office.

Third Violation:

Written warning; one day suspension without pay.

Fourth Violation:

Written warning and one-week suspension, or


termination if warranted.

A record will be maintained of all discipline.

SAFETY AND HEALTH OBJECTIVES


Bloom General Contracting, Inc. plans to achieve worker safety and health through the
following:

A.

Using qualified, trained personnel.

B.

Making regular job site safety inspections.

C.

Enforcing the use of safety equipment.

D.

Following safety procedures and rules.

E.

Providing on-going safety training.

F.

Enforcing safety rules and using appropriate discipline.

JOB SAFETY TRAINING


1. After inspecting a job site, the Safety Administrator or other designated person will
identify and evaluate all potential hazards for:
A.

Injury severity potential.

B.

Probability of an accident.

2. This person will also appraise the skill and knowledge level of exposed workers.

3. Appropriate training will be given.


A.

Hazards will be pointed out.

B.

Necessary precautions will be explained.

C.

The higher the hazard the more detailed will be the training.

4. Records will be maintained for all training sessions with descriptions of topics covered
and names of workers trained.

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ACCIDENT PREVENTION PROGRAM


The designated superintendent will have the responsibility to provide all
employees with operation procedures, hazards and safeguards of tools and
equipment. Weekly job meetings will be provided for expanded orientation to such
tools.
The Superintendent will make daily visual inspections to insure that all unsafe or
hazardous conditions are eliminated. The superintendent will provide instructions to
each employee regarding recognition and avoidance of hazards.
The Superintendent will give instructions to each employee required to handle
known poisons, toxic materials, caustics and other harmful substances, regarding the
potential hazards, safe handling, use, personal hygiene, protective measures required
and applicable first aid procedures to be used in the event of injury.
The Superintendent will give instructions to each employee where known
harmful plants, reptiles, animals or insects are present, regarding the potential hazards,
injury avoidance and applicable first aid procedures to be used in the event of injury.
The Superintendent will give instructions to each employee required to enter a
confined space, regarding the hazards involved, injury precautions, the use of
required personal protective equipment, emergency equipment and applicable first
aid procedures to be used in the event of injury.
The Superintendent will give instructions regarding procedures to be followed in
case of an injury, accident or other emergency.

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PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT


FOOT PROTECTION
1.

Protective footwear shall be worn to protect from falling objects, chemicals


or stepping on sharp objects.

Athletic or canvas-type shoes shall not be

worn.
2.

Use steel-toe shoes or boots whenever you are exposed to falling objects.

3.

Use shoes or boots with reinforced flexible metal soles or inner soles when you
are working near puncture hazards.

4.

Use boots or shoes with no metal parts and non-conductive soles when you
are working near electrical, fire, or explosion hazards.

5.

Use rubber shoes or boots with rubber or synthetic soles when working on wet
surfaces.

6.

Use wooden soles when working on hot surfaces.

7.

Use easy-to-remove gaiters without laces or eyelets when working near


welding sparks or hot metal splashes.

8.

Use rubber or neoprene boots to protect your feet from chemical or corrosive
splashes.

HEAD PROTECTION
Head protection will be worn on job sites when there are potentials of falling
objects, hair entanglement, burning or electrical hazards.
Choose the right kind of hat. Class A protects you from impact and penetration.
Class B hats have the same features as Class A, except they have no metal
parts to conduct electricity. Class C is made of lightweight aluminum; they
protect you from impact but not from electrical hazards. Class D is designed
for fire fighters and are fire-resistant.
Wear your hard hat throughout the day. For maximum protection, wear your hard
hat when you walk onto the job site and keep it on until you leave.
Maintain your hat. Inspect it every day to make sure the shell is not damaged. If
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your hat sustains a heavy blow, get a new one. Remove and wash any
sweatbands from your hat, and dont store the hat in a high-heat
environment.
A metallic helmet shall not be used.
A helmet that has been physically altered, painted, or damaged shall not be worn.
An employee shall not physically alter a helmet.
EYE & FACE PROTECTION
1.

Eye protection will be worn when there are potentials of hazards from flying
objects or particles, chemicals, arcing, glare or dust.

2.

Use eye protection with side shields to protect you from flying objects.

3.

Use face shields plus goggles or spectacles for serious hazards.

4.

Use eye and face protectors that fit snuggly.

5.

Remember that ordinary prescription lenses do not provide impact


protection.

BODY PROTECTION
1.

An employee, who handles rough, sharp-edged, abrasive materials, or


whose work subjects the hands to lacerations, punctures, burns, or bruises,
shall wear hand protection of a type suitable for the work being performed.

2.

Cloth gloves shall not be worn when operating rotating equipment such as a
drill or a powered threading machine.

3.

Precautions shall be taken with regard to synthetic clothing that is worn near
a source of flame, spark, a hot surface, or material that could ignite the
clothing.

4.

An employee shall not wear loose clothing, neckwear encircling the neck, or
exposed jewelry, such as rings and necklaces, near a machine having
reciprocating or rotating shafts or spindles or when handling material that
could catch on clothing or jewelry and cause injury. A ring shall not be worn
on the finger unless covered by a glove or tape.

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5.

Avoid rolled-up sleeves.

Keep them buttoned at the wrist or wear short

sleeves.
6.

Avoid shirttails hanging out.

They should always be tucked inside your

trousers.
7.

Avoid open jackets. Zipper or button them up at least chest high.

8.

A person shall wear a hat, cap or net where there is a danger of hair
entanglement in moving machinery or equipment or where there is exposure
to means of ignition. The hair enclosure shall completely enclose all loose
hair, and shall be adjustable. Material used for a hair enclosure shall be fastdyed and non-irritating to the skin when subject to perspiration.

9.

A hair enclosure used in an area where there is a danger of ignition from


heat, flame, or chemical reaction shall be made of materials that are flameretardant.

10.

Pant legs must be short enough to prevent tripping and should have
uncuffed bottoms.

Cuffs can catch on equipment or other materials,

causing you to fall. Also avoid wearing rolled-up pants.


11.

Snug, close-fitting garments are best for most jobs. A one-piece coverall with
short sleeves is generally the safest. Old, torn shirts and pants make good
scrub rags, but not safe work clothes.

LINEMANS BELT & SAFETY STRAP


An employee working on a pole, tower, or other such structure, except where use
of the belt and strap creates a greater hazard, other equivalent safeguards
that do not create a greater hazard shall be used shall wear a linemans belt
and safety strap.
A linemans belt and safety strap shall be inspected before use each day and shall
be replaced or repaired if found to be defective.

14

WORKING OVER OR NEAR WATER


Where a possibility of drowning exists, an employee working over or adjacent to
water shall wear a life jacket or buoyant work vest. The jacket shall be of a
type to roll the wearer face up, if unconscious.
Before each use, the life jacket or buoyant vest shall be inspected for defects
which might alter its strength or buoyancy. Defective units shall not be used.
A ring buoy with not less than 90 feet of safety line shall be provided and shall be
readily available for rescue operations. The distance between the buoys
shall not be more than 200 feet.
Not less than 1 lifesaving boat equipped with a method of propulsion that is
effective for the water conditions shall be available at the location where an
employee works over or adjacent to water and the possibility of drowning
exists.
FALL PROTECTION
Follow these safety precautions to maximize your protection against falls:
Clean up spills immediately.
Keep aisles, walkways, stairs, and work areas unobstructed and clean.
Dont overreach on a ladder.
Pay attention to what you are doing and where your feet are.
Never use a defective ladder.
Walk, dont run, on stairways.
Use handrails whenever they are provided.
Wear sturdy footwear with slip-resistant soles.
Adjust your footing and walking habits if it is raining, snowing, or sleeting.
UNPROTECTED SIDES & EDGES
Each employee on a walking/working surface (horizontal and vertical surface) with an
unprotected side or edge which is 6 feet or more above a lower level shall be protected
from falling by the use of guardrail systems, safety net systems, or personal fall arrest
systems.

15

POWER TOOL SAFETY


Select the right tool for the job; only use the tool for the tasks it was intended for.
Avoid using metal ladders with an electrical tool.
Always store electric tools in a dry place.
Never carry a power tool by its cord.
Keep the work area free from anything that could catch fire from a tool spark.
Dont wear loose shirts, jewelry, or other items that could get caught in a power
tool. Tie back and cover long hair.
Stand on a rubber mat when using power tools in damp conditions.
Keep tools lubricated and free of dust and dirt.
Never remove or bypass a machine guard.
Report defective tools right away. A tool or part of a tool with a defect that could
cause injury shall be replaced or repaired before use.
Do not use a tool other than its designed or approved use.
When a guard is provided on a tool, it shall not be made inoperative. It may be
removed only for repair, service, or setup, and it shall be replaced before the
tool is returned to use.
All means of power transmission and reciprocating and rotating parts of a tool,
such as belts, gears, sprockets, shafts, pulleys, and chains, shall be guarded if
exposed to contact.
Hand tools or portable power tools shall not be left on a scaffold, ladder, or work
platform after the completion of the work operation or day.

Before the

scaffold, ladder, or work platform is moved, all tools shall be removed or


properly secured against displacement.
Racks, bins, or tool chests shall be provided for the storage of tools, and any sharp
or pointed edges shall be arranged so as not to create a hazard.
The user shall visually inspect a tool for safe operation before each daily use and,
when found defective, shall be removed from service and tagged.
16

A tool that is used in a potentially explosive atmosphere shall be designed and


approved for such atmosphere.
A safety device or operating control shall not be made inoperative, except for the
removal of lock-on control devices.
PORTABLE POWER TOOLS, CONTROLS
A hand-held powered circular saw which has a blade diameter of more than 2
inches; an electric, hydraulic, or pneumatic chain saw; and a percussion tool
without positive accessory holding means shall be equipped with a constantpressure switch or control that shuts off the power when the pressure is
released. A gasoline-powered; hand-operated tool shall be equipped with a
constant pressure throttle control. A throttle position lock may be provided
for starting only.
All of the following tools shall be equipped with a constant pressure switch or
control and may have a lock-on control if the tool can be turned off by a
single motion of the same finger or fingers that turn it on without release of
the grip on the tool:
A hand-held powered drill
Tapper.
Fastener driver.
Grinder with a wheel more than 2 inches in diameter.
Disc sander with a disc more than 2 inches in diameter.
Belt sander.
Reciprocating saw.
Saber saw.
Scroll saw.
Jigsaws with a blade shank more than a nominal inch.
Similarly operating power tool.
The lock-on control of a drill of more than 3/8-inch capacity shall not be used

17

when the drill is held in the hand to drill, clean, or enlarge a hole.
All of the following hand-held power tools may be equipped with either a positive
on-off control or other control as described in (2) above:
A platen sander.
Grinder with a wheel 2 inches or less in diameter.
Disc sander with discs 2 inches or less in diameter.
Router.
Planer.
Laminate trimmer.
Nibbler.
Shear.
Saber saw.
Scroll saw.
Jigsaw with a blade shank of nominal inch or less.
The operating control on a hand-held power tool shall be located so as to prevent
accidental operation.
HAND TOOL SAFETY
Use the right tool for a job. Never use a makeshift, or improperly fitting tool.
Use wrenches of the right size for the job. If one wrench is too small to do the job,
use a bigger wrench not pliers.
Use only tools in good condition do not use tools with cracked or broken handles,
without handles, or with mushroomed or broken heads.
Keep keen-edged blades sharp and store them safely when not in use.
To prevent chips from flying, avoid using a hammer with a hardened face on a
highly tempered tool such as a drill, a file, a die or a jig. Also, make sure your
hammer and mallet heads are tight on the handles so they cant fly off.
Never apply a wrench to moving machinery. Stop the machine, and remove all
tools before starting it again. Also, always unplug an electrical tool before
changing a sanding disc, a dull bit or a blade.

18

Never handle any tools in such a manner that you can be injured if they slip. Think
about your movements and position your body accordingly. When youre
using a hacksaw, nibblers, a saber saw or drills, hold the work down firmly with
clamps, vise grips or a vise. Dont ever try to hold your work with just your
hand. Use the proper blade and saw speed for the material youre cutting
and dont try to force-feed the saw. When youre drilling or using any other
rotating tool, use the right speed and put just the right amount of pressure on
the work. When youre carrying your tools, always keep the pointed ends
down in a tool belt or pouch. Dont carry them in your pocket.
Dont let a tool dangle by its cord or disconnect it by yanking on the cord. Always
disconnect cords by pulling directly on the plug.
Remember that with electrical tools, even a 110-volt house current can kill you. Use
ground-fault devices for your protection.

Make sure that all tool cords,

extension cords, and plugs have a proper ground on them.

Under no

circumstances should the ground be removed.


If the floor is wet, or even damp, stand on something that wont conduct electricity.
And, keep clear of water pipes, conduits, or any other metal that may make
you part of the easiest path to the ground.
If you use a wire brush, keep your face, arms and chest protected to prevent little
bits of wire that break loose from flying off and penetrating your skin.
When youre using a portable power shear, dont try to force the blade through the
metal, and be sure to keep the cord out of the way so you dont
accidentally cut through it.
The construction industry calls for the use of many types of hand tools. Handle
them with care, and use them only for the purpose for which they were
made.

19

HANDLING & STORING GASES, LIQUID FUELS AND COMPRESSED GAS


CYLINDERS
Remember that acetylene and fuel gases catch fire easily. Keep them from sparks
and fire. Observer the NO SMOKING rule in their vicinity.
Oxygen can ignite even when no flames or sparks are around to set it off. Because
it is a real fire hazard when it comes in contact with oil or grease, you should
never handle oxygen cylinders with oily hands or gloves. Keep grease away
from the cylinders, and do not use oil or grease on cylinder attachments or
valves.
Acetylene cylinders contain a porous material impregnated with acetone.
Acetone is a chemical that dissolves acetylene and then releases it as the
pressure is released.

Acetone absorbs acetylene easily under normal

temperatures, but releases it when heated. Acetylene cylinders have fusible


safety plugs that melt at around 212F, the boiling point of water. So if a
valve becomes frozen, thaw it by pouring warm water on the valve, not on
the cylinder. Never use flame or intense heat on acetylene cylinder valves.
Keep heat away from the cylinder.
Remember that gases are under pressure. Oxygen is supplied in cylinders at about
2,000 pounds per square inch, acetylene cylinders are at 250 pounds per
square inch, and LP gases usually are at nearly 300 pounds per square inch.
So be careful when opening valves or releasing theses gases.
Proper storage of gas cylinders is essential.

Acetylene, oxygen and other gas

cylinders should be stored separately, placed in an upright position and


secured so they cannot be turned over accidentally.
HANDLING & STORING FLAMMABLE AND COMBUSTIBLE LIQUIDS
Substitute fire-safe products for dangerous ones when possible. This will help reduce
fire dangers.
Beware of using gasoline, benzene, or other flammables as cleaners.

Less
20

dangerous products that will work just as well are available.


Keep only a minimum supply of flammables and combustibles on hand. Get rid of
what you dont need.
Store your supply away from the main building (s) where possible.

A small

detached shed would be suitable. For on-premises storage, an approved


fire-resistive room or vented metal storage cabinet is needed. Do not use the
boiler room, electrical panel room, or air conditioning equipment room!
Protect against static electricity buildup when dispensing these liquids from drums
into metal containers. Ground all drums, and clip a wire between the drum
and the container being filled.
Use only U.L. approved safety cans for working amounts of flammables. Plunger
cans and bench cans are designed for fire safety in production areas.
Oil, grease, and solvent-soaked rags should be kept in a self-closing metal
container designed for this purpose. Change or dispose of cleaning rags
frequently.
Never smoke or use an open flame where flammables or combustibles are being
used or stored.
HANDLING & STORING COMPRESSED GAS CYLINDERS
Never drop cylinders or permit them to strike each other.
Avoid dragging or sliding cylinders even for short distances.
Do not use cylinders as rollers for moving material or other equipment.
Keep cylinders in designated storage areas when not in use.
No part of a cylinder should be subjected to a temperature more than 125F.
Cylinders should not be permitted to come in contact with sparks, flames, electric
apparatus or circuits.
Never tamper with safety devices in valves or cylinders.
Use a regulator when connecting cylinders to systems of lower pressure ratings.
The connection of regulators to gas cylinders should be made with properly fitting
wrenches, and connections specified to be hand-tight should be made

21

hand-tight only.
When returning empty cylinders, close the valve to leave some positive pressure in
the cylinder, replace the protective cap and mark and label the cylinder
empty.
Do not set full and empty cylinders in the same area.

ELECTRICAL HAZARDS
The importance of properly equipping all electric tools with approved extension
cords and means for grounding cannot be overemphasized.

Inspection,

testing and maintenance of all such equipment in safe operating condition


are continuing responsibilities for everyone. Unsafe tools must be removed
from service wherever and whenever found on the job and not returned to
service until safe to use. Any cords or receptacles that are taped must be
carefully inspected to assure that the condition covered by the tape is safe.
Three-wire circuits should be available at all receptacles, and a circuit tester
can be used to make certain that the grounding circuit is properly installed
and operating.
Preventing electrocutions is a matter of grounding the case of the tool so that
whenever a short condition exists, the current is drained off by the ground
wire and not your body. A case ground, correctly installed and tested, is
absolutely essential, as is third-wire grounding of any electrical circuit. Such
circuits consist of two wires, the energized or hot lines and the neutral or
common.

The neutral or common must not be used as the third-wire

independent ground.

This third-wire ground acts as an independent

grounding circuit for the frames of tools, equipment and boxes of the system
itself. It should be the same size wire and current-carrying capacity as the
two-circuit wires.
Electrically powered hand tools perform many jobs. The power source for these
tools is often supplied through temporary electrical hookups.

Such

installations have two basic characteristics: First, they are temporary and not
22

constructed for permanent use; secondly, these power supply lines and
equipment are subjected to treatment and conditions much more severe
than found in most other kinds of work.

Because sheet metal workers

frequently are exposed to extremes of moisture, heat and physical contact


with their surroundings, temporary wiring systems must be in a safe and
efficient condition at all times. Frequent inspections must assure that wiring,
once set up, stays safe.
The most common electrical accident occurs when a person becomes a pathway
for electricity flowing to a ground or low energy level. This kind of electricity
flow is called ground fault.

Because ground faults can kill people and

destroy equipment, ground fault circuit interrupting devices are used to


interrupt the electrical circuit to the load when a fault current-to-ground
exceeds some predetermined value that is less than that required to operate
the over current protective device of the supply circuit. It is used in addition
to normal fusing or circuit breaker protection, not as a replacement. Two
types of portable ground fault circuit interrupters exist. The plug-in type plugs
directly into the receptacle and provides an alternate receptacle to plug
into; the cord-connected type has a molded box with several protected
receptacles and a short cord and plug.

Workers using a receptacle must

have ground fault circuit interrupter protection.


Adopting an assured equipment grounding conductor program is another way to
provide adequate protection from electrical hazards. This is an inspection
and maintenance program covering all cord sets, receptacles that are not
part of permanent wiring of a building or structure, and equipment
connected by cord and plug that are available for use by employees. This
program provides for periodic inspection of receptacles, flexible cord sets
(extension cords), and equipment connected by cord and plug.

Where

evidence of damage exists, the damaged items are taken out of service and
tagged until the items have been tested and required repairs have been
made. All equipment-grounding conductors are tested for continuity.

All

23

receptacles and attachment caps or plugs are tested for correct


attachment of the equipment-grounding conductor. Inspection and tests
are performed:

Before first use.

Before equipment is returned to service following any repairs.

Before equipment is used after any incident which can be reasonably


suspected to have caused damage.

At intervals not to exceed three months, except that cord sets and
receptacles which are fixed and not exposed to damage shall be tested
at intervals not exceeding six months.

WELDING AND BURNING


Welding and burning require a high degree of skill. Care must be taken at all points to
avoid harm to yourself and to those around you.
1.

A qualified person must perform wiring electric welding equipment. A diesel


or gasoline engine-driven generator must be located to avoid danger from
exhaust gases and fumes.

Portable units must be firmly secured.

Before

operating, be sure that all safety guards are in place and that you are using
the right size welding cable. Prevent the leads from getting wet or damaged
and avoid trip hazards.
2.

Make connections to the transformer or generator with the proper plugs or


lugs. If you have to extend leads, use proper cable couplings. If you are
working in a confined space, check to see that you have adequate
ventilation. Be sure that safety precautions are taken around welding jobs to
protect other workers. When working above ground level, be sure that the
staging or scaffold is stable. Most welding jobs require the use of both hands,
so be certain that you are adequately tied off to prevent falls.

3.

Wear goggles or welding shields for welding and cutting. They must have the
24

correct filters and be in good condition.

When welding on the job site,

attach your welding shield to a hard hat. Dont forget that those helping you
must wear eye protection and head protection as well. There is always the
possibility of electric shock when welding. Although the voltage is low, a
shock can cause you to fall or drop something.

Be sure that tools are

properly restrained so they will not fall on workers below.


4.

Wear the proper clothing pants and shirt should be neither too loose nor
too tight. While burning or welding, wear close-fitting overalls without cuffs or
turn-ups to prevent sparks from falling into them. Make sure your clothing is
free from oil, grease, and other combustible substances. Because burning
and welding operations create a lot of sparks, wear protective gauntlets and
a leather apron or leather jacket, and be sure the top button of your shirt is
buttoned. Leather gauntlet gloves and strong shoes should always be worn
when performing welding and burning operations. And dont forget, those
working with you or helping you should wear the same kinds of clothing.

5.

Fire is obviously one of the main dangers from welding and cutting
operations. Always make sure that the working area is clean and free from
combustible materials of any kind, including wood and paper. Be especially
leery of oil drums and containers likely to give off combustible vapor. The
slightest spark can be explosive. If something combustible, such as a wood
floor, cannot be moved, cover it with a non-combustible blanket. Do not
allow welding cables and hoses to become strewn around the work area, as
they present perpetual hazards for others to trip over. All welding cables and
hoses should be properly coiled when not in use. Only cylinders in use should
be kept at the work area.

If you must weld or cut near combustible

materials, keep a fire extinguisher at hand.


6.

Many welding and cutting operations produce fumes harmful in heavy


concentrations, and good ventilation is needed to protect against this
hazard. Sometimes special ventilating equipment is necessary. If you have
any doubts about the ventilation on the job, ask your supervisor for his

25

opinion.
7.

When you have completed burning or welding, mark your work hot with
white chalk as a warning to others. While you are cutting, make sure the
piece you are cutting cannot fall and injure someone. When you are not
using welding equipment, always switch the equipment off to prevent others
from getting shocked. No matter where you are welding or burning, always
be certain that adequate fire-fighting equipment is available and ready for
use.

HOUSEKEEPING
HOUSEKEEPING TIPS
1.

Get rid of trash, oil rags, and debris promptly and properly.

2.

Keep work areas and walkways clean and clear.

3.

Throw away cardboard boxes, paper wrappings, and packing materials


when you unpack equipment.

4.

Dont smoke around trash containers.

5.

Wipe up spills right away.

6.

Get rid of food waste promptly and properly to control insect and rodent
problems.

7.

Keep wood, paper, gas, and oil away from heat.

8.

Keep scrap lumber with protruding nails clear from work areas.

9.

Clean up throughout the day; dont leave cleanup for the end of the day or
shift.

10.

Keep flammable liquids in properly covered storage containers; place


flammable rags in a tightly closed metal container that is emptied daily.

11.

Secure material, equipment, and lumber where possible to avoid it blowing


from roofs or high places during heavy winds.

12.

Stack material, equipment, and lumber piles properly to prevent them from
falling or collapsing.

13.

Use proper housekeeping tools, such as brooms, mops, rags, or vacuums.


26

14.

Avoid placing strings or lines across walkways, aisles, and stairways.

LADDER SAFETY
SAFETY PRECAUTIONS
1.

Never use metallic ladders for electrical work.

2.

Dont set ladders on boxes or other objects to make the ladder taller.

3.

Block any doors that may open toward ladders.

4.

Only allow one person on a ladder at a time.

5.

Never use a defective ladder.

SELECTING THE RIGHT LADDER


1.

Choose one that is long enough; and

2.

Provides enough support for the job you need to do.

INSPECTING THE LADDER


1.

Look for bent or damaged parts, missing pieces, cracked rails, and loose
pieces.

USING THE LADDER SAFELY


Make sure the ladder is on firm footing.
Use a landing if the ladder exceeds 30 feet.
Maintain 20 feet from power lines.
Face the ladder while climbing.
Use both hands and maintain three points of contact.
Never overreach when you are on the ladder.
Do not carry tools when climbing. Haul them up on a line or haul them in a sack
from a strap placed over your shoulder.
TIPS FOR CLIMBING DOWN
1.

Maintain three points of contact, always facing the ladder.


27

2.

Place your foot securely on the rung below before changing your handhold.

3.

Dont hurry take it slow.

STORING A LADDER
When you are not using a ladder, keep it on a rack to avoid damaging it or
weakening its supporting parts.

HOISTING AND RIGGING


1.

Be certain the cranes outriggers are deployed, if necessary. The cranes


cable and winch should be checked. The proper slings and hooks should be
selected and they should be carefully inspected before being put to use.
Attach the sling to the hook, being sure the hook has a safety clip. Attach a
guide or tag line to the load to keep it from swaying or hitting anything.

2.

Only one person at a time should give signals to the crane operator, and that
person should always keep his or her eyes on the hoisted load. The signals
used should be standard signals approved by the industry. Dont make up
signals of your own.

3.

If the sling legs are vertical, they can support much more of a load than if
they are horizontal. The angle of the slings will determine the load capacity.

4.

On a job site, you may use a windlass-operated hoist. Know this equipments
lifting capacity so that you dont overload it. Also, try not to lift too heavy a
load too high. If the windlass is operated with a hand crank, be sure to stay
clear of the handle.

That way, if the cable snaps or if the cable drum

accidentally starts to free-spool, the handle wont smash into you.


5.

Before you use a bridge crane, be sure that you thoroughly understand how
all the controls operate and how to cut all power to the crane in case of an
emergency or a malfunction. Before you hoist anything, check to see that
the upper-limit stop is working properly.

When youre hoisting or moving

materials with either a crane moving or a chain hoist, be sure the area is
28

clear. Afterwards, store the equipment out of everyones way.


6.

Before you start hoisting, be sure that everybody but the hoisting crew is clear
of the immediate area. Never stand under a hoisted load or allow anyone
else to do so. Always keep your eyes on the material being hoisted. Use a
guide or tag line to control sway and to keep the load from hitting anything.
Be sure the load is clear of any electric wires.

7.

To find the mechanical advantage of any block and tackle system, just
count the segments of rope supporting the load. Dont count the fall line.
Remember that it only changes the direction of pull: it doesnt support the
load.

8.

The average person can be expected to pull about 100 pounds safely. This
means that if the load you and one other person have to hoist weighs 900
pounds, and the system you have rigged gives a mechanical advantage of
only 3, then the system is unsafe. Each of you would have to pull 150 pounds,
which is too much. You would have to rerig for a mechanical advantage of
at least 5 900 pounds divided by 5 equals 180 pounds or 90 pounds per
person.

9.

The sling should be long enough so that the sling legs are closer to vertical
than horizontal. The angle the sling legs make with the horizontal changes
the amount of weight that each leg must support, even though the weight of
the load stays the same.

10.

For instance, if the load weighs 1,000 pounds and if the sling legs are vertical,
each leg will have to support 500 pounds. If the legs were at a 45-degree
angle to the top of the load, each leg would have to support 707 pounds. If
the angle were 30 degrees, each leg would have to support 1,000 pounds,
even though the total load still weighs only 1,000 pounds.

RIGGING WITH WIRE ROPES


1.

Wire rope, or wire cable, as it is also called, is made up of strands composed


of individual wires.

Generally, wire rope has a hemp core.

Its type is

29

designated by the number of strands per rope and the number of wires per
strand. For example, 6x19 cable has six strands per rope and 19 wires per
strand. As a general rule, the more wires per strand a rope has, the more
flexible it is. However, what a rope gains in flexibility by using more small wires
per strand, it loses in durability because the small wires break more easily.
2.

The size of wire rope is determined by its diameter in inches. However, the
number of strands per wire does not necessarily affect the size of the
diameter.

For example, 1-inch cable can be either 6x37 or 6x19.

Construction, diameter and the type of wire all affect a wire ropes breaking
strength.
3.

You can usually find the safe working load for a particular wire rope directly
from the manufacturers tables. But if the tables arent available, you can
square the diameter of the rope in inches, then multiply the results by 8 to get
the safe working load in tons. But, you also have to consider how much a
wire rope has been affected by wear and damage, and decrease the given
breaking strength accordingly.

4.

Never tie a knot in a wire rope.

It is unsafe and will reduce the ropes

strength by over 75%. Always use an eye to join one rope to another or to
attach the rope to a hook or shackle.
5.

When not being used, wire rope should be coiled in such a way that kinks
and loops wont form.

If the rope is long, coiling it on a spool will help

eliminate kinks. Scrape off dirt and grit as soon as possible, and remove rust
regularly with a wire brush. Coil and store wire rope and slings in a dry, wellventilated place. This area should be away from chemicals, acids, and their
fumes, which will corrode or damage the rope.
RIGGING WITH FIBER ROPES
1.

The most common type of rope used for hoisting is #1 grade Manila. Grades
2 and 3 arent suitable for hoisting. Neither is cotton rope because its too
elastic and slippery. You can recognize Manila rope by its yellowish color
and silvery luster. Number 1 Manila comes in many sizes. Each size has a
30

different tensile or breaking strength.


2.

The industry recommends a safety factor of 10. In other words, divide the
breaking or tensile strength by 10 to get the safe working load. For example,
the new -inch Manila rope has a breaking strength of 600 pounds, which,
divided by 10, provides a safe working load of 60 pounds.

3.

This may sound conservative, but there are good reasons for it. If the load
bounces, it adds to the strain on the rope.

Its also possible that youve

underestimated the weight of the load, or the rope may be old or


deteriorated and only half as strong as its supposed to be. A rope thats
slung over a hook or one that has a knot in it is 30 percent weaker than its
rated strength, even if its new and in good condition. If its bent over a
sharp corner, its strength is cut in half.
4.

Its necessary to give all ropes and slings a thorough inspection at regular
intervals.

Untwist the strands slightly in several places so that you can

examine the inside. It should look as bright and clean as new.


5.

The rope has been weakened by mildew if it smells musty or if the inner fibers
look dark and stained.

Its been damaged by chafing if you find dirt or

sawdust-like, powdery material inside the rope. If strands are broken or if the
rope has been seriously damaged, its unsafe to use it for hoisting.
6.

Thousands of knots and hitches exist. You should be able to tie certain basic
ones and know when and how to use them. The endless sling is formed by
splicing the end of the rope together into a continuous loop. By passing one
end of the loop through the other, it automatically tightens and secures the
load when its put under strain. Another common sling is the choker sling. At
each end of the sling is an eye. You pass one eye through the other and
attach it to the hook. On some occasions, youll attach both eyes to the
hook, making a cradle hitch. Be sure that all eyes and splices are in good
condition and remember that, at best, they are only 80% as strong as
unspliced rope.

7.

Whichever hitch or sling you select, be sure to use the proper dunnage wood

31

or other padding to keep the sling from being damaged by chafing or sharp
corners or edges or by bending too sharply.
8.

Lay the rope out and spray it thoroughly with water. The spray should be
strong enough to remove the dirt but not so powerful that it forces the dirt
into the rope. After you finish spraying, hang the rope up to dry. Wet rope
always should be allowed to dry thoroughly and never allowed to freeze.
Large ropes should be laid out on gratings or something similar so that air can
circulate freely around them.

9.

To store small ropes, coil them and hang them off the floor on pegs. There
should be a piece of at least 4-inch diameter pipe over the pegs. This will
keep sharp bends out of the rope, which weaken it.

HOISTING AND RIGGING: REVIEW


1.

No load should be lifted which exceeds the rated capacity of the crane at
the operating boom angle.

2.

Standard operating signals should be agreed upon and should be used to


direct all operations.

3.

Only one person should be permitted to give signals to the operator unless
the load is being transferred to a point that cannot be monitored by the
signal person. In such cases, a second signal person should be designated.

4.

Slings should be adequate for the load being lifted.

5.

The signal person should determine that a proper sling has been used, and
that it has been correctly applied before he or she signals for the lift
operation.

6.

Slings should be kept in good condition, and inspected for kinks, excessive
wear and breaks before they are put to use.

7.

Double slings should be used when hoisting two or more pieces of material
twelve feet or more in length.

8.

Angles of less than 45 degrees should be avoided when using double slings.

9.

If loads have sharp edges, or if sharp corners must be lifted, pads or saddles

32

should be used to protect the ropes.


10.

Taglines should be used on loads likely to swing.

11.

Taglines should be used on loads that must be guided through a restricted


space.

MECHANICAL SWING STAGE


1.

Ropes can be either fiber or wire. However, they must be wire if youll be
doing any welding or soldering because sparks and acid will do serious
damage to fiber rope. Select the proper ropes and cable for the load to be
supported, and inspect all the equipment before you use it.

2.

When you assemble a swing stage, take all safety precautions. The flooring
must be solid and firm. If you use planks, they must be scaffold planks, free
from damage, rot, large cracks or knots. If the scaffold is over 16 feet long,
erect center posts every 8 feet to support the guardrails. The guardrails must
be installed on both the inside and the outside of the swing stage. In most
cases, you should have guardrails at the ends. Toe boards must be used to
prevent tools or supplies from accidentally falling off the scaffold. And, wire
mesh or some other material must extend between the toe board and the
guardrail.

3.

No matter how you anchor the swing stage to the building, be sure there is a
safety line independent of the stage and that you use your safety belt. Also,
make certain that everything is securely attached to a solid part of the
building. In many cases, eyes have been installed during construction for this
purpose. Be sure you use the proper knots and that they are secure.

4.

Extend your lines and equipment far enough away from the building so they
wont rub or chafe. Make sure the hook is in good condition and has a
spring-loaded safety clip. Before you leave the roof, double check to be
sure everything is secure.

5.

On the ground, recheck all the rigging and hooks. One way to test a stages
33

load-carrying capacity is to raise it about a foot off the ground and put on
twice the weight its supposed to support. Before you raise the stage, make
certain the area is clear. Usually the people riding on a swing stage pull
themselves up to their work area. Pull steadily, evenly and all together.
6.

To find the mechanical advantage of any tackle system, count the segments
of rope supporting the load. Dont count the fall line. If two segments are
supporting the load, the mechanical advantage is 2; if three segments
support the load, the mechanical advantage is 3. As it is unsafe for any
person to pull more than 100 pounds, be certain that your pulley system is
designed with the proper mechanical advantage so you dont have to pull
an excessive load.

7.

While on the stage, use your safety belt and lifeline at all times. When you
reach your working level, tie off the fall lines with the proper knots or hitches
or with a friction brake or lock.

To prevent the stage from swaying

dangerously, be careful how you walk and move. Also, be sure that the tools
and materials youre using are neatly arranged and out of your way. Dont
allow scrap, debris or personal garbage to accumulate, especially where it
might cause you to stumble. And dont throw anything over the side.
8.

Most of the same safety rules apply to the use of the boatswains chair. The
chair itself can be made of different materials, but the most common is a
good piece of 1-inch exterior plywood with -inch fiber rope crossed
underneath the seat so that if the seat should break, the ropes would still
support the rider.

9.

Check to see that everything is properly secured and anchored, and always
keep your safety belt and lifeline securely fastened.

10.

Regardless of how much the rider, the chair and the equipment weigh, have
at least two people pulling the rope. Try to pull evenly and steadily, without
jerking the line tie the line around something secure on the ground.

11.

Remember, when youre hoisting anything, stand as far to one side as


possible. Never stand directly under it, and never allow anyone else to do so.

34

And when you tie off the fall line, either at the chair or on the ground, be sure
you use the proper knot or hitch.
12.

Be sure youre trained in the proper use of each piece of equipment youll
use. The design, capacity and characteristics of special equipment like this
vary from manufacturer to manufacturer. Thats why its vitally important that
you be thoroughly checked out on each piece of equipment before you try
to operate it. If it gets electric power through an alternating current line, be
sure that the line is properly grounded.

13.

The base the equipment stands on must be solid and level. If outriggers are
needed, they must be set firmly in place all around the base.

14.

Never try to exceed the safe lifting capacity of power equipment.

And

before you move this type of equipment, it should be telescoped and all
tools and materials should be secured or removed.

DANGER OVERHEAD
Accidents involving people working or walking under crane booms and buckets are
infrequent, but, when they happen, they often are fatal.

Even if the crane is in

excellent condition and is being run by a first-rate operator, it still should never be
exposed needlessly. Frequently the victim is a mechanic doing an assigned job that
has nothing to do with the crane.
The rule is simple:

Dont stand, walk or work under crane booms, buckets or

suspended loads.

A companion rule is: Hard hats shall be worn by all persons

working in the vicinity of cranes, scaffolds, or any place where an object may fall from
overhead.
In concreting operations, it is especially necessary to keep all personnel away from the
vicinity of the bucket travel. Chunks of semi-hardened concrete frequently drop from
the bucket and can produce a serious injury even if the victim is wearing a safety hat.
35

If the victim is not wearing any head protection, the bump may be fatal.

SCAFFOLD SAFETY
ITS THE LAW
MiOSHA has numerous regulations for scaffolds. Here are a few of the standards:
1.

A qualified person must design scaffolds.

2.

Platform planks must have no more than one inch of space between units.

3.

Platforms must be at least 18 inches wide.

4.

Front-end loaders cannot be used to support scaffold platforms unless


specifically designed for that by the manufacturer.

5.

If the platform is two feet or more above or below the point of access, a
ladder or stair system is required.

6.

For more details on scaffold regulations, see Part 12, Scaffold and Scaffold
Regulations in the Construction Safety Standards.

SAFETY GUIDELINES
Keep platforms fenced and securely fastened.
Keep platforms closely boarded.
Dont stockpile material on the scaffold.
Always wear your hard hat when working on a scaffold.
Remove all materials from the scaffold at the end of the day.
Avoid working on scaffolds during storms or high winds.

LIFTING & BACK SAFETY


PROPER LIFTING TECHNIQUES
1.

Examine the object you are going to lift. It should be stable and shouldnt
have any sharp nails or pieces sticking out.
36

2.

Use good body placement. Make sure you are wearing shoes with traction
and that you have solid footing. Keep a wide stance with your legs. Dont
hold your breath.

3.

Choose your route. Where exactly will you be stepping during the carry? Is it
clear of obstacles and spills? Look for places where you can rest if necessary.

4.

Dont twist. Turn your whole body in the direction you want to move.

5.

Use a safe lifting position. Bend your knees and keep the natural curve in
your back. Pay attention to your feet: they should be shoulder-width apart.
Move as close to the object as possible.

6.

Use your legs. Once you have a firm grip on the object, lift with your legs,
and dont bend your back. If you bend during the lift, you can cause disc or
vertebrae injury.

7.

Move slowly. Take small steps and make sure you can see where you are
going; avoid quick, jerky movements.

8.

Keep the object close to your body. If you move the object away from you,
you risk injury to your back and neck.

UNLOADING TECHNIQUES
1.

Maintain good body placement. Maintain the backs natural curve. Flex
and bend your knees. Do not bend over the load.

2.

Pay attention to your hands. Keep your fingers away from the bottom of the
load.

3.

Keep the object close to your body as you unload or release it. As with lifting,
if you stretch the object away from your body, you risk seriously injuring your
back and neck.

SAFETY TIPS
1.

Keep heavy material stored between waist and shoulder level; the material
will then be easier to lift and set down.

2.

Avoid catching thrown or falling objects that could strain your back.

3.

To lift an object from the ground to above your waist level, stop halfway

37

through the lift and set the load down; then, adjust your grip.
4.

Use your feet to pivot your body when lifting; dont twist your back.

5.

When lifting a load with a partner, try to both face front ward.

6.

Maintain your bodys natural curves.

POWER LOCKOUT PROCEDURE


PURPOSE
The purpose of this procedure is to assure that employees are protected from
unintended machine motion or unintended release of energy which could
cause injury.
MANAGEMENT RESPONSIBILITIES
A. Each supervisor shall train new employees and periodically instruct all of their
employees regarding provisions and requirements of this lockout procedure.
B.

Each supervisor shall effectively enforce compliance of this lockout


procedure including the use of corrective disciplinary action where
necessary.

C. Each supervisor shall assure that the locks and devices required for
compliance with the lockout procedure are provided to their employees.
D. Prior to setting up, adjusting, repairing, servicing, installing or performing
maintenance work on equipment, machinery, tools or processes, the
supervisor shall determine and instruct employees of the steps to be taken to
assure they are not exposed to injury due to unintended machine motion or
release of energy.
EMPLOYEE RESPONSIBILITY
A. Employees shall comply with the lockout procedure.
B.

Employees

shall

consult

with

their

supervisor

or

other

appropriate

knowledgeable management personnel whenever there are any questions


38

regarding their protection.


C. Employees shall obtain and care for the locks and other devices

required

to comply with the lockout procedure.


GENERAL
A. The power source of any equipment, machine, tool or process to be set-up,
adjusted, repaired, serviced, installed, or where maintenance work is to be
performed and unintended motion or release of energy could cause
personal injury, such a power source shall be locked out by each employee
doing the work. Sources of energy, such as springs, air, hydraulic and steam
shall be evaluated in advance to determine whether to retain or relieve the
pressure prior to starting the work.
B.

Safety locks are for the personal protection of the employees and are only
to be used for locking out equipment.

C. Safety locks; adapters, and Danger Tags can be obtained from a


supervisor.
D. Equipment locks and adapters can be obtained from a supervisor. The sole
purpose of the Equipment lock and adapter is to protect the equipment
during periods of time when work has been suspended or interrupted. The
locks are not to be used as a substitute for the employees personal safety
lock.
E.

Personal locks shall contain a tag with employees name on it.

F.

One key of every lock issued shall be retained by the employee to whom it
was issued and the superintendent shall retain the only other key to the lock.

G. Employees shall request assistance from their supervisor if they are unsure of
where or how to lockout equipment.
H. Any questions concerning the lockout procedure should be directed to the
employees supervisor.

39

LOCKING OUT AND ISOLATING THE POWER SOURCE


A. Equipment, machines or processing main disconnect switches shall be
turned off and locked in the off position only after the electrical power is
shut off at the point of operator control. Failure to follow this procedure may
cause arching and possibly an explosion.
B.

Equipment/tools connected to over a 110 volt source of power by a plug-in


cord shall have a locking device applied to the plug attached to the cord
leading to the machine to be considered locked out.

C. Equipment/tools connected to a 110-volt source of power by a plug-in cord


shall be considered locked out if the plug is disconnected and tagged with
a do not start tag.
D. After locking out the power source, the employee shall try the equipment,
machine, or process controls to ensure no unintended motion will occur; or
test the equipment, machine or process by use of appropriate test
equipment to determine that the energy isolation has been effective.
E.

When two or more employees work on the same equipment, each is


responsible for attaching his/her lock. Safety locks and adapters are to be
fixed on levers, switches, valves, etc. in the nonoperative (off) position.

F.

An employee who is assigned to a job and upon arrival finds an Equipment


Lock, Adaptor, and Danger Tags affixed to the equipment shall take
the following action:
1.

Affix his/her personal lock to the Equipment Adaptor.

2.

Determine who placed the equipment out of service and contact all
parties who have locks on the equipment to determine if the assignment
to be performed would affect their safety. The assignment will proceed
only if safe to do so with all parties involved.

3.

Try the controls to ensure no unintended motion will occur before


starting work or qualified personnel shall test the equipment, or process
by use of appropriate test equipment to determine that the energy
isolation has been effective.

(Such testing equipment is only to be


40

employed by trained qualified personnel.)

PERFORMING TEST AND ADJUSTMENTS DURING LOCKOUT


A.

Power may be turned on when it is required to perform tests or adjustments.


All of the rules pertaining to removing locks and restoring power shall be
followed.

The equipment or process shall again be locked out if it is

necessary to continue work after completing the test or adjustments.


B.

If the employee leaves the job before its completion, such as job
reassignment, the employee shall remove his/her personal lock and
adaptor and replace it with an Equipment lock and adaptor. In addition,
the employee will prepare and attach a Danger Tag indicating the
reason the equipment is locked out (should more than one employee be
assigned to the job, the last employee removing his/her lock will be
responsible for affixing the Equipment lock, adaptor and the Danger
Tag).

C.

Upon completion of the work, each employee will remove his/her lock,
rendering the machine operable when the last lock is removed.

D.

The employee responsible for removing the last lock, before doing so, shall
assure that all guards have been replaced, the equipment, machine, or
process is cleared for operation, and appropriate personnel notified that
power is being restored. This employee is also responsible for removing the
Equipment lock and returning it to the supervisor.

VII. EMERGENCY SAFETY LOCK REMOVAL


A.

The superintendent, or other designated management person, will be


authorized to remove an employees lock under the following conditions:
1.

Receipt of a written request signed by the appropriate supervisor that


shall state the reason the employee is not able to remove the lock.
41

The supervisor is responsible for making certain all the requirements for
restoring power are followed.

CONFINED SPACE ENTRY


No employee shall enter areas defined below without authorization:
A space that is NOT DESIGNED FOR CONTINUOUS employee OCCUPANCY; and
Is large enough and so configured that a person can bodily enter into and perform
assigned work; and
Has LIMITED or RESTRICTED means for ENTRY or EXIT; and
May have a POSSIBLE HAZARDOUS ATMOSPHERE that may expose employees to
the risk of death, incapacitation, impairment of ability to self rescue caused by:
Flammable gas
Airborne combustible dust
Atmospheric oxygen concentration below 19.5 or above 23.5%
A toxic atmosphere or substance
Danger of engulfment
UNTIL AN AUTHORIZED PERSON EVALUATES THE AREA AND AUTHORIZES ENTRY.

GENERAL CONFINED SPACE ENTRY PROCEDURE


There shall be no unauthorized entry into a confined space by any person.
An authorized person shall examine, test and evaluate a potential entry space and
determine if it is a NON-PERMIT SPACE and meets the following requirements:
It does NOT contain any atmospheric hazards or dangers or engulfment
capable of causing death or serious physical harm;
42

The space has been PROVEN SAFE, has been VERIFIED, DOCUMENTED,
and has a CERTIFIED GUARANTEE of a safe environment.
3. If the conditions in #2 have been satisfied, the ALTERNATE ENTRY PROCEDURE
may be followed.
4. If conditions in #2 are not met and has any of the following, the PERMIT ENTRY
PROCEDURE must be followed:

THE SPACE:
Contains or has a potential to contain a HAZARDOUS ATMOSPHERE.
Contains a material that has a potential for ENGULFING an entrant.
Has an internal configuration such that an entrant could be trapped or
asphyxiated by inwardly converging wall or by a floor which slopes
downward and tapers to a smaller cross section; or
Contains any other recognized serious safety or health hazard.

43

HAZARD COMMUNICATION PROGRAM


GENERAL
The following Hazard Communication Program has been established for Bloom
General Contracting, Inc. This program will be available for review by all employees.
I.

HAZARD DETERMINATION
Bloom General Contracting, Inc. will be relying on material safety data sheets
from suppliers to meet determination requirements.
When use or storage of explosives or other hazardous materials or equipment or
unusual methods are necessary for execution of the work, the Subcontractor,
Field Superintendent or employee shall exercise utmost care and carry on
such activities under the supervision of properly qualified personnel.

II.

LABELING
The Field Superintendent is responsible for seeing that all hazardous materials
coming onto the site are properly labeled, tagged or marked.
All labels should be checked for identity, hazard warning, name and address of
responsible party.
The Field Superintendent will be responsible for seeing that all portable
containers used in the work area are labeled with identity and hazard
warnings if applicable.
Piping systems shall be labeled at access points.

III.

MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEETS (MSDS)


The Superintendent will be responsible for compiling a master MSDS file to be
kept in the job trailer.
Copies of MSDS(s) for all hazardous chemicals to which job site employees may
be exposed will be kept in a file at a central location on the job site and will
be available for review to all employees during each work shift. Copies will
44

be available upon request to the Superintendent.


The Field Superintendent will be provided with the required MIOSHA right-toknow posters and postings notifying employees of new or revised MSDS(s)
within five (5) days of receipt of new or revised MSDS(s).
IV.

EMPLOYEE INFORMATION AND TRAINING


The Field Superintendent or Project Manager shall coordinate and maintain
records of training for Bloom General Contracting, Inc. employees.
Before starting work, or as soon as possible thereafter, each new employee will
be given information on:
Hazardous Material Safety Information
Hazardous Material Emergency Procedures
Hazardous Material Identification and Labeling
When any new hazardous chemical is introduced into the job site, each
employee will be given information in the same manner as during the
orientation. The Superintendent will be responsible for seeing that MSDS(s) on
the new chemical are available.

V.

HAZARDOUS NON-ROUTINE TASKS


On any occasion that employees are required to do work in hazardous area
(e.g. confined spaces), prior to starting the work, each employee will be
given information about the hazards involved in these areas. This information
will include:
Specific Chemical Hazards
Protection/Safety Measures which can lessen the risks.
Information about ventilation, respirators, the presence of any other
employees and emergency procedures.
It is the policy of Bloom General Contracting, Inc. that no employee will begin
work in a confined space, or any non-routine task without first receiving a
safety briefing.

45

VI.

INFORMING SUBCONTRACTORS
It is the responsibility of the Superintendent to provide the subcontractors with
the following information:
Hazardous chemicals to which they may be exposed while on the job site.
Location of all Material Safety Data Sheets as coordinated by the
Superintendent.
The Project Manager will coordinate with the Field Superintendent to ensure that
Subcontractors are given this information prior to entering the job site.
The Project Manager and/or Superintendent will request and receive from all
Subcontractors the following information:
Subcontractors MSDS(s) for all hazardous chemicals they will be using on
the job site.
Hazardous chemicals other Contractors and Subcontractors may be
exposed to during their stay on the job site.
The Project Manager will coordinate with the Superintendent to ensure that all
Subcontractors have complied with the above requirements before
mobilizing on the job site.

VII.

EMERGENCY PROCEDURES
If, at any time, Bloom General Contracting, Inc., the Owner or the Subcontractor
becomes aware of the presence of hazardous chemicals, each shall notify
the others designated safety representative and take whatever steps are
necessary, if any, with the other to eliminate, terminate, abate or rectify the
condition to protect people and their property from hazard.
If reasonable precautions will be inadequate to prevent foreseeable bodily
injury or death to persons resulting from a material or substance, including
but not limited to asbestos or polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB), encountered
on the site, Bloom General Contracting, Inc., the Owner or the Subcontractor
shall, upon recognizing the condition, immediately stop work in the affected
area

and

report

the

condition

to

the

others

designated

safety

46

representative.
Local Emergency, Fire, and Police phone numbers shall be posted in a visible
location on the job site.
All containers of chemical materials used by the Subcontractor, including spent
materials and unused material, must be removed by the Subcontractor from
the Owners premises, transported by Environmental Protection Agencyapproved transporters when required, and disposed of in compliance with
the Environmental Protection Agency rules and regulations including
approved disposal sites.

47

VIII.

LIST OF HAZARDOUS CHEMICALS


This is a list of the chemicals used by Bloom General Contracting, Inc.
MATERIAL (Name on label and MSDS)

48

FIRST AID
First Aid consists of two basic steps:
1)
2)

Providing the most important basic treatment to save lives and minimize injuries.
Obtaining prompt professional help such as paramedics or a rescue squad.

GENERAL TIPS
In case of an injury:
1. Make sure that youre not exposing yourself to the same risk.
2. Do not attempt to move the injured person unless there is a possibility of fire, explosion
or falling walls.
3. Check to see if the victim is breathing, is bleeding or is unconscious.
4. Always remain calm and try to comfort and reassure the injured person.

ARTIFICIAL RESPIRATION
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.

12.

Act quickly once a person stops breathing he has only 4 6 minutes to live.
With one hand, tilt the head back gently so the chin is pointing upward.
Place the other hand on the victims forehead and push his/her head backward.
Pinch the victims nose with thumb and finger of the hand on his/her forehead.
Take a deep breath. Cover the victims mouth completely with your mouth and blow
four quick breaths into his/her mouth in 3 5 seconds. If the chest doesnt rise,
move his/her head back farther and try again.
Remove your mouth from the victims mouth. Stop when the chest is expanded.
Watch the chest to see that it falls as air leaves the lungs.
If there is still no breathing, blow one breath into the victims mouth. Stop when the
chest is expanded. Watch the chest to see that it falls as air leaves the lungs.
Repeat the blowing cycle at the rate of one breath every 5 seconds.
Make sure that the chest rises each time you breathe into the victims mouth.
Be sure that you have an airtight seal between your mouth and the victims mouth so
that air does not escape when you blow.
Continue giving artificial respiration until the victim starts breathing by himself, until
someone else takes over, until the victim is pronounced dead by a physician, or until
the rescuer has to stop from exhaustion.
Restarting breathing takes priority over first aid treatment.

49

FIRST AID
BLEEDING
1.
2.

3.
4.

5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.

13.
14.

Injuries involving bleeding are of next importance in order of treatment.


Adults can lose one pint of blood without serious effects. However, a loss of two
pints begins to be serious. A victim with arterial cuts or internal bleeding can bleed
to death in a very short time.
First aid for bleeding requires stopping the bleeding quickly and getting the victim to
the hospital in case a blood transfusion is needed.
If there is bleeding from a wound, apply a sterile dressing or anything else thats
clean directly over the bleeding area and press hard. You can use your bare hand if
nothing else is available.
Keep pressing for 20 minutes or more until the bleeding stops. Once you apply a
dressing, do not remove it. Let a clot form.
Lift a bleeding arm or leg in the air unless the limb is broken.
Keep the victim lying still. Moving about increases bleeding and hinders clotting.
If theres glass or metal in a small cut or wound and you can flush it out with water,
do so.
If an object is imbedded or impaled, dont remove it. Apply pressure just above it to
stop the bleeding.
Cover the wound with a sterile dressing. Do not cough, breathe on, or handle the
part of the dressing which covers the wound.
The use of a tourniquet is dangerous and one should not be used to stop bleeding
unless other methods are completely useless.
Head injuries may result in bleeding from the ear or nose. Do not try to stop this
bleeding or any draining of fluid. Lay the victim down. Place a loose pad over the
ear. Keep the bleeding ear downward, unless there is a neck injury or other reason
not to do so.
Remember, all cuts or puncture wounds should be treated. However, a minor
scrape improperly treated can result in serious infection.
Minor cuts should be washed with soap and water, treated with an antiseptic, and
covered with a sterile dressing.

UNCONSCIOUS
1.

2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Unconsciousness may occur after a fall, or from head injuries, an electric shock,
illness or poisoning. There is a loss of consciousness if a person has trouble talking
in sentences or walking or if the victim cant make any response at all.
In case the victim is unconscious, skilled professional help is needed immediately.
Help the victim get air by clearing the mouth of any debris or foreign matter.
If the victim is not breathing, give artificial respiration.
When breathing begins, turn the victim on his side so fluids can drain unless there
are neck or spinal injuries.
If youre not sure, just keep the person lying flat, but watch for strangling or choking.
50

FIRST AID
- cont.
7.
8.
9.

Give nothing by mouth to an unconscious person or to someone who is nauseated.


Cover the victim with a blanket.
Keep a constant watch over an unconscious person or one who has been
unconscious.

ELECTRIC SHOCK AND BURNS


1.

2.
3.

4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.

13.

You may face special problems when the unconscious or injured person is a victim
of electric shock. First, the victim may still be in contact with live electricity. Make
sure its safe to approach the person. Do not touch the victim until you are sure the
current is off. Use an insulated object such as a wooden pole, a broom or wadded
newspaper to get the victim away from the electricity supply.
Second, electric shock often stops breathing. Check for breathing immediately and
resuscitate if necessary as previously described.
Third, the victim may have electrical burns. Whether from heat, friction, chemicals or
flash burns, burned areas should be treated as quickly as possible following the burn
by showering the affected area in cold water or by immersing it in cold water.
Cooling should be continued for 10 minutes, or until help arrives. This lessens the
severity of the burn and relieves pain.
Cover the burned area with a sterile dressing. Packaged sterile dressings are best,
as infection and germs enter through burned skin.
Do not use absorbent cotton to cover burns. It will stick to the burned flesh and
hinder treatment.
If clothing has stuck to a burn, place the sterile dressing quickly over the clothes. Do
not remove the clothing.
If there is a wound where electricity has entered the body, there will be an exit
wound somewhere else. Look for the possibility of bleeding at the exit wound.
Severe chemical burns may be caused by suphuric or hydrochloric acids or by lye,
ammonia, caustic soda or caustic potash.
Speed is vital in rinsing off chemicals under a water tap or shower. Rinse, shower,
or hose for 10 minutes, removing contaminated clothing.
Apply a dry, sterile dressing and get medical help quickly.
Fluid is lost in burn victims. If medical help wont arrive for some time, offer the
victim about cup of water with a little salt in it to sip slowly. Remember, do not
give fluids by mouth to an unconscious person or to one who is nauseated.
In treating burns, DO NOT:
1. Break blisters;
5. Take the dressing off;
2. Apply lotion, antiseptic, grease;
6. Apply absorbent cotton; or
3. Touch the burned area;
7. Undress or handle the victim
4. Cough or breathe on the burned
any more than necessary.
area;
51

FIRST AID
EYE INJURIES
1.

2.
3.
4.

5.

6.

If a chemical is splashed or sprayed into the eye: Turn the victims head toward the
injured eye so that fluid wont pour into the good eye. Pour large amounts of running
tap water into the injured eye. Hold the eyelids apart so that the water can wash the
entire eyeball. Continue for 10 to 15 minutes.
Cover the injured eye with a sterile pad and get professional help.
Keep the victim from rubbing the injured eye.
Often, a small object in the eye can be gently removed with the corner of a clean
handkerchief or paper tissue. If it doesnt come out easily, dont make any further
attempts other than flushing with water.
In case of a deep penetrating eye injury, dont remove the object. Cover both eyes
with a loose sterile or clean bandage. Covering both eyes keeps the injured eye
from moving.
Keep the victim lying quietly on the back, while you get professional help.

LIMBS CAUGHT IN MACHINERY


1.

2.
3.
4.
5.

6.

7.
8.

Serious injuries can result from getting caught in machinery. Here, your job is to
stop the bleeding and give support and encouragement to the victim. Let the injured
person know that help is on the way.
If its a complicated removal, dont attempt to remove the victim. If its a simple
matter of lifting off an object, then do so.
If an amputation occurs, lay the victim down if possible, elevate the remaining part of
the limb, and apply a dressing to the stump and bandage it tightly.
Apply firm pressure with the hands around the end of the stump above the
amputation site.
Recover the severed body part, cover it with ice water if possible, and transport it to
the hospital wrapped in a clean dressing. It may be possible for surgeons to
reattach it to the body.
Sometimes, the most important thing you can do if you are not trained to give First
Aid, is to simply see that nothing is done to make the situation worse before help
arrives.
In deciding what to do you will have to rely on your own common sense.
Telephone numbers for professional emergency medical assistance should be
conspicuously posted and should include specific accident information for the caller
to give.

52

FIRST AID
MOVING THE VICTIM
1.

2.
3.
4.

5.
6.

If there is an extreme emergency and the person must be pulled to safety, support
him under the shoulders, keeping the body in a straight line; do not let him twist or
bend.
Be gentle. Pull the person in the direction of the length of the body, not sideways.
If possible, place the victim on a board or a stretcher. Secure the victim so he or she
wont slide out or fall off if the stretcher tips.
If there is no possible way to get an ambulance and you must transport the victim,
drive calmly and carefully. This will not only help prevent another possible accident,
but it is vital for the victim that you drive at moderate speed, making gentle starts
and stops. Transportation can cause exhausting stress to an injured person.
People with head and chest injuries, or broken legs, arms, pelvises or backs, should
be transported lying down with the injured part immobilized.
Remember, dont move them unless no other alternative exists.

HEAT STROKE / HEAT EXHAUSTION


1.

2.
3.
4.
5.

6.

7.
8.
9.
10.

Exposure to the weather creates special physical stress for workers in the field.
Extreme heat causes large amounts of water and salt to be lost from the body in
perspiration and may result in heat stroke, heat exhaustion, or heat cramps. Heat
stroke is a life-threatening emergency and requires prompt medical treatment.
With heat stroke the body temperature is extremely high. The skin is hot, red and
dry. The pulse is strong and rapid. The victim may be unconscious.
Cool the body down. Sponge the victim with cool water or rubbing alcohol. Use
fans or get the person to an air conditioned room.
Dont let the victim be chilled. And dont give stimulants such as coffee, tea, coke or
alcohol.
Heat exhaustion is very different from heat stroke. The temperature is nearly
normal. The skin is pale and clammy. There is a great deal of perspiration and
possibly headache, weakness, cramps and nausea. There may be a feeling of
faintness.
Give the conscious victim sips of salt water, half a glass every 15 minutes for an
hour. Use 1 level teaspoon of salt per full glass. Discontinue fluids if the victim is
nauseated or vomits.
Have the victim lie down with his feet raised and supported 8 to 12 inches from the
ground.
Loosen the victims clothing. Sponge the body with cool water or rubbing alcohol.
Use fans or get the victim to an air conditioned room.
After an attack of heat exhaustion, the person should rest for several days and avoid
very high temperatures.
Drinking plenty of water and increasing your salt intake can help prevent heat illness.
Moderate eating habits and wearing light-colored clothing will also help.
53

FIRST AID
HEART ATTACK
1.

2.
3.

4.
5.
6.
7.

8.

Stresses from weather and physical exertion can bring on other sudden illnesses,
such as heart attack. The victim may never have had any previous indication of
heart disease.
The attack may result in unconsciousness and if it is severe, the victim may die
suddenly.
The main symptoms of acute heart attack are shortness of breath and pain in the
chest, upper abdomen, shoulders and arms, particularly the left. There can also be
indigestion, nausea, and vomiting.
Stay calm. Reassure the victim and help him or her find a comfortable position.
Administer any medication for heart palpitations the victim may have.
Have someone call for an ambulance equipped with oxygen.
If the victim is not breathing, apply artificial respiration.
Cardiopulmonary resuscitation, or CPR, could save the life of a heart attack victim
who has stopped breathing. CPR provides circulation and breathing to a person
whose heart and lungs have stopped functioning. Its a combination of external
manual manipulation and mouth-to-mouth resuscitation. Thousands of deaths could
be prevented each year if CPR were given in the first few seconds after heart failure.
CPR should never be attempted, however, by anyone who is not trained. You can
receive the necessary training by enrolling in a special CPR course offered by the
American Red Cross and the American Heart Association.

FRACTURES (BROKEN BONES)


Fracture classification:
Simple, where the broken ends of the bone do not cut open the skin.
Compound, where the broken end of the bone may have cut the skin. Either the injury
that fractured the bone penetrated the skin, or the broken end of the bone cut through
the tissue and protruded through the skin.
Complicated, where in addition to the fracture an important internal organ may also be
injured. A complicated fracture may also be simple or compound.
1.

If the broken bone is the result of a major trauma or injury, call 911 or your local
emergency number. Also call for emergency help if:
a. The person is unresponsive, isnt breathing or isnt moving.
Begin
cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) if theres no respiration or heartbeat.
b. There is heavy bleeding.
c. Even gentle pressure or movement causes pain.
54

FIRST AID
- cont.
d. The limb or joint appears deformed.
e. The bone has pierced the skin.
f. The extremity of the injured arm or leg, such as a toe or finger, is numb or bluish
at the tip.
g. You suspect a bone is broken in the hip, pelvis or upper leg (for example, the leg
and foot turn outward abnormally, compared with the uninjured leg).
2.

Take these actions immediately while waiting for medical help:


a. Stop any bleeding. Apply pressure to the wound with a sterile bandage, a clean
cloth or a clean piece of clothing.
b. Immobilize the injured area. Dont try to realign the bone, but if youve been
trained in how to splint and professional help isnt readily available, apply a splint
to the area (see next section on how to splint).
c. Apply ice packs to limit swelling and help relieve pain until emergency
personnel arrive. Dont apply ice directly to the skin wrap the ice in a towel,
piece of cloth or some other material.
d. Treat for shock. If the person feels faint or is breathing short, rapid breaths, lay
the person down with the head slightly lower than the trunk and, if possible,
elevate the legs.

3.

Splints, Padding, Bandages, Slings, and Swathes:


a. Splints: Splints may be improvised from such items as boards, poles, sticks, tree
limbs, rolled magazines, rolled newspapers, or cardboard.
How to Splint a Fracture:
A basic rule of splinting is that the joint above and below the broken bone should
be immobilized to protect the fracture site. For example, if the lower leg is
broken, the splint should immobilize both the ankle and the knee.

(using a board)

(using a magazine)

(using a pillow)

55

- cont.
For a lower arm or wrist fracture, carefully place a board, folded newspaper,
magazine, or heavy piece of clothing under the arm. Tie it in place with pieces of
cloth.
A lower leg or ankle fracture can be splinted similarly, with a bulky garment or
blanket wrapped and secured around the limb.
If you suspect that someone's foot is fractured, Do Not Remove the Shoe. Place
a board beneath the sole and tie it to the shoe. Do not permit the patient to
walk on foot. Carry him or transport him on stretcher.
A large hairpin or popsicle stick may be used as an emergency splint for a
broken finger. Tape it securely for the trip to the doctor.

b. Padding: Padding may be improvised from such items as a jacket, blanket, etc
or leafy vegetation.
c. Bandages: Bandages may be improvised from belts or strips torn from clothing
or blankets. Narrow materials such as wire or cord should not be used to secure
a splint in place.
d. Slings: A sling is a bandage (or improvised material such as a piece of cloth, a
belt and so forth) suspended from the neck to support an upper extremity. Also,
slings may be improvised by using the tail of a coat or shirt, and pieces torn from
such items as clothing and blankets. The triangular bandage is ideal for this
purpose. Remember that the casualty's hand should be higher than his elbow,
and the sling should be applied so that the supporting pressure is on the
uninjured side.

56

FIRST AID
- cont.
How to Make a Sling:
To make a sling, cut a piece of cloth, such as a
pillowcase, about 40 inches square. Then cut or
fold the square diagonally to make a triangle.
Slip one end of the bandage under the arm and
over the shoulder. Bring the other end of the
bandage over the other shoulder, cradling the
arm. Tie the ends of the bandage behind the
neck. Fasten the edge of the bandage, near the
elbow, with a safety pin.

e. Swathes: Swathes are any bands (pieces of cloth and so forth) that are used to
further immobilize a splinted fracture. Triangular and cravat bandages are often
used as or referred to as swathe bandages. The purpose of the swathe is to
immobilize, therefore, the swathe bandage is placed above and/or below the
fracture--not over it.

SHOCK
Shock may result from trauma, heatstroke, allergic reactions, severe infection, poisoning or
other causes. Various signs and symptoms appear in a person experiencing shock:

The skin is cool and clammy. It may appear pale or gray.


The pulse is weak and rapid. Breathing may be slow and shallow, or hyperventilation
(rapid or deep breathing) may occur. Blood pressure is below normal.
The eyes lack luster and may seem to stare. Sometimes the pupils are dilated.
The person may be conscious or unconscious. If conscious, the person may feel faint
or be very weak or confused. Shock sometimes causes a person to become overly
excited and anxious.

If you suspect shock, even if the person seems normal after an injury:
1. Dial 911 or call your local emergency number.
2. Have the person lie down on his or her back with feet higher than the head. If raising the
legs will cause pain or further injury, keep him or her flat. Keep the person still.
3. Check for signs of circulation (breathing, coughing or movement). If absent, begin CPR.

57

FIRST AID
- cont.
4. Keep the person warm and comfortable. Loosen belt(s) and tight clothing and cover the
person with a blanket. Even if the person complains of thirst, give nothing by mouth.
5. If the person vomits or bleeds from the mouth, turn the person on his or her side to
prevent choking.
6. Seek treatment for injuries such as bleeding or broken bones.

HEAD TRAUMA
Most head trauma involves injuries that are minor and don't require hospitalization. However,
dial 911 or call for emergency medical assistance if any of the following signs are apparent:

Severe head or facial bleeding


Change in level of consciousness for more than a few seconds
Black-and-blue discoloration below the eyes or behind the ears
Cessation of breathing
Confusion
Loss of balance
Weakness or an inability to use an arm or leg
Unequal pupil size
Repeated vomiting
Slurred speech

If severe head trauma occurs:


1.

Keep the person still. Until medical help arrives, keep the person who sustained the
injury lying down and quiet in a darkened room, with the head and shoulders
slightly elevated. Don't move the person unless necessary and avoid moving the
person's neck.

2.

Stop any bleeding. Apply firm pressure to the wound with sterile gauze or a clean
cloth. But don't apply direct pressure to the wound if you suspect a skull fracture.

3.

Watch for changes in breathing and alertness. If the person shows no signs of
circulation (breathing, coughing or movement), begin CPR.

58

FIRST AID
TRAUMATIC AMPUTATION
1.

Check the victim's airway (open if necessary); check breathing and circulation. If
necessary, begin rescue breathing, CPR or bleeding control.

2.

Try to calm and reassure the victim as much as possible. Amputation is painful and
extremely frightening.

3.

Control bleeding by applying direct pressure to the wound, by elevating the injured
area, and, if necessary, by using pressure point bleeding control. If the bleeding
continues, recheck the source of the bleeding and reapply direct pressure, with help
from someone who is not fatigued. If the victim is suffering from life-threatening
bleeding, a constriction bandage or tourniquet will be easier to use than
compression of pressure points.

4.

Save any severed body parts and ensure that they stay with the patient. Remove
contaminating material if possible, and gently rinse the body part if the cut end is
contaminated with dirt. Wrap the severed part in a clean, damp cloth, place it in a
sealed plastic bag and immerse the bag in cold water (ice water if available). Do not
directly immerse the part in water and don't put the severed part directly on ice. Do
not use dry ice as this will cause frostbite and injury to the part. If cold water is not
available, keep the part away from heat as much as possible. Save it for the
emergency personnel, or take it to the hospital. Cooling the severed part will keep it
viable for about 18 hours. Without cooling, it will only remain viable for about 4 to 6
hours.

5.

Take steps to prevent shock. Lay the victim flat, raise the feet about 12 inches and
cover the victim with a coat or blanket. DO NOT place the victim in this position if a
head, neck, back or leg injury is suspected or if it makes the victim uncomfortable.

6.

Once the bleeding at the site of the amputation is under control, examine the person
for other signs of injury that require emergency treatment. Treat fractures, additional
cuts and other injuries appropriately.

7.

Stay with the victim until medical help is obtained.

DO NOT:

DO NOT forget that saving the victim's life is more important than saving a body part.

DO NOT overlook other, less obvious, injuries.

DO NOT attempt to push any part back into place.

DO NOT decide that a body part is too small to save.


59

FIRST AID
- cont.

DO NOT place a tourniquet, unless the bleeding is life threatening, as the entire limb
may be placed in jeopardy.

DO NOT raise false hopes of reattachment.

SUMMARY
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Remember to keep calm and dont panic.


Notify your supervisor immediately.
Treat only the most urgent symptoms.
Promptly get professional help.
Enroll in a first aid course learn to give artificial respiration and CPR.

60

ICHIGAN
Department of Labor and Economic Growth

MIOSHA PROGRAM DIRECTORY


MIOSHA Information Line
WEB SITE

1-800-TO-MIOSHA (866-4674)

www.michigan.gov/miosha

Michigan Occupation Safety & Health Administration (MIOSHA)


(517) 322-1814
Responsible for overall administration of MIOSHA program, and for bureau policy decisions and
operations.
Appeals Division
(517) 322-1297
Represents the bureau in formal appeals of citations generated by MIOSHA inspections.
Construction Safety & Health Division
(517) 322-1856
Regulates working conditions of public and private employees by enforcing construction safety and
health standards including accident and complaint investigations on construction sites. Also,
administers the asbestos program. Web Site address: www.michigan.gov/mioshaconstruction

Asbestos Program

(517) 322-1320

The Asbestos Program can be located at www.michigan.gov/asbestos


General Industry Safety & Health Division
(517) 322-1831
Regulates working conditions of public and private employees by enforcing general industry safety
and health standards including accident and complaint investigations. This division regulates
employee safety and health in virtually every type of work setting except mining, domestic, and
construction. Also administers the employee discrimination program. Web Site address:
www.michigan.gov/mioshageneralindustry

Employee Discrimination Section

(313) 456-3109

Administers and enforces provisions of MIOSHA covering employee


complaints of alleged discrimination as provided in Section 65 of Act 154 of
1974 as amended.

ICHIGAN
Department of Labor and Economic Growth

MIOSHA PROGRAM DIRECTORY


Consultation Education and Training Division
(517) 322-1809
Provides free in-house MIOSHA safety and health education, training, and consultation services to
employers and employees, maintains library of safety publications, and provides for the lending of
videos, and distribution of publications at no cost to customers.
CET Services are located at www.michigan.gov/cet
To receive CET E-mail Announcements about upcoming training programs, go to:
www.michigan.gov/mioshatraining and follow the instructions.
Management and Technical Services Division
(517) 322-1851
Provides centralized services for Freedom of Information requests, budget, data collection and
analysis, lab services, equipment maintenance, and information technology. Also, administers the
Standards Section and the Management Information Systems Section (Recordkeeping questions and
forms.)
(517) 322-1845
MIOSHA Standards Section
Coordinates the necessary steps and procedures for promulgating occupational
safety and health standards and MIOSHA regulations and distributes MIOSHA
standards.
MIOSHA Standards are located at www.michigan.gov/mioshastandards.
To receive public notices on standards, go to the above link and click on MIOSHA
Standards Mailing List and follow the instructions.
(517) 322-1851
Management Information Systems Section
Coordinates management information system, provides analysis of injury/illness
data, prepares MIOSHA statistical reports, distributes MIOSHA recordkeeping and
answers questions on recordkeeping requirements.
Line is in service 24 hours a day
1-800-858-0397
All worker fatalities and catastrophes of 3 or more employees being hospitalized from the same
incident must be reported to MIOSHA within 8 hours.

FATALITY HOTLINE

INFORMATION FOR EMPLOYERS


*Poster requirements are based on jurisdiction. To determine whether your business is under federal or
state jurisdiction, please contact the agencies listed below under required workplace posters. You may
then obtain the appropriate posters from the state or federal agency.
If other people work for you, you may have responsibilities to both the state and federal governments. Note: If
the business is a corporation, anyone who performs services for the corporation or receives remuneration
(including any owners) is considered an employee. Following is a list of those responsibilities.
State and Federal Taxes
Employers must register with the Internal Revenue Service 1-800-829-1040 for federal income tax withholding
and social security taxes; and the Michigan Department of Treasury, Treasury Building, Lansing, MI 48922
(517) 373-0888, for state income tax withholding for their employees. These taxes must be withheld from each
employees wages and paid to the appropriate taxing agency. Employers also must pay a portion of the social
security tax for their employees. Some cities levy a city income tax. Contact the City Treasurers Office for
information.
State Unemployment Insurance
Employers must register with the Unemployment Insurance Agency (UIA) for unemployment taxes. Contact the
Employer Customer Relations office, 3024 W. Grand Blvd., Suite 13-150, Detroit, MI 48202, telephone: 1-800638-3994 or (313) 456-2180 for Tax Office/Team support. Unemployment taxes are paid by the employer no
deduction is allowed from an employees wages.
Federal Unemployment Insurance
Employers must also pay federal unemployment taxes. Contact the Internal Revenue Service
1-800-829-1040 for information. Unemployment taxes are paid by the employer - no deduction is allowed from
any employees wages.
Workers Compensation
Most employers are required to provide workers compensation coverage for their employees. A workers
compensation policy is purchased from a private insurance company. Contact the Workers Compensation
Agency, Box 30016, Lansing, MI 48909, telephone: (517) 322-1195 or 1-888-396-5041 for information.
Health and Safety Information
Employers must comply with health and safety standards under federal and state Occupational Safety and
Health Acts (OSHA); and Right-to-Know laws. Contact the Department of Labor & Economic Growth,
Michigan Occupational Safety & Health Administration, Consultation Education & Training Division P.O. Box
30643, Lansing, MI 48909-8143: for MIOSHA safety and health information telephone (517) 322-1809.
Immigration Law Compliance
All employers must verify the employment eligibility of all employees hired after November 6, 1986 by
reviewing documents presented by employees and recording information on a verification form. Contact the
U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services at 1-800-357-2099 for questions on "Employment Eligibility
Verification" or visit their website at http://uscis.gov/and go to "Employer Information." For all other questions
on Immigrations contact the National Customer Service Center at 1-800-375-5283.
*Michigan Minimum Wage
Federal and state regulations set minimum wage and overtime standards. For information, contact the U.S.
Department of Labor at (313) 226-7447 or (616) 456-2004, or the Michigan Department of Labor & Economic
Growth, Wage & Hour Division, Box 30476, Lansing, MI 48909-7976, telephone: (517) 335-0400.

Age Restrictions
Employers hiring anyone under the age of 18 should be aware of restrictions on the type of work permitted,
hours of work, and the need for a work permit. Contact: Michigan Department of Labor & Economic Growth,
Wage & Hour Division, Box 30476, Lansing, MI 48909-7976, telephone: (517) 322-1825.
Michigan Whistleblowers Protection Act Poster - Obtain a copy of Public Act 469 of 1980 from the law
library, (517) 373-0630.
U.S. Department of Labor Posters
Family Medical Leave Act
Federal Migrant and Seasonal Agricultural Worker Protection Act (MSPA)
REQUIRED WORKPLACE POSTERS:
Employers are required to display certain posters in the workplace. The following is a list of the required posters
and where they can be obtained:
Michigan Safety and Health Protection on the Job - Michigan Right to Know Laws
Contact Michigan Department of Labor & Economic Growth, Michigan Occupational Safety & Health
Administration, Consultation Education & Training Division, Box 30643, Lansing, MI 48909-8143, telephone:
(517) 322-1809.
MSDS Location Poster and MSDS New & Revised Poster - Required for businesses that have hazardous
chemicals. Contact Michigan Department of Labor & Economic Growth, Michigan Occupational Safety &
Health Administration, Consultation Education & Training Division, Box 30643, Lansing, MI 48909-8143,
telephone: (517) 322-1809.
Your Rights Under the USERRA (Uniformed Services Employment and Reemployment Rights Act) This poster is required by each employer and is designed to provide information on the rights and benefits under
USERRA - Chapter 43 (Employment and Reemployment Rights of Members of the Uniformed Services) of
Title 38 (Veterans Benefits) of the U. S. Code. Contact the U.S. Department of Labor, Veterans Employment
and Training Service, 866-487-2365, or information regarding this poster can be viewed at:
http://www.dol.gov/vets/programs/userra/
*Federal Minimum Wage - Contact U.S. Department of Labor, 231 W. Lafayette, Room 647, Detroit, MI
48226, telephone: (313) 226-7447 or (616) 456-2004.
Equal Employment Opportunity - Contact U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, 1-800-6693362, for federal forms. Contact Michigan Department of Civil Rights, 303 W. Kalamazoo, Lansing, MI 48913,
telephone: (517) 335-3165 for state forms.
Employee Polygraph Protection Act - Contact the U.S. Department of Labor, Wage & Hour Division, 231 W.
Lafayette, Room 647, Detroit, MI 48226 telephone: (313) 226-7447 or (616) 456-2004.
Michigan Employment Security Act Notice to Employees - Contact Unemployment Insurance Agency, 3024
W. Grand Blvd., Ste. 13-150, Detroit, MI 48202, telephone 1-800-638-3994 for having Employer ID# assigned.
American with Disabilities Act - Contact the ADA Hotline at 1-800-669-3362 or (202) 663-4900.
Michigan Minimum Wage Law - General Rules, Overtime Compensation Rules for employers covered by
Michigan Minimum Wage Law only. Contact Michigan Department of Labor & Economic Growth, Wage &
Hour Division, Box 30476, Lansing, MI 48909-7976, telephone: (517) 335-0400.

MIOSHA/CET #0155 (Rev. 12/08)

Accident Investigation
INTRODUCTION
Accident investigation is a useful and necessary tool: A thorough investigation should be made in every situation
where an accident has revealed a failure to properly control some aspect of your operations. You may question if
the accident did, in fact, result from operational control failure; when the accident occurred as a result of an unsafe
act on the part of an employee. Unsafe acts are in themselves an indication of operational failure, since they are
evidence of some inadequacy in either job training, job planning, employee motivation, or some other type of
personnel problem. Nothing is learned from unreported accidents; and nothing is learned from uninvestigated
accidents. Proper investigation of accident causes will reveal operational deficiencies or failures so that
corrective measures can be implemented to prevent an accident reoccurrence.
PURPOSE OF INVESTIGATION
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

To apply a systematic procedure to determine the causes of an accident. In most cases there will be
several causes. To objectively see the whole picture, all pertinent facts must be considered.
To prevent a reoccurrence of accidents and any resulting injuries. By reducing the incidence of
accident reoccurrence, we will also be reducing the financial losses associated with repeat accidents.
To train supervisory personnel in determining accident causes. Practice in this area results in a more
acute awareness of job hazards.
To demonstrate to employees that management is concerned with their welfare. It must be
emphasized that the investigation is not a fault finding venture.
To stimulate thought on part of all parties involved, with the need for safety and methods of prevention.
To publicize the hazards so that others may become aware. This is of fundamental importance in
controlling unsafe work practices.
To obtain facts bearing on legal liabilities. Documentation of such information is essential.

WHEN TO INVESTIGATE
1.
2.

After the occurrence of any accident! Near miss occurrences should also be investigated, as often
times these occurrences could have easily resulted in personal injury and / or serious property
damage.
As soon as possible after the accident occurrence because:
a. Details are quickly forgotten.
b. Distortions can occur upon delay. We want objective facts.
c. Witnesses unduly influence one another.
d. The scene of the accident can change, thus destroying evidence and clues as to what actually
happened.
e. Remember: Your first responsibility is to attend to the injured person. Dont start your investigation
immediately if
i. doing so delays medical treatment, or
ii. the injured employee is extremely upset or in obvious pain.

WHO SHOULD INVESTIGATE


1.

Supervisor or Superintendent should conduct the initial investigation he knows his operations and
people. The supervisor is responsible for all job related activities within his area of control.

65

2.
3.

Other interested management personnel to obtain information for insurance purposes, and possibly
as a follow up activity based on the initial investigation report information.
Other outside parties such as government inspection persons, law enforcement agencies, and
insurance investigators, may have the occasion to conduct their own investigations. These activities
may very well require a review of your initial investigation report. This further emphasizes the need for
a comprehensive and accurate initial investigation (and report).

WHERE TO INVESTIGATE
Any location where pertinent, useful information may be obtained. This may include:
1.
2.
3.

Observations at the accident scene.


Discussion with each witness or any involved persons.
Possible review of personnel records or maintenance and equipment logs.

Do not restrict yourself! Go wherever necessary to obtain pertinent, objective, and factual information.
HOW TO INVESTIGATE
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Learn investigation techniques. Be familiar with what you are going to do at an investigation.
Be equipped bring proper tools, including possibly a tape measure, camera, blank report, and above
all an open mind! The investigation should not be considered as a burden, but as an opportunity to
do something useful to prevent further accidents.
Be objective and fair. Try not to make judgements and form conclusions until your are satisfied that all
of the facts have been obtained.
Qualify each independent source of information such as, according to.., from my observations.,
etc. Talk to each witness individually.
Avoid evasion in any form the purpose of this investigation is defeated if true conditions and facts are
swept under the rug.

ANALYZE YOUR INFORMATION


1.
2.

Do not complete the final investigation report form until all facts have been analyzed, and conclusions
drawn.
Your analysis of the facts is not complete unless you have identified the causes of the accident, and
have arrived at some meaningful conclusion as to the course of corrective action necessary to prevent
reoccurrence. It stands to reason that the proper choice of corrective action will strongly depend upon
your accurate gathering and analysis of the accident facts.

MODES OF CORRECTIVE ACTION


Necessary corrective action may take the form of any one of, or a combination of the following items:
1.
2.
3.
4.

Eliminate the hazard.


Guard the hazards.
Protect or guard the employees.
Instruct and warn employ the basic Es of safety: Engineering, Education and Enforcement.

FACTORS TO CONSIDER
1.

Will the employees accept the proposed solution?


66

2.
3.
4.
5.

Will the solution create other hazards?


How will the solution affect normal job flow?
How much will it cost?
Delegation of responsibility who will implement the solution? And when?

FOLLOW THROUGH
1.
2.
3.

You havent achieved a thing unless the solution to the problem is implemented and working.
Someone must be assigned to monitor the progress.
Very often loss control efforts are abandoned at the corrective action state, and for no good reason
other than lack of good follow up. If this is allowed to occur, your investigative efforts have been
wasted. Good follow through and enforcement of corrective measures is essential.
Most importantly, COMMUNICATE with your managers regarding progress or lack of progress on
corrective measures.

67

Accident Report
(to be completed immediately after accident / illness)
TIME:

1.

DATE:

2.

ACCIDENT CATEGORY:

3.

INJURED PERSON:

Injury

Illness

pm am
Fatality

Other

Name:
Address:
City, State, Zip:
Birthdate:

Phone:
WAS FAMILY CALLED? Yes
4.

No

Sex:

Marital Status:

WHO?:

EMPLOYED BY:
Company Name:
Address:
City, State, Zip:
Supervisor Name:

Phone:
5.

ACCIDENT LOCATION:
Job Name:
Address:
City, State, Zip:

6.

Phone:

Superintendent Name:

DATE OF ACCIDENT:

TIME OF ACCIDENT:

am / pm

WHAT TIME DID SHIFT START?:


7.

TREATMENT GIVEN:

First Aid

8.

WAS AMBULANCE CALLED? Yes

Medical Treatment & Release


No

Hospitalization

Other

DATE OF TREATMENT:

Hospital / Clinic Name:


Address:
Phone:
9.

10.

INJURY DESCRIPTION:
a.

Describe nature of injury or illness:

b.

Part of body affected:

c.

Right or Left; Front or Back:

d.

Degree of disability (temporary partial; temporary total; permanent partial; permanent total):

ACCIDENT DESCRIPTION:
a.

Place accident occurred (specifically):

b.

What part of job was being performed at time of incident?

c.

What happened? (describe in sequence):

Sheet 1 of 4
11/29/07

d.

Physical Surroundings at time of incident: (weather, equipment, machinery, aisles, features, etc.):

e.

What caused incident? (Describe):

f.

Complete checklist:
Was the employee:
Placed on the right job?
Properly trained in the job?
Experienced in the job?
Physically fit?
Under emotional stress?
In an unsafe position?
Distracted?

g.

11.

12.

Was the tool or equipment:


Right for the job?
Working properly?
Adjusted correctly?
Properly guarded?
In proper condition?
Was the material:
Correct?
Positioned correctly?

Was the area:


Well lighted?
Too hot or too cold?
Congested?
Noisy?
Filled with smoke or vapors?
Was the floor clean?

Was the floor in good condition?


Other factors necessary to fully describe incident:

IS THERE ANY REASON TO BELIEVE THE EMPLOYEE WAS UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF:
a.

Alcohol

b.

If so, explain:

Drugs (Illegal)

Drugs (Prescription)

PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT:


c.

What personal protective equipment is required for job being performed? (glasses, safety shoes, safety hat, hearing
protection, respirator, etc.)

d.

Was injured using required safety equipment?

e.

Date employee was last trained in proper use of required safety equipment:

13.

WAS THERE A VIOLATION of a published safety/health rule, regulation, procedure or specific instructions? (Explain)

14.

WAS EMPLOYEE PROPERLY INSTRUCTED on how to do the job safely and properly exposed in training to those items listed
in previous question? (Explain)

15.

WERE MECHANICAL / PHYSICAL / ENVIRONMENTAL conditions safe at the time of the incident? (Explain)

Sheet 2 of 4
11/29/07

16.

WHAT CORRECTIVE ACTION should be taken to avoid a reoccurrence of this type of injury? (state who what engineering
changes; written procedure development or improvement; enforcement of safety rules & regulations; specific training):

17.

ACTIONS ALREADY TAKEN to correct and/or eliminate the hazard, injury, causing agent(s):

18.

WITNESSES TO ACCIDENT: (attach written statements from each)


1.

Name:

Phone Number:

Employer:
2.

Name:

Phone Number:

Employer:
3.

Name:

Phone Number:

Employer:
19.

ACCIDENT INITIALLY REPORTED TO:

20.

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION OR COMMENTS:

REPORT COMPLETED BY:

PRINT NAME:

PHONE:

Was Accident Report completed by the same person injured?

Sheet 3 of 4
11/29/07

For Office Use Only


Employee Name:
SS No:

Date of Birth:

Date of Hire:
Rate of Pay:

Length of Work Day:

Date Employee Returned to Work:

Total Days Lost:

Was Employee Paid for Time Lost?


Returned to Work: No Restrictions

Restricted

How:

Date Reported to Comp Carrier:


Claim Number:
Reported to OSHA?
Claim Number:
Additional Notes:

Initials

Sheet 4 of 4
11/29/07

Incident Report
(to be completed immediately after incident)

1.

DATE:

2.

INCIDENT CATEGORY:

3.

INCIDENT LOCATION:

TIME:
Fire

Theft

pm am
Property Damage

Other

Job Name:
Address:
City, State, Zip:
4.

Phone:

Superintendent Name:

DATE OF INCIDENT:

TIME OF INCIDENT:

am / pm

FIRE
DESCRIPTION:
1.

Location fire occurred (specifically):

2.

Was Fire Department called?

3.

What happened? (describe in sequence):

5.

Cause of fire (if known):

4.

Were there any injuries?

5.

List damage (complete, partial, minimal) (explain):

6.

Date of last Fire Prevention Checklist (attach copy):

Yes

No

Yes (if so, complete Accident Report Form)

No

THEFT
DESCRIPTION:
1.

Item stolen (include color, model number, etc.):

2.

Name of person or company owning stolen item:

3.

Where was the item stolen from? (specifically):

4.

Was Police Department called?

5.

What happened? (describe in sequence):

Yes

No

Sheet 1 of 2

PROPERTY DAMAGE
DESCRIPTION:
1.

Item damaged (include color, model no, etc.)

2.

Name of person or company owning damaged item:

3.

Location damage occurred (specifically):

4.

Was Police Department called?

5.

Party responsible for causing damage:

6.

What happened? (describe in sequence):

7.

Were there any injuries?

8.

List damage (complete, partial, minimal) (explain):

9.

Action taken:

Yes

No

Yes (if so, complete Accident Report Form)

SIGNATURE OF INVESTIGATING SUPERVISOR:

No

PRINT NAME:

For Office Use Only

Initials

Sheet 2 of 2

Jobsite:
Superintendent:
Date:
Inspector:

Jobsite Safety Inspection Checklist


GENERAL
Pass Fail N/A

The company has a written safety program on site.


Emergency telephone numbers are located in a place that can be found quickly and easily.
OSHA poster is posted.
Minutes of jobsite safety meetings are recorded and kept.
Safety inspections reports by contractor personnel are prepared and kept.
OSHA 300A report is posted (February 1st April 30th).
All accidents and injuries are being appropriately recorded on the OSHA 301 forms.
There is a competent person, someone capable of identifying existing and predictable hazards
which are unsanitary, hazardous or dangerous, and who has authorization to take prompt
corrective measures to eliminate them, on site.
There is a current first aid kit on site.
SANITATION
Pass Fail N/A

Toilet provided at the jobsite.


Adequate supply of potable water at jobsites.
Personal garbage and lunch sacks are removed from the site or properly disposed of so as not
attract rodents, pests, or insects.
HOUSEKEEPING
Pass Fail N/A

Work site is clean and free of dangerous waste and material.


Scrap materials are removed, or stacked in an orderly fashion.
Trash and combustible material are placed in containers provided for that purpose.
Scrap lumber, hoses, cable wiring and all other debris is clear from work areas, hallways and
stairways.
Nails are removed from scrap lumber and other unused materials.
There are no spills of liquid and materials that may cause an accident.
Work areas have the appropriate amount of lighting.
Holes and openings are protected and marked appropriately.
FIRE PREVENTION
Pass Fail N/A

A fire extinguisher is provided for every 3000 sq. ft. of space that is rated 2A at least.
A portable fire extinguisher is within 100 ft. of all working areas.
Portable heaters are being used in accordance with specifications.
All employees or subcontractors know the location of the fire extinguisher and know how to
operate it.
Fire fighting equipment is accessible and maintained at all times in good repair
Smoking is prohibited in possible fire hazard areas.
Page 1 of 5
Jobsite Safety Inspection Checklist

Flammable and combustible liquids are marked and properly stored in appropriate containers.
Soiled or combustion rags are properly stored or disposed of.
PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT
Pass Fail N/A

Employees, trade contractors, vendors, visitors and others on the site wear the appropriate
personal protective equipment.
Hard hats are worn in the construction areas where there is a risk of injury.
Mandatory eye protection is required and worn on all projects in the construction area when the
following conditions exist: all types of hammers, saws, chipping tools, brooms, grinders, impact
tools, drills, chemicals, hazardous substances which create dust, mist, and fumes, concrete
pouring, grouting, etc.
Face shields are worn when a danger of harmful chemical or physical contact with the face is
present.
Those in areas of moderate, extreme or long term noise wear appropriate hearing protection.
Only OSHA respirators approved for the work conditions are used when necessary.
Respirators or appropriate filters are used when using substances containing toxic vapors, fumes
or dust in oxygen deficient environments (less than 19.5% oxygen) or other hazardous areas.
Those painting or working with hazard chemicals are wearing a respirator that meets those
specific requirements.
If non-disposable respirators are used by multiple persons, they are cleaned before each use.
Persons working in confined or enclosed areas where they could be overcome by toxic fumes
work only when an outside observer is present. Rescue equipment is available at all times when
such work is being performed.
Those welding or working with metal or sharp objects are wearing safety goggles.
Overall workers are adequately protected.
HAND & POWER TOOLS
Pass Fail N/A

All hand and power tools are in good working order.


Hand held powered tools equipped with constant pressure switch where appropriate.
Devices are provided on air power tools to prevent tools from becoming accidentally
disconnected from hose.
Pneumatic nailers operating at more than 100 psi. are provided with safety devices on muzzle to
prevent accidental discharge.
Tools are stored in a dry secured place.
Tool cords are free of cuts or abrasions and in good repair.
Saws are guarded by the appropriate guards.
Tools are being used for their intended use.
Handles for hammers and other tools are in good condition free of cracks and splinters and free
of mushroomed heads.
All safety guards and devices are in place while the tool is in use.
All air compressors are equipped with pressure gauges.
VEHICLE AND EQUIPMENT
Pass Fail N/A

Construction equipment and vehicles are parked so as to prevent the release of stored energy
(bucket/forks down, brake applied, wheels cocked, etc.).
Only those who are authorized to operate machinery are permitted to do so.
All equipment has functioning signals and horns.
Page 2 of 5
Jobsite Safety Inspection Checklist

Backup warning systems are functioning properly.


Seatbelts are in good repair and used.
Passengers are prohibited from riding on equipment.
All mirrors are in place and operational.
All windshields and glass are clean so vision is unobstructed.
Flaggers are used when the operator is unable to see or to protect vehicular traffic or pedestrians
when necessary.
Equipment is kept from coming near overhead power lines.
Equipment rollover protection is in good shape.
TRENCHING & EXCAVATION
Pass Fail N/A

The underground utilities have been located and marked.


Trenches 5' or more in depth are shored, or have sides sloped.
The walls and faces of all excavation where employees are exposed to danger from moving
ground are guarded by a shoring system, sloping, or benching of ground.
The slope of benched or sloped excavations and the shoring is designed based on the type of soil.
All parts of shoring system are in good repair.
Excavations are no deeper than 2' below the base of any shoring system
Excavated or other material is placed a minimum of 2' from the edge of excavations.
Excavations have barricades surrounding them where necessary.
All trenches four feet and greater have been provided with stairways, ladders, or ramps within 25
feet of each employee.
CONCRETE & MASONRY
Pass Fail N/A

Limited access zones have been established and marked.


All protruding reinforcing bars have been guarded.
All free standing masonry walls are properly braced and supported.
ELECTRICAL
Pass Fail N/A

Power circuits where accidental contact by tools or equipment may be hazardous, are marked
with warnings explaining the hazard.
All equipment is either grounded or double-insulated.
GFCI circuits are installed on all 110-120 V temporary circuits.
Temporary lights are equipped with guards to prevent accidental contact with bulb.
Receptacles (attachment plugs) are not interchangeable with circuits of different voltages.
Electrical cords are not frayed, cut, nicked and are in good repair.
Electrical cords are not used for hoisting, or carrying tools or equipment.
There are an appropriate number of outlets for the tools being used. Circuits are not overloaded.
The circuit breaker panel is clearly labeled and secured.
Electrical outlets are provided with a face plate.
The Electrical panel has at least 4 square feet in front that is clear and unobstructed.
Work areas are kept free of cords and excess equipment.
FALL PROTECTION
Pass Fail N/A

Holes or openings are barricaded or covered securely and marked.


Those working above 6 off the ground are protected by a guardrail, safety net, or personal fall
Page 3 of 5
Jobsite Safety Inspection Checklist

arrest system (exceptions are made for those installing trusses when a truss erection plan has
been approved and adequate training provided).
Employees working down below other employees or hazards are protected (hard hats, canopies,
toe board, etc).
The time that employees are subjected to fall hazards is minimized.
Personal fall protection devices and equipment are provided with training on fall protection.
Openings less than 44 inches off the floor and greater than six feet from any lower surface are
protected by a guardrail or other suitable safety precaution.
Rope guardrails are marked every six feet with a highly visible material.
100% tie off is required when working at or above 25'. This requires the use of 2 lanyards, life
lines, or static lines.
Personal fall arrest systems are inspected prior to each use by a competent person. Lanyard,
harness, D-rings, and other personal fall arrest systems are in good condition and suitable for use.
Fall arrest systems are anchored to an appropriate way and are capable of withstanding 5000lbs
of force.
SCAFFOLDING
Pass Fail N/A

Scaffolding is constructed by a qualified person


Scaffold planks are free of splits, twists, & bows
Scaffolding is in good repair
All scaffolding will be erected per the manufacturers instructions and will meet the guidelines
outlined in OSHA Standards.
Footing and anchors are sound, rigid, and capable of carrying 4 times the maximum intended
load without settling or displacement.
The scaffold is set up on an adequate flat base with baseplates on mudsills, screw jacks, etc.
All connections are pinned or fastened securely.
Cross bracing is used.
Wheels are locked in place.
The base of scaffolding on the ground is supported by appropriate mud sills.
Scaffolding or planking is properly supported on scaffold jacks and not on stacks of wood,
boxes, bricks, blocks, barrels or any other unstable materials.
Scaffold planks are certified scaffold planks or structural lumber.
Planks overlap the end of the scaffold no less than 6" and no more than 12".
The working surface of the scaffold is fully planked.
The planks are secured to prevent slipping.
The gap between planks is less than 1 inch to prevent tools, etc., from falling through.
The distance between the scaffold and the working surface is less than 14 inches.
The scaffold frame is used as access only if designed to do so otherwise ladders are used to gain
access to scaffold work platforms.
The maximum spacing of rungs used for access to the scaffold is 16 .
The scaffold is free of debris and material.
The scaffold is tied off if it is more than four times the width of the base.
All open sides and ends of platforms more than 10' above ground on floor level, are provided
with top rails, midrails, and toeboards.
Top rails are 42" high 3", midrails are midway between floor surface and top rail.
Guardrails are capable of withstanding 200lbs of force anywhere along the top rail.
Gates or bars are used to enclose the top level.
On suspended scaffolds, lifelines are attached to structure and safety belts are used.
Scaffold is tied off every 30 horizontally and 26 vertically, or tied off if the height exceeds 4
Page 4 of 5
Jobsite Safety Inspection Checklist

times the width of the base.


STAIRWAYS AND LADDERS:
Pass Fail N/A

Areas used for access and egress which have a change in elevation of more than 19" are provided
with stairs, ladders or properly designed ramps.
Stairs that have 4 or more steps have a handrail.
Ladders that are at risk for displacement are tied off and secured.
Ladders extend at least 3 above the landing.
All job-built ladders are constructed in accordance with 29 CFR 1926.25 regulations.
All ladders are in good repair with all safety stickers in place.
Faulty ladders are tagged do not use, blocked with plywood, or rendered inoperable until
repaired or removed or discarded.
All ladders that have the potential of slipping or being bumped are tied off.
All ladders are free of grease, oil, paint, or other slipping hazards.
Step ladders are used in the open position.
The spacing of rungs is between 10 and 14.
No metal ladders are used within 10' of electrical power lines.
All manufactured single and extension ladders are equipped with ladder shoes.
Extension ladders are placed so that the distance from the top support to the ladder base is 1/4 the
working distance of the ladder.
SUBCONTRACTORS
Pass Fail N/A

All subcontractors have been trained in company safety requirements and policies.
All subcontractors know who to contact if they have any questions or if they have seen unsafe
working conditions or habits.
Subcontractors understand that they are responsible to maintain their scope of work clean and
clear of possible hazards.
Subcontractors understand that potential hazards or accidents are grounds for disqualification of
work on future projects.
Subcontractors and their employees have been properly trained in safety and health and
understand and comply with all OSHA requirements.

COMMENTS and/or ACTIONS TAKEN AS A RESULT OF THIS INSPECTION

Page 5 of 5
Jobsite Safety Inspection Checklist

Safety Meeting Minutes


Employer
Worksite Location
Meeting Date:

Attendance
(M)anagement

Meeting start time:

Meeting end time:

(E)mployee

Agenda:
Review minutes of our previous meeting dated
Progress report on last meeting's "To Do" list:

for corrections/approval.

Discuss hazards, concerns, self-inspections, other inspections, etc., since our last meeting.

Safety Meeting Minutes


Review accident/near miss reports to determine if causes were identified and corrected

Meeting Date:

Meeting start time:

Meeting end time:

Suggested updates to our Accident Prevention Program

Other

To Do List:

Minutes written by

Date next meeting

Assigned to:

Due:

Meeting leader (signature)

Start time

Additional attendance, members absent, guest (from front) or other notes:

Location

DANGER
DO NOT ENTER
Michigan Department of Labor & Economic Growth
MIOSHA CONSULTATION EDUCATION & TRAINING (CET) DIVISION
(517) 322-1809 www.michigan.gov/miosha
The Department of Labor & Economic Growth will not discriminate against any individual or group because of race, sex, religion, age, national origin, color, marital status, disability,
or political beliefs. If you need assistance with reading, writing, hearing, etc., under the Americans with Disabilities Act, you may make your need known to this agency.

MIOSHA/CET #0325 (REV. 2/08)

DONT
TAKE
SHORTCUTS
ON
THE JOB
A SAFETY MESSAGE FROM THE
MICHIGAN DEPARTMENT OF LABOR & ECONOMIC GROWTH
CONSULTATION EDUCATION & TRAINING DIVISION

MIOSHA-CET #0316
REV. 3/04

For further information visit our website at


www.michigan.gov/miosha

HOW MOST FIRE EXTINGUISHERS WORK


1. Pull
3. Squeeze

Pull the pin or release other


locking devices.

Squeeze or press
the handle.

2. Aim

Aim the extinguisher nozzle


(horn or hose) at the base of the fire.

Remember:

- If theres a re, call the re


department rst.
- Get everyone outside.
- Then ght a small re only.
- If the re gets too large, get
away from the area.
- Close doors to slow the res
spread.

4. Sweep

Sweep from side to side at the


base of the fire. Watch for re-flash.
Discharge the contents of the
extinguisher.
Foam and water extinguishers
require slightly different action.
Read the instructions.

A SAFETY MESSAGE FROM


Michigan Department of Labor & Economic Growth
Consultation Education & Training Division
and the
National Fire Protection Association
Paid in part with federal OSHA funds.

The Department of Labor & Economic Growth will not discriminate against any individual or group
because of race, sex, religion, age, national origin, color, marital status, disability, or political beliefs. If
you need assistance with reading, writing, hearing, etc., under the Americans with Disabilities Act, you
may make your need known to this agency.

MIOSHA/CET #0304 (Rev. 9/05)

Remember

MACHINES
DONT THINK
No matter how well you
know your machine
It doesnt know you!
It doesnt feel.
It doesnt think.
It doesnt know youre
there.
SO PRACTICE JOB
SAFETY!

A Safety
Message from the
Michigan Department of
Labor & Economic Growth
Michigan Occupational Safety & Health Administration
Consultant Education and Training Division
7150 Harris Drive
P.O. Box 30643
Lansing,
Michigan
48909-8143
MIOSHA/CET #0302 (Rev. 12/03)

Employers must make available for employees in a


readily accessible manner, Material Safety Data
Sheets (MSDS)* for those hazardous chemicals in
their workplace.
Employees cannot be discharged or discriminated
against for exercising their rights including the
request for information on hazardous chemicals.
Employees must be notified and given direction (by
employer posting) for locating Material Safety Data
Sheets and the receipt of new or revised MSDS(S).
* When the employer has not provided a MSDS, employees
may request assistance in obtaining MSDS from the:
Michigan Department of Labor & Economic Growth
Michigan Occupational Safety & Health Adminstration
General Industy Safety & Health Division
(517) 322-1831
Construction Safety & Health Division
(517)322-1856
www.michigan.gov/miosha
MIOSHA/CET #2105 (Rev. 01/08)

MSDS(s)
For This
Wor kplace
Are
Located At
Location(s)
Location(s)
Person(s) responsible for MSDS(S)
Phone

As Required by the
Michigan
Right To
Know Law

New or Revised

MSDS

TO BE POSTED THROUGHOUT THE


W ORKPLA
CE NEXT T O MSDS L
OCA
TION POSTERS
ORKPLACE
LOCA
OCATION
POSTERSS

NEW OR REVISED
TITLE

RECEIPT DATE

Michigan Department of Labor & Economic Growth


Michigan Occupational Safety & Health Administration
Consultation Education & Training Division
(517) 322-1809

POSTING DATE

Paid in part with


federal OSHA funds.
MIOSHA/CET #2106 (Rev. 12/07)

LOCATION OF NEW OR
REVISED MSDS

For further information, visit our website at:


www.michigan.gov/miosha


NO SMOKING, MATCHES
OR OPEN FLAMES
MICHIGAN DEPARTMENT OF LABOR & ECONOMIC GROWTH
CONSULTATION EDUCATION & TRAINING DIVISION
MIOSHA/CET #0321 Rev. 03/04

SAFETY
FIRST
ALWAYS!
DONT LEARN SAFETY ACCIDENTLY
Michigan Department of Labor & Economic Growth
MIOSHA CONSULTATION EDUCATION AND TRAINING DIVISION
www.michigan.gov/miosha (517) 322-1809

The Michigan Department of Labor & Economic Growth will not discriminate against any individual or group because of race, sex, religion, age, national origin,
color, marital status, disability, or political beliefs. If you need assistance with reading, writing, hearing, etc., under the Americans with Disabilities Act, you may
make your need known to this agency.
MIOSHA/CET #0306 (Rev. 2/08)

Scaffold
Safety
Unless you are performing
an emergency service stay
off scaffolds during storms,
high winds and severe
weather.
When snow and ice have
accumulated, remove them
before doing work.
If, because of an emergency,
you must work, use a safety
harness and lanyard.
A Safety Message
CET #0303 Rev. 10/04

Michigan Occupational Safety and Health Administration


Consultation Education and Training Division

Michigan Department of Labor & Economic Growth


Consultation Education & Training Division
MIOSHA/CET #0307 (Rev. 10/06)

The Department of Labor & Economic Growth will not discriminate against any individual or group
because of race, sex, religion, age, national origin, color, marital status, disability, or political beliefs. If
you need assistance with reading, writing, hearing, etc., under the Americans with Disabilities Act, you
may make your need known to this agency.

ATTENTION EMPLOYEES
The Michigan Whistleblowers' Protection Act (469 P .A. 1980) creates certain
protections and obligations for employees and employers under Michigan law.

PROTECTIONS:
It is illegal for employers in Michigan to discharge, threaten or otherwise
discriminate against you regarding your compensation, terms, conditions, location or
privileges of employment because you or a person acting on your behalf reports or is
about or report a violation or a suspected violation of federal, state or local laws, rules or
regulations to a public body.
It is illegal for employers in Michigan to discharge, threaten or otherwise
discriminate against you regarding your compensation, terms, conditions, location or
privileges of employment because you take part in a public hearing, investigation,
inquiry or court action.

OBLIGATIONS:
The Act does not diminish or impair either your rights or the rights of your employer
under any collective bargaining agreement.
The Act does not require your employer to compensate you for your participation in
a public hearing, investigation, inquiry or court action.
The Act does not protect you from disciplinary action if you make a report to a
public body that you know is false.

ENFORCEMENT:
If you believe that your employer has violated this Act you may bring civil action in
circuit court within 90 days of the alleged violation of the Act.

PENALTIES:
Persons found in violation of this Act may be subject to a civil fine of up to $500.00.
If your employer has violated this Act the court can order your reinstatement, the
payment of back wages, full reinstatement of fringe benefits and seniority rights, actual
damages, or any combination of these remedies. The court may also award all or a
portion of the costs of litigation, including reasonable attorney fees and witness fees to
the complainant if the court believes such an award is appropriate.
This poster is provided as a courtesy of the Michigan Occupational Safety and
Health Administration (MIOSHA). Vist our website at www.michigan.gov/miosha.