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M edica l Teacher , Vol . 22 , N o. 4, 200 0

M edica l Teacher , Vol . 22 , N o. 4, 200 0 AME E

AME E Gui d e N o 20 : Th e g oo d teac h er is mor e tha n a lecturer Ð th e twelv e ro le s of th e teache r

R.M . HARDE N & JO Y CROSB Y

Centre fo r Medica l Education , University of Dundee , UK

SUM M AR Y Teachin g is a de m andin g an d co m ple x task . T hi s

guid e lo o ks at teachi n g an d w ha t it involve s.

w id el y accept ed an d far-reac hi n g change s in m ed ica l educat io n is

a ch a ng in g rol e fo r th e m ed ica l teache r. Tw elv e role s hav e bee n

identi ®ed an d thes e ca n be g roupe d in si x area s in th e m ode l present ed : ( 1) th e in fo r m ati o n pro v ide r in th e lect u re , an d in th e clinica l co n text ; (2 ) th e ro le m ode l on -the-jo b, an d in m or e fo r m al teachin g setting s; ( 3) th e facilita to r a s a m ento r an d lea r nin g facilita tor ; (4 ) th e stu d en t assess or an d cu r r ic u lu m eval u ator ;

Im plici t in th e

(5 ) th e cu r r ic u lu m an d co u rs e pla n ner ; an d

(6 ) th e resour ce

m

ate r ia l creator , an d st u dy g ui d e produc er. A s prese n te d in th e

m

od el , so m e ro le s requir e m or e m edica l expert is e an d o ther s m or e

ed

ucatio n al expert ise . So m e ro le s hav e m o re direc t fac e -t o -f a ce

co

ntac t w it h studen ts an d o ther s less . T he role s ar e prese n te d in a

`co m petin g va lu es ’ fra m ew o rk Ð th e y m ay conve y co n ¯ icti n g

m essage s, e.g . providi n g info r m atio n o r enco u ra g in g in d epen d en t

lea r n in g , helpin g stu d en ts or ex a m ini n g thei r co m petenc e . Th e

rol e m ode l fra m ew or k is of us e in th e assess m en t of th e n ee d s fo r

staf f to im ple m en t a cu r r ic u lu m , in th e appoin tm en t an d pro m o -

tio n of teache rs an d in th e organi zatio n of a staf f develop m en t

pro g ra m m e. So m e teache rs w il l hav e o nl y on e role . M o st teache rs

w il l hav e severa l ro les . A ll roles , ho w ever, nee d to be represe nte d in

an instit utio n or teachi ng organi zatio n .T hi s ha s im plicati on s fo r

th e app o in tm en t of staf f an d fo r staf f trainin g. W her e ther e ar e

ins u fficien t nu m ber s of approp r iatel y trai n ed existin g staf f to

m ee t a rol e re q uire m ent , staf f m us t be reassi gne d to th e role , w her e

thi s is possib le , an d th e necess ar y trai n in g provide d. A lte r n atively ,

if

thi s is no t possib le or d ee m ed desira ble , additi ona l staf f nee d to

be

rec r uite d fo r th e speci ®c pu r pos e o f ful ®llin g th e rol e identi fied .

A

`rol e pr o ®le ’ need s to be n egotiat ed an d ag ree d w it h staf f at th e

ti

m e of thei r appoi n tm en t an d thi s shoul d be revie w ed on a

regula r basis .

T h e te a ch er a n d ch a n ge s

C hange s in m edica l ed ucatio n

in m ed ica l ed u cati o n

M edical educati on ha s se en m ajo r change s ove r th e pas t d e c a d e . I n te g r at e d te ac h i n g , p r o bl e m -b a se d l e ar n i n g , co m m unit y -base d learni ng , cor e cu r ricul a wit h electives or option s an d m or e syste m ati c curric ulu m plannin g hav e bee n advocat ed (H arde n et al. , 1 984 ; H arden , 1986a ; G enera l M edical C ou n cil, 19 9 3; Walton , 19 93 ; H arde n & Davis , 1995) . Increas in g em phasi s is bein g place d on self-directe d stud y wit h student s expecte d to tak e m or e respon sibilit y fo r thei r ow n lea r nin g (R owntree , 1990) . Th e applica tio n of ne w lea r nin g techno logie s ha s suppor te d thi s m ove . N ew directi on s ca n be identi ® ed to o in th e are a of assess m en t wit h increa se d em phasi s on perfo r m anc e assess m ent , th e us e of techniq ue s suc h as th e objecti ve structu re d clinical

exa m ination , th e us e of standar di z ed patients , logbook s,

po r tfoli o assess m en t an d self-ass ess m en t (Scher pbie r et al. ,

1997 ).

A n in cre a se d em phasi s on th e st u den t

Th e increa sin g em phasi s on studen t autonom y in m edica l

educati on ha s m ove d th e centr e of gravit y

te ache r an d close r to th e student . Indee d it ha s beco m e fashion abl e to tal k abou t learni ng an d lea r ner s rathe r tha n te achin g an d th e teacher. T hi s increased attentio n to th e learne r m ay be see n by teacher s as a los s of contro l an d powe r whic h ca n lea d to feelings of unce r tainty, inadeq ua c y an d anxiet y (B ashir , 19 98) . Th e shif t m ay eve n be see n as , in so m e way , a devalui ng of th e rol e of th e teacher . It ha s to be recogn iz ed , however , tha t thi s is no t true , tha t teachin g an d lea r nin g ar e closely relate d an d tha t th e purpos e of te achin g is to enhanc e learni ng . It is im po r tan t to ensur e tha t th e changi ng rol e of th e teache r is no t neglec te d in discussi on s abou t ne w educati ona l strategie s an d approach es to curric ulu m developm ent .

awa y fro m th e

Th e chan g in g ro le of th e teache r

Th e changi ng rol e of th e teach e r m ay caus e uneas e am on g thos e entren che d in traditio na l approac he s to educat ion .

Th e R t. H on . Si r R ho de s B oys o n M P (1 99 6 ), fo r m

H ighbu r y G rov e C om prehens iv e in No r th

London , wrot e ª Too ofte n , th e teache r ha s degene rate d into an uneas y m ixtur e of classro om chu m , socia l worke r an d am ateu r counse llor º (p. 4 4) . Bre w & B ou d (1 9 98 ) hav e highligh te d th e m or e co m ple x de m and s no w bein g place d on univers ity tea c her s an d th e changi ng natur e of thei r wor k tasks , wit h ne w acade m ic role s an d th e diversi ® catio n of existin g ones . ª Ther e ha s bee n a signi ® can t shift º , the y suggest , ª fro m thinkin g tha t cleve r peopl e ca n do eve r ythin g to a recogn itio n of th e co m plexit y an d rang e of acade m ic work º (p. 1 8) . Th e task s facin g a teache r ar e no t si m pl e or easy. ª Teaching º , suggeste d Brook ® el d (1990), ª is th e educat iona l equival en t of whit e wate r rafting º . W hil e th e Dearin g Repor t on highe r educatio n (1 997 ) praise d B ritis h univers itie s fo r thei r worl d -c las s record , it highligh te d th e pressur es on teacher s an d th e poo r qualit y of thei r tea c hi n g. ª Ther e is no doubt º , D earin g suggest ed ,

er

head m aste r of

C or respond enc e : P rofess or R. M . H a rd e n, C entr e fo r M e dic a l Ed ucatio n , Universi ty of Dundee , Ta y Par k H ouse , 4 84 Pert h Road , Dunde e D D2 1LR ,

U K . Tel : + 4 4 (0 ) 1 3 8 2 6 3 1 9 7 2 ; f a x:

+ 4 4 (0 ) 1 3 8 2 6 4 5 7 4 8 ; e m a il :

p.a. w ilkie @ dundee. ac.u k

334

ISS N 014 2 -159 X (print) / ISS N 1 46 6 -187 X (online) / 00 / 04 033 4 -1 4 ½ 20 00 Taylo r & Franci s Lt d

3 4 ISS N 014 2 -159 X (print) / ISS N 1 46 6 -187

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ª abo u t th e in crease d pressur es facin g staf f in highe r educa - tion º . B ol d predict ion s abou t th e im pac t of te c hnolog y on teachin g m ethod s hav e no t bee n realize d an d th e adoptio n

of reco m m ende d ne w approach es in m edical educati on hav e

bee n disappo intin g (G e nera l M edical C ouncil , 19 9 3) . W hy

is this ? M uc h of th e respons ibility fo r th e se failure s rests

wit h th e teacher s. Teache r s hav e bee n slo w to identif y wit h

an d em brac e

bee n to hol d

O ne chang e in highe r an d continu in g educati on is th e

ac c eptanc e of distanc e learni ng as a signi ® can t approac h.

distanc e learni ng in m ainstrea m m edical

educati on involve s th e adoptio n of an approac h to learne rs

an d lea r ni n g whic h is differe nt fro m th e on e wit h whic h

m e d i c al te a c he r s h

e c o n s e q u e n c e s w i l l b e ª t h e l ik e l y

unde r m inin g of th e respec t, prestig e an d authori ty tha t goe s

wit h th e teacher ’ s rol e as `directo r of lea r ning ’ an d th e los s of thei r abilit y to en gag e thei r student s into intelle ctua l convers ation s an d debates º (Bashir , 19 9 8) . If th e adoptio n of distanc e lea r nin g is to ¯ ou r is h in m edical educati on the n teacher s m us t accep t th e differe nt role s fo r th e teacher s im plici t in thi s approac h to teachin g an d lea r ning . W ha t is ce r tain , irrespe ctiv e of w hethe r we hav e fac e -to - fac e or distanc e le ar nin g an d whateve r th e ed u cationa l strateg y im ple m ented , th e te ache r wil l pla y a ke y rol e in studen t learning . In al l phase s of education , studen t achieve -

m en t correlate s wit h th e quality of th e teacher. Ter r y Dozie r

Se cr e ta r y o f Ed uc atio n ,

(1 9 9 8) , an ad vis e r to th e U S

av e e xp e r ie n c e . C o n c e r n ha s b e e n

e x p r e s s

Th e em beddin g of

th e ne w role s expect ed of the m . Th e resul t ha s bac k m an y change s in m edical ed u cation .

e d th a t th

em phasize d tha t ª if we don ’ t focu s on th e qualit y of teaching ,

othe r refor m e ffo r ts won ’ t brin g us wha t we ’ re hopin g for º . Th e availabi lit y of a goo d teacher , fo r exa m ple , m ay hav e a greate r effec t on im provin g studen t achieve m en t tha n othe r

m uc h publicise d factor s suc h as clas s size .

T h e go o d te a ch er

Th e questio n aris e s as to wha t is a goo d teacher. A goo d teache r ca n be de ® ne d as a teache r wh o help s th e studen t to lear n . H e or sh e contrib ute s to thi s in a nu m be r of ways .

Th e

wit h th e teache r havin g a rang e of ke y role s to pla y in th e

educati on process . W ha t on e see s as goo d teachin g, suggest s Bigg s (1 999) , depe n ds on wha t concep tio n of teachin g on e has . Tw o concep ts ar e base d on th e strategi es of teache r -

centred an d student- centred educatio n (Harde n et al. , 1984). Teache r -centre d strategi es ar e focuse d on th e teache r as a trans m itte r of infor m ation , wit h infor m atio n passin g fro m

th e n ovic e lea r ner. Studen t-centr ed

strategi es , in contras t, se e th e focu s as bein g on change s in student s’ learni ng an d on wha t student s do to achiev e thi s rathe r tha n on wha t th e teache r does . ª If student s ar e to lear n desire d outco m es in a reasona bl y effecti ve m anner º ,

th e expe r t teache r to

teacher ’ s rol e goe s wel l beyon d info r m atio n giving ,

A M E E G ui d e N o. 20

T h e r o le s o f th e te a ch er

A

contex t of th e develop m ent s takin g plac e in

tion ? T her e ha s bee n littl e sustaine d analysi s of th e rol e of th e teache r (Squire s, 1 999) . In genera l, we hav e bee n preo c - cupie d wit h th e detail s of cu r riculu m planni ng , wit h th e conten t of th e teachin g progra m m e an d wit h th e rang e of educatio n strategie s adopted . We hav e faile d to tak e a broade r

m edica l educ a -

questio n is : wha t is th e rol e of th e teache r in th e

ke y

vie

w

of th e rol e of th e teache r in thes e tasks .

W

ha t ar e teacher s fo r in ou r institut ion ? Fo r wha t woul d

y be m os t m isse d if the y wer e no t there ? It is likely that ,

face d wit h thes e questio ns , m em ber s of staf f woul d giv e a

the

rang e of answe r s. U nce r taint y an d difficu lt y wit h th e rang e

of role s expect ed of a teache r is illustrat ed in th e followi ng

extract s of letter s fro m teacher s regar d in g thei r ow n role s

an

d respo n sibilities .

 
 

ª

I wa s appoi n te d to th e U niversi ty as

a lect u re r to

enthus e st u dent s abo u t my su bjec t an d

to conve y to

the m , thro u gh my lectur es , th e essent ia l in fo r m atio n

the y nee d to acq u ir e . It is no t my jo b to si t in so -calle d

p

ro bl e m -b as ed le a r n i n g g ro u ps

w a tc h in g st u d e n ts

s

tr u g g le , o ft e n

in eff e ctivel y, w it h a su b je c t n e w to

 

th

em a n d in th e p ro c es s w a sti n g bo th th e ir an d m y

 

tim e .º ª I am conce r ne d abou t th e a m ou nt of ti m e I am

expect ed to se r ve on th e cu r r ic u lu m co m m itte e an d on

 

th

e sy ste m -base d w orkin g g roups , plan n in g th e co u rs e

 

an d it s delive r y. In my previo u s pos t I w as si m pl y lef t to ge t on an d delive r th e teachi ng pro g ra m m e in my

subjec t, w hic h

is w ha t I am em ploye d to

do .º

 
 

ª I ca rr y a heav y clinic al , researc h an d teachi ng

 

bur d en . I need , therefo re , to loo k at ho w m y

ti m e ca n

be use d m os t effectiv ely. I hav e bee n aske d to prepar e

st

u dy gu ide s relatin g to th e par t of th e co u rs e fo r whic h

I

am respo n sibl e . I do no t thi n k tha t th e prepara ti o n of

st

u dy gu id es , w hic h it is clai m ed w il l m ak e lea r n in g

easie r an d m or e effectiv e fo r th e studen t, m ake s th e bes t

u

se of my ti m e . Ther e is no n ee d to sp o on fee d stu d en ts

in thi s way. If the y atten d m y lecture s an d clinic a l teachi ng sessio n s the y w il l soo n ®n d ou t w ha t it is tha t

the y ar e expect ed to lea r n.º

 

Fo

r tunately , no t al l teacher s shar e thes e rol e am biguiti es , as

illustra te d in a fu r the r se t of extracts :

th e stude n ts

in th e P B L g roups . M y previou s expe r ienc e as a teache r

ha d bee n w it h a m or e d idacti c ap p ro a

em ph asi s on lect u res . I fou n d thi s ne w m ethod , by far ,

a m o re re w ardi n g expe r ienc e fo r m e as

convin ce d tha t th e studen ts bene ®t fro m th e m or e activ e

partic ipati o n in thei r ow n le a r nin g tha t inevit abl y occurs .º ª T han k yo u fo r g iv in g m e th e opport u nit y to m ee t

a teache r. I am

ch an d an

ª I g reatl y enjoye d w orkin g las t te r m w it h

Shu e ll (198 6 ) sugg e sts , ª the n th e teacher ’ s funda m enta l

ar

e likely to res u lt in thei r achiev in g thos e outco m es. It is

w

it h th e studen ts an d go ove r w it h the m thei r respon se s

tas k is to ge t stu d ents to engag e in learni ng activitie s tha t

in th e rece n t O bjectiv e St r ucture d C linica l E xa m in a - tion . A nu m be r o f studen ts su bse q uentl y to ld m e tha t

helpfu l to re m em be r tha t wha t th e studen t doe s is actuall y

the y foun d thi s on e of th e m os t powerfu l lea r nin g session s

m

or e im po r tan t in deter m inin g wha t is

lea r ne d tha n wha t

this year.º

th

e teache r does.º Bigg s (199 9 ) goe s on to desc r ib e th e ar t

ª I w elco m e th e ti m e I hav e bee n g ive n of f my

of

teachi n g as th e co m m unicati on to student s of th e nee d to

ro

utin e teachin g du tie s to prep a re a se r ie s of co m pute r -

lear n . ª M otivation º , he suggests , ª is th e pro d uc t of goo d teachin g no t it s prerequ isite º (p. 6 1) .

base d lea r nin g pro g ra m m es in my subjec t. T hi s w il l allo w us to replac e a bou t h al f of th e lecture s cu r re n tl y

335
335

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R. M . H arde n & J. C rosb y

opport un itie s fo r th e st u den t to engag e

in

b e abl e als o to m ak e bette r u se of th e re m aini n g lecture s sched u led .º

in depe n den t lea r n in g an d cr itica l thi n ki n g.We w il l

sched u le d w it h

teache r we n ee d fo r ou r

ly a tt e m p t to ap p o in t

appropr iat e teache r s to th e post , we canno t arrang e usefu l staf f develop m en t activiti es an d we canno t de ® n e `goo d teachin g’ an d rewar d it by pro m otio n or othe r recogn ition .

U nles s we agre e wha t

in

role s of a

st i tu ti o n , w e c a n n o t se r i o u s

Thi s guid e present s a m ode l or fra m ewor k in whic h th e teacher ’ s expan d ed rol e in educat io n toda y is descri bed . It

m edica l teacher. Th e im plicatio ns

an d us e of th e m ode l ar e discuss ed .

identi® es 12 role s fo r th e

Id en ti ® cati o n o f th e ro le s o f th e teac h er

Th e 12 role s d escribe d in th e m ode l present ed hav e bee n identi® ed fro m thre e sources :

· fro m an analysi s by th e autho r s of th e task s expect ed of

th e te ac he r i n th e d es i gn an d im p le m e n tati o n o f a

curric ulu m in on e m edical schoo l (H ard e n et al. , 1997);

· fro m a stud y of th e d ia r ie s kep t by 1 2 m edica l student s

ov e r a thr e e -m on th pe r io d an d an an al y si s of th e ir

co m m ent s as

the y relate d to th e rol e of th e teache r ;

· fro m th e literatu re relatin g to th e role s of a teache r identi -

® ed in M ed lin e an d th e T IM E (Topic s In

tion ) databas e an d fro m m edical educatio n text s including

C ox & Ewa n (1 988 ) an d

M edi c al Educa -

Newbl e & C anno n (199 5 ).

deline at e s th e m usi c to be played . Th e conduc to r interpr et s

th e co m poser ’ s scor e an d facilita te s an d guide s th e player s

to perfo r m th e m usi c an d th e audien ce to appre c iat e th e

m usic . Resour ce s in th e for m of shee t m usi c fo r th e player s

an d progra m m es fo r th e audien ce hav e to be develop ed to

enabl e th e m usician s to produc e th e m usi c an d fo r th e audienc e to full y apprecia te th e experie nce . Finall y th e m usi -

cian s trans m it th e m usi c to th e audien c eÐ the y ar e th e `infor m atio n provider s’ . Thi s `perfor m er role ’ (H arri s & Bell, 1996 ) m ay includ e al l or jus t on e of th e orchestr al ense m ble . Individ ua l m em ber s of th e orchest ra givin g sol o perfo r m -

ance s m ay be perceived as rol e m odels.

evaluate s th e m usician s’ perfo r m anc e in privat e an d th e

m usi c critic an d th e au d ienc e asses s th e perfo r m anc e in public.

Eac h of th e si x rol e s descri be d ca n be subdivi de d into

tw o roles , m akin g a tota l of 1 2 role s as illustrat ed in Figur e

1. R ole s to th e righ t in th e ® gur e requir e m or e conten t

expertis e or knowledg e, an d role s to th e lef t m or e educatio na l exp e rtise . Role s to th e to p ar e associat ed wit h fac e -t o -fac e contac t wit h students , an d th e role s to th e botto m ar e associ - ate d wit h les s studen t contact . Figur e 2 show s ho w th e 12 role s of th e teache r ca n be viewe d in th e contex t of th e relation ship s tha t exis t am on g th e student , th e teache r an d

th e curric ulu m . Th e 12 role s identi ® ed wer e validate d by a questio nnair e

co m plete d by 25 1 teacher s at differe nt levels of seniori ty, in

th e m edical schoo l at th e U niversi ty of Dundee . Th e 12

role s wer e descri be d in th e questio nnair e an d staf f wer e

Finally th e conduc to r

Th e si x area s of activit y of

th e teache r ca n

be su m m arize d

aske d to rate , on a ® ve -poin t scale , th e relevan ce to th e

 

m

edica l schoo l of eac h of th e 1 2 role s identi® ed wher e 1 =

as:

 

de

® nitely no , 2 = probabl y no , 3 = unce r tain , 4 = probabl y

(1 ) th

e

teache r as

infor m atio n provide r;

 

ye

s an d 5 = d e® nitely yes . Th e respon dent s recogni ze d al l

(2 ) th

e

teache r as

rol e m odel ;

12 role s id e nti ® ed as th e respons ibilities of a teacher. T he

(3 ) th

e

teache r as

facilita tor ;

m

ea n ratin g fo r eac h of th e role s range d fro m 3. 5 to 4. 2 an d

(4 ) th

e

teache r as

assessor ;

is

give n in Tabl e 1.

(5 ) th

e

teache r as planner ;

(6 ) th e teache r as resourc e developer .

 
 

T h e 12

ro les

U

sin g a m usica l m etaphor , th e role s of th e

teache r m ay be

likene d to th e perfo r m anc e of an orchest ra l piec e of m usic .

Th e co m pose r is th e planne r wh o ha s th e inspirat io n an d

In thi s sectio n we explor e eac h of th e 12 role s id enti ® ed in

m or e detail .

n we explor e eac h of th e 12 role s id enti ® ed

336

F ig u re 1. Th e 12 role s of th e teacher.

n we explor e eac h of th e 12 role s id enti ® ed

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A M E E G ui d e N o. 20

from informahealthcare.com A M E E G ui d e N o. 20 F ig u

F ig u re 2. Th e role s of th e teache r in th e contex t of th e tea c her / student / curric ulu m fra m ework .

T he inf o r m atio n provide r

be taught .

The y believe tha t it is th e respons ibility of th e teache r to

at io n , k n o w l e d ge a n d

unders tandin g in a topi c appropr iat e at th e stag e of thei r

studies. Thi s lead s to th e traditio na l rol e of th e teache r as

infor m atio n in th e le c tur e context . Th e

teache r is see n as an exper t wh o is knowle dgeabl e in hi s or

he r ® eld , an d wh o convey s tha t knowledg e to student s usuall y

by wor d of m outh . In trans m ittin g th e knowledg e, th e teache r

m ay als o assis t th e studen t to interpr et it usin g on e of a

variet y of educati ona l strategi es tha t th e teache r explain s

& A tkins , 19 86) .

Despit e th e availability of othe r source s of infor m ation , bot h prin t an d electro nic Ð includ in g excitin g interac tiv e

on e of provid e r of

p a ss o n to th e m t h e in fo r m

(a ) Th e lect u rer. Tradition all y student s expec t to

th e subjec t m atte r to th e stude n t (Brow n

m ulti m edi a learning resourc e m aterials , th e lecture re m ain s

on e of th e m os t widel y use d instructio na l m ethods . It ca n be

no t

foun d in standar d texts , of relatin g th e infor m atio n to th e

an d contex t of m edical practic e an d of

loca l curricu lu m

providin g th e lecturer’ s persona l ove r vie w or structur e of th e

® el d of knowledg e fo r th e student . In a stud y of teacher s wh o

a cost-effective m etho d of providin g ne w infor m atio n

ha d received award s fo r `excellen t teaching ’ , Johnsto n (1996 )

foun d tha t althoug h th e teacher s di d no t spea k speci ® cally of

c on te n t of th e ir su b je c t,

disciplinar y knowledg e wa s at th e hear t of thei r teachin g approaches . Th e teacher s use d interactive ways , including th e lecture, to pas s thi s knowledg e on to th e students .

Ther e ha s been , however , a gen e ra l cal l fo r a reduct io n in

th e cur r iculu m , an d a m ov e awa y fro m thei r

exclus io n of th e lecture fro m th e

rightl y

so . A lecture in whic h th e infectiou s enthusi as m of an expe r t wh o is als o a goo d co m m unicato r excite s or m otivate s th e student s ha s m uc h to co m m en d it. Th e im po r tanc e attache d to th e rol e of th e teache r as an

info r m atio n provide r is pa r tl y c ultural . G okcor a (19 9 7) , fo r

student s value d m or e tha n

exa m ple , foun d tha t C hines e

th e subjec t

teacher ’ s toolbox , however , ha s bee n qu estione d, an d

th e nu m be r of lecture s schedu le d

tenden c y fo r ne w m edical us e as a lea r nin g tool . T he

te ac hi n g as tra n sm itti n g th e

in

school s to

A m erican student s th e profess or ’ s knowle dg e of an d his / he r trans m issio n of thi s to th e student s.

(b ) T he clinica l or practica l teacher. Th e clinical setting , whethe r

in th e hospita l or in th e co m m unity , is a powerfu l contex t fo r th e trans m ission , by th e clinical teacher , of infor m atio n directly relevan t to th e practic e of m edicin e. T he teache r selects, organi z es an d deliver s info r m ation . Thi s is achieve d

Table 1. M ea n ratin g by 2 51 m edical teacher s as to th e relativ e im portan ce of th e twelv e role s of th e m edical teacher .

Teacher ’ s ro le

M ean rating

Teacher ’ s rol e

M ean rating

In fo r m ati o n provide r

 

E xam in er

(1

)

Lectur er in classro om settin g

3.6

(7 ) Planni ng or partici patin g in for m al exa m ination s of student s

3.9

(2

)

Teache r in clinical or practica l clas s setting

4.2

(8 ) C urricu lu m

evaluat or

3.6

R

ole m o del

 

P lan ner

(3

)

O

n -th e -jo b rol e m ode l

4.2

(9 ) C urricu lu m

planne r

3.8

(4

)

R ol e m ode l in th e teachin g settin g

3.6

(1 0 ) C ours e organi z er

3.9

Facilita to r

 

R esourc e develop er

(5

)

M entor , person al advise r or tuto r

3.5

(1 1 ) Produc tio n

of stud y guide s

3.5

(6

)

Learni ng facilita to r

3.8

(1 2 ) De velopi n g

lea r nin g resour ce

3.6

m aterial s in th e for m of co m pute r

progra m m es , videotap e or

ca n be use d as adjunct s to th e lecture s an d othe r session s

prin t whic h

337
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R. M . H arde n & J. C rosb y

durin g teachin g war d rounds , war d -base d tutoria ls or m or e

in

appr e n ti c e . In cl ini c al te a ch in g atta c hm e nts , th e m o st

fo r m all y w it h th e st u de n t in th e ro le of th e cli n ica l

futur e wor k or wa y of bei n g, we ar e se r vin g as rol e m odels . Th e ad m onitio n in th e ol d aphoris m `D o as I Say , no t as I

do ’ seldo m works . W ha t we do is likel y to hav e m or e im pac t

im portan t facto r relate d to studen t learni ng m ay be

th e

on lea r ner s tha n wha t we tell the m to do º (p. 15 5 ).

qualit y of th e clinical teacher. G oo d clinical

s

teache r s

ca n

Indeed , rol e m odelling m ay hav e a greate r im pac t on th e

sh a re w i th th e st u d e n t th e i r th ou g ht s a

a `r e ¯ e c tiv e

studen t tha n othe r teachin g m ethods . Falv o et al. (1991 ),

practiti on e r’ , he lpi n g to illu m inate , fo r th e

st u dent , th e

fo

r exa m ple , foun d rol e m odellin g to be educati onall y m or e

y o f

distingu ishe d clinical teacher s, Irb y (19 9 4) conclu de d tha t

a ke y ele m en t in teachin g is th e orga n izatio n an d presen ta -

tio n

it an d us e it to satisf y thei r lea r ni n g objecti ves º (p. 340) . T he clinical teache r explain s th e basi c skills of histo r y

takin g an d physica l exa m inatio n in clinical practic e -base d

an d si m ulate d situation s. Incr e asin g us e is bein g m ad e of

si m ulator s to teac h clinical skills (G ordo n et al. , 1 999) . Thi s

require s of th e teache r additio na l skill s no t neede d in m or e

traditio na l clinical teachin g. O ne are a of controv ers y in

m ed ic al edu c atio n is th e e xte n t to whic h clinical skill s

lea r nin g units shoul d hav e speci ® cally recruite d an d traine d

staf f whos e rol e is to teac h in th e unit , or whethe r te acher s wh o teac h in th e clinical practic e -base d contex t shoul d als o be expect ed to teac h in th e clinical skills unit .

learner s ca n co m prehen d

pr o c e s s o f c l in i c a

l d e c i s io n m a k i n g . I n a s tu d

of m edical knowled ge ª so tha t

Th e rol e m ode l

(a ) T he o n -th e -j o b rol e m odel . Th e im po r tanc e of th e te ache r

as a ro le m o d e l i s w e l l d o c u m e n t e d . Wa lt o n ( 1 9 8 5 )

conclu ded , ª Sociologica l researc h ha s de m onstrat ed th e

exten t to whic h an im po r tan t co m ponen t of lea r nin g derive s fro m th e exa m pl e give n in thei r ow n perso n by teacher s, wh o si gn i® c an tl y i n¯ u e n c e m e d ic a l st u d e n ts i n m an y respects , suc h as in thei r choic e of futur e career, thei r profes -

im po r tan c e the y assig n to differe nt

siona l attitude s, an d th e

subjects º (p. 50) . Th e G enera l M edical C ounci l (1 999 ) in

th

e U K acknow ledge s tha t ª th e exa m pl e of th e teache r is

th

e m os t powerfu l in ¯ uenc e upo n th e standar ds of conduc t

an d practic e of eve r y trainee , whethe r m ed ica l studen t or junio r doctor º (p. 1) . T he teache r as a clinician shoul d m ode l or exe m plif y wha t shoul d be learne d. Studen ts lea r n by obse r vatio n an d

im itatio n of th e clinical teacher s the y respect . Student s lea r n no t jus t fro m wha t thei r teacher s sa y bu t fro m wha t th e y do

knowle dge , skills an d m odel º , suggeste d M cAl -

attitude s the y exhibit . ª Bein g

in th e ir clin ic al pra c ti c e an d th e

a rol e

lister et al. (1 9 97 , p. 53 ), ª is widel y recogni se d as critical in

effectiv e tha n le c ture / discuss io n session s in enhanc in g th e student s’ abilit y to co m m un icat e wit h patient s abou t im m u - node ® cien c y virus. Dougla s (1999 , p. 8 89 ) describe s vividl y

he r experi enc e of ter m ina l car e as a traine e an d th e lesson s

le ar ne d fro m he r trai n er : ª Ji m m y [he r train e r] wa s an

m an , an d I m is s hi m te r ribly. Hi s

legac y to m e , as a traine r m ysel f now , is

im po r tanc e

as , if no t m or e than , anythin g tha t happen s in a tutoria l.º

Th e im po r tanc e of th e rol e m ode l wa s em phasize d to o by

Si r Donal d Ir vin e (1999), P residen t of th e G enera l M edica l

C ounci l in th e U K . He suggeste d tha t ª th e m ode l of practic e

provide d by clinical teacher s is essentia l becaus e student s

lear n bes t by goo d exa m ple º (p. 11 75) . B ette r m edical student s wh o wor k wit h th e bes t inte r na l m edicin e attendin g physicia ns an d residen ts in thei r inte r na l m edicin e clerksh ip

ar e m or e likely to c hoos e an inte r na l m edicin e residen c y (G riffith et al. , 200 0). Ther e ha s no t be en a grea t de al of researc h on wha t

im po r tan t rol e m od el fro m a stu d en t pe rspective .

m ake s an

W righ t (1 9 96 ) foun d tha t student s rate d low, in ter m s of

im po r tanc e in rol e m odels , senior it y or titl e an d researc h ability. Th e m os t im portan t physici an charact eristic s foun d

in rol e m odel s identi® e d by student s (A m broz y et al. , 1997)

were:

· express es enthusi as m fo r

· de m onstrat es excellent clinical reasoni ng skills ;

· establis he s clos e doctor± patien t relation ships ;

· view s th e patien t as a whole .

Th e m os t im portan t teache r charact eristic s identi® ed were :

· express es enthusi as m fo r teachin g;

· ac tivel y involve s student s;

· co m m u nicate s effectiv el y wit h student s.

Althous e et al. (19 9 9) exa m ine d ho w clinical instruc tors ,

design ate d by thei r m ed ic al stude n ts as in ¯ ue ntia l rol e

inspirat iona l docto r an d

to re m in d m e of th e m uc h

of teachin g by exa m ple , whic h m atter s as

specia lity ;

m

odels , describe d thei r teachin g an d thei r relation ship s wit h

th

e student s.

shaping , teachin g, coachi ng an d assistin g fu tur e

clinician s

M

e dica l student s an d thei r m odel s di d no t gener -

as it is th e m os t powerfu l teachin g strateg y availabl e to

powerfu l m ean s of trans m ittin g values , attitude s an d pattern s

all

y spen d larg e am ount s of ti m e together . O fte n

clinical e du c ators º . R ol e m o dellin g is on e o f th e m os t

the y m et onl y brie ¯ y afte r patien t encoun ter s to discus s c ar e of a speci ® c patient . Thi s ® ndin g

of

thought s an d behavio ur to

student s (B andura , 198 6 ) an d

indicate d tha t th e quantit y of ti m e physician s spen t

in

in ¯ uencin g student s’ care e r choic e (C am pos- O utcal t et

wit h thei r student s wa s no t nearl y as im po r tan t as

al.

, 19 95).

th

e

qualit y of th e ti m e. Regardl es s of

th e am oun t

T he ® rs t N ativ e Am erica n physicia n , C harle s Alexan d er

of

ti m e spen t together , student s

chos e

m odel s wh o

East m an (1991), describ ed th e im po r tanc e

in th e educati on of an Indian : ª We watche d th e m en of ou r

peopl e an d acte d lik e the m in ou r play , the n learne d to em ulat e the m in ou r live sº (p. 20 ). U llian et al. (1 994) describ ed as th e `physician ’ rol e th e m odelling by th e teache r of kno w ledg e an d skills throug h perfo r m in g m edica l duties . ª A s clinician s we overtl y teac h by exa m ple , whethe r we choos e to or not º , suggest ed Westber g & Jaso n (1 9 93) . ª An y

of th e rol e m ode l

ti m e tha t learne rs witnes s us doin g wha t the y vie w as thei r

338

goo d inst r ucto r or clinic all y

p e te n t. S t u d e n ts c h o s e m o d e l s w h o

de m onstrate d a dedicat io n to thei r special ity an d

p at i e n ts , a l o ve o f t e a c h i n g , a n d a c a

perso n ality, whic h fostere d

m utua l respec t. T he rol e m odel s wer e genuin el y

intereste d in facilitati ng th e growt h of th e students ,

whic h m anifest ed in bein g selected by student s as

a m ode l (p. 12 0 ).

r in g

c o m

wer e m or e tha n jus t a

an envir o nm en t of

ed in bein g selected by student s as a m ode l (p. 12 0

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(b ) T he rol e m o de l as a teache r. Teache r s se r ve as rol e m odel s

no t onl y whe n the y teac h student s whil e the y perfor m thei r

dutie s as doctor s, bu t als o whe n the y ful ® l thei r rol e as

teacher s in th e classro om , whethe r it is in th e lectur e theatr e or th e sm al l discuss io n or tutoria l group. Th e goo d teache r wh o is als o a docto r ca n descri be , in a lectur e to a clas s of

student s, his / he r approac h to th e

discuss ed in a wa y tha t capture s th e im porta n ce of th e

subjec t an d th e choice s availabl e. Th e teache r ha s a

oppo r tunit y to shar e so m e of th e m agi c of th e subj e ct wit h

th e student s. H e/sh e ca n kindle , in th e student s, a curios it y

an d ques t fo r a bette r unders tandin g of

relevan t pathophy siolog y by his / he r ow n

tha t is difficu lt to reprod uc e in an instru c tiona l tex t or

co m pute r progra m . O n e proble m facin g m edical educat io n

toda y is tha t m an y teache r s of m e dica l stu d ents , pa r ticular ly

in th e basi c scienc es bu t als o in

no t m edically quali ® ed . Thi s m ay

m od e lli n g. O ne res u lt is tha t stud e nt s m ay hav e m or e

diffi c ult y u nderst an di n g th e re levanc e of wha t the y ar e lear n in g to thei r futur e caree r as doctors . R evie w in g th e role s of teacher s, Squire s (1999 ) note d tha t ª it is im po r tan t to identif y m odelling as a distinc t fun c - tio n an d headin g in orde r to dra w attentio n to wha t is a

clinical depa r tm ents , ar e

hav e im plicatio ns fo r rol e

uniq u e

clinical proble m bein g

th e topi c an d th e perso n al exa m pl e

pe r vasiv e bu t so m e ti m es unc o nsciou s, an d eve n denie d

proces s in educat ion . Teacher s m ay no t se e the m selve s as

m odels , an d m ay eve n regre t th e ve r y ide a as pretent iou s

an d pate r nalistic , bu t it is difficu lt fo r lea r ner s no t to be

in ¯ uence d by th e livin g exa m pl e se t befor e the m .º

T he facilita to r

(a ) T he lea r nin g facilita tor. Th e m ov e to a m or e student -

centre d vie w of learni ng ha s require d a funda m enta l shif t in

th e rol e of th e teach e r. N o longe r is th e teach e r see n

predo m inantl y as a dispens er of infor m atio n or walkin g tap e re corder, bu t rathe r as a facilitato r or m anage r of th e

student s’ lea r ning . T he m or e respons ibility an d freedo m give n to th e student , th e greate r th e shif t requir ed in th e teacher ’ s role . N ot al l teacher s adap t to thi s differe nt role .

ª M an y te achers º , suggest ed Jacque s (1 991) , ® nd th e tas k of

facilita to r ª difficu lt to perfo r m satisfac toril y an d fal l bac k

wit h so m e disapp oint m en t on thei r rese r ve positi on of authori ty , expe r t an d pri m e talker º .

T he in tro d uc ti o n of pr o ble m -b as e d le ar ni n g w it h a

co n se qu en t fu nda m e nta l chang e in th e stude n t± te ac he r relation shi p ha s highligh te d th e chang e in th e rol e of th e teache r fro m on e of infor m atio n provide r to on e of facil i -

tator . T he teacher ’ s rol e is no t to

info r m th e student s bu t to

encourag e an d facilita te the m to lear n fo r th e m selve s usin g

th e proble m as a focu s fo r th e learning (Barro ws & Tam blyn ,

1999) . Thi s changi ng rol e of th e

const r uctivis t approac h to

lear n ing , in whic h knowle dg e is `constru cted ’ in th e m in d of

th e studen t an d is constan tl y evolvin g (B rook s & B rooks ,

19 9 3) . It is th e rol e of th e teache r to facilita te thi s proces s

Schmid t

rathe r tha n to ac t si m pl y as

& M ous t (1 9 95 ) looke d at th e charact eristic s of an effectiv e

teache r in a proble m -base d cu rricul um . Teacher s neede d

th e abilit y to co m m unicat e wit h student s in an info r m al wa y

in th e sm al l -g ro up sessi o ns , an d to

lea r n in g by cr e ati n g an at m osph e re in w hic h an o pe n

19 8 0; Davi s & H ard e n, teache r is als o re ¯ ecte d

in th e

an infor m atio n provider.

en co u rag e st u de nt

A M E E G ui d e N o. 20

excha n ge of idea s wa s facilitated . Teacher s wer e abl e to

functio n m os t effective ly if , in additio n to thos e skills , the y

als o ha d

Th e in c reasin g availabi lity an d us e of lea r nin g resourc e

m ate r ial s als o bring s wit h it th e nee d fo r th e teach e r as a

lea r nin g facilita tor . No se t of cours e m aterial s, whethe r in

prin t or electro ni c fo r m at , is perfec t fo r al l student s. It is

respons ibility of th e teache r to facilitat e studen t us e of th e

resour ce s by overco m in g an y de ® ciencie s in th e m aterial s

an d by in tegratin g the m int o th e cu r riculu m .

ip be tw e e n s tu d e n ts an d

teacher s is percei ve d by bot h as a ke y ele m en t in studen t lea r nin g an d on e tha t disting uishe s goo d fro m poo r clinical teachi n g (C hristi e et al ., 198 5 ). Thi s role Ð of th e teache r as

th e

subject -bas e d knowle dge .

T h e f a c il i tativ e r e la ti o n sh

a

facilitato r in th e clinical setting Ð ha s bee n

referred to as

th

e `supe r visor ’ role , wit h th e teache r providi ng th e studen t

w it h opp o r tu n itie s fo r wo rkin g in th e cli n ica l c on text , obse r vin g th e stud e nt an d givin g feedba ck (U llia n et al. , 19 94).

(b ) T he m en tor. Th e rol e of m ento r is a

teache r tha t is in vogue . Eve r yon e ha s a m ento r or is begi n - nin g to wan t one , sugges t M or to n -C oope r & Pal m er (2000).

Th e role , however , is ofte n m isunde rstoo d or am biguou s. Ther e re m ain s ª consid erabl e se m anti c an d concep tua l var i - ability abou t wha t m entorin g is an d does , an d wha t a m ento r

fu r the r rol e fo r th e

is an d does º (S C O PM E, 19 98 , p. 5) . M egginso n & C lutterbuc k (1995 ) hav e de ® ne d m entorin g

as ª off-lin e hel p by on e perso n to anoth e r in m akin g a signi ® can t transit io n in knowled ge , wor k or thinkin gº . Th e

m

en to r is u suall y no t th e m em be r of staf f wh o is respons ibl e

fo

r th e teachin g or assess m en t of th e studen t an d is therefor e

ª off-lin e º in te r m s of relation shi p wit h th e student . M ento r -

les s abou t revi e win g th e student ’ s perfo r m anc e in a

subjec t or an exa m inatio n an d m or e abou t a wide r vie w of i s su e s r e la ti n g to th e s tu d e n t . T h e m e n to r , s u g ge st

M eggins on & C lutterb uck , ha s a rol e to hel p th e learne r

gras p th e wide r signi ® canc e of whateve r is happeni ng . M entori ng ca n be viewe d as a specia l relation shi p tha t

develop s betwee n tw o person s wit h th e m ento r alway s ther e

shi p is

fo

r suppor t bu t no t depend en c y (R onan , 199 7 ). Li n gha m &

G

upt a (19 9 8) de ® ne d m entori ng as a proces s by whic h on e

perso n act s toward s anothe r as a truste d counsel lo r or guide .

It is no t fo r educati ona l supe r vision . It is abou t helpin g a perso n to le ar n withi n a suppo r tiv e relation ship . It m ay be a singl e even t bu t is usuall y a longe r relation ship .

E a s to n & Va n L a a r ( 1 9 9 5 ) s ho w e d th a t 9 7 % o f

of univers ity lecture rs repo r te d

respond ent s in a su r ve y

havin g helpe d at leas t on e studen t in distres s du r in g th e

previou s year . G rayso n et al. (1 9 98 ) foun d tha t student s bot h expec t an d wan t thei r lecture rs to be a sourc e of help.

P

P

teachi n g of psychol ogy, suggest ed tha t in so m e respec ts

acade m ic s rese m ble d pri e st s wh o ha d

a ca r ing , pastora l

Britis h fo r th e

rofesso r Joh n R adford , ad d ressin g a m eetin g sycholo gica l Societ y in 199 6 on receip t of an

of th e d

awar

role. Thre e em ergin g models fo r th e teache r as m ento r outlined

by M orto n -C oope r & Pal m er

(2000 ) are :

(1 ) th e apprent iceshi p m ode l an d th e m ento r as skille d craftspe r son . Thi s rol e includ es lea r nin g by obse r ving . Thi s is so m eti m es referred to as `sittin g by Nellie ’ ; (2 ) th e co m petenc e -base d m ode l an d th e m ento r as trainer .

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Thi s enco m passe s th e rol e of th e traine r as an instr ucto r an d coac h wh o de m on strate s an d assist s th e studen t to

achieve a se t of co m petenc es ;

(3 ) th e re ¯ ectiv e practiti on er m ode l an d m ento r as critica l

frien d an d co -enquir e r. Thi s includ es th e pro m otio n of collabo ratio n an d pa r tnershi p in th e learni ng proc e ss .

As ca n be seen , ther e ar e differen t concept s of wha t a m ento r is. So m e of th e m e nto r role s descri be d overla p wit h othe r role s identi ® ed in thi s guide .

Th e assess or

(a ) T he stu d en t a ssesso r. Th e assess m en t of th e studen t’ s

co m petenc e is on e of th e m os t im po r tan t task s facin g th e

teacher . ª G oo d teache r s kno w ho w the y m u st asses s thei r

lea r ning º , suggest ed M apston e (1 996 , p. 2 ), ª an d

student s’

the y wan t to do it well.º Ia n Lang , whe n Scottis h Secret ar y

d resistin g pressur e fo r parent s to choos e whethe r thei r

an

childre n too k pa r t in nationa l testin g in pri m ar y schools ,

fo r taki n g ad equat e step s to e ns u re tha t ass e ss m en t of

student s is valid , open , fair , an d cong r uen t wit h cours e objectiv es.º Stude n ts ca n wal k awa y fro m ba d teachin g , suggest s B ou d (1 990) , bu t the y ar e unabl e to do so wit h regar d to assess m ent .

(b ) Th e cu r ricul u m assess or. Th e teache r ha s a respons ibility no t on ly to pla n an d im ple m en t educat iona l progra m m es

an d to asses s th e student s’ learni ng , bu t als o to asses s th e cours e an d curric ulu m delivered . M onitori ng an d evaluatin g

th e effecti venes s of th e teachin g of course s an d cu rricul a is

no w recogniz ed as an integra l par t of th e educatio na l process.

Th e qualit y of th e teachin g an d lea r nin g proces s need s to be assesse d throug h studen t feedbac k, pee r evaluati on an d

assess m en t of th e produc t of th e educati ona l progra m m e .

C urricu lu m an d teache r e valuatio n is a for m of accoun t-

abilit y whic h em phasi z es

in th e educat io n syste m to be answera bl e to th e public , to

th e obligati on of thos e em ploye d

th e professi on , to thos e wh o fun d th e educat io n an d to th e

student s the m selves . In thi s sens e evaluati on is an instr u -

pu

t it rathe r well : ª I believe tha t teachin g withou t testin g is

m

en t of m anage m en t an d contro l (Nisbe t, 199 0 ).

lik

e cookin g

withou t tasting º .

Evaluati on ca n als o be inte r prete d as an integr al par t of

A

ssess m en t ha s em e rge d as a distinc t are a of activity fo r

th

e profess iona l rol e of teacher s, recog n izin g teache r s’ ow n

th e m e d ic a l te ac h e r an d o n e th at m ay d o m i n at e th e

curric ulu m . It offer s perhap s th e greates t challen ge s facin g

medical educatio n today. ª Educatio na l achieve m en t testing º , suggeste d va n de r Vleute n (1 996) , ª is an are a of tur m oi l in

respons ibility fo r m onitori ng thei r ow n perfor m ance . Par t of th e expecta tio n of th e professi ona l rol e of th e teache r is

as a ss e s so r

e m o st e ff e c tiv e w h en we se t th e m

ª

e te n c e a s a te ac h e r.

o f h is / he r ow n c o m p

S ta n d a rd s a re th

th

e healt h scienc es º (p. 4 1) . It is an are a wher e th e nu m be r

ourselves º , suggest s Nisbe t (1986). ª Professio nalis m requires

of

instru m ents availabl e ha s increase d dra m aticall y bu t wher e

fro m us th e capaci ty to

appl y th e highes t standar d s to

thei r valu e m ay be difficu lt to dete r m in e bein g d om inate d by th e psycho m etrics.

distin c t an d po te n tiall y

separat e rol e fo r th e teacher . Thu s it is possibl e fo r so m eon e

to be an `exper t teacher ’ bu t no t an expe r t exa m iner. A ll instituti on s no w nee d on thei r staf f so m e teacher s wit h a

specia l knowl e dg e an d unde r standi n g of assess m en t issues. Suc h individ ual s ac t as tes t develop er s an d provid e gui d - anc e on th e choi c e of instru m ent, m arkin g proced ure s an d standar d setting . Exa m ining , however , m us t als o be regarde d as an integr al pa r t of th e teacher ’ s rol e an d pa r t of th e occupat io n of teachin g in highe r educati on (Piper, 199 4 ).

M os t teacher s hav e so m ethin g to contrib ut e to th e assess -

m en t proces s. Thi s m ay be in th e fo r m of contrib u tin g

questio ns to a questio n bank , of actin g as exa m iner s in an

O SC E or a po r tfoli o assess m en t an d of

se r vin g on a boar d

in a ® el d at r is k of

E xa m ini n g do es re prese n t a

ourselv es eve n whe n ther e is no on e bu t ourselv es to judg e

The y

lear n (o r do no t lea r n) fro m ou r exa m ple.º C ours e evalua -

tio n is thu s pa r t of eve r y teacher ’ s respon sibilities . W ithi n

th e contex t of th e cur r iculu m , however , so m e teacher s m ay

be expect ed to assu m e greate r respon sibility fo r overal l

assess m en t of th e teachin g an d so m e m ay hav e thi s as a

m ajo r person al respons ibility.

C urricu lu m evaluati on ha s bee n de ® ne d (C ole s & G rant , 198 5 , p. 4 05 ) as ª a deliber at e ac t of enqui r y whic h set s ou t wit h th e intenti on of allowin g peopl e conce r ne d wit h an educati ona l even t to m ak e rigorou s, info r m ed judge m ent s

an d decision s abou t it, so tha t appropr iat e de velop m en t

an d of th e

m ay be facilitated º . Th e

curric ulu m ca n be conduc te d at an institut iona l leve l wit h

th e teache r as on e of th e stakeho lder s in th e process. Jus t as

T hi s is wha t we tr y to

teac h ou r student s

assess m e nt of teachin g

of

e xa m iner s face d wit h th e ke y decision of wh o sho u ld pas s

im po r tan t is th e self-eva luatio n by th e teache r of hi s or he r

an

d

wh o fai l th e exa m ination . Th e assess m en t of student s is

teachi n g wit h th e indivi du al teache rs re ¯ ectin g on an d

an integra l par t of teachin g, sugges t W hit m an & Schwen k (1984), an d requires th e develop m en t of rappor t an d genuin e

analysi ng thei r ow n teachin g. Feedbac k fro m student s an d othe r teacher s or `c r itica l

interes t in th e studen t (p. 30) .

T he assesso r rol e of th e te ache r is ofte n percei ve d as

differen t fro m th e othe r roles . W hil e as infor m atio n provider ,

curric ulu m pla n ne r th e ai m of

th e teache r is to assis t th e studen t in a va r iet y of way s to

achiev e th e cours e goals , as an assesso r th e teache r ha s th e

e of passin g judge m en t on th e student . T hi s is pa r ticularly

tr ue in su m m ativ e assess m ent , bu t is les s so wit h fo r m ativ e

assess m en t wher e th e bounda r ie s betwee n teachin g beco m e increa singl y blurre d.

T he teacher ’ s rol e as an assesso r is an im po r tan t one .

assess m en t an d

rol

rol

e m odel , fa c ilitato r an d

M ur ray et al. (1 996 ) suggest ed : ª G ive n th e im po r tanc e of

assess m en t of studen t perfor m anc e in univer sit y teachin g

d in student s’ live s an d careers, instruc tor s ar e respons ibl e

an

340

friends ’ m ay be bro u gh t in to provid e a fu r the r insigh t an d to identif y area s in teachin g fo r th e teacher ’ s growt h an d develop m ent. Th e m os t widel y use d techni qu e fo r obtaini ng feedbac k fro m student s fo r th e purpos e of evaluati ng th e

te ache r is th e questio nnaire . Th e us e of focu s groups , th e

no m ina l grou p techniq ue , a D elph i techni que , inte r view s wit h individua l student s an d a stud y of diarie s kep t by student s m ay giv e infor m atio n whic h is perceived by th e

te ache r as of m or e valu e (Tiber iu s et al. , 1987 ).

The plann er

( a) T he c u r r ic u lu m p la n n er . M os t m ed ic al sc h oo ls an d

postgra duat e bodie s hav e e ducatio n co m m ittee s charge d

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A M E E G ui d e N o. 20

wit h th e respon sibility fo r plannin g an d im ple m e ntin g th e curric ulu m withi n thei r institut ion . Teacher s em ploye d by

cours e th e wa y in whic h th e curric ulu m is brough t to lif e is equall y im po r tant , bu t th e powe r of goo d

th

e schoo l an d m em ber s of th e postgra duat e institut io n

teacher ± studen t inte ractio n s is m ultiplie d m an y

m

ay be expect ed to m ak e a contri butio n to curric ulu m

ti m es by cours e design .

plan n ing . Teacher s ca n unde r tak e fe w activiti es , suggest s Dia m on d (1 998) , tha t wil l hav e greate r im pac t on thei r student s tha n thei r activ e involve m en t in th e desig n of a curric ulu m or cou r se the y teach . C urricu lu m plannin g is an im po r tan t rol e fo r th e tea c he r. Differe nt approa c he s to curric ulu m plannin g ca n be adopte d (Harde n, 19 8 6b ) an d ther e ar e 10 issue s tha t nee d to be addres se d (H arden , 19 8 6a) . Th e followi ng shoul d be speci ® ed :

(1 )

(2 ) th e (3 ) th e

(4 ) th e organiz atio n of th e conten t;

th e

need s tha t th e curric ulu m shoul d m eet ; expect e d lea r nin g outco m es ;

conte nt to be includ ed in th e curric ulu m ;

(5

)

th e

educati ona l strategi es ;

(6

)

th e

teachin g m ethods ;

(7

)

th e

assess m en t proced ure ;

(8 ) co m m u nicatio n abo u t th e cu r ric u lu m to staf f an d

s; (9 ) th e educati ona l environ m ent ; (10 ) pro c edure s fo r m anagi n g th e curric ulu m .

C urricu lu m planni ng present s a signi ® can t challen ge fo r

th e teache r an d bot h ti m e an d expe r tis e ar e requir e d if th e

jo b is to be unde r take n properl y.

(b ) T he cours e pla n ner. Th e bes t cur r iculu m in th e worl d wil l be ineffec tiv e if th e course s tha t co m pris e it hav e littl e or no relation shi p to th e curric ulu m tha t is in place . O nc e th e

princi ple s tha t underp in th e curric ulu m of th e

institut io n

hav e bee n agreed , detaile d planni ng is the n req u ire d at th e leve l of th e individua l cours e or phas e of th e cur r iculu m .

Tradition all y m uc h of th e plannin g wa s discipl in e or subjec t

b a se d . M o r e r e c e n t ly th e r e h a s

b e e n a m o ve to

interdisciplina r y or integrate d teachin g (Harden , 2000) . Suc h

approac he s nee d to be re ¯ ecte d in cours e design . C ours e plan n ing , lik e plannin g th e curric ulu m as a whole , requir es

student

th

e dedicate d ti m e of in dividua ls. Th e tas k is signi ® cantl y

m

or e de m andin g in integrat ed progra m m es , bu t it is gener -

all y ac ce pt e d tha t thi s is a sm al l pr

advantag es of integrat ed teaching . Lac k of attentio n to detai l

m ay lea d to proble m s wit h th e teachin g progra m m e.

Pa r ticipati on in cou r se plannin g give s th e teache r an

a s i gn i® c a n t i n ¯ u e n c e o n th e

educationa l proces s an d to desig n course s whic h wil l achieve

o p p o r tu n it y to e xe r t

ic e to pa y fo r th e

th

e lea r nin g outco m es speci ® ed by th e institut ion . ª Teac h -

er

s in

highe r educat ion º , suggest s Toohe y (1 9 99) :

retai n a ver y signi ® can t advantag e ove r teacher s in othe r bra n che s of educati on : thei r contro l of

th e cu r riculu m . In m uc h of pr im ar y, second ar y,

educati on , cours e desig n

h a s b e e n h a n d e d ov e r t o `e x p e r ts ’ , to th e im poveris hm en t of th e rol e of classro om teacher s. Yet cou r se desig n is an advantag e of whic h m an y teacher s in univers itie s see m quit e unaware . M uc h of th e creativity an d powe r in teachin g lie s in th e desig n of th e cu r riculu m : th e choic e of text s an d id e as whic h beco m e th e focu s of study, th e pla n - ni n g of experi ence s fo r student s an d th e m ean s by whic h achiev em en t is assessed . T hes e de ® ne th e

bou n darie s o f th e experi en ce

fo r st u de n ts . O f

tech n ica l an d vocation al

T he reso u rc e d evelope r

( a) T h e res o urc e m at e r ia l creat o r. A n in c reas e d ne e d fo r

learning resourc e m aterial s is im plicit in m an y of th e develop -

m en ts in educat ion . W it h proble m -base d lea r nin g an d othe r

stude n t-ce n tr e d approa ches , st u dent s ar e d epend e nt on havin g appropr iat e reso u rc e m ate r ia l availabl e fo r us e eithe r

as individ ual s or in groups . Eve n

student s spen d as m uc h ti m e wit h thei r workboo ks as wit h thei r teacher s. Th e rol e of th e teache r as resourc e creato r offer s excitin g possibi lities. Teacher s wil l beco m e, sugges t R ave t & Layt e

in traditio na l cu r ricula,

(19 9 7) ª activit y builder s, creator s of ne w learni ng enviro n -

m en ts º . Indeed , th e visio n ha s bee n painte d of th e vi r tua l unive r sit y in whic h lectu rer s ar e replace d by inst r uctiona l designe rs . T he n ew technol ogie s hav e greatl y expande d th e

fo r m at s of le ar n in g m aterial s to

acces s an d m ak e it m uc h

fo r th e studen t to tak e m or e

th e studen t m ay hav e

whic h

easie r

respons ibility fo r his / he r ow n educati on . As develop er s of

resour ce m aterial s, teacher s m us t kee p abreas t wit h change s

in techno logy. A n inve st m en t in th e

fu r the r develop m en t of

co

m puter- bas e d lea r nin g m ateria l is needed . Th e us e of

co

m puter s in

educati on is expan d in g an d so m e school s

m

ak e th e purcha se of co m puter s by student s co m pulso r y.

C

om puter- bas e d lea r ning , however , is ofte n li m ite d by th e

lac k of goo d m ateria l fo r us e by student s (Platt & B airnsf a - ther , 1 999) . In stit u te -wi d e u se o f re so u rc e m ate r ial s to su pp or t

lea r nin g usin g traditio na l pape r m edi a or ne w techno logies , however , wil l oc cu r onl y if at leas t so m e teacher s posses s th e arra y of skills necessa r y to select, adap t or produc e m aterial s

fo

r us e withi n th e institut ion . Th e raisin g of awarene ss an d

th

e trainin g of staf f in th e rol e of resour ce develop er is

necessa r y fo r th e appropr iat e develop m en t withi n an instit u -

tio n of technol ogy-supp or te d lear n in g (Longst aff e et al. ,

19 96; R yan et al. , 1996 ).

(b ) Th e stu d y gu id e pro d ucer. Th e tren d fro m th e teache r as

an infor m atio n provide r to th e teache r as a m anage r of student s’ lea r nin g ha s bee n discuss ed . W hil e lea r nin g is

facilita te d by fac e -t o -fac e contac t wit h student s, th e am oun t of ti m e availabl e fo r thi s is restric te d an d ca n provid e onl y to a li m ite d exten t th e necess ar y guidan ce fo r student s. Stud y guides , suitabl y prepare d in electroni c or pri n t fo r m ,

2 4

hour s a da y an d desig n ed to assis t th e student s wit h thei r

lea r ning . Stud y guide s tel l th e student s wha t the y shoul d lea r nÐ th e e xpecte d lea r nin g outco m es fo r th e course , ho w the y m igh t acquir e th e co m petence s necessa r yÐ th e learning oppo r tuniti es availab le , an d wh e the r the y hav e le ar n ed itÐ th e student s assessi ng thei r ow n co m peten c e (Laidla w

ot h

underg raduat e an d postgra duat e educat io n (M itchell et al. ,

ca n be see n as th e student s’ person al tuto r availabl e

& H a rd en , 1 9 9 0 ). St u d y gu id e s ca n b e us e d in b

19 98).

Th e rol e of teache r as produc er of lea r ni n g resourc e

m ate r ial s wa s highligh te d in th e previou s section . It ca n be

argued , however , tha t it is no t cost-eff ective fo r th e teache r to reinven t th e whee l an d produc e instr uctiona l m ateria l

341
341

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R. M . H arde n & J. C rosb y

an d hando u ts on topic s tha t ar e alread y covere d in book s or

m aterials. W ha t m ay be m or e valuabl e is fo r

othe r resourc e

th

e teache r to identif y th e bes t resour ce s availabl e, direc t

th

e student s to thes e an d guid e th e student s’ us e of the m in

stud y guide s prepare d by

th e teacher .

In tercon n ectio n of role s

Ther e is a nee d fo r a bette r unders tandin g of th e natur e an d practic e of acade m ic wor k includ in g teachi n g (B laxte r et al. , 199 8 ) an d fo r th e interco nnecte dnes s of differ e nt acade m ic roles . Joyc e et al. (19 9 7, p. 1 1) describe th e proble m :

Stud y guide s ca n facilitat e learnin g in thre e way s (Harde n et al. , 199 9), by:

Thinki ng abou t th e role s tha t m ak e up teachin g

· assistin g in th e m anage m en t of studen t learni ng ;

ca n m ak e yo u dizzy. Ju st fo r sta r ters , thes e role s includ e helpin g stu d ents gro w in unders tandin g ,

th e

· providi n g a fo c us fo r studen t activiti es relatin g to th e learni ng;

knowledg e, self-aware ness , m ora l developm en t an d

· providi n g infor m atio n on th e subjec t or topi c of study.

ar e

abilit y to relat e to others . Si m ultaneo usl y we m anager s of learni ng , curric ulu m designe rs ,

A `stud y guid e triangl e’ m od el ca n be use d to repres en t

thes e differe nt functio ns , wit h on e functio n at eac h poin t of

th e triangl e. G uide s ca n be place d at d ifferen t point s in th e

triangl e re ¯ ectin g th e relativ e em phasi s on thes e thre e fun c -

tions.

D iscu ssio n

Th e 12 role s m od el

as a fra m ew or k

e r p r ov i d e s a n

understandin g of th e differen t view s of th e function s fulfilled

by

tio n of these . Th e explicit identi® catio n of th e 1 2 role s an d

thei r arrange m en t in th e circl e offer s a usefu l m ode l or

teacher s, fo r curric ulu m planne rs an d fo r

ad m inistrat or s

decisio ns relate d to teachin g. Th e descri ptio n of th e 12

role s is no t intend ed as a guidel in e on ho w to teac h or th e

circle

represe nt s th e overal l functio n s to be ® lle d by a teache r an d

ke y ele m ent s

tha

differen t seg m ent s or role s relative to eac h othe r is significa nt

an d eac h quadran t of th e circl e ha s a differe nt em phasis . O n

th e seg m ent s withi n th e circle represe nt th e

m ethod s an d educati ona l strategi es availabl e. Th e

fra m ewor k fo r

in an institut io n to thin k abou t an d m ak e

T h e 1 2 r o l e s m o d e l fo r th e t e a c h

th e tea c he r an d a fra m e wor k fo r th e fu r the r conside ra -

t go to m ak e u p th e overal l pictur e . Th e positio n of th e

th e no r th / sout h axi s is th e relation shi p wit h studen ts Ð

eithe r fac e -t o -fac e or at a distanc e. O n th e east / wes t axi s is

th

e are a of co m pe tenc e of th e teacher Ð in educati on or in

m

edicin

e.

Q u in n (1 9 9 6) h as u se d

a si m ila r appr o ac h to pr e se n t a

m

o de l fo r th e fu n ctio n s o f a m an

ag e r. H e de sc r ib e d thi s

as

a

`c o m petin g val u e s fra m e work ’ wit h th e m an ag e m e nt

fu

nc ti o ns withi n th e qu ad rant s of th e fra m ewor k c ar r yi n g

a

c on ¯ i c ti n g m e ssag e . In th e sa m e w

ay th e d i ff e re n t

te

achi n g rol e s app e ar

at ® r st sigh t to co n¯ ic t w it h e ac h

oth e r. We se e th e te ac he r as a provid e r of in fo r m atio n bu t

als

tak

tio n . T he tea c he r is a fa c ilitat o r, hel p in g th e st u d en t to

is an assess or w hos e rol e is to pas s ju d ge -

m e nt on

vie w s o f a te ac h er ’ s rol e

rol e s in th e cir c le m ay

facili tato r an d rol e m od e l.

di m e nsio n s in th e c ircl e ar e no t n e ce ssa r il y or thog o nal .

A s se t ou t in F ig u re 1 th e

co m pli m en t e ac h o th e r, e .g . th e

ca n m utuall y e xist . N e ig h bo u r in g

lea r n , bu t als o

th e st u de n t. W ithi n th e fra m e wor k thes e opp o si n g

e re spo n sibili ty fo r ac qu ir in g hi s o r he r ow n in fo r m a -

o as a fa c ilitat or o f le ar ni n g , e nc ou ragi n g th e st u d en t to

Th

m ap , how e ve r, ar e

e fo ur qua d ra n ts in to w hi c h th e d im en sio n s d ivid e th e

of eq ua l im po r tan c e an d so th e y c an be

co nsi d er e d or thog o nally.

342

facilitato rs , counsellors , evaluator s and , reluctant ly, dis c ipli n ar ians . To th e b es t o f ou r abilit y, we m odulat e acros s role s ac c ordingl y to individua l an d grou p need s as we selec t an d creat e learni ng exp e rience s fo r al l ou r student s.

separat ely, in

realit y the y ar e ofte n interco nnecte d an d closel y relate d on e

to another . Indee d a teache r m ay tak e on si m u ltaneou sl y

severa l roles. A n exa m pl e is th e lectur e situation , wher e

te acher s m ay

infor m ation . The y m ay choose , however , to adop t a m or e

in tera c tiv e appr o ac h, provi d in g th e stu d ent s wit h so m e

infor m atio n bu t at th e sa m e ti m e en couragi ng the m durin g

th e lectur e to engag e wit h th e subjec t an d co m e up wit h

thei r ow n solutio ns to proble m s posed . Durin g th e lecture

th e teache r canno t escap e fro m bein g a potentia l rol e m odel ,

wit h ho w he / sh e approac he s th e su bjec t an d th e attitude s

in ¯ uencin g th e stud e nt . Si m ilarly, in th e

m a i n

respons ibility is as facilita to r bu t he / sh e m ay at ti m es als o

se r ve as an infor m atio n provide r. Thi s m ay explai n wh y

stud e nt s wh o wer e fa c ilitate d by subjec t- m atte r exp e r ts achieve d so m ewha t bette r result s tha n thos e facilita te d by

te acher s wh o di d no t hav e thi s backgr oun d (Sch m id t &

he / sh e reveal s

p r o b l e m -b a s e d

se e as thei r m ai n functio n th e provisi on of

W hil e eac h of th e 12 role s ha s be e n descri be d

t u to r i a l

g r o u p

th e

te a c h e r ’ s

M oust , 199 5 ). Teacher s m ay be engage d si m ultaneo usl y in a co m bina -

tio

n of tea c hin g tasks . W hit e & Ewa n (1 9 91 ) hav e refe r re d

to

th e m ultipl e teachin g rol e s ofte n neede d withi n a singl e

Irb y (1 994 ) describe d ho w

clinical teacher s ne e d to asses s learne r s’ knowled ge an d provid e info r m atio n as wel l as facilitat e learni ng . As th e

clinical teachin g experi en c e an d

r i s e , a g o o d te a c h e r w i l l m o ve

instin c tiv e ly be tw e en diff e re n t ro les . T he go od cli n ica l

te

a c h in g s i tu a ti o n s a

te acher , fo r exa m ple , need s to ful ® l a rang e of role s (M cA l-

lister et al. , 199 7).

Th e teache rs ’ rol e portfol io

It

need s to be em phasi z ed tha t a goo d teache r nee d no t be

co

m peten t in al l 1 2 role s an d tha t it woul d be unusua l to

® nd , an d unreas onabl e to expect , on e individua l to hav e al l

th e require d co m petence s. H um an resourc e

involv e m atchin g teacher s wit h th e role s fo r whic h the y hav e

th e greates t aptitude .

Teacher s wil l hav e an inte r relate d se t of teachin g role s whic h co m bin e d represe nt thei r teachin g re sponsib ilitie s

plannin g shoul d

an d thei r `rol e po r tfolio ’ . W hil e al l th e role s of a teache r nee d to be covere d in th e contex t of an institut ion , it is

unlikel y tha t on e teache r wil l ass u m e al l of th e roles. A fe w

te acher s m ay assu m e onl y on e rol e an d indee d m ay hav e

on e teache r wil l ass u m e al l of th e roles.

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bee n appoint ed wit h thi s speci ® c responsi bility. Th e m ajority of teacher s, however , wil l assu m e a nu m be r of roles . M edica l practic e an d approac he s to m edical educat io n

ar

e

changi ng an d ther e is a continu in g nee d to re -exa m in e

th

e rol e of th e teache r in th e educati ona l process . D ifferen t

role s req u ir e differe nt skills an d abilitie s in th e teacher. A ll teacher s m ay be expect ed , however , to ® ll role s suc h as info r m atio n provide r, whil e othe r roles , su ch as resourc e

develop er or

assessor , m ay requir e m or e special iz ed skills.

 

Th e fun c tion s of th e teache r ar e co m pl e x

an d th e rol e

wil l va r y depend in g on :

(1)

th e ai m of a cours e : Is th e ai m to develo p

indepe nden t

learni ng skill s or to provid e th e traine e wit h speci ® c co m petence s, suc h as cardia c auscul tation ? (2) th e stag e of th e stude n t : Th e im portan ce of th e differe nt role s fo r th e underg rad u at e teache r m ay diffe r fro m th e role s expect ed of th e postgra duat e teacher.

(3) th e cu r r icul u m w ithi n w hic h th e teache r operate s : The roles

of th e teache r wil l diffe r in a proble m -base d lea r nin g curric ulu m co m pare d wit h thos e in a m or e traditio na l curric ulu m . the cultu re : So m e culture s favou r m or e info r m al role s of teacher s an d other s m or e didacti c roles .

(4)

Th e role s m os t approp r iat e fo r an individ ua l teache r m ay chang e as hi s or he r caree r develop s. Th e role s take n on by

a teache r m ay

chang e as th e

ha s suggest ed tha t teachin g activiti es evolve wit h ti m e an d experi ence , wit h a shif t takin g plac e fro m an em phasi s on self , to an unders tandin g of subject -m atte r an d late r fro m an em phasi s on teachi n g to an em phasi s on learni ng .

va r y wit h th e senior it y of th e teache r an d m ay te ache r gain s m or e experi ence . Ku ge l (199 3 )

M eetin g th e cu r r ic u lu m need s

Id e nti ® catio n of th e requir ed an d availabl e teachin g role s in an instituti on m ake s it possibl e , withi n th e constra int s of

th e curric ulu m , to m atc h a teache r wit h th e role(s) to whic h

he / sh e is bes t suited . So m e teacher s pr e fe r an d ar e bette r at ful ® llin g ce r tai n roles , whil e othe r teacher s m ay be interest ed in an d hav e expe r tis e in othe r directions . It m ay hel p wit h

th e assignat io n of tea c hin g role s in a facult y if staf f hav e th e

optio n to indicat e thei r ow n preferr ed roles . The y m ay be aske d to co m par e thei r curren t role s wit h thei r preferr ed

role s usin g a questio nnair e as in Tabl e 2. Th e teachin g respons ibilities ca n the n be allocated withi n an institut io n

takin g accoun t, wher e possibl e, of th e prefere nce s of staff .

interes t in curric ulu m plannin g an d

on curric ulu m co m m itte e s, whil e other s prefe r to

hav e fa c e -t o -fac e contac t wit h student s, fo r exa m pl e in th e clinical teachin g context s. Th e fo r m er ca n be appoint ed to curric ulu m planni n g group s an d th e latte r ca n be giv e n clinical teachin g respons ibilities. A n analysi s of th e role s expect e d of tea c her s fo r th e im ple m entatio n of th e curric ulu m an d a co m pariso n of thes e requir ed role s wit h th e rol e expe r tis e availabl e withi n

se r vin g

So m e staf f m ay hav e an

th e tea c her s in an institut io n de m onstrate s th e strength s

an d weaknes se s in te r m s of th e ability of a schoo l to de live r

it s teachin g progra m m e. W her e ther e ar e no m ajo r

ci e s betwee n th e availabl e an d th e requir ed roles , it m ay be

s u ff i c i e n t to h ig h l i gh t w h

R ecogni zi n g th e de ® ciencies

an d th e nee d to acco m m odat e

e re th e d i s c r e p a n c ie s e xi s t.

discrepa n -

th e ful l rang e of roles , discuss in g th e m atte r openl y an d

A M E E G ui d e N o. 20

placin g it on th e agend a at executi ve an d

be al l tha t is re qu ir e d. W he re th e re ar e m or e se r io u s discrep ancie s betwee n requir ed an d availabl e role s ther e ar e

a nu m be r of options :

(1 ) Ignor e th e de ® c ie n cies. T hi s is usuall y a recipe fo r disaste r wit h fr ustratio n develop in g on th e pa r t of bot h staf f an d student s. A n advers e effec t on th e qualit y of teachin g is al m os t inevita ble . (2 ) C hang e th e cu r riculu m to acco m m odat e th e availabl e teachin g roles. If , fo r exa m ple , a schoo l is populat ed by goo d lecture r s wh o lac k e xpe r tis e in grou p facilita tion , on e ca n desig n th e curric ulu m to plac e an em phasi s on lecture s rathe r tha n on proble m -base d lea r ni n g wher e ther e is a nee d fo r tutor-fa cilitate d sm all-grou p work .

approac h entail s m ay or

m ay no t be accept abl e an d an institut io n ha s to m ak e

staf f m eeting s m ay

Th e co m pro m ise s tha t suc h

an

thi s judge m ent . (3 ) R etrai n staf f withi n th e institut io n to ful ® l th e require d

roles. Thi s is possibl e bu t requir es a co m m it m en t fro m

th e staf f an d ad m in istrati on an d an e n erg e ti c an d focuse d staf f develop m en t progra m m e.

(4 ) R ecruit staf f wit h th e appropr iat e expe r tis e to ® ll th e

easi e r in a ne w school , bu t m ay als o be

im ple m ente d in an establis he d schoo l whe n staf f leav e or w he n ne w appoint m ent s ar e created . Staf f recrui t- m en t m ay be pa r ticular ly necess ar y in th e cas e of m or e sp e c i al iz e d ro l e s su c h as a ss e s sm e n t o r l e a r n i n g - resourc e -m ateria l develop m ent .

roles. Thi s is

Staf f devel o pm en t

Th e nee d fo r staf f develop m en t progra m m es an d th e trainin g of m edica l teache r s in educati on ha s bee n recogn iz ed . Th e area s to be covere d in su ch progra m m es an d th e pa r ticula r teache r skills to be address ed ar e ofte n a m atte r of debat e . A consid eratio n of th e ª 12 roles º ca n info r m th e debat e an d ens u re tha t th e progra m m e help s to equi p th e teacher s wit h

n ec essa r y fo r th e m to fu l® l th e role s

th e c om pet e nc es

expect ed of the m . A staf f de velop m en t progra m m e ca n be tailore d to m ee t th e need s of th e individ ua l teache r an d thi s

m

ay suc c ee d wher e `on e -siz e -® ts -al l ed ucation ’ m ay

fai l

(Tyree , 19 96) . Ther e shoul d be an agree m en t wit h

th e

individua l teache r as to whethe r th e ai m of a staf f develo p -

m en t activit y is to m ak e th e teacher s bette r at wha t the y

alread y ar e doin g or to hel p the m to acquir e ne w skill s an d

previou sl y no t withi n thei r re m it .

ful ® l ne w role s whic h wer e

T he cu ltur e of goo d teachi n g practic e

C onside ratio n of th e role s of th e teache r shoul d be pa r t of

f g o o d te a c h i n g p r ac ti c e . Ty r e e ( 1 9 9 6 )

concept ualize d ou r curren t understandin g of th e im po r tanc e

o f th e c o m m i tm e n t o f te a c h e r s to te a c h in g an d th e

m ultidi m ensiona l natur e of th e pheno m enon . Ther e need s

to be a co m m itm en t bot h to th e subjec t tha t is bein g taugh t

an d to th e teachin g rol e expect ed of th e teacher . A tt e ntio n is ofte n pai d to th e for m er wit h th e latte r bein g relative ly neglec ted . Th e differe nt role s of th e teache r nee d to be

accepted by staff . U se of th e fra m ewor k

prese n te d in thi s guid e m ake s th e differen t role s explici t an d encour age s a carefu l consid eratio n of th e differe nt role s rathe r tha n blindly pursui ng on e or tw o an d unde r valuin g the others.

recogn iz ed an d

th e c u l tu re o

343
343

R . M . H arde n & J. C rosb y

Ta ble 2. Q uestion nair e use d to ass e ss th e teacher ’ s perc e ptio n of th e im po r tanc e of th e 12 role s an d thei r cu r ren t perso n al co m m it m en t an d preferr ed pe rsona l futur e co m m it m en t to eac h role .

Teacher ’ s rol e Im po r tanc e to m edica l schoo
Teacher ’ s rol e
Im po r tanc e to m edica l schoo l
teachin g pro g ra m me
C ur ren t persona l co m m it m en t
P refe r re d persona l futur e
com m itm ent
1
2
3
4
5
1
2
3
4
5
1
2
3
4
5
Info r m ati o n provide r
(1 ) L ect u re r in classro o m settin g
(2 ) Teache r in cli n ic a l or practi ca l clas s
settin g
R
ole m o del
(3 )
O n -th e -jo b rol e m o de l (e.g . in cli n ics ,
war d ro u nds , etc. )
(4 ) Rol e m ode l in th e teachi n g settin g
Facilitat or
(5 ) M entor , perso n al ad vise r or tuto r to a
st
u den t or gro u p of studen ts
(6 ) L ea rnin g facilit ator , e.g . suppo r tin g
st
u dents ’ lea r nin g in
pr
o ble m
-base d -le a rnin g sm al l g ro up s
in th e labora to r y, in th e integr ate d
practic al clas s sessio n s or in th e
clinica l setti n g
E
xam iner
(7 ) Pla n nin g or pa r ticipati ng in fo r m al
ex
a m inatio n s o f st u dent s
(8 ) C ur ricul u m evalua tor Ð eval u atio n of
th
e teachi ng pro g ra m m e an d th e
teacher s
P
lanner
(9 ) C ur ricul u m pla n ner , pa r ticipati ng in
over a ll pla n nin g
of th e cu r ricul u m ,
throug h,
fo r exa m ple , cur r ic u lu m
plan n in g
co m m ittee s suc h as th e
U
ndergr ad u at e M edica l E d ucatio n
C
om m ittee
(10 ) C ou rs e o rga n izer , respon sibilit y fo r
plan n in g an d im ple m entin g a speci ® c
cours e withi n th e curric u lu m . T hi s
m
ay, fo r exa m ple , relat e to on e syste m
or on e the m e, o r to a specia l stu d y
m
odu le
R
esourc e develope r
(11 ) Prod u ctio n of stud y guide s to suppo r t
th
e studen ts ’ lear n in g in th e co u rs e
(12 ) D evel o pin g lea r ni n g res o urc e
m
aterials in th e
for m of co m pu te r
pr
o gra m m es , vi d eo tap e or
prin t w hic h
ca
n be u se d a s ad ju nct s to th e lecture s
an
d othe r session s
Med Teach Downloaded from informahealthcare.com
by University
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For personal
use only.
N
o n e
L
i t t l e
S
o m e
C
o n s i d e r a b l e
G
r e a t
N
o n e
L
i t t l e
S
o m e
C
o n s i d e r a b l e
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r e a t
N
o n e
L
i t t l e
S
o m e
C
o n s i d e r a b l e
G
r e a t

3 44

o m e C o n s i d e r a b l e G

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Explic it re cog n itio n of a teache r’ s co m m it m en t to a speci ® c rol e ca n reinfor ce th e teacher ’ s co m m it m en t to teachin g an d serve s als o as an indication of th e valu e attache d by th e institut io n to teachin g. T hi s ca n be re ¯ ecte d in tool s use d to m easur e an organiz ation ’ s co m m it m en t to teachin g (M owday et al. , 19 79) . It is likely tha t an acknow ledge m en t of th e valu e atta c he d by th e institut io n to th e teacher s’ speci ® c role s wil l en courag e teache rs to giv e thei r bes t perfor m anc e an d to pu t m or e effor t int o thei r teachin g.

U se s of th e teache rs ’ rol e fra m ew or k

Th e use s of th e te achers ’ rol e fra m ewor k m ode l ca n be su m m arize d as follows :

(1 ) to m ak e explicit an

an d to th e differe nt role s e xpecte d of a teacher . An

ope n discuss io n abou t th e value s of th e differe nt role s

e n ti ® e d i n t he m o d e l m a y h e l p to p re ve n t a

e

info r m atio n -provide r sectio n of th e circle; (2 ) to assis t wit h identi® catio n of th e teachin g skill s require d withi n an institu tion . It is im po r tan t that , withi n a

institut ion , al l of th e role s

ar e represe nte d am on g th e staf f in th e school . W ha t is

ce d tea m of staf f respon sibl e fo r

delive r in g al l aspect s of th e teachin g progra m m e; (3 ) to identif y staf f recrui tm en t need s an d to contri but e to th e jo b speci ® catio n s an d c ontract s wit h staff . T hi s

shoul d includ e a `role s pro ® le ’ fo r eac h m em be r of staff;

(4 ) to identif y th e need s fo r staf f develop m en t progra m m es an d to relat e thes e to th e require m ent s of individ ua l teacher s. Th e 12 role s hav e differe nt opti m al trainin g strategi e s; (5 ) to evaluat e staff . Re cogniti on of th e differe nt role s is im po r tan t wit h regar d to teache r evaluati on . A teache r rate d by student s an d pee r s as poo r in on e role , e.g . givin g fo r m al lecture s, m ay perfor m wel l wit h sm al l group s of student s or alte r nativel y as a develop er of resourc e m ate r ials . Student s m ay expres s differen t levels of satisfac tio n in th e sa m e teacher , eve n withi n th e sa m e course , accord in g to th e m ode l of teachin g bein g assesse d (H u sbands , 1 996) ; (6 ) to infor m an analysi s of teachin g activiti es . Su c h an analysi s m ay be require d fo r th e allocati on of resour ce s withi n th e institut io n or fo r othe r pu r poses . In th e pas t ther e ha s bee n a tenden c y to m easur e teachin g in te r m s of studen t contac t hours . T hi s d oe s no t re ¯ ec t th e rang e of role s expect ed of th e teacher . Th e involve m en t of staf f acros s widel y va r yin g teachin g roles , including ti m e

pr o d u c ti o n o f

m aterial s, ca n be inco r porate d int o m easure s

institutio n’ s co m m it m en t to teachin g

id

g r av i ta ti o n a l p u l l w it h in a n i n s ti tu ti o n to th

m edi c al schoo l or trainin g

ne e de d is a bala n

sp e n t o n c u r r ic u l u m p la n n in g an d

resourc e

of teache r activit y (Barde s & H ayes ,

n c e to c h an ge n o t ad o p ti o n o f a n e w

in fr e q u e n tl y c ha r ac te r iz e s th

approac h in m edical educati on . H anna ® n & Saveny e (1993 ) hav e su ggeste d tha t whe n ª th e traditio na l rol e of th e teach e rÐ tha t of lecture r, im pa r te r of knowled ge an d c ontroll er of activiti es Ð wa s bein g assailed º (p. 2 6) teacher s m ay fee l dispens abl e an d as a resul t choos e to resis t a change . Les s resista nc e fro m teacher s to chang e m ay be exp e rience d if th e role s of th e teache r ar e m ad e

19 9 5) ;

(7 ) to f a c il i ta te c h a

n g e . R e s i st a

e

A M E E G ui d e N o. 20

m or e e xpli c it an d it is re c og n iz e d tha t tra d it i on al

teacher s’ role s contin ue to

pla y in additio n to an y ne w roles .

an im po r tan t pa r t to

hav e

O the r role s fo r th e teache r

Thi s pape r ha s consid ere d th e teachin g rol e s of th e teacher.

wo r k d e s c r i b e d r e ¯ e c ts th e

co m plexiti es of teachin g

an d provide s a too l to broad e n thinkin g abou t teachin g. O the r role s fo r th e teache r includ in g clinical , ad m inistrat iv e an d researc h canno t be ignored . Thes e plac e additio na l de m and s an d pressur es on th e lecture r. Im plicit in th e widel y propose d change s in m edical educa - tio n is th e nee d to accep t ne w nor m s of wha t is expect ed of th e teacher . If thes e change s ar e to be widel y adopted , the n ne w role s fo r th e teacher , as descri be d in thi s paper , hav e to be accept ed , value d an d recogn iz e d in acade m ic audit . Th e teachi n g rol e circle as descri be d in thi s guid e m ay facilitat e this.

T h e te a c h i n g ro l e s fr a m e

in unive r sitie s an d m edica l school s

N o te s o n co n tr ib u to r s

R.M . H ARDEN is D irecto r of th e C entr e fo r M edica l E ducatio n an d

Teachin g D ea n in th e Facult y of M edicine , D entist r y an d N ursin g at

th

e U niversit y of D undee . H e is als o D irecto r of th e Educat io n

D

evelop m en t U ni t (Scottis h C ounci l fo r Post g raduate M edica l &

D

enta l E ducatio n) , D undee , UK .

J.R. C ROSBY is L ecture r in M edica l E ducatio n in th e Facult y of

M edicine , D entist r y an d N ursin g , U niversit y of D undee , UK

R efe ren ces

A

LTHO USE , L .A., S TRITTE R , F.T. & S TEINER , B.D . (1999 ) Attitude s

an

d approa che s of in ¯ uentia l rol e model s in clinica l educati on ,

A dvance s in Healt h Science s Educatio n , 4, pp . 111 ± 122 .

A

M BRO ZY , D.M ., I RBY , D.M ., B OW EN , J.L., B U RACK , J.H., C ARLINE ,

J.D. & S T R I T TE R , F.T. (1 9

97 ) R o le m o d el s ’ p e rc ep ti o n s o f

themsel ve s an d thei r in ¯ uenc e o n student s’ speciali ty choices ,

A cade m ic M edicin e , 72(12) , pp . 1119 ± 1121 .

B

ANDU RA , A. (1986) Socia l Foundatio ns of Though t an d Actio n (Engle - woo d C liffs , N J, Prentic e Hall) .

B

ARD ES , C .L. & H AYES , J.G . (1995 ) Ar e th e teache rs teachi ng ?

M

easuri ng th e

educati on activities of

clinica l faculty, A cadem ic

M edicine , 70(2) , pp . 111 ± 114 .

B

AR ROW S , H .S. & TAM BLYN , E. M . (1980 ) P roble m -base d Lea r ning . An A pproac h to M edica l Educatio n (N ew York , Springe r) .

B

ASHIR , T.H . (1998 ) D angero us liaison : acade m ics ’ attitud e toward s ope n lea r nin g in highe r educati o n, O pe n Lea r nin g , pp. 43± 45.

B

IG G S , J. (1999 ) W ha t th e studen t does : teachi n g fo r enhanc ed

learnin g , Highe r Educatio n

Researc h & D evelop m en t , 18, p1.

B

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