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Ministry of Defence Defence Standard 02-713 (NES 713) Issue 1 Publication Date 01 April 2000

Ministry of Defence Defence Standard 02-713 (NES 713)

Issue 1 Publication Date 01 April 2000

02-713 (NES 713) Issue 1 Publication Date 01 April 2000 Determination Of The Toxicity Index Of

Determination Of The Toxicity Index Of The Products Of Combustion From Small Specimens Of Materials

Incorporating NES 713 Category 2

Issue 3 Publication Date March 1985

AMENDMENT RECORD

Amd No

Date

Text Affected

Signature and Date

REVISION NOTE

This standard is raised to Issue 1 to update its content.

HISTORICAL RECORD

This standard supersedes the following:

Naval Engineering Standard (NES) 713 Issue 3 dated March 1985.

Ministry of Defence Naval Engineering Standard NES 713 Issue 3 (Reformatted) March 1985 DETERMINATION OF

Ministry of Defence

Naval Engineering Standard

NES 713

Issue 3 (Reformatted)

March 1985

DETERMINATION OF THE TOXICITY INDEX OF THE PRODUCTS OF COMBUSTION FROM SMALL SPECIMENS OF MATERIALS

This NES Supersedes

This NES Supersedes

Record of Amendments

AMDT

INSERTED BY

DATE

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

NAVAL ENGINEERING STANDARD 713

ISSUE 3 (REFORMATTED)

DETERMINATION OF THE TOXICITY INDEX OF THE

PRODUCTS OF COMBUSTION FROM SMALL SPECIMENS

OF MATERIALS

The issue and use of this Standard

is authorized for use in MOD contracts

E CROWN COPYRIGHT

Published by:

by MOD(PE) Sea Systems and

the Naval Support Command

Director of Naval Architecture Procurement Executive, Ministry of Defence Sea Systems, Foxhill, Bath BA1 5AB

i

SCOPE

NES 713 Issue 3 (Reformatted)

1. This NES gives the requirements of one of a series of test methods for determining the combustion characteristics of materials. The test explores the toxicity of the products of combustion in terms of small molecular species arising when a small sample of a material is completely burnt in excess air under specified conditions. The test does not necessarily determine the total toxicity of all the constituents of the products of combustion.

2. The test is useful for the quality control of materials and for research and development.

3. The test may be used to compare the particular combustion characteristics of a series of materials, both natural and synthetic types. Combustion characteristics tests alone are not suitable for assessing the total fire hazard of products under actual fire conditions. The test may be used to specify a quality of a raw material or product.

iii

NES 713 Issue 3 (Reformatted)

Sponsorship

FOREWORD

NES 713 Issue 3 (Reformatted)

1. This Naval Engineering Standard (NES) is sponsored by the Procurement Executive, Ministry of Defence, Deputy Controller Warships (DCW), Section NA 131.

2. It is to be applied as required by any Procurement Executive, Ministry of Defence contract for determining the Toxicity Index of small specimens of materials.

3. If it is found to be technically unsuitable for any particular requirement the sponsor is to be informed in writing of the circumstances with a copy to Deputy Controller Warship Equipment (DCWE), Section TE 112a.

4. Any user of this NES either within MOD or in outside industry may propose an amendment to it. Proposals for amendments which are:

a. not directly applicable to a particular contract are to be made to the sponsor of the NES.

b. directly applicable to a particular contract are to be dealt with using existing procedures or as specified in the contract.

5. No alteration is to be made to this NES except by the issue of a formal amendment.

6. Unless otherwise stated reference in this NES to approval, approved, authorized or similar terms, means by the Procurement Executive, Ministry of Defence.

7. Any significant amendments that may be made to this NES at a later date will be indicated

by a vertical sideline. Deletions will be indicated by 000 appearing at the end of the line

intervals.

8. This NES has been re-issued to take account of experience gained during practical application of the test procedure. Certain aspects have been more precisely defined and material changes

made.

Conditions of Release General

9. This Naval Engineering Standard (NES) has been prepared for the use of the Crown and of its contractors in the execution of contracts for the Crown. The Crown hereby excludes all liability (other than liability for death or personal injury) whatsoever and howsoever arising (including but without limitation, negligence on the part of the Crown, its servants or agents) for any loss or damage however caused where the NES is used for any other purpose.

10. This document is Crown Copyright and the information herein may be subject to Crown or third party rights. It is not to be released, reproduced or published without written permission of the MOD.

11. The Crown reserves the right to amend or modify the contents of this NES without consulting or informing any holder.

v

NES 713 Issue 3 (Reformatted)

MOD Tender or Contract Process

12. This NES is the property of the Crown and unless otherwise authorized in writing by the MOD must be returned on completion of the contract, or submission of the tender, in connection with which it is issued.

13. When this NES is used in connection with a MOD tender or contract, the user is to ensure that he is in possession of the appropriate version of each document, including related documents, relevant to each particular tender or contract. Enquiries in this connection may be made of the local MOD(PE) Quality Assurance Representative or the Authority named in the tender or contract.

14. When NES are incorporated into MOD contracts, users are responsible for their correct application and for complying with contracts and any other statutory requirements. Compliance with an NES does not of itself confer immunity from legal obligations.

Related Documents

15. In the tender and procurement processes the related documents listed in each section and Annex A can be obtained as follows:

a. British Standards

b. Defence Standards

c. Naval Engineering Standards

d. Other documents

British Standards Institution, 389 Chiswick High Road, London W4 4AL

Directorate of Standardization and Safety Policy, Stan 1, Kentigern House, 65 Brown Street, Glasgow G2 8EX

CSE3a, CSE Llangennech, Llanelli, Dyfed SA14 8YP

Tender or Contract Sponsor to advise.

Note: Tender or Contract Sponsor can advise in cases of difficulty.

16. All applications to Ministry Establishments for related documents are to quote the relevant MOD Invitation to Tender or Contract Number and date, together with the sponsoring Directorate and the Tender or Contract Sponsor.

17. Prime Contractors are responsible for supplying their subcontractors with relevant documentation, including specifications, standards and drawings.

Health and Safety Warning

18. This NES may call for the use of processes, substances and/or procedures that may be injurious to health if adequate precautions are not taken. It refers only to technical suitability and in no way absolves either the supplier or the user from statutory obligations relating to health and safety at any stage of manufacture or use. Where attention is drawn to hazards, those quoted may not necessarily be exhaustive.

vi

CONTENTS

NES 713 Issue 3 (Reformatted)

Page No

TITLE PAGE

i

SCOPE

iii

FOREWORD

v

Sponsorship

v

Conditions of Release

v

General

v

MOD Tender or Contract Process

vi

Related Documents

vi

Health and Safety

vi

Warning

vi

CONTENTS

vii

SECTION

1.

PRINCIPLE

1.1

SECTION

2.

APPARATUS

2.1

2.1

General

2.1

2.2

Test Chamber—also see Annex

2.1

2.3

Burner

2.1

2.4

Specimen support

2.1

2.5

Timing device

2.2

2.6

Analytical equipment

2.2

2.7

Gas sampling

2.2

SECTION

3.

TEST SPECIMENS

3.1

3.1

Number and size

3.1

3.2

Conditioning

3.1

SECTION

4.

DETERMINATION OF BACKGROUND CORRECTION FACTOR

4.1

SECTION

5.

SAFETY OF OPERATORS

5.1

SECTION

6.

TEST PROCEDURE

6.1

SECTION

7.

CALCULATION

7.1

SECTION

8.

REPORT

8.1

ANNEX

A.

RELATED DOCUMENTS

A.1

ANNEX

B.

DEFINITIONS AND ABBREVIATIONS

B.1

ANNE X

C.

TOXICIT Y T E S T CHAMB E R

D.1

 

FIGURE D.1 FRONT VIEW OF TOXICITY TEST CHAMBER

D.1

FIGURE D.2 VIE W O F E XT RACT ION DAMPER SHOWN IN OPEN POSITION AND ROOF MOUNT E D MIXING FAN

D.2

AL PH ABETI CAL I NDE X

v ii

NES 713 Issue 3 (Reformatted)

1.

NES 713 Issue 3 (Reformatted)

PRINCIPLE

a. Analytical data of certain small molecular gaseous species arising from the complete combustion under flaming conditions of the material under test are mathematically computed, using the exposure level (in ppm) of each gas to produce fatality in 30 minutes as a base, to derive a combined toxicity index.

1.1

NES 713 Issue 3 (Reformatted)

NES 713 Issue 3 (Reformatted)

2.

APPARATUS

2.1

General

a.

As far as is possible, all items of equipment within the test chamber are to be constructed of, or coated with, an inert non-metallic material.

2.2

Test Chamber—also see Annex D.

a. The chamber is to consist of an airtight enclosure of at least 0.7m 3 volume lined with opaque plastic sheeting having a hinged or sliding door, fitted with a transparent plastic panel.

b. Some gaseous products of combustion may react with or be adsorbed on the walls of the chamber. The materials of construction must be chosen to minimize this. A lining of polypropylene has been found satisfactory, with polycarbonate where transparency is required.

c. The chamber is to be fitted with a forced air extraction system which can be closed at the exit from the chamber when required.

d. The chamber is to be fitted with sampling positions, such that the airtightness of the chamber is not impaired (refer to 2.7a.).

e. The chamber is to contain a mixing fan capable of being switched on and off externally. A six-bladed axial fan of at least 200mm diameter is to be mounted horizontally and centrally inside the chamber at roof level to ensure rapid mixing of combustion products.

2.3

Burner

a. The burner is to be capable of achieving a flame approximately 100mm in height and having a temperature of 1150° C ± 50° C at its hottest point. A Bunsen burner operating on natural (methane) gas having a gross calorific value of approximately 40MJ/m 3 and modified to provide an external supply of air connected to the burner collar is to be used.

b. In order to achieve the flame characteristics stated in Clause 2.3a, a Bunsen burner of 125mm overall height, 11mm bore burner tube and 5mm bore gas and air inlet tubes are recommended. Gas and air flow rates of 10 litres and 15 litres per minute respectively satisfy the requirements, but some adjustment of the flow rates may be necessary to suit particular situations.

c. Provision is to be made for igniting and extinguishing the burner from outside the chamber using a small pilot flame on a separate gas supply.

d. Unsatisfactory results will be obtained using a conventional Bunsen burner drawing air from within the chamber. The effect is oxygen depletion and a consequential reduction of burner flame temperature, or even extinguishment, during the combustion period of a test causing loss of standard conditions.

2.4

Specimen support

a. A device is to be provided capable of supporting the test specimen over the Bunsen without significantly masking it from the flame.

b. The support is to be an annulus cut from a non-combustible material such as sheet steel nominal thickness 24mm of approximately 100mm overall diameter with a 75mm diameter hole carrying temperature resistant wires approximately 10mm apart to form a lattice. The complete assembly is to be equipped with a non-combustible side support arm to give a ‘tennis racket’ appearance.

2.1

NES 713 Issue 3 (Reformatted)

2.5 Timing device

a. The timing device is to be capable of measuring periods up to 5 minutes to an accuracy within ± 1 second.

2.6 Analytical equipment

a. Any analytical system may be used which will allow rapid detection and estimation of those gases in the products of combustion detailed in Annex A. The use of colorimetric gas reaction tubes is acceptable.

2.7 Gas sampling

a. In order to minimize losses of certain toxic products through adsorption or condensation prior to measurement, it is recommended that all sampling lines be as short as possible. This may be conveniently achieved, where use is made of colorimetric gas reaction tubes for analysis, by siting the tubes within the chamber itself, as depicted in FIGURE D.1 Annex D.

2.2

NES 713 Issue 3 (Reformatted)

3.

TEST SPECIMENS

3.1

Number and size

a.

A sufficient number of specimens (normally 3) are to be cut from the material under test. The mass of the test specimen is to be chosen to provide optimum analytical precision, dependent on the nature of the combustion products and sensitivity of the analytical procedure. The size and shape of the specimen are to be such that it is entirely engulfed in the flame during the test.

Note: In some instances, eg highly fluorinated polymers, it will be necessary to reduce the mass of test specimens to <0.1g in order to achieve a concentration within the range of the currently available colorimetric gas reaction tubes for hydrogen fluoride.

3.2

Conditioning

a. Unless otherwise stated, the test specimens are to be conditioned at 23° C ±2° C and 50 ± 5% RH for 24 hours before testing.

3.1

NES 713 Issue 3 (Reformatted)

NES 713 Issue 3 (Reformatted)

4. DETERMINATION OF BACKGROUND CORRECTION FACTOR

a. Position the burner in the centre of the test chamber floor. Ignite it and adjust the flow rates of gas and air to achieve the flame conditions described in Clauses 2.2b. and 2.3b. Record or otherwise control the flow rates in order that the conditions may be re-established when required. Extinguish the burner and ventilate the chamber.

b. Place carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide and oxides of nitrogen reaction tubes in position, if this method of analysis has been adopted, ensuring that all other sampling positions are sealed.

c. Seal the chamber, then ignite the burner, simultaneously starting the timing device. Maintain these conditions for 1 minute then extinguish the flame and start the mixing fan, allowing this to continue for 30 seconds.

d. Using their respective sampling points, extract portions of the atmosphere from the test chamber to determine the concentrations of carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and oxides of nitrogen.

e. Operate the extraction system of the test chamber, and open the test chamber to free air and evacuate for 3 minutes. Repeat the procedure from Clauses 4.a. to 4.d., but maintain the burning conditions stated in 4.c. for 2 minutes and 3 minutes in separate determinations.

f. The results obtained are graphically displayed to show the rate of build up of carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and oxides of nitrogen with time of burning due to the burner alone. Zero time can be shown as 0.03% carbon dioxide and nil for carbon monoxide and oxides of nitrogen.

4.1

NES 713 Issue 3 (Reformatted)

5. SAFETY OF OPERATORS

NES 713 Issue 3 (Reformatted)

a. When the Toxicity Index test is being carried out, there is a risk that flammable and/or toxic fumes will be given off from the specimen under test. Operators are to take appropriate precautions to avoid exposure to the evolved fumes.

5.1

NES 713 Issue 3 (Reformatted)

6. TEST PROCEDURE

NES 713 Issue 3 (Reformatted)

a. Ensure that the air temperature is 23° C ± 2° C.

b. Select a test specimen and determine its mass to the nearest milligram.

c. Position the burner in the centre of the test chamber floor and establish the flame conditions described in 2.3a. Extinguish the burner.

d. Place the test specimen on the support approximately in the centre of the test chamber floor and adjust the support height so that the specimen will be sited within the flame boundary and subjected to the temperature given in 2.3a., ie 1150° C ± 50° C.

e. For materials which are liable to melt and drip, test specimens may be supported on a thin bed of glass wool placed on the wire mesh sample support to prevent sample losses during the combustion.

Note:

The glass wool found suitable for this purpose is that commonly employed as a filter membrane by analytical laboratories.

f. Ensure that the forced extraction ventilation system is off and sealed from the chamber.

g. Insert series of colorimetric gas reaction tubes into the chamber.

h. Close the test chamber access door, turn on the fuel supply to the burner and ignite simultaneously and start the timing device.

i. The burn period is to be continued for the duration considered sufficient to ensure complete combustion of the whole specimen, and this is to be recorded and the burner extinguished.

j. Start the mixing fan and continue mixing for 30 seconds, then switch off the fan.

k. Immediately commence sampling the atmosphere from the chamber by drawing the gas mixture through each respective detection tube in turn. It is imperative that if the presence of halogen acids is suspected, then these must be tested for before other gases, in order to reduce losses through adsorption or condensation which may be experienced through a delayed estimation.

l. On completion of the analysis, the remaining products of combustion are removed from the chamber using the forced extraction exhaust system, initially opening the access door. Continue the forced ventilation for at least 3 minutes.

m. Examine the residue of the test specimen to ensure that all of the combustible material has been consumed. If any portion remains unburnt or appears to be, the whole test must be repeated using a fresh sample.

n. Repeat Clauses 6.a. to 6.m. with a fresh specimen to obtain a duplicate determination, for as many times as necessary. See Clause 3.1a.

6.1

NES 713 Issue 3 (Reformatted)

7.

NES 713 Issue 3 (Reformatted)

CALCULATION

a. Using the graph prepared as described in Section 4. determine the quantity of carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and oxides of nitrogen formed by the burner in the time recorded in Clause 6.i. Subtract these values from the total carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and oxides of nitrogen contents determined by analysis (see Clause 6.k.) to give the amounts actually produced by combustion of the test specimen.

b. Using the formula given below calculate the concentration of each gas produced when 100g of material is burnt and the combustion products diffused in air in a volume of 1m 3 (C 8 ).

C θ = C × 100 × V

m

ppm

where C

=

concentration of gas in test chamber (ppm)

m

=

fire test mass (g)

V

= volume of test chamber (m 3 )

Calculate C θ for each gas in the duplicate determination.

Average the values of C θ for each gas.

c. Calculate the Toxicity Index as follows:

Toxicity Index Σ C θ 1

Cf 1

+ C θ 2 + C θ 3 +

Cf 2

Cf 3

C θ n Cf n

where 1, 2, 3

Cf = concentration of the gas considered fatal to man for a 30 minute exposure time (ppm).

values of Cf for various gases are given in Annex C.

n represents each of the gases detected.

7.1

NES 713 Issue 3 (Reformatted)

8.

REPORT

a. The report is to include the following:

NES 713 Issue 3 (Reformatted)

(1)

A full description of the material tested, including type, grade, reference No etc.

(2)

The Toxicity Index per 100g material.

(3)

The following statement:

This test result alone does not assess the fire hazard of the material, or a product made from this material, under actual fire conditions. Consequently, the results of this test alone are not to be quoted in support of claims with respect to the fire hazard of the material or product under actual fire conditions. The results when used alone are only to be used for research and development, quality control and material specifications.

8.1

NES 713 Issue 3 (Reformatted)

ANNEX A.

RELATED DOCUMENTS

A.1

There are no Related Documents for this NES.

A.1

NES 713 Issue 3 (Reformatted)

ANNEX A.

NES 713 Issue 3 (Reformatted)

ANNEX A.

A.2

ANNEX B.

DEFINITIONS AND ABBREVIATIONS

B.1

For the purpose of this NES the following definition applies:

NES 713 Issue 3 (Reformatted)

Toxicity Index

the numerical summation of the toxicity factors of selected gases produced by complete combustion of the material in air under the conditions specified. The toxicity factors are derived from the calculated quantity of each gas that would be produced when 100g of the material is burnt in air in a volume of 1m 3 and the resulting concentration expressed as a factor of the concentration fatal to man at a 30 minute exposure time (see Annex C. para 3.). An index of 1 for a given volume will, on average, bring about death in 30 minutes.

B.1

ANNEX B.

NES 713 Issue 3 (Reformatted)

ANNEX B.

B.2

C.1

ANNEX C.

TOXIC CONSTITUENTS

NES 713 Issue 3 (Reformatted)

The analysis of the products of combustion in the test chamber is to include the quantitative determination of the following gases:

Carbon dioxide (CO 2 )

Carbon monoxide (CO)

Formaldehyde (HCHO)

Nitrogen oxides (NO+NO 2 )

Hydrogen cyanide (HCN)

Acrylonitrile (CH 2 CHCN)

Phosgene (COCl 2 )

Sulphur dioxide (SO 2 )

Hydrogen sulphide (H 2 S)

Hydrogen chloride (HCl)

Ammonia (NH 3 )

Hydrogen fluoride (HF)

Hydrogen bromide (HBr)

Phenol (C 6 H 5 OH)

This is not intended to be a complete list of all possible gases that can be found in the products of combustion but it does represent those most commonly produced in quantity upon which toxicity data can be based.

C.2

ANALYSIS

It is obvious that there is no need to determine the quantity of, say, hydrogen chloride in the products of combustion if the material being tested does not contain chlorine (chloride). Therefore, as an aid to analysis it is desirable to determine the elements present in the material before an assessment of the Toxicity Index is carried out, eg if no nitrogen is found then there is no need to analyse for nitrogen-containing gases such as nitrogen oxides, hydrogen cyanide, acrylonitrile and ammonia.

C.3

TOXICITY CONCENTRATIONS (ppm)

For the purposes of calculating Toxicity Indices, the following values of Cf are to be used:

Carbon dioxide

100 000

Carbon monoxide

4000

Hydrogen sulphide

750

Ammonia

550

Formaldehyde

500

Hydrogen chloride

400

Acrylonitrile

400

Sulphur dioxide

400

Nitrogen oxides

250

Phenol

250

Hydrogen cyanide

150

Hydrogen bromide

150

Hydrogen fluoride

100

Phosgene

25

NES 713 Issue 3 (Reformatted)

ANNEX D.

TOXICITY TEST CHAMBER

NES 713 Issue 3 (Reformatted)

ANNEX D. TOXICITY TEST CHAMBER NES 713 Issue 3 (Reformatted) FIGURE D.1 FRONT VIEW OF TOXICITY

FIGURE D.1 FRONT VIEW OF TOXICITY TEST CHAMBER

NES 713 Issue 3 (Reformatted)

NES 713 Issue 3 (Reformatted) FIGURE D.2 VIEW OF EXTRACTION DAMPER SHOWN IN OPEN POSITION AND

FIGURE D.2 VIEW OF EXTRACTION DAMPER SHOWN IN OPEN POSITION AND ROOF MOUNTED MIXING FAN

ALPHABETICAL INDEX

A

Air extraction system, 2.1, 4.1, 6.1

Analytical equipment, 2.2

B

Burner, 2.1, 4.1

Burner fuel, 2.1

C

Calculations, 7.1

Combustion—characteristics tests, iii

Conditioning, 3.1

E

Extraction system, 4.1

F

Fan, 2.1

Fire hazard, iii

G

Gas—exposure level, 1.1

M

Mixing fan, 2.1, 4.1, 6.1

Molecular species, 1.1, iii

P

Precautions—operator, 5.1

Q

Quality control, iii

R

Report content, 8.1

INDEX.1

NES 713 Issue 3 (Reformatted)

INDEX

NES 713 Issue 3 (Reformatted)

S

Sampling points, 2.1, 4.1, 6.1

Specimen support, 2.1

Specimens—number and size, 3.1

T

Test chamber, 2.1

Test chamber—test of, 4.1, FIGURE D.1, FIGURE D.2

Test procedure, 6.1

Timing device, 2.2

Toxicity Index, B.1

Types of material, iii

INDEX

INDEX.2

Inside Rear Cover

© Crown Copyright 2000

Copying Only as Agreed with DStan

Defence Standards are Published by and Obtainable from:

Defence Procurement Agency An Executive Agency of The Ministry of Defence Directorate of Standardization Kentigern House 65 Brown Street GLASGOW G2 8EX

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Fax

Internet e-mail

0141 224 2503 enquiries@dstan.mod.uk

The DStan file reference relating to work on this standard is D/DStan/69/02/713.

Contract Requirements

When Defence Standards are incorporated into contracts users are responsible for their correct application and for complying with contractual and statutory requirements. Compliance with a Defence Standard does not in itself confer immunity from legal obligations.

Revision of Defence Standards

Defence Standards are revised as necessary by up issue or amendment. It is important that users of Defence Standards should ascertain that they are in possession of the latest issue or amendment. Information on all Defence Standards is contained in Def Stan 00-00 Standards for Defence Part 3 , Index of Standards for Defence Procurement Section 4 ‘Index of Defence Standards and Defence Specifications’ published annually and supplemented regularly by Standards in Defence News (SID News). Any person who, when making use of a Defence Standard encounters an inaccuracy or ambiguity is requested to notify the Directorate of Standardization (DStan) without delay in order that the matter may be investigated and appropriate action taken.