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MGMT20129/20124

Organisations

People

and

Master of Business Administration (MBA)

School of Business and Law

MGMT20124/20129
People and Organisations
Unit 10 Working with Others: Developing Others,
Empowerment and Delegation

Table of Contents
Introduction
Learning objectives
Overview
Reviewing Developing Others Models
Implications for Organisational Performance
Delegation and Empowerment
Steps in the Delegation Process
Empowerment and Authority
Five Points in Delegation
Related Competencies
Required Readings
Journal Readings
References

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Introduction
In our previous Unit we highlighted the importance of building a trusting culture within
organisations that fosters a cooperative environment. The basis of trust lays in the concept of
reciprocity as distinct from using authority or coercion to gain compliance. Reciprocity is the
process of building relationships through mutual cooperation- typically through doing something
for another person and that person returning the favour. It is at the heart of almost all
relationships. The previous Unit also introduced the competency of empathy- the ability
understand, sense and relate to the feelings of others. The fact that we are studying this course
and an MBA indicates a desire to advance our career opportunities and potential salary. Why
would we think it is any different for our employees?

Does this suggest that managers have a duty or obligation to help employees acquire new skills,
abilities and seek future opportunities? Certainly the previous Unit on empathy and trust would
indicate the answer is yes. We also identified in our contextual Unit that a key objective of the
HR Frame is to retain and train staff. In the Symbolic Frame we noted the importance of a
positive culture and the managers key role in building such cultures.

Thus managing people also includes proactively mentoring and coaching, ensuring that our
employees benefit from the best opportunities available to them now and in the future.

Why would a manager want to help staff members to achieve personal career development?
Isnt there a risk that if a manager encourages an employee to skill up and gain confidence that
the person will want to move on, taking their knowledge and networks with them?

Yes, there is, but taking a longer term view, dont many managers plan their careers in the same
way?

Meanwhile, your staff member (having had the benefit of your interest and support) will likely
give you the best performance of which he or she is capable, in addition to laying the basis for
loyalty and possibly a lasting friendship.

As your own career expands and your priorities change, these are the personal and social
rewards of consciously working in a way that encourages others to learn and develop.

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Consider your own working life and the people who have been important influences on how it
has developed and changed. For many employees, taking on managerial responsibilities is a step
up from professional or operational duties, requiring a new skills set to be learned, often in a
hurry.

When did you first really realize your managerial potential?


managerial perspective? Who helped you, and how?

How did you develop your

Maybe theres no one person who has consciously mentored you, but there will surely be
someone whose style youve liked and modeled some of your own behaviour on, about whom you
might think What would he/she do in this situation?

Its these kinds of Developing Others competencies that you recognize in others that are
implicit in successful coaching and mentoring.

Learning objectives
This unit has the following learning objectives:

understand how to develop staff in positive ways (the Developing Others


competency)

become familiar with the literature on and models of Developing Others

explore its implications for organisational performance

gain insights from self-assessment tools that are relevant to this


competency

incorporate the results from these self-assessments into their personal selfdevelopment plans

Identifying those competencies critical in mentoring and coaching.

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Overview
Developing Others as a competency is more about mentoring, staff development, and the
non-specific benefits of coaching, than about particular outcomes.

Often managers are so busy doing that they dont have much time for reflection on
what their activities may mean in terms of broader personal skill development. However
as your career achievements expand, your priorities change and you have more incentive
to consider the wider managerial agenda. You will probably also have more opportunities
to discuss and compare your experiences with peers and senior managers.

Learning about Developing Others can then bring you a different type of career
satisfaction and additionally, personal and social rewards.

Your Mentor
Reflect on your experiences with mentors or coaches who have influenced your
career, or have helped you develop key skills and abilities.
What was it that made this relationship unique?
What were the behaviours of the mentor that made the relationship work?

You might like to think about how mentoring and personal support happens, perhaps
initially in family and school settings.

When families work well (they dont always!) both younger and older people can benefit
from exchanging ideas and experiences. When at school, young people who have positive
experiences of education or with particular teachers can be inspired to go on and achieve
greater career success that would have seemed possible.

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Alternatively, it can be helpful to think about Developing Others as part of the suite of
corporate and social responsibility objectives that most managers need to take on board
these days, or as an adjunct to workforce planning, which is not just about recruitment
but also includes the skills of maximizing retention of good people through staff
development and performance management.

Also, experience with mentoring staff can be a useful addition to your own resume when
seeking promotion, or a more senior role with another employer.

Rank the following values and benefits of the Developing Others competency
(regardless of mentoring method) in order of importance:

Fostering inclusion of new staff members into the organisation

Developing the next generation of leaders

Encouraging organizational savvy

Transferring corporate knowledge and values

Enhancing the managers coaching skills

Developing the managers interpersonal and communication skills

Expanding employees knowledge of career paths and options within the organisation

Adding to employees knowledge of different work functions

Reviewing the models of Developing Others


Developing Others as a managerial competency requires a dynamic combination of
philosophy, values and actions.

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Historically, Boyatzis (2000) has varied the component analysis in his Emotional
Intelligence Competencies and over time, has placed Developing Others in:

the Interpersonal category in his theoretical and empirical model The


Competent Manager (1982)

his People Management Cluster (1995)

the Empathy Cluster included Understanding Others, Developing Others,


Service Orientation, Leveraging Diversity, and Political Awareness (1998)

the Social Skills cluster (2000)

the Relationship Management Cluster in Goleman et al. (2002) Emotional


Intelligence model.

These variations in categorisation as they appear in competency models as discussed


in the literature suggest that Developing Others is more like a constellation of
attitudes and behaviours than:

a trait like Extraversion, Openness, Conscientiousness or Agreeableness

a cognitive/analytic competency like Systems Thinking or Pattern Recognition

a need such as for Power or Achievement, as defined by McClelland.

A willingness to get involved in Developing Others (or mentoring or coaching, terms


that conveys similar attributes and actions) is an individual characteristic driven by a
range of internal and external motivators. It may be that a manager has had positive
experiences of receiving advice from a senior colleague in an earlier time and place
(modelling) and feels that its part of the role to offer the same support to juniors.

It may be that contributing to the development of staff is encouraged by senior


management as a means of:

sharing expertise and know-how (knowledge in action) e.g. about decisionmaking processes within the organisation

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maintaining specialist knowledge in-house;


transfer

developing social networks to break down silo barriers or encourage the


exchange of ideas

meeting the strategic objectives


management. (Blow, 2005)

of

knowledge management and

succession

planning

or

change

As discussed by Boyatzis (2000, p.6), an individuals conscious utilization of his or her


existing managerial competencies, or desire to develop particular competencies
further, does not occur in isolation.

For a combination of reasons that are unique to that individual, self-directed change
and learning are motivated behaviours, involving intent and will or desire,
concepts that Boyatzis traces back to the work of Kolb on experiential learning.

Developing Others can also be seen as fitting with the Focus on Others cluster where
the competencies of self-control, perceptual objectivity, stamina and adaptability
and concern with close relationships are linked with the concept of maturity.

Managers with these competencies would take a balanced view of events and
people. They would withhold their personal views, needs, and desires in service of
organizational needs and concerns of others. They would be concerned with
understanding all sides (e.g. opinions and feelings) of an issue or conflict(Boyatzis,
1982 p 160). In this context maturity does not necessarily relate to age but can also
be attributed to experience and reflection. Related attributes may include stamina
or perseverance, motivation, and assertiveness.

Conscious planning for self-improvement may not be a feature of many managers


day-to-day dealings with work responsibilities, but for MBA students, there is both a
motive or reason and an opportunity to reflect on:

experience so far

the real self of now and

a notional ideal self.

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As with other MBA course and units in this course, having undertaken a selfassessment, students can use the insights gained to design and articulate selfimprovement activities into their own longer-term plans for competency
development.

Implications for Organisational Performance


Having reviewed the conceptual framework for Developing Others, at this point we
need to refer back to the idea of engagement of the employee with the organization,
its objectives and operations, as discussed in:

Unit 6, Understanding personality and difference

Unit 7, Empathy and trust, and in Units yet to come, including:

Unit 9, Teamwork and collaboration.

Unit 11, Conflict management and negotiation

In a sense the virtuous circle concept can be applied yet again to the competencies
involved in Developing Others.

A carefully-selected and inducted employee should, experiencing a suitably


structured and meaningful role, feel positive about the workplace and the employer,
want to do his/her job as well as possible, and want to work well with others.

For some employees this is enough, the everyday rewards of work (wages, activity
and social contacts) being quite satisfying. Others will seek variety, a change of
scene or function, but do not necessarily want more responsibility. Some will have
unrealistic beliefs about their own capabilities, or unreal expectations of
advancement, and these also need to be recognized and managed.

It is the managers job to know his/her people well enough to understand what
motivates each one of them now and what will keep them interested and productive
in the longer term.

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Organisations are never static, they are subject to contextual changes (both internal
and external) including social, economic, political and other influences that can
affect their operations on a large or small scale.

How should managers adapt the way their people and systems work to match these
changes? Good change management depends on being alert to context, able to
differentiate between major and minor changes now, and able to predict which needs
and priorities will become significant in the longer term. Mentoring and coaching
(Developing Others) have an important role to play in change management.

Regardless of whether managements agenda is to develop up people from within the


organization, it needs to plan for this, just as much as if its intention is to recruit
from outside.

Multi-skilling through rotation is an effective method of training people for more


diversified roles and it has the added benefit of showing managers where the
strengths and weaknesses of their staff may lie.

Though not all employees will understand this, there are good motivational as well as
economic reasons for multi-skilling staff and rotating them into different areas, other
than to provide cover for when someone is sick or away on leave.

Using the Developing Others competency, managers can apply their understanding of
what motivates each employee and at the same time, further their business
objectives by enabling staff to become multi-skilled.

For those staff who:

seek variety and challenge, new learning is a motivator

want to acquire skills and responsibility, personal/occupational growth is a


motivator

like stability, multi-skilling can be interpreted as a way of improving the


chances of staying in work with the organization.

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Performance reviews and performance management provide the manager with a


means of establishing individual objectives and motivating individual staff members.
As an additional benefit, organizational investment in training and development, adds
to employees skills and can be perceived by them as a form of appreciation that goes
beyond just paying their wages.

Delegation and Empowerment

Upon assuming a supervisory or managerial role for the first time, the challenge of
overseeing the work of others can be quite daunting. Unfortunately many managers
do not tackle this task very well often making assumptions about what their people
can do and what they know. Effective delegation and empowerment is an important
set of techniques and skills that superior managers have mastered.

Tovey (2001) defines delegation as a process through which managers transfer the
responsibility for a task, activity or duty to a subordinate with the appropriate
authority to carry it out. Whilst managers need to delegate so that employees have
meaningful activity that contribute to the attainment of organisational goals, they
cannot delegate accountability managers must recognise that they are accountable
and thus answerable for the performance of their subordinates. This is why superior
managers ensure that they have a structured approach to delegation that ensures
subordinates understand the expected outcomes, standards timelines and options in
terms of how the task is to be done.

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Clearly effective delegation means managers must understand the task


themselves and be able to communicate this to employees. As mentioned in
the introduction a common error made by managers is that they assume
employees already know what to do and what s expected of them. Thus we
see a clear link to the previous units of this course. Managers need to provide
incentives that can be internalized, that subordinates are motivate to
undertake the task. Managers need to clearly state their expectations for the
task, thus verbal communication is paramount.
However it s not enough to tell an employee what to do, one must ensure they
have understood, so asking questions, getting the employee to restate in their
own words what they are expected to do- i.e. utilising paraphrasing, restating
techniques and using active listening ensures that the message has been
understood. However the delegation process does not end with clarifying
expectations. Managers should ensure that employees are on track with their
tasks so establishing feedback loops that allows employees to consult with
managers during the task activity should unforseen circumstances arise or to
simply apprise the manager of progress is equally important. In this way no
unexpected outcomes occur.

Berk and Berk (1991) suggest that many new supervisors and mangers make
fundamental mistakes when they come to manage their team. The first error is that
they try to o all the work themselves fearing that only they can complete the work to
the required standards, that their employees lack the ability or competence to
undertake the task, which is a clear indicator of a lack of trust. The other error is
that they delegate the work but then micro manage the process with constant overreviewing of the employees progress to ensure the task is being completed to
standard and time schedules. In some cases managers actually take over the task half
way through!

Berk and Berk (1991) suggest that the outcomes of such poor management is
predictable, subordinates become frustrated, eventually moving to de-motivation and
the manager becomes over worked completing tasks his or her employees should be
which leaves little time to attend to their own work. Thus the managers effort to
attain a high level of group performance actually results in the opposite.

Steps in the Delegation Process

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According to Berk and Berk (1991), de Janasz et al (2008), Quinn et al (2015) and
Tovey (2011) effective delegation requires managers to adopt series of steps to which
parallel a management control system.

1. Identify all the tasks:


the first step in the process requires the manager to
identify all the tasks that are necessary for a group of individuals to undertake in
order to complete a task or project. The approach could be a simple to do list or may
require a more comprehensive identification of key activities or outcomes- the
critical issue is to identify all the tasks so as to encore a complete outcome is
achieves

2. Appropriate Delegation: one of the reasons why delegation sometimes provides


ineffective is because managers delegate work to the wrong people or choose not to
delegate because they lack trust in an employee's ability to do the job. As Quinn et al
(2008) identify managers have a mentor and coaching role that requires them to
develop skills and abilities of their employees. In order for this to occur managers
must know the extent of their employees skills and abilities. This is not only those
that relate to their current job context but others skills and abilities that may be
underutilised.

Similarly Whetten and Cameron (2011) suggest that managers must make sure that
their employees have the necessary information or expertise and also have the
necessary level of commitment critical to successful implementation. They also note
the coaching and mentor role of managers suggesting they need to consider whether
the employees capabilities be expanded by this assignment.

Identify the skills and abilities of each employee

Match capability level to task

Consider other possible employees as development or training possibilities (will


require closer supervision ort mentoring)

3. Communicate Each Assignment: the third step in the process is the discussion that
must occur between a manager and employee or team and is perhaps the most
crucial aspect of effect delegation. Berk and Berk (1991) suggest that establishing the
degree of initiative that you want to employee to demonstrate is an important part of
this process, and will be determined by the importance of the task and the ability of
the employee to achieve it. This might mean that the employee works almost
completely autonomously to an almost team approach with specific points or steps in
the process where they may need to consult with the manager for neither
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clarification nor verification. The autonomy continuum of Tannenbaum & Schmidt


(1973) provides insight into this decision making process, Irrespective of which end of
the spectrum is adopted the employee must know and understand what is expected.
This will clearly involve clear communication and the use of key interpersonal
communication skills to ensure understanding. However, it s not enough to tell an
employee what to do, one must ensure they have understood what is expected in
terms of outcome, standards and timelines, so asking questions, getting the employee
to restate in their own words what they are expected to do- i.e. utilising
paraphrasing, restating techniques and using active listening ensures that the
message has been understood. However the delegation process does not end with
clarifying expectations or standards.

One of the most important parts of effective delegation and one that is most
commonly overlooked by managers is the reason why the task is being undertaken
and its degree of importance. Employees must know how the task fits into the overall
team output and its level of importance. This will greatly assist in insuring employees
complete tasks to a standard and in time because they understand how important it
actually is.

4.0 Develop a Plan for Each Assignment: mapping out the tasks to be achieved as a
formal work plan document, not only helps to clarify the sub tasks, timelines and any
required meetings for progress reports. There is also a clear advantage in providing a
formal document as it not only records agreements, but also can be used as part of
the review process and adds to organisational memory.

5.0 Review: as Robbins and Judge (2010) and deJanasz (2008) note, all effective
management control systems require a review of performance against standards to
determine whether goals have been achieved or alternatively whether additional
action is required, that could include new tasks or a review of standards and goals.
This part of the delegation process is essential not only to complete the delegation
process, but it also provides information that is critical to the next delegation cycle
and/or provides critical data that can be fed into a training needs analysis process to
assist employees to acquire new skills and abilities (Tovey, 2011; Noe and Winkler,
2009).

What and When to Delegate

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Whilst part of the delegation process involves considering the tasks at hand and the
capabilities of the employees to undertake the task, Yukl (1995) identifies six basic
guidelines to assist managers in deciding what to delegate

1. Work/ tasks that can be done better by subordinate


2. Work/ tasks that are urgent but not of a high priority
3. Work/ tasks that are relevant to a subordinates skill development and
career
4. Work/ tasks that are appropriate to subordinates ability and confidence
5.
Work/ tasks that are at times pleasant and unpleasant- the delegation
of both types to employees will assist in establishing that the manager
delegates without favoritism
6. Work/ tasks that are not central to the managers role.

Whetten & Cameron (2011) suggest that managers must not only consider what they
are delegating but when they should delegate. They propose five key questions that
can help managers determine when they should delegate.

1. Do subordinates have the necessary information or expertise?


2. Is the commitment of subordinates critical to successful implementation?
3. Will subordinates capabilities be expanded by this assignment?
4. Do subordinates share with management and each other, common values and
perspectives?
5. Is there sufficient time to do an effective job of delegating?

Empowerment and Authority

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More recent perspectives regarding the manager subordinate relationship in


terms of delegation of tasks have focused on the concept of Empowerment.
Some suggest that Delegation and Empowerment are actually the same
concept. Whilst they share many of the same attributes and processes,
Empowerment is a much broader concept. Carlopio and Andrawartha (2012)
suggest there are five attributes of empowerment that includes competence,
self-determination, personal control, meaningfulness and trust. You will find
that the processes for effective empowerment are more substantive than those
described for delegation. A simple way to distinguish between the two is to
suggest that good managers are effective delegators whereas superior
performing managers empower!

Managers need to recognize the difference between responsibility and accountability.


Hind (1991) notes that many managers fail to understand the differences and thus
delegate poorly. Quinn et al (2008) state that delegation involves three core elementsresponsibility, authority and accountability. Responsibility is linked to the role that
manager plays and what they are expected to achieve, which includes the work of an
employee. Authority refers to the legitimate power that s associated to a position and
accountability refers to the expectations and consequences that are afforded to a
person for achieving or not achieving a task. A common perspective on these three
elements is that managers can delegate a degree of responsibility and authority to an
employee but ultimately they are accountable for the work that is produced by the
team or employee.

Ensuring that employees have sufficient authority or legitimate power refers to the
level of discretion that managers afford to an employee. One of the simplest models
that highlights the differing levels of delegation of autonomy is Continuum of Leader
Behaviour developed by Tannenbaum and Schmidt (1973) This model shows the
relationship between the level of freedom that a manager delegates, and the level of
authority used by the manager. As the team's freedom is increased, so the manager's
authority decreases. If effect the model presents the differing levels of
empowerment that a manager affords to his employees for any given task.

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The model has some benefits for managers in that it clearly establishes different
choices or levels of involvement that they can utilise. Secondly it provides clear
criteria for decision-making that assists in achieving effective outcomes. Similarly
criteria are establishes for the level of involvement that a task requires and it
emphasizes employee development and empowerment.

However some criticisms are also evident. The model tends to focus on the process of
assigning the task and not necessarily on the key processes that determine
effectiveness. There is an inherent assumption that the manager has sufficient
information about the nature of the task and the capabilities of the team or individual
to which the task is to be delegated and it fails to recognize the organisational
context, which might require other factors such as internal politics to be considered.
Perhaps one of the most significant problems with the models is its either /or
approach to delegation which may fail to consider more creative ways of tackling a
task.

Poor and Ineffective Delegation


The ignorance and therefore inability of the bosses to apply a rigorous, whole-brained
delegation process severely diminished the quality of the business relationships
between bosses and their subordinates, as well as the competence and stress levels of
all (Eales-White, 2005)

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Hind (1991) identifies a range of reasons why managers fail to delegate work to their
staff.

Fear of failure: for some managers the fear that employees will not achieve the
delegated task thus making them look bad in the eyes of superiors, means they tend to
micro manage and refuse to allow employees to take on the task.

Job understanding: some tasks are relatively simple thus easy to delegate, however
others present major challenges with complex and difficult processes. If a manager
does not fully understand the nature f the task then delegation will be flawed. In such
cases managers may avoid the delegation so as to not appear to lack knowledge and
capabilities- i.e. a potential to undermine expert power.

Status and reputation: Some tasks may be politically important and successful
achievement of these may enhance reputation and further a managers opportunities.
For these reason some managers are reluctant to delegate work that may bring their
subordinates recognition rather than the manager.

Loss of Power and Control: Both Quinn et al. (2008) and (Hind 1991) note that a
managers fear of losing control and the loss of power over both the task and the
subordinate is one of the man reasons for a reluctance to delegate. This is partially
explained by the fear that an employee will not do the job as or exercise the same
level of appropriate judgement, as would the manager.

Love of Success: Hind (1991) also notes that people tend to enjoy doing those things
that they are good at. If these tasks happen to be those that also are valued by the
organisations, then we tend to hang on to these rather than delegate, as it is a clear
way of demonstrating our value to the organisation.

Culture: Lastly Hind (1991) makes a link to the organisations culture, which was
explored, in greater detail in the Symbolic Frame discussion earlier in the course. The
importance of leadership and setting the tone is noted and Hind makes the point that
leaders Those who are dynamic decision- makers will tend to discourage delegation
whilst those leaders that that have few responsibilities but many accountabilities, will
tend to encourage others to emulate them and this is likely to pass on down the
organisation.

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Five points in Delegation


Tovey (2011) provide s five basic reminders for managers that can help in the
delegation process.

Everyone makes mistakes- managers and employees alike make mistakes from time to
time, particularly when engaging in a new task or project. We should expect errors
and minor mistakes as part of the learning process- we should ensure that employees
recognize that its ok to make some mistakes along the way- provided they learn from
the experience and do not repeat the same mistakes. Of course it isn't necessary to
assess what mistakes are acceptable and those that are not.

Delegated job may not be done in the same way as the delegator would do it.
Managers need to remember that a task can often be accomplished using a variety of
different approaches and methods. Just because an employee tackles a task
differently it does not necessarily mean that it is less effective. The discussion of
empowerment suggests that allowing people the freedom to decide how to take on a
task could prove to be extremely motivating factor.

The completed job may not look exactly the way it would look if the delegator did it.
Similarly the achieved outcome may not be exactly as the manager wanted the
critical issue is whether there is one right way or if some flexibility can be accepted.
This is an issue of standards and consistency that needs to be addressed.

Managers are not paid to pretty things up or edit the work of others so this it fits
more closely the managers perception of how it should be. Similar to the previous
point, managers need to resist the temptation of reworking an employees work to
create an outcome, as the manager would have wished. The critical issues are the
standards of the work performed and the level of satisfaction that an employee
derives from achieving it. Re-working a task will usually result in a de-motivation and
an unwillingness to take on future tasks.

Skilful objective setting that focuses on results or outcomes will provide the best
framework for effective delegation. Lastly a clear focus on the outcomes to be
achieved and the standards to which they must be achieved prove to be the most
effective principles in effective delegation

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How can a manager increase his/her skills in Developing


Others?
Essentially through practising the following techniques, formally and informally,
whenever time permits and the setting is appropriate:

Providing constructive performance feedback to employees and suggesting


ways of improving their performance and capabilities

Advising and coaching team members on how to handle current or anticipated


concerns

Working with team members to define realistic yet challenging work goals

Supporting individuals development and improvement plans

Promoting ongoing learning and development to individual staff members

Providing long-term plans to meet the future learning needs of staff and
mechanisms for enabling these, e.g. allocation of resources

Promoting and
development.

supporting

organization-wide

continuous

learning

and

Related Competencies
Examining the four primary competency models, the teaching faculty have identified a
range of competencies from across the four models that we consider critical in coaching or
mentoring staff: the Development of Others.

Critical Competency 1: Developing subordinates


Goleman et al. (2002) highlight Developing Others in the Leading Others Cluster that is
very similar to Boyatzis (1982) Developing Others, which appears in the Directing
Subordinates cluster, and features in much of the discussion in this unit. According to
Boyatzis (1982, p 143) Developing others is a competency with which managers

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specifically help someone to do his or her job. People with this competency behave in
certain ways. They give others performance feedback with the intent of stimulating
improved performance. They invite subordinates to discuss performance problems. People
with this characteristic make training, expert help, and other resources available to others
to help those individuals improve their skills and get their job done. While helping others,
they are careful to allow the individual to take personal responsibility for making changes
and testing his or her effectiveness. This also parrallels Goleman et al. (2002) Mentoring
and Coaching competency that appears in the Relationship Management Cluster of the
Emotional Intelligence Model.

Critical Competency 2: Delegating effectively


One of the principle ways that managers can assist with the learning and development of
their staff is through a managed approach to work assignments. Thus Quinn et al. (2015)
Delegating Effectively is put forward as an important competency. Managers need to
understand the skills and abilities that their team possess. The inability to achieve a task
due to lack of ability can be extremely de-motivating so managers must be careful to
allocate tasks appropriately. Similarly other tasks may be able to be used to stretch a
person in such cases managers must ensure that they provide guideance and resources
necessary for people t acquire the necessary skills.

Critical Competency 3 Positive Regard


Boyatzis (1982) Positive regard appears in the Human Resource Management Cluster.
Boyatzis suggests that managers with this competency have a basic belief in others, and
positive belief that people are good. They see themselves as good people and adopt the
role of optimist. They are able to use interpersonal skills to make others feel valued and
needed. The faculty see this competency as necessary to assist other to learn. There is
also a clear link between this competency and others such as Empathy and as noted in
the discussion, maturity.

Required Reading

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Reading 1
Quinn, R., Faerman, S., Thompson, M., McGrath, M., and Bright, L.S. (2015), Becoming a
master manager: a competency framework, 6th edn, Wiley and Sons, Toronto. Module 1 p 5869

Quinn et al. (2015) chapter covers the three competencies they consider crucial in The Mentor
Role, one of which is Developing Others. What is interesting about this chapter is that it
addresses issues related to self and effective communication that are seen as critical in the
development of others. It also raises the process of effective delegation as a key in the
development process. Take note of the reference to other issues and topics that are part of this
course. Empathy is identified as a critical competency in this chapter, which we addressed in
Unit 7, and Agyris and Schon (1996) valuable tool left hand right hand column issues, which
should revise some of the materials covered in Unit 6.

Reading 2
Carlopio, J., & Andrewartha, G. (2012), Developing Management Skills, 5th edn, Pearson,
Sydney. Chapter 8

Carlopio and Andrawartha (2012) Chapter 10 is not strictly a chapter on developing others,
rather it addresses Empowering and Delegating. It is clear that Carlopio and Andrawartha
see these as distinct processes. The section on delegation provides useful principles or
checklists that can be followed when delegating work.

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Journal Readings

Journal Reading 1
Banford, C.G., Buckley, M.R., & Roberts, F. (2014),"Delegation revisited: how delegation can benefit
globally-minded managers", International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management, Vol.
44, No. 8/9 pp. 646 - 654
Permanent link to this document:
http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/IJPDLM-07-2013-0191

This conceptual paper revisits the purpose of and practice of effectiveness of delegation
in a global setting. It highlights that delegation is impacted by various factors such as
manager cognition, perceived subordinate competence, and cultural differences. This
research may help global business leaders to better understand how cultural differences
may impact managerial functions and how to manage culturally diverse employees.

Journal Reading 2
Mathieson, M. (2006),"Improving organisational performance through developing our people", Industrial
and Commercial Training, Vol. 38, No. 2 pp. 70 - 77
Permanent link to this document:
http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/00197850610653135

This paper revisits demonstrates the practical benefits to organisations of having a


structured development program for employees. Take note that the approach uses
experiential or applied training and development as a key factor in insuring buy in from
managers and employees.

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Journal Reading
Cole, G. (2015),"The value of mentoring", Development and Learning in Organizations: An International
Journal, Vol. 29, No. 4 pp. 22 - 24

Permanent link to this document:

This two page article summarises some of the specific benefits of mentoring.

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