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Amazing AVUKANA BUDDHA STATUE

Sculptured out of solid granite during 5th century, is 13 mtrs(43 ft) high and
located in the North Central Province

Scenic beauty

Wild Life

Sri Lankan leopard (Panthera pardus kotiya)

Heritage

Sandakada Pahana (Moon Stone) - Anuradhapura


Sandakada pahana, also known as Moon-stone, is a unique feature of the Sinhalese
architecture of ancient Sri Lanka. It is an elaborately carved semi-circular stone slab, usually
placed at the bottom of staircases and entrances. First seen in the latter stage of the
Anuradhapura period, the Sandakada pahana evolved through the Polonnaruwa, Gampola and
Kandy period.
The carvings of the semicircular stone slab were the same in most Sandakada pahana. A half
lotus was carved in the center, which was enclosed by several concentric bands. The first
band from the half lotus is decorated with a procession of swans, followed by a band with an
intricate foliage design known as liyawel. The third band has carvings of four animals;
elephants, lions, horses, and bulls. These four animals follow each other in a procession
symbolizing the four stages in life: growth, energy, power and forbearance. The fourth and
outermost band contains a carving of flames, usually interpreted as representing a fire altar.
According to historians, the Sandakada pahana symbolizes the cycle of Samsra in
Buddhism. The widely accepted interpretation is that of historian Senarath Paranavithana.
According to Paranavithana, the Sandakada pahana symbolizes the cycle of Samsra.
The liyavel symbolize worldly desires (Tan h) and the lotus depicts the final achievement
of Nirvana. The elephant, bull, lion and horse depict birth, decay, disease and death
respectively, while the swans symbolize the distinction between good and bad.
The design of the Sandakada pahana of the Polonnaruwa period differs largely from that of
the Anuradhapura period. The single band that was used to depict the four animals was
removed, and processions of the elephant, lion and horse were depicted in separate bands.
The most significant change is the removal of the bull from the Sandakada pahana. The

Anuradhapura tradition of placing Sandakada pahanas only at entrances to Buddhist temples


also changed, and they are found at the entrances of other buildings as well belonging to the
Polonnaruwa period.

Different forms of Guard Stones (Mura Gal) at the entrances at Buddhist Temples

Balustrade

ART

Sigiriy
Sigiri Fresco- Sigiriya

Ancient temple painting- Gangaramaya, Lewella, Kandy. 18th c.

Gilded Bronze Statue of Goddess Tara


08th C. AD- Anuradhapura period
Currently displayed at British Museum

Gems

Sri Lankan precious Gemstones

The flag of Sri Lanka, also called the Lion flag or Sinha flag, consists of a yellow lion holding
a kastane sword in its right fore paw in a dark red background with four yellow Bo leaves in
each corner of the background. Around the background is a yellow border and to its left are two
vertical stripes of equal size in green and saffron, with the saffron stripe closest to the lion. The
lion represents bravery of Sri Lankans. The four Bo leaves represent four main concepts of
Buddhism; Mett, Karuna, Mudita and Upekkha. The stripes represent the two main minority
groups. The saffron stripe represents Tamils and the green stripe represents Muslims, and the
maroon background represents the majority Sinhalese. The yellow border around the flag
represents the unity of Sri Lankans.
It was adopted in 1950 following the recommendations of a committee appointed by the 1st
Prime Minister of Ceylon, The Rt. Hon D.S. Senanayake.

National emblem of Sri Lanka


The current emblem has been in use since 1972.The emblem features a gold lion passant,
holding a sword in its right fore paw (the same lion from the flag of Sri Lanka) in the centre on a
maroon background surrounded by golden petals of a Blue Lotus. This is placed on top of a
traditional grain vase that sprouts sheaves of rice grains that circle the border reflecting
prosperity.

The crest is the Dharmachakra, symbolizing the country's foremost place for Buddhism and just
rule. Traditional Sinhalese heraldic symbols for the sun and the moon form the supporters.

The National Anthem


.......





......













........

The National Flower Nil Manel Blue water Lily (Nymphaea nouchali)
It symbolizes purity of the body, speech, and mind as if floating above the muddy waters of
attachment and desire.

National Bird- Wali Kukula- Sri Lankan Jungle Fowl (Gallus Lafayetii)

National Tree- Na- Ceylon Ironwood (Mesua ferrea)

Capital

Sri Jayawardenepura Kotte


(Administrative)
Colombo (Commercial)
656N 7952E

Largest city

Colombo

Official
languages

Sinhalese
Tamil

Recognized

English

Demonym

Sri Lankan

Government

Unitary semi-presidential constitutional republic

Legislature

Parliament

Independence

from the United Kingdom

- Dominion
- Republic
Area
- Total
- Water (%)
Population
- 2014 (est)
- Density

4 February 1948
22 May 1972

65,610 km2 (122nd)


25,332 sq mi
4.4
21,866,445 (57th)
323/km2 (40th)
836.6/sq mi

GDP (PPP)
- Total
- Per capita

2015 estimate
$233.637 billion (60th)
$11,069 (99th)

GDP (nominal)
- Total
- Per capita

2015 estimate
$80.591 billion (68th)
$3,818 (114th)

Time zone

SLST (UTC+5:30)

Date format

dd/mm/yyyy (AD)(English)
yyyy/mm/dd (Sinhala)

Drives on the

left

Calling code

+94

ISO 3166 code

LK

Internet TLD

.lk

Ethnic Make-up: Sinhalese 73.8%, Sri Lankan Moors 7.2%, Indian Tamil 4.6%, Sri Lankan Tamil
3.9%, 10.5%

Religion(s): Buddhist 69.1%, Muslim 7.6%, Hindu 7.1%, Christian 6.2%, other 10%

Sri Lanka coined as the Pearl of the Indian Ocean has a documented history
spans 3,000 years, with evidence of pre-historic human settlements dating back
to at least 125,000 years. Its geographic location and deep harbours made it of
great strategic importance from the time of the ancient Silk Road through
to World War II.
A diverse and multicultural country, Sri Lanka is home to many religions, ethnic
groups, and languages. In addition to the majority Sinhalese, it is home to large
groups of Sri Lankan and Indian Tamils, Moors, Burghers, Malays, Kaffirs and
the aboriginal Vedda. Sri Lanka has a rich Buddhist heritage, and the first
known Buddhist writing of Sri Lanka, the Pli Canon, dates back to the Fourth
Buddhist council in 29 BC.
Sri Lanka is a republic and a unitary state governed by a presidential system.
The legislative capital, Sri Jayawardenepura Kotte, is a suburb of the
commercial capital and largest city, Colombo.
An important producer of tea, coffee, gemstones, coconuts, rubber, and the
native cinnamon, the island contains tropical forests and diverse landscapes
with much biodiversity.
Ancient
According to the Mahvamsa, a chronicle written in Pi, the original
inhabitants of Sri Lanka are the Yakshas and Nagas. But Sinhalese history
traditionally starts in 543 BCE with the arrival of Prince Vijaya or Singha, a
semi-legendary prince who sailed with 700 followers on eight ships 860
nautical miles to Sri Lanka from the south-west coast of what is now the Rarh
region of West Bengal. He established the Kingdom of Tambapanni, near
modern day Mannar. Vijaya (Singha) is the first of the approximately 189
native monarchs of Sri Lanka described in chronicles such as the
Dipavamsa, Mahvasa, Cavasa, and Rjvaliya (see list of Sinhalese
monarchs). Sri Lankan dynastic history ended in 1815 CE after British invation
and the island became part of the British Empire.
Early inhabitants of Sri Lanka were probably ancestors of the Vedda people, an
indigenous people numbering approximately 2,500 now restricted to an area
called Dambana which is approx. 19 km from Mahiyangana in the Uva
province.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sri_Lanka
Climate
Sri Lanka's climate can be described as tropical, and quite hot. Its position
between 5 and 10 north latitude endows the country with year-round warm

weather, moderated by ocean winds and considerable moisture. The mean


temperature ranges from a low of 16 C (60.8 F) in Nuwara Eliya in the
Central Highlands (where frost may occur for several days in the winter) to a
high of 32 C (89.6 F). In Trincomalee on the northeast coast (where
temperatures may reach 38 C or 100.4 F). The average yearly temperature for
the country as a whole ranges from 28 to 30 C (82.4 to 86.0 F). Day and night
temperatures may vary by 4 to 7 C (7.2 to 12.6 F). January is the coolest
month, especially in the highlands, where overnight temperatures may fall to
5 C (41 F). May, the hottest period, precedes the summer monsoon rains.
Climate Seasons
1.
2.

First Intermonsoon Season - March - April


Southwest monsoon season - May - September

3.

Second Intermonsoon season - October - November

4.

Northeast Monsoon season - December - February

Further Information:
+94 11 269 4846 / 11 269 4847 / 11 2681647
CULTURE-

Sri Lanka is one of the few countries with a very vast and rich cultural diversity.
The culture is itself very unique and thereby contributes to the Sri Lankan
identity. Sri Lankan culture includes a lot of customs and rituals, which date to
more than 2000 years which were handed down from generation to generation.
The most prominent feature of Sri Lanka is its colorful festivals, which is one of
the main tourist attractions. Religion plays an important role in molding the Sri
Lankan culture and traditions. Sri Lankan culture if often reflected by the use of
art, architecture, sculptures, and even food. Some people would say that Sri
Lanka has a more conventional culture which is obviously influenced by the
prominent religions prevailing in the country such as Buddhism and Hinduism.
The Sri Lankan way of life is very simple and filled with humility and
happiness. This is one of the reasons why the Sri Lankans have a very great
sense in appreciating the simple things in life such as nature. A detailed
description is annexed.
CUSTOMS-

There are many customs associated with the culture some of which are unique
to different religious groups and Nationalities. A detailed description is attached
as an annexture. It is appropriate to learn at least the more important customs
which will definitely help a tourist to build a favourable relationship with the
society.

Also it is recommended to learn a fewSinhala words for greeting etc which too
will gain supportive assistance from the local community. E.g. Ayubowan
which is the local greeting which literally means may you live long.
Kohomada? means how are you?, Bohoma sthuti means thank you very
much

Flora and Fauna in Sri Lanka


Sri Lanka is the paradise of flora & fauna. The country has over 90 species of
mammals (including elephant, leopard, bear and monkeys), hundreds of
butterflies, over 80 snake species (including deadly cobras and vipers), and
about 435 species of birds. The Ceylon elk (sambhur) and the Polonga (viper)
snake are unique to Sri Lanka. Insects abound and numerous fish are found in
the shallow offshore waters.
Sri Lanka has the distinction of having the worlds oldest recorded wildlife
preserve. More than 2000 years ago, in the 3rd century BC, a region in north
central Sri Lanka was set aside by royal decree to be free of all hunting. Today,
more than 8% of the land is preserved as national parks or nature preserves.
Birds
Birds are numerous, many varieties from colder countries wintering on the
island. Sri Lanka has well-organized game and bird sanctuaries. Of the 431
recorded species 251 are resident and no less than 21 are endemic to the island.
Most of the endemic birds are restricted to the wet zone, e.g. the Ceylon
Grackle to the hill country, the Ceylon Whistling Thrush, the Yellow-eared
Bulbul etc. Some, such as the striking Redfaced Malkoha and the shy browncapped Babbler can be found through out the island although confined to small
areas of forests, National Parks and Forest Reserves. Among the best areas for
these birds are the Sinharaja Forest Reserve and the Peak Wilderness Sanctuary.
The large tanks (reservoirs) in the dry zone attract numerous types of ducks,
while the large water birds the storks, herons and egrets can be easily
spotted in the National Parks. The Kumana Bird Sanctuary in the Eastern
Province and Bundala, Kalametiya and Wirawila in the south, abound in these
aquatic birds. Bundala is especially famous for its flocks of visiting flamingoes.
An interesting place to visit for more bird life is the Muthurajawela marshes,
just outside the northern border of the Colombo city.

Peacock (Pavo cristatus)


Mammals
Sri Lanka has 90 species of mammals including leopards, monkey and the pride
of place goes to the majestic elephant. Although rapid destruction of its habitat
has depleted the elephant population, sizeable numbers can be seen in Gal Oya
and Udawalawe National parks and at Handapangala. Extinction also threatens
the islands biggest cat the leopard, although Wilpattu National park is
justifiably proud of its leopard population. Many species of deer the Sambhur,
the Hog Deer, the Mouse deer can also be seen in the Parks.
Other mammals include the Sloth Bear, the protected Dugong, the Wild Boar,
the Porcupine and Monkeys, especially the Grey Langur, which are common
throughout the island. Of special interest is the endemic purple faced Leaf
Monkey, found in the higher hill regions.

Ceylon elk (sambhur)- Rusa unicolor unicolor

Flora of Sri Lanka


Tropical rainforest covers much of the southwestern part of the island, where
teak and ebony grow.The plant life ranges from that of the equatorial rain forest
to that of the dry zone and the more temperate climate of the highlands. Tree
ferns, bamboo, palm, satinwood, ebony, and jak trees abound. Orchids abound
in the lush forest.
Well-preserved rainforests, exotic gardens areas provide an enriching insight of
how rich Sri Lanka is with her natural resources. With the emphasis on
preservation of the environment, Sri Lanka ensures that its natural assets are
maintained in their original state. These assets, combined with the islands
tourist attractions, make a winning combination. From March to May numerous
flowering trees such as the fiery Poinciana Regia, the white Mesua Ferrea, the
cherry blossom-like Tabebuia, burst into bloom. Flowering orchids include
endemic varieties such as the protected Daffodil and Wesak Orchids.
The hills in central Sri Lanka have the perfect climate for tea cultivation and
whole hillsides are dedicated to growing this compact, dark-leafed camellia for
its fragrant leaves. It is in the cool hills that most of the commercial vegetables
such as peppers, carrots, cabbage, tomatoes, cucumbers and lettuce are grown.
The coasts are more arid, with low scrub and grasslands, and its here youll see
tall coconut palms lining the roads. Outside of the city, most homes have their
own stands of papaya and mango trees, banana plants, breadfruit and jackfruit
trees. Many of the ornamental plants that adorn temples and homes are not
native to the Indian Sub-continent but are so familiar now that their origins
seem unimportant. Indeed lantana, with its clusters of red and orange blossoms
on a prickly shrub, is a native of the Americas but now grows in almost
impenetrable thickets in parts of Sri Lanka. The fragrant frangipani, originally
from the West Indies, with its white/yellow or pink flowers, is a common tree
found outside homes and temples throughout the country.

Binara (Exacum trinerveum)- Endemic plant

FOOD
There is a diverse food culture in Sri Lanka. Though Sri Lankans have a unique
food culture of their own, many other food cultures are being incorporated by
many house holds, particularly oriental, Indian and western culinary dishes. The
main staple food being rice is complimented by many kinds of vegetables,
greens, fish, meats, eggs and fruits which are abundant particularly during
seasons.
Tea culture- plays a significant part in the day to day lives with a habbit of
sipping a cup of tea before breakfast, and at least twice more around 10 AM and
4 PM be at home or at work. Generally Sri Lankans are used to have tea mixed
with milk and sugar.
The Island is famous for its sea food serving the best Crab, Prawns, Lobsters
and a variety of fish. Colombo caters for almost all food cultures having
speciality restaurnts to cater to different palates. Tourists can purchase fresh
vegetables and fruits from super markets at relatively reasonable prices.

A look at Sri Lankan Language, Culture, Customs and Etiquette


Ayubowan (May you live long) - Sri Lankan traditional greeting.
LANGUAGESinhala (also called Sinhalese or Singhalese) is the mother tongue of the Sinhalese ethnic group which
is the majority (74%) in Sri Lanka. It belongs to the Indo-Aryan branch of the Indo-European
languages.

Sinhala is spoken by about 18 million people in Sri Lanka and approximately 16 million are native
speakers. It is the constitutionally recognized official language and Tamil language given equal place
is spoken mainly in the Northern, Eastern, Central provinces and the Tamil & Muslim community in
the Western Province (Colombo).
English is spoken by a significant number of Sri Lankans particularly by professionals and residents
in main cities of Colombo & Kandy.
There is an improvement in foreign language skills among the people in rural coastal areas which
have become attractive tourist destinations. Some of these villagers who are engaged directly or
indirectly in tourism sector have improved their level of communication of non-native languages such
as English, French, German, Arabic, Hindi etc. reasonably well by interacting with overseas visitors.
Many employees in star class hotels, shop keepers, private transport providers are fairly good in
English vocabulary. All the documentation in hotels is done in English. Most of the sign boards in
public places are displayed in English as well.

CULTUREReligionThe main religion of Sri Lanka is Buddhism and has significant influences on political, cultural, and
social life. Additionally there are Hindus, Muslims & Christians.
A separate paper is annexed with this document to give a basic understanding about Buddhism.
However, the important Buddhist practices are stated below.
Simply, Buddhism is based on Ahimsa or pacifism (to be precise, Buddhism disapprove
physical as well as mental aggression on any living being). Buddhism gives pride of place for
ones wisdom, which means man is his own master & saviour Buddhism doesnt believe in a
creator. The most important factor is that Buddhism is acknowledged as a philosophy, rather
than a religion. Accordingly every living being has to go through suffering in different stages
of life (during birth, while sick, distress on loss of loved ones/ wealth/ eminence/pride, when
one become aged & feeble and at death-bed etc.) and it is called Karma and to free oneself
of suffering, one needs to realize the truth (Nirvana). Accordingly the doctrine is based on the
three essentials of Buddhist training and discipline; namely 1) Ethical Conduct (Sila), 2)
Mental Discipline (Samdhi) and 3) Wisdom (Pa). (The above is only a very brief
description).
Since many people find different reasons for the difficulty to go deep into realizing the truth,
they at least try to live a virtuous life by practicing the least while enjoying the lay life.
However everyone has to go through this suffering someday and when realizing the teachings
of Buddhism at late stages cannot bring results. Following are the observances of majority, in
brief.
Most Buddhists worship the Buddha at home by placing a statue of the Buddha on a dais. A
lamp is lit using coconut oil, offer flowers, burn incense sticks and at least a glass of water is
offered. Some offer food at breakfast and lunch (which is termed as Dana or Alms). Dinner
is not offered as consumption of meals afternoon is against the code of ethics/discipline for
Buddhist ascetic/ clergy. Then the Five Precepts are observed: i.e. to refrain from harming
any life, refrain from stealing, refrain from sexual immorality, refrain from falsehood, refrain
from consumption of alcoholic beverages or drugs. In addition certain stanzas are recited.
In addition, Buddhists visit temples at least once a month on a full moon day called Poya
day which is a public/bank/mercantile nholiday. Some visit frequently. They make the above
said offering at the temple and recite stanzas according to ancient Buddhist customs. Also
many Buddhists observe the Eight Precepts on the Poya day and engage in religious
observances throughout the day at the temple.
As the Buddhist clergy doesnt engage in employment (except teaching Buddhist philosophy
in government schools), their requirements are being fulfilled by the laity. The food is cooked
by the laity at their homes and offered to the clergy, which is called Dana or Alms.

When visiting a temple, the worshippers generally wear white color clothes and remove their
slippers and headgear before entry into temple premises and walk bare-foot within the
precincts.
There are thousands of Buddhist temples throughout the island.
The Buddhist clergy wear a dark orange or brownish robe and are usually their heads and
beards shaven. Buddhist clergy is prohibited from having any form of lay life.
The female clergy have separate abodes and they too observe the same disciplinary codes as
their male counterparts.
The laity kneels down at the feet of clergy and worships them. The Buddhist clergy is highly
respected and a layman doesnt sit with clergy at the same level. Even the Head of State will
observe the same practice.
Many Buddhists are vegetarians so do the Hindus. Except for some primitive faiths in certain
Hindu temples where they practice animal sacrificing, the majority people denounce Cruelty
on Animals.
There are certain Buddhist temples where they hold traditional pageants called Perahera
where the Sacred Relics of Lord Buddha is carried by a tusker in a golden casket. These are
colorful processions with elephants, dancers, drummers, flag bearers etc. parading on streets.
These pageants are held between July- August annually. Although currently they have become
pageants, traditionally this was done with much reverence. However it should be noted that
this kind of activities are not in line with the Essence of Buddhism and should be viewed
only as cultural practices.

General customs & etiquetteSmiling


For good or bad, most Sri Lankan always carries a smile, at times even in worst situations. Do not be offended if one
smiles when you are distressed. It is only due to their innocence.

Meeting & greeting

Most of the customs are based on Buddhist traditions. The Buddhist clergy referred to as
Maha Sangha receives pride of place in society. However the Buddhists, following the
teachings of the Enlightened One, offer the same respect for the clergy of other faiths. When
one meet a member of the Maha Sangha, a Buddhists will go by their knees and worship him.
When one speaks to a member of the Maha Sangha, over the phone, instead of Hello, one
greets with the words Theruwan Saranai which means may you be blessed by the noble
triple gems.
Customarily elders are respected in society, however depending on social strata. But in
general the elders are treated compassionately in society. Women & Children too receive a
special place in society depending on their behavior.
Typical greetings depend on the ethnic group people belong to but as a foreigner you will not
be expected to be aware of such differences.
However one can sum up the main styles of greeting in Sri Lanka.
The older generation of Sri Lankans will use the "Namaste" (palms clasped together as if in
prayer at chin level with a slight nod of the head).
The Sinhalese may say "Ayubowan." (may you be blessed with a long life)
Tamils would say "vanakkam." (may you be blessed with a long life)
In informal settings you may also hear "kohomada?" (How do you do?).
The younger people generally shake hands.
Many Sri Lankan women will refrain from physical contact with a man outside their family so
always wait to see if a woman extends her hand or not.

When addressing people you should always use the appropriate title followed by the surname.
Always wait for the other party to move to a first name basis.

Hierarchy

The influences of Buddhism and Hinduism as well as the caste system have created a culture
that operated within a hierarchical system.
Sri Lankans are conscious of social order and status.
All relationships, whether in family life or at the office, to some extent involve hierarchies.
At home the patriarch (the father or oldest male in the household) is considered the leader of
the family. In the office, the boss/owner is seen as the source of ultimate responsibility in
business. All relationships within these circles are then based on upon people's positions
within the hierarchy.

Gift giving etiquette

In Sri Lanka gifts are usually given at birthdays, weddings, National New Year and puberty
ceremonies. As a rule gifts are not usually lavish or expensive but symbolic.
As with other etiquette pointers about Sri Lanka, there will be differences due to the
ethnic/religious diversity of the country but here are some general gift giving etiquette rules:
Avoid flowers - they are used in mourning.
Only give alcohol if you are sure the recipient is a consumer. Better avoid.
White or black are the colours of funerals and mourning. But white is worn to visit Buddhist
temples.
If the recipient is Muslim avoid pig products, alcohol or any foodstuffs that contain meat
(unless "halal")
Hindus should not be given gifts made of leather. .
Give and receive gifts with two hands. To demonstrate graciousness, some Sri Lankans will
touch their right forearm with their left hand while offering the gift with their right hand.
Gifts are generally not opened when received.
Any gift received should be reciprocated.

Dining Etiquette

Lankans enjoy coming together at meal time as a family or with friends.


Wait to be shown your seat. There is often a protocol to be followed.
You may be asked if you would like to wash your hands before and after sitting down to a
meal. You should take up the offer.
Depending on the situation you may be served food on to your plate or be expected to serve
yourself.
Keep elbows off the table.
Use your right hands to eat.
Use bread or small balls of rice to scoop curries off your plate.
You may be offered or served second helpings. If you do not want more and it has already
been put on your plate, there is no need to eat it.
Leaving a small amount of food on your plate indicates that you have eaten you full.
Finishing all your food means that you are still hungry.
Expect to leave within half an hour after the meal ends. Most socializing occurs before the
meal.

Face

Face, which can be described as honour or personal dignity, is extremely important to Sri
Lankans.

Face can be given or lost in social situations and it is important to avoid the latter.
In business, for example, publicly reprimanding or criticizing someone would lead to a loss of
face for both parties. As a result Sri Lankans are very conscious of protecting their and others'
face at all times.
This manifests in many ways. For example, many Sri Lankans will not feel comfortable
making decisions since this may lead to failure which then leads to loss of face. Similarly, if
asked a question to which the answer is "no" many Sri Lankans would prefer not to be so
blunt and may give rather vague or uncommitted answers in order to avoid losing face.

Business Etiquette & Protocol


Meeting & Greeting
Sri Lankan business etiquette can be rather formal. Always remember that as a guest you will be given
some leeway in terms of appreciating all the cultural nuances, but it is still best to try and adhere to
some of the local customs.

Shaking hands is the most common form of greeting.


Handshakes are firm.
Greetings are given upon meeting and leaving.
Men may shake hands with other men and women may shake hands with other women.
Many Sri Lankan women may not want to shake hands with men. Wait for a woman to
extend her hand.
As with most hierarchical cultures, Sri Lankans use titles.
If someone does not have a professional title, use the honoric title "Sir" or "Madam".
Titles are used with the person's name or the surname.
Wait to be invited before using someone's first name.

Business Card Etiquette

Business cards are usually exchanged after an initial handshake and greeting.
Titles and qualifications are important so be sure to add them to your card.
Having one side of your business card translated into Sinhala is a nice touch but not crucial.
Always present your business card with two hands.
Treat people's business cards with respect - so don't put them into pockets, draw on them or
use them in any manner that may be disrespectful.

Communication

Maintaining face is important for all communication.


Do not put people in awkward positions or under pressure. Never openly criticize people.
Sri Lankans are very non-confrontational in their communication style and it is important to
try and read between the lines. They may say one thing but mean another and it is up to the
listener to work out the message.

Business Meetings

As relationships are so important for business it is always wise to invest time in relationshipbuilding conversations at the start of any meetings.
The Sri Lankans will want to feel at ease with you and at least have a small bit of background
about you before they will feel comfortable doing business or discussing business with you.
In fact a first meeting with a company should be approached as purely a relationship building
exercise.
Prior to a meeting it may be worthwhile sending some background information on your
company, the attendees and an agenda for the meeting.

Meetings may be interrupted by other business but this should not be interpreted as rude in
any way.
Initial meetings will usually take place with middle ranking personnel who gather information
to present to the decision maker. Getting to the decision maker through them is based on
establishing good rapport and having a solid proposal.
Remember only the top level person at a company will usually make decisions, so be patient
and do your best to meet the person face-to-face.

RESPONSIBILITIES OF GUESTS

While we strive to offer you a pleasant stay and 100% safety during your tour
which of course should be a joint effort, we wish to bring your attention for the
following points which will assist us in ensuring that guarantee.
Touring places of worship As you will be visiting many Buddhist and Hindu temples, all visitors
irrespective of nationality or religion are expected to respect traditions:
While entering Buddhist/ Hindu temples all visitors need to be decently
attired to cover most parts of the body, viz.- females should wear a dress
to cover legs up to ankle and below the elbow of the arms. Males can
wear a short sleeve shirt and a trouser (longs). The colour of clothes
should be white particularly when entering the Temple of tooth relic in
Kandy.
Voice should be kept low as possible
Smoking and intoxicants are prohibited (these are prohibited in public
places)
Head dress and footwear needs to be removed (socks are allowed).
If you take photographs within temples, you may need to take permission
at some temples. You are not allowed to turn your back towards Buddha
statues to take shots.
General guidance If you carry a street map, you will be able to locate many places yourself.
Avoid talking to strangers. If you need any information, ask from a decent
shop or an office.
If you need to shop, get the advice of your chauffer guide assigned to you
as otherwise street side vendors will quote you unrealistic prices and even
will go to the extent of cheating you with inferior quality goods
Avoid consuming food offered by street side vendors for health concerns.
Your official guide will advise you on quality hygienic restaurants.
Go for bottled drinking water with SLS standards mark.
If you shop for precious stones or jewelry, your guide will advise you on
reliable sellers.
Try to stick to the list of reliable shopping guide which will be issued to
you free of charge by us.
Law stipulates to price mark on most products on display. However items
such as gems, jewelry are not price marked. Always ask for a discount
from the quoted price which they will oblige. Except for retail goods and

some chain stores, many vendors offer you discounts even from marked
prices.
Except for tourist entry tickets to certain Historical Sites which are priced
above the price for locals, all other prices of goods are the same for
foreigners. Always purchase your tickets only at the counters as there are
cheats hanging around outside the counters and try to mislead you.
Vehicles are driven Right Hand. Therefore be mindful when crossing
roads. Better use marked crossings.
Keep valuables securely in hour hand luggage. Never leave valuables on
luggage compartments in public transport.
Never purchase drugs or accept if offered even free of charge. Drugs are
strictly prohibited and may land you in jail if found in possession.
Avoid all types of trouble situations. If you are in a night club never
throw yourself to settle disputes of others particularly with locals.
Never get tied in arguments over religion, politics and other sensitive
issues unless in a proper forum
If you trek in wild, better wear boots and other safety gear. Never try to
touch a reptile if you are not an expert.
Never buy any antiques as most antiques are not permitted out of the
island. Some antique looking items are not genuine antiques.
If you face any trouble, you need to inform the tourist police or the police
emergency by dialing (119) from any network.
If you are using a Tuk-Tuk to travel, always go for a one fitted with a
meter. Alternatively you can install online cab ordering apps such as
PickMe or Uber and pay reasonable fares.
Be careful when people volunteer to help you as there are certain shady
characters who do it with ulterior motives. Of course most Sri Lankans
are very caring, but be cautious.
Better avoid walking on isolated roads during late hours
Refrain from making gestures to strangers as those may be offensive to
some.
You can pay for goods & services with foreign currency at places only if
that place is authorized to accept foreign currency. All other payments
need to be made by SL Rupees or credit card if they have facilities to
accept.
Be careful of stray dogs as they may not be vaccinated.

In public transport, the front seat particularly in buses is reserved for


clergy. If you happen to sit on the front seat, you will have to offer the
seat if a member/s of clergy board the bus.

*** Places to Visit ***


WESTERN PROVINCE-

COLOMBOThe name "Colombo", first introduced by the Portuguese in 1505, is believed to


be derived from the classical Sinhalese name Kolon thota, meaning "port on
the river Kelani". It has also been suggested that the name may be derived from
the Sinhalese name Kola-amba-thota which means "Harbour with leafy mango
trees". Due to its large harbour and its strategic position along the East-West sea
trade routes, Colombo was known to ancient traders 2,000 years ago. However
it was only made the capital of the island when Sri Lanka was ceded to the
British Empire in 1815, and its status as capital was retained when the nation
became independent in 1948. In 1978, when administrative functions were
moved to Sri Jayawardenepura Kotte, Colombo was designated as the
commercial capital of Sri Lanka.
DEHIWELA ZOO
NATIONAL MUSEUM
INDEPENDENCE SQUARE
LIGHT HOUSE
DIYATHA UYANA- waters edge
WELI PARK- Urban Wetland Park
WATER WORLD
KELANIYA RAJA MAHA VIHARAYABeing just seven miles from Colombo, Kelaniya Raja Maha Viharaya is the
most sought after Temple for the Buddhists in and around Colombo. On the
Eighth year after the Enlightenment, the Lord Buddha has visited this sacred
site, which had been the Third and the last visit to Sri Lanka by the Gauthama
Buddha.
The original Temple and the Stupa or the Dageba, was built in 5th Century BC,
except for the Sthupa, none of the earlier structure survive today.
Mentioned in the Sri Lankan chronicle Chulavansa" is that, the Kelaniya
Temple was five stories high with traditional styling and roofing. It also states
that the temple was rebuilt by King Vijayabahu III, (1232-1236) and King
Parakrama Bahu II (1236-1270).
In 1510 AD, the temple was destroyed by the Portuguese, who had then
conquered the Maritime Provinces of the country.
KOTTE RUINES & MUSEUMKotte Kingdom was the capital of our island from 1415-1565 AD predominated
by the long reign of Parakrama Bahu VI, the last Sinhala king who ruled a
unified Lanka. The attacks on the Kotte Kingdom both by external aggressors as
the Portuguese and internal dissidents were so ferocious that only meagre
visible remnants testify to the existence of a once magnificent city. Just past the
junction of Rajagiriya or Welikada (the more authentic name) along the

Battaramulla road, one comes to the bridge under which flows a rivulet of the
famous Diyawanna Oya (river) that snaked around the city. It was in the
proximity of this bridge that the resplendent gateway to the old city had stood. It
had been a stone-hewn gigantic entrance and no trace of it now remains. The
city had been circumscribed by a mighty rampart and moat built by Nissanka
Alagakkonara, a minister. Very few traces of this moat and rampart are now
visible here and there as seen in the boundaries of the Perakumba Pirivena due
to sheer negligence of authorities and the ignorance of the public.
But there is nothing to prevent one becoming nostalgic over the old city
described by one of Kottes greatest poets, Sri Rahula thero in Selalihini
Sandeshaya in the following strain.
See friend
proud
city Jayawardene
Whose
name
renowned by
victories achieved
Was won, which
far in
luxury
outlives
The devas
city and whose
mighty
host
With faith and love adores
the Triple
Gem
The basin
there,
like Diyawanna
called
Aye represent the fair silk robe that wraps
The lady city and its
heavy
folds
Of
waves
with its
long shaking
girdle
cloth
Of
splashing foam with rows of
lilies red
In
wrought and golden
likeness of
the swan,
The city s
wall with strong
broad
gates
and
bars
The jeweled
breas-band
represent, assumed
By
the fair proud
dame
Lanka
in
her youth,
Her crest Samantha and the sea her zone
(This is a translation of the original verse done by Paul Peiris and included in his book Ceylon: the
Portuguese Era)
Source:
www.lankalibrary.com/geo/ancient/kotte.html

Remnants of an ancient Kabook or iron-stone clay wall An ancient tunnel which supposedly led to
colombo fort during the Kotte Kingdom

Sites to visit in Kotte Kingdom

Archeological Museus
Gal Ambalama
Raja maha viharaya
Moat & Ramparts
Secret tunnel
Tomb of Alakeshwara
Veherakanda ruins

GAMPAHAWarana Raja Maha ViharayaBuilt in the 2nd century BC by the first Buddhist King of Sri Lanka, King
Devanampiyatissa as a tribute to the budding Sinhalese Buddhist tradition,
Warana Rajamaha Viharay is one of the oldest, revered and picturesque of all
the cave temples in the Gampaha Distric.
The Brahmin inscription on the rock announces the visitors that the temple was
donated to Tissa Datta Thero, the brother of Majjhima Thero and the
archeologists believe that them to be the two brothers who were among the first
students of Arhath Mahinda (son of emperor Asoka), who brought the teachings
of the Buddha to the country.
Pilikuttuwa Raja Maha ViharayaBuilt nearly 2400 years ago during the regime of King Devampiyatissa,
Pilikuttuwa Rajamaha Viharaya was a monastic meditation complex with 99
caves spread over 200 acres. Its majestic history of Sri Lankan Buddhist
tradition is evitable at every step including its structure and flora around it.
Situated along the Colombo-Kandy road just a short turn off Miriswatte
junction, the cave complex was initially built to house the meditating arhants in
a serene environment. The temple had been repeatedly renovated since its
establishment, with King Walagamba adding more facilities to the complex
nearly 1100 years back. The Brahmin inscription on the top of the rock stand
witness to the donation of Pilikuttuwa to the Buddhist monkhood adding that
the temple was donated to the Sanga of all direction and of all periods.
Maligatenna Raja Maha ViharayaThe caves are at 3 levels, the largest being the main meditation centre. They
were established in the time of kings and dates back to the time of Mahinda
Thera. This cave temple is also renowned for its association with King
Walagamba who found refuge here when he was escaping from the Indian
Chola invaders. Hiripitiya Rala had hidden King Walagamba here till he was
able to form an army to counter Indian attacks.

To make these rock caves habitable, drip ledges were cut to take rain water
away from the steep rock surface. Many such ancient drip ledges could be seen
at great heights on the huge boulders above the temple. Most of them were cut
during King Walagambas time and it is amazing to think how this was done
considering the sheer precipitous height of these rock caverns.
KOSKANDAWILA MAHA VIHARAYATurn off from the Yakkala Junction to Kiridiwela road.
ALAWALA PRE HISTORIC ARCHEOLOGICAL SITEYet another pre historic place to be visited is Alawala, Gampaha. Remains of
two pre historic humans and some artifacta are conserved in the caves. As a
matter of fact the Potgul Lena of Alawala takes us about 125000 years back.
You have to get Kirindiwela-Nittambuwa road first and about 3 km off from the
main road, you can find the Potgul Lena (Cave). It seems to be there are 3 main
caves. In detail they are Vihara Lena, Potu gal Lena and the Thapo Lena. Thapo
Lena was used as a place for meditations discourse for bhikkus. Rather than that
the Vihara Lena declares about 2 eras of ancient Sri Lankan Buddhism.
BOTANICAL GARDENS-

WAYAMBA PROVINCEDAMBADENIYABetween Giriulla and Narammala.


The Kingdom of Dambadeniya reigned from 12201354.
It is believed that the Dambadeniya period was the 'Golden Era' of Sinhalese
Literature.
Dambadeniya, about 30 km south-west of Kurunegala, became prominent in the
mid-13th century. It was selected as the capital of the kingdom of Sri Lanka by
King Vijayabahu III (123236). The sovereignty of the country was at stake as a
result of invasions, which dislodged Polonnaruwa as the capital. Vijayabahu, the
king of the Dambadeniya dynasty, fought the invaders and established
Dambadeniya. On the summit of the Dambadeniya rock he built fortifications
and sturdy walls and gates. The city was made secure by a moat, a marsh and
ramparts around the royal palace. During the reign of King Parakramabahu II
(123670), Dambadeniya reached the zenith of its glory. King Parakramabahu
II's immaculate Poetic masterpieces "Kavisilumina" and "Visuddi Marga
Sannasa" gave a turning point to Sinhalese literature.
YAPAHUWAwas one of the ephemeral capitals of Sri Lanka. The citadel of Yapahuwa lying
midway between Kurunagala and Anuradhapura, about 4 km southeast of the
town and railway station of Maho, was built around a huge granite rock rising
abruptly almost a hundred meters above the surrounding lowlands.
History
Yapahuwa served as the capital of Sri Lanka in the latter part of the 13th century
(12731284). Built on a huge, 90 meter high rock boulder in the style of
the Sigiriya rock fortress, Yapahuwa was a Palace and military stronghold
against foreign invaders.
In 1272, King Bhuvenakabahu transferred the capital from Polonnaruwa to
Yapahuwa in the face of Dravidian invasions from South India, bringing
the Sacred Tooth Relic with him. Following the death of King Bhuvenakabahu
in 1284, the Pandyans of South India invaded Sri Lanka once again, and
succeeded in capturing Sacred Tooth Relic. Following its capture, Yapahuwa
was largely abandoned and inhabited by Buddhist monks and religious ascetics
Many traces of ancient battle defences can still be seen, while an ornamental
stairway is its biggest showpiece. On top of the rock are the remains of a stupa,

a Bodhi tree enclosure, and a rock shelter/cave used by Buddhist monks,


indicating that earlier this site was used as a Buddhist monastery, like many
boulders and hills in the area. There are several caves at the base of the rock. In
one of them there is a shrine with Buddha images. One cave has a Brahmi script
inscription. At the southern base of the rock there is a fortification with two
moats and ramparts. In this enclosure there are the remains of a number of
buildings including a Buddhist shrine. There is also a Buddhist temple called
Yapawwa Rajamaha Vihara built during the Kandyan period.
The Tooth Relic was brought from Dambadeniya and kept in the Tooth Temple
built for the purpose at the top of the third staircase. The relics were carried
away from the temple here to South India by the Pandyas, and then recovered in
1288 by King Parakkramabahu III (12871293), who temporarily placed them
in safety at Polonnaruwa.
PADENIYAThe temple was the residency of Therapuththabhaya, (the legendary giant of
the army of the great King Dutugemunu 161- 137 BC), who became a Buddhist
monk after the victory of the war aginst Elara the south Indian invader.
Therapuththabhaya was one of the 10 giants who have taken part in many
herculean tasks at the Great battle in Vijithapura.
WARIYAPOLAalong Kurunegala Puttalam road. Wariyapola is significant for two reasons. It is
believed to be the landing site (an air port) of the mythical Dandu Monara, the
pre-historic flying machine of Ravana the Greak King of the Kingdom of
Lankapura, the present day Sri Lanka.
Secondly, it is the birth place of the brave Buddhist priest who brought down
the Union Jack when it was raised before the signing of the Kandyan
convention in 1815 and raised up the Sinhala flag in protest of ceding the
independence of Sri Lanka to the British invaders.
PANDUWASNUWARA- Wariyapola > Hettipola Road
Panduwasnuwara is an ancient city in the Kurunegala area which functioned as
the capital of Sri Lanka for a very brief period. King Parakramabahu set up his
temporary capital in this city during the 12th century.
During this period, Panduwasnuwara was the city housing the sacred tooth relic
which was brought back to Sri Lanka from India by King Parakramabahu.
Even though the temple is one of the most important features of the ancient city,
the highlight is the round-shaped palace situated inside the circular moat. It is

believed to have had several storeys during its heyday and is still a sight to
behold. Many legends have been woven around this palace and about the people
who are said to have lived there. Some believe that it imprisoned a princess, the
then kings daughter, who had to be shielded from the eyes of men.
It was said that if she married and bore a son, he would kill his seven uncles (the
princess brothers) and ascend the throne.
Another story said that the palace housed the kings wives and that there aonce
was a secret tunnel between this palace and the kings palace, which ran right
underneath the moat. Although these are some of the many stories built around
the palace, no one knows for sure who built it or who lived there.
Ridi Viharaya-

The Temple that was built where Silver ore was discovered 2300 years back
Turn off at Mallawapitiya and proceed to Ridigama.

Ridi Viharaya or the Silver Temple was built at the place where Silver ore was
found, that was used to build Ruwanweli Dageba at Anuradhapura by King
Dutugemunu during his rein.
Ridi Vihara is an important Raja Maha Vihara belonging to the Cultural
Triangle. Historical Data on this Monastery complex is found in some Caves
written in Brahmin Inscriptions. They dates back to the 2nd and 3rd Centuries
BC. During the time of Arahath Mahinda, many Arahaths are believed to be
resided in these caves which numbers around twenty five in the surrounding
area of Ridi Vihara and Rambadagalla area. The caves had been prepared by
cutting into the rock and donated by chieftains of the area to the Sangha.
The Ridi Vihara temple was built later by King Dutugemunu and the details
about the construction is mainly being known by the historical chronicle
Mahavamsa and by other sources like Ridi Vihara Asna and also by legend.

The earliest buildings had been reconstructed during a passage of 2300 years
and what we see today mostly belongs to the 18th Century AD. Many kings has
patronised this temple since its inception and to name them are King Amanda
Gamini Abaya [21-31 AD], King Parakramabahu the Great [1153-1186 AD] and
King Keerthi Sri Rajasinghe [1747-1782 AD] who ruled in the Kandyan
Kingdom. Inside this temple there are Buddha statues that belongs to the
Anuradhapura era.
HASTHTHIKUCHCHI VIHARAYAOne can reach Haththikuchchi from Anuradhapura through Anuradhapura -Kurunegala road or from Putlam passing
Anamaduwa and coming along Anuradhapura -Kurunegala road passing Galgamuwa town. On the 43rd Mile Post at
Mahagalkadawala, turn off and proceed about 3 miles.

Haththikuchchi Viharaya or the Ethkus Vehera has got its name due to the fact
that there is a large rock resembling a kneeling Elephant which gave the name
Haththikuchchi. The meaning of the word Haththikuchchi in English is the
'elephant's belly'. This ancient temple premises which is over 100 acres as of
It is believed that King Sirsangabo who was living in this forest after
renouncing the Crown, in around 244 AD, cut his own head and offered it to a
villager, to be handed over to the ruling King Gotabaya at that time as the King
had ordered to bring the head of Sirisangabo to him fearing Sirisangabo would
overthrow him and become King again..There are monuments to represent his
tomb at this temple area.

AVUKANA

Proceed on Wariyapola, Padeniya, Maho road and turn off from Bulnewa OR along Dambulla Anuradhapura road turn off at
Kekirawa.

The Avukana statue is located close to the Kala Wewa reservoir, and is
positioned facing it.The stately Avukana Buddha is the most perfectly preserved
ancient statue in Sri Lanka. Avukana means sun eating, and the statue is best
seen at dawn, when the low light shines directly into its face. Standing 13
metres (43ft) high, the imposing image was carved with supreme assurance out
of a single rock during the 5th century. The statue alone is 38 feet 10 inches
(11.84 m) in height, and with the pedestal the total height of the Avukana statue
reaches 42 feet (13 m). The Buddha stands erect, with his heavy right hand
raised in the posture of blessing, while his other hand delicately touches his
shoulder, as if holding his pleated robes in place. It is only when you lower your
gaze to the massive feet that a crick in the neck remind you of the vastness of
this statue.
It depicts a variation of the Abhaya mudra, and the closely worn robe is
elaborately carved. Constructed during the reign of Dhatusena, it may have been
made as a result of a competition between a master and a pupil.
SASSERUWA- This staue too which is similar to the Avukana Buddha statue is
believed to be sculptured by the pupil of the sculpter of Avukana staue.

NORTH CENTRAL PROVINCE


ANURADHAPURA
Anuradhapura is one of the ancient capitals of Sri Lanka, famous for its wellpreserved ruins of ancient Lankan civilization. From the 4th century BC, it was
the capital of Sri Lanka until the beginning of the 11th century AD. During this
period it remained one of the most stable and durable centers of political power
and urban life in South Asia. The ancient city, considered sacred to the Buddhist
world, is today surrounded by monasteries covering an area of over sixteen
square miles (40 km). Anuradhapura is also significant in Hindu legend as the
fabled capital of the Asura King Ravana in the Ramayana.
Anuradhapura was the greatest monastic city of the ancient world and the
heart of Sri Lankan civilisation for over a millennium.
At its height it was home to tens of thousands of monks at dozens of
monasteries and served by a lay population which records suggest could have
numbered nearly two million. Its flourishing Buddhist culture and architectural
achievements made it famous across Asia and as far afield as Europe, while
even today the sheer scale of its surviving ruins and stupas is breathtaking.
Anuradhapura's 113 kings
Anuradhapura was the royal capital of 113 successive kings (and four queens)
who oversaw a great flowering of the arts, producing magnificent palaces,
intricate sculptures, ornate pleasure gardens and a sequence of vast stupas built
to protect the most sacred relics of Buddhism.
Wonders of architecture and engineering
The three main dagobas are amongst the biggest architectural creations ever
attempted in the ancient world, surpassed in size only by the pyramids at Giza.
The gentle sway of the Buddhist faith inspired the kings of ancient Lanka to
allow freedom of worship and to build the worlds first hospitals for both
humans and animals alike. Perhaps the most impressive achievement was in
irrigation, with reservoirs constructed to preserve the monsoon rains, and a
system of sluices put in place to keep the rice paddies productive.
From royal capital to lost city
According to tradition, Anuradhapura was founded in 377 BC by the third king
of the Vijaya dynasty, Pandukabhaya. It was fought over and finally abandoned
in 1073 when the capital was transferred to Polonnaruwa. From then on the
jungle enveloped the palaces, monasteries and stupas, which slowly began to
crumble the British explorers who first surveyed the ruins in the 19th century
justifiably felt they were rediscovering a lost city.

Places to visit in AnuradhapuraThe sacred Jaya Sri Maha Bodhi


Jaya Sri Maha Bodhi is a Sacred Fig tree in Anuradhapura, Sri Lanka. It is
said to be the southern branch from the historical Bodhi tree Sri Maha
Bodhi at Bodh Gaya in India under which, Lord Buddha attained
Enlightenment. Soon after; Lord Buddha, as a show of gratitude, is said to have
stood in a meditating posture without blinking his eye lids for a period of one
week in front of the mother tree.
(Following this tradition, Buddhist all over the world, make offerings to these
sacred Bo trees and bath these trees with clean water as a show of gratitude
even today. Particularly the Sri Lankan Buddhists believe, that at times of
distress the payers by these Bo trees are answered if it is done with a pure
spiritual intension).
It has been planted in 288 BC and is the oldest living human-planted tree in the
world with a known planting date and has been tended devotedly for 23
centuries, even during the long centuries after the rest of the city was abandoned
to the jungle.

Today it is one of the most sacred relics, for Buddhists in Sri Lanka and
respected by Buddhists all over the world. The other fig trees that surround the
sacred tree protect it from storms and animals such as monkeys, bats, etc.
In the 3rd century BC, it was brought to Sri Lanka by Sangamitta Thero, the
daughter of Emperor Asoka and founded an order of Buddhist nuns in Sri
Lanka. It was planted by King Devanampiya Tissa on a high terrace about 6.5 m
(21.3 ft) above the ground in the Mahamevnwa Park in Anuradhapura and
surrounded by gold plated railings.
Ruwanwelisaya
The Ruwanwelisaya is a stupa , considered a marvel for its architectural
qualities and sacred to many Buddhists all over the world. It was built
by Gamini Abhaya (Dutugemunu the Great) 140 B.C., who became lord of all
Sri Lanka after a war in which the Chola King Elara, was defeated who was
supposedly inspired by seeing a bubble floating on water the dome itself
represents heaven, or alternatively, you could see it as representing the head of
Buddha. The stupa is raised above ground level on a huge, stone-flagged
terrace, bound by a high wall adorned with an imposing army of near life-size
sculpted elephants (nearly all of them modern replacements) standing ear to ear:

the elephants seem to support the platform. It is also known


as Mahathupa, Swarnamali Chaitya, Swarnamali Mahaceti (in Pali)
and Rathnamali Dagaba.
This is one of the Solosmasthana (the 16 places of veneration) and
the Atamasthana (the 8 places of veneration in the ancient sacred city of
Anuradhapura). The stupa is one of the world's tallest monuments, standing at
338 feet (103 m) and with a circumference of 950 ft (290 m). The hidden
knowledge of behind this amazing monument is yet to be researched; catch is you want!

The Kaunghmudaw Pagoda in Sagaing, Myanmar is modeled after this stupa.


The Stupa is blessed
It is worth
reading the book
BEYOND THE
SEEING EYE:
THE
MAHATHUPA OF
LANKA by
Shereen
Amendra.

View of Ruwanwelisaya Stupa at Night


The Great King

The Great King Dutugemunu (161 BC 137 BC)


During the Dispensation of the future Buddha Metteyya, king Dutugemunu will
become the Buddha's chief disciple on His right side. King Saddhtissa will
become the chief disciple on His left side. Kvantissa and Vihra MahDev will become the parents of the future Buddha Metteyya. Princess Anul,
the younger sister of king Kvantissa, will become the chief Queen of
the Bodhisatta Metteyya. Prince Saliya will become the son of the

Bodhisatta Metteyya. Sagha, king Dutugemu's Chancellor of the Exchequer,


will become the chief attendant of the Buddha Metteyya. The Chancellor's
daughter will become the chief she-attendant.
Thuparama, the oldest stupaThe Thuparama is the oldest stupa in Anuradhapura, and indeed in the island. It
may be small, but it is very sacred to Buddhists since it is believed to enshrine
the right collarbone of the Buddha. What you see today is not ancient at all, but
a reconstruction undertaken in the mid-19th century and not even the right
shape, seeing as the original was built in the slope-shouldered heap of rice
form, rather than the present bell shape.
The Jetavanarama monastery and stupaThe vast Jetavanarama monastery and stupa is the largest stupa in
Anuradhapura, around 122 metres (400ft) in height and 113-metre (370ft) in
diameter. Elaborate shrines (vahalkadas) mark each of the four cardinal points,
the eastern one depicting the beautiful figures of women posed so elegantly they
appear to be moving, even dancing. The stupa was the centrepiece of the great
Jetavanarama monastery, founded by King Mahasena, and extensive monastic
remains litter the surrounding parkland including a finely preserved bathing

pool and the unusual Buddhist railing, a kind of stone fence.


The Abhayagiri Monastery ComplexOn the north side of the ancient city lays the vast Abhayagiri Monastery,
founded by King Vattagamini in 88 BC, which once housed as many as 5,000
monks and was the most powerful institution after the king. The monastery
flourished under the patronage of King Mahasena (AD 276303), sprouting
palaces, bathing pools and sculpture of the highest standards. The main ruins of
the monastery are centred on the Abhayagiri stupa, the third of Anuradhapuras
great stupas, still undergoing restoration; The beautiful Kuttam Pokuna (Twin
Ponds), is what formerly served as a bathing pool for the monks of the
monastery.
Samadhi Statue The Buddha is depicted in the position of the Dhyana Mudra, the posture of
meditation associated with his first Enlightenment, also called Nirvana. In the
Dhyana Mudra the Buddha sits cross - legged with his upturned palms placed
one over the other on his lap. This statue is 8 feet in height and carved from
granite. It is believed that precious stones have been placed as eye balls, which
have been stolen by treasure hunters.

Thanthirimale
Thanthirimale is an old village in the Anuradhapura District of Sri Lanka. It is
located approximately 40 km north west of the Anuradhapura city. The village
is known for the ancient Buddhist temple Thanthirimale Raja Maha Vihara,
situated in a nearby rock covered area.
This temple, which was built in the third century BC has a historical
value. When the Jaya Sri Maha Bodhi was brought from India to Sri Lanka, one
night along the way to Anuradhapura, the pot containing the sapling was kept at
Thanthirimale. It is believed that a branch separately grew from the pot and it
was planted at that village to remember the incident. Hence, some believe that
this may be the first Sri Maha Bhodi plant in Sri Lanka. This site have been
abandoned for a long period of time due to attacks on the villgers by chola
invaders and discovered at the beginning of the 19th century. In the 1960s the
temple was reestablished by Buddhist monks. The temple and surrounding area
are full of ruins, including two stone statues and several stone ponds. There is
an archaeological museum at Thanthirimale. This is a site which needs further
exploration with the discovery of some drawings in a cave which is believed to
be pre-historic.

Isurumuniya & Ranmasu Uyanais a Buddhist temple situated near the Tisawewa (Tissa tank). There are three
carvings of special interest in this Viharaya. They are the Isurumuniya Lovers,
Elephant Pond and the Royal Family.
History
The temple was built by King Devanampiya Tissa who ruled in the
ancient capital of Anuradhapura. After 500 children of high-caste were
ordained, Isurumuniya was built for them to reside. King Kasyapa I (473-491
AD) renovated this viharaya and named it as "Boupulvan, Kasubgiri Raja Maha
Vehera". This name is derived from names of his 2 daughters and his name.
There is a viharaya connected to a cave and above is a cliff. A small stupa is
built on it. It can be seen that the constructional work of this stupa belong to the
present period. Lower, down on both sides of the cliff, on a rock have been
carved the figures of elephants that appears to rise out of a pool. The figure of a
horse too is carved on the rock. The carving of Isurumuniya lovers on the slab
has been brought from another location (believed to be from Vessagiriya) and
placed it there. A few yards away from this vihara is the Ranmasu Uyana.
Isurumuni Lovers-

6th Century Gupta style carving. The figures may represent Dutugemunu's son
Saliya and the low caste (Sadol Kula) maiden Asokamala whom he loved. The
woman, seated on the man's lap, lifts a warning finger, probably as a
manifestation of her coyness; but the man carries on regardless. It's known that
he gave up the throne for her.

Royal Family Carving

Royal Family carving in the Isurumuniya Viharaya.

Place: Isurumuniya Viharaya


Century: 6 - 8th century A.D
Period: Anuradhapura Period
Tradition: Guptha Kala (mystic)
Method: Half Carving "Ardha Unnata"

The Royal Family carving is carved on a Granite plate. There are five human
figures carved on this plate. The human figure in the center is King
Dutugamunu, who has a tall crown on his head and a "puna noola" around his
chest. At his left are another two human figures. They are fanning him with a
"Wijinipath"
Elephant Pond Carving

Place: Isurumuniya Rock

Century: 7th century A.D

Period: Anuradhapura Period

Tradition: Pallawa

Method: Half Carving "Ardha Unnata"


There are four elephants in this carving. It shows them bathing. The elephant
figures here are very similar to the elephant figures in "Mamallapuram" In
India.
Ranmasu Uyana
Ranmasu Uyana is a park close to Isurumuniya. It sits on approximately 40
acres (16 ha), and is a noted example of Sri Lankan garden architecture of
the pre-Christian era. It is believed that this was dedicated to Prince Saliy.
Another significance of this park is the design carved on to a rock which is
believed to be a mystical diagram named Sakwala Chakraya used as a Star
Gate during that period. In factthe three great stupas in Anuradhapura is
believed to have a correlation with space objects. The three great stupas of
Anuradhapura; Mirisavatiya, Ruvanweli Seya and Jetavanaya perfectly aligns
with the three stars in the constellation of Orion, namely Rigel, Al Nitak and
Bellatrix. The three sides of the triangle in the ground layout of the three stupas,
built between 161 B.C. and A.D. 331, correlates precisely with the three sides of
the triangle of three stars on the right-hand wing of the constellation of Orion
creating heaven-earth duplication.
VessagiriVesagiriya is an ancient Buddhist forest monastery that is part of the ruins
of Anuradhapura. It is located about half a mile south of Isurumuniya, in a
mountainous region. Begun in the reign of King Devanampiya Tissa (mid-3rd
century BC), the site was expanded during the reign of King Kasyapa (473 491 AD) to become home to about five hundred monks.
The Vessagiri monks lived in rock shelters that were constructed by quarrying
from local materials. Today's visitor sees only the bare stones - and not all of
those, since much of the rock was later carted away and reused elsewhere. But
when occupied, the dwellings were finished using wood and other perishable

materials. This site too is linked with Ravana legend.

MIHINTALE
Birthplace of Buddhism in Sri LankaAccording to legend, it was at Mihintale literally Mahindas Hill that the
Indian missionary Mahinda, met and converted King Devanampiyatissa in 247
BC, establishing Buddhism as the islands state religion. Mahinda was the son
of the great Mauryan emperor Asoka, sent by his father to bring word of the
Buddhas teachings to Sri Lanka. Buddhism was immediately embraced with
fervour by the Sinhalese people and soon became firmly established in the
island unlike in India, its birthplace, where it would subsequently fall into
terminal decline.
Places to visit in MihintaleKantaka Cetiya
At the end of the first flight of stairs up, is the 2nd-century BC Kantaka Cetiya,
one of the earliest religious monuments on the island, originally excavated in
1934. The highlights of the building are the four richly decorated shrines,
or vahalkadas, which face the cardinal points. The eastern facade is the best
preserved, with horizontal rows of carvings including fine friezes of dwarfs and
elephants, while on either side the wall is finished off with a tall carved pillar
holding a weathered lion aloft.
Ambasthala Dagoba (Mango Tree Stupa)
A third flight of steps, narrow and steep, takes you on a spiritual ascent to the
highest terrace, where the diminutive Ambasthala Dagoba marks the place
where Mahinda surprised King Devanampiyatissa in mid-hunt. The stupa is
supposedly built over the exact spot where Mahinda stood, and a statue of the
king is placed where he stood a respectful distance away. A large seated
Buddha looks down from a rock above.
Mihindu Guha (Mahindas Bed)
From the Ambasthala Dagoba, steep steps lead up to the Rock of Convocation,
from where Mahinda preached his first sermon, while a path wends its way for
five minutes through woodland to reach the enormous boulder that covers
Mahindas Bed. The bed itself is a smooth slab of stone, the covering rock was
the roof. This is where the sage reposed, apparently oblivious to discomfort.
Such spartan arrangements testify to the power of Buddhism that it could impel
a prince to leave his palaces and live under a rock.
Vejja Sala (Hospital)
At the bottom of the site are the ruins of a hospital dating back to the 3rd
century AD, some 400 years before the earliest hospital in Europe. Among the
remnants of walls and pillars are monolithic stone baths in which the sick would

have been treated. These are hewn from a single rock, but they have a
particularly gripping sculptural quality, the internal cavity being shaped to
immerse a recumbent body without wasting precious herbal oils. Excavations
have unearthed many advanced medical implements while the small site
museum close by has examples of stones used for grinding medicinal herbs and
medicine jars too.

Kaludiya Pokuna (Pond of Black Water)


A five-minute drive from the main entrance brings you to the sylvan Pond of
Black Water. This peaceful artificial lake supplied water to a monastery that
stood here during the 10th or 11th centuries. A few fragmentary monastic ruins
stand around the lake including a quaint little structure comprising a facade and
roof built onto a natural rock overhang half cave, half house.
Wilpattu National Park
Wilpattu National Park is a wildlife park located in the North Central province.
The unique feature of this park is the existence of Willus (Natural lakes) Natural, sand-rimmed water basins or depressions that fill with rainwater. The
park is located 30km west Anuradhapura and located 26 km north of Puttalam
(approximately 180 km north of Colombo). The park is 131, 693 hectares and
ranges from 0 to 152 meters above sea level. Nearly sixty lakes (Willu) and
tanks are found spread throughout Wilpattu. Wilpattu is one of the largest and
oldest National Parks in Sri Lanka. Wilpattu is among the top national parks
world renowned for its Leopard (Panthera pardus kotiya) population.

RITIGALA - Turn off from Kekirawa or Habarana.


is an ancient Buddhist monastery and mountain in Sri Lanka. The ruins and rock
inscriptions of the monastery date back to 1st century BCE. It is located 43 km
away from the ancient monastic city of Anuradhapura.
Ritigala mountain range
Ritigala mountain range consists of four peaks of which the main and the
highest peak at the south of the range is named Ritigala Kanda. Ritigala
mountain range, a 3776-acre (1582 ha) Strict Nature Reserve, in the Dry Zone
of Sri Lanka, is managed by the Department of Wildlife of Sri Lanka together
with the Forest Department of Sri Lanka.
Ritigala Mountain at 766 m (2513 feet) above sea level, and 600 m above the
surrounding plains, Ritigala is the highest mountain in northern Sri Lanka.
The modern name Ritigala is derived from the ancient name Arittha

Pabbata (Dreadful Mountain), mentioned in the Mahavamsa. Its elevation


is higher than the other main tourist attractions of the north central plains,
namely Sigiriya, Dambulla and Mihintale. The significance of this
topographical feature lies in the abrupt sheerness of the massif, its wooded

slopes and wet microclimate at the summit. During the North East
monsoon (December to February), Ritigala experiences the highest rainfall
(125 cm) of entire dry zone. The wet micro climate at Ritigala is a singular
occurrence in the north central plains, the ancient Sri Lankas Wewe
Bandi Rata meaning the land of rainwater reservoirs in Sinhalese.

NORTHERN PROVINCE
JaffnaJaffna or Yalpanam is the capital city of the Northern Province, Sri Lanka.
Most of the residents of Jaffna are Sri Lankan Tamils with a presence of Sri
Lankan Moors and Portuguese Burghers. Almost all Sri Lankan Muslims were
driven off from Jaffna by the LTTE in the 1990s, as a part of the ethnic
cleansing by tamil terrorists who hastened their activities in the 1970s which
leaves Jaffna exclusively Tamil, apart from the military personnel. The
Sinhalese were deliberately compelled to move out due to various
discriminatory acts and intimidations, carefully orchestrated by the tamil
politician for a long time to establish their claim of an excluisively tamil
homeland concept. In view of this objective, they unleased terror against
innocent civilians and the security forces and finally the terrorists were
crushed by the determined state secuiry forces in 2009.
Kandorodai (Kadurugoda)The name Kandarodai derives from its original name Kadurugoda, according
to historians. Kandarodai can be reached after travelling about 10 km beyond
Manippai from Jaffana town. One can see remanants of 61 small dagabas
scattered in an area of about an acre land of palmyrah trees. Only the
foundations of some dagabas are left today. Keen observations convince
visitors that those small structures are constructed with ash-coloured stone.
The constructions of these dagabas bear different features from other Buddhist
dagabas elsewhere since they do not distinctively have a square shape part
named Hathres Kotuwa but ring-shaped structures known as Pesa Walalu built
one above the other are seen next to the global structures. Dr. Paul E. Pieris
who first discovered these dagabos estimates that the constrctions are more
than 2000 years old.
A Buddha statue, Bodhisaththa staue, a stone scripture and some coins
believed to have been used in the 1st and 2nd centuries were found during
archeological excavations in this area. They are at present kept at the Jaffna
museum.
It is legendary that the relics of 60 Arhats who passed-away due to a famine
while preaching Dhamma and practicing meditation in Jafna peninsula about
2000 years before, deposited in those small dagabos. There is a record that a
special dagaba with Lord Buddhas relics were also in this premises.
Theire bodies had been cremated and the ashes deposited in the small dagabas
constructed later by a noble person lived in the area, but no name or any other
information has been found on record.

JAFFNA FORTbuilt by the Portuguese in 1618 under Philip De Olivera following the
Portuguese invasion of Jaffna. The fort is located near Karaiyur. It was
captured by the Dutch under Rijcklof van Goens in 1658 who expanded it. In
1795, it was taken over by the British, and remained under the control of a
British garrison till 1948. With the onset of the Tail terrorist War it came under
siege on several occasions and was the scene of pitched battles. From 1986 to
1995 it was under the control of the LTTE. During this time the LTTE
destroyed several of key features to stop the Army getting control due to the
site being used to stage attacks, but it was recaptured by the Sri Lanka Army in
1995 after a 50 day siege during Operation Riviresa. It was also vandalised by
locals to rebuild houses damaged from the war .Today it remains garrisoned by
a detachment of the Sri Lanka Army with limited access to visitors and is
being renovated with Dutch funding.
Vallipuramwas an ancient capital of the Northern Kingdom of Sri Lanka. Point Pedro is
the nearest town. Vallipuram is a part of Thunnalai which is a village in
eastern Vadamarachchi. There are two places in India with similar names. One
is near Namakkal and the other one is near Kanchi.Due to the short geographic
distance between Jaffna & India, Jaffa had a heavy influence from South India
throughout history. This place is settled by migrants from a town called
Vallipuram near Namakkal which is near Coimbatore or from Kanchipuram.
History
As Zen Buddhism started spreading all over the world, Kanchipuram was the
capital of Pallava Dynasty and a great centre for Buddhist learning. People
started migrating to Jaffna during the time of Bodhidharma (400 AD) and
created a city with the same name on the eastern coast of Jaffna.
Kanchipuram was a centre of Buddhist learning for a long period in history.
The links between Kanchi and Vallipuram existed from time immemorial.
Travelling of Buddhist priests and manufacturing of clothes and growth and
production of cotton was part and parcel of the history of this region. Slowly
Buddhist temples were taken over by the Hindu Brahmins and Buddhist
statues were Brahmanized into Hinduism. Vallipuram has a recorded history
from the 2nd century BC, in the gold inscription, where the local ruler is
named as "Azhagiri", a name confirmed in the Nelugala stone inscription (2nd
century BC. The exact details of the temple complex are not known, and the
famous 'Vallipuram" Buddha statue built with Dravidian sculptural traditions
from Amaravati, Andhra Pradesh was found in excavations below the Hindu
Temple. The language of the inscription is Tamil-Prakrit, which shares several
similarities with script inscriptions used in Andhra at the time.

SOUTHERN PROVINCE
Beruwela
Beruwela is a small resort town in the south western coastal belt of Sri Lanka.
The name Beruwela is derived from the Sinhalese word Beruwala (the place
where the sail is lowered). It marks the spot for the first Muslim settlement on

Galle "Gaul is a town situated on the southwestern tip of the Island, 119 km
from Colombo. Galle was known as Gimhathiththa before the arrival of the
Portuguese in the 16th century, when it was the main port on the island. Galle
reached the height of its development in the 18th century, during the Dutch
colonial period. The major river is Gin River (Gin Ganga) which starts from
Gongala Kanda and passing villages such as Neluwa, Nagoda, Baddegama,
Thelikada, Wakwella and kisses the sea at Ginthota.
Gall FortGalle Fort, in the Bay of Galle on the southwest coast of Sri Lanka, was built
first in 1588 by the Portuguese, and then extensively fortified by
the Dutch during the 17th century from 1649 onwards. It is a historical,
archaeological and architectural heritage monument, which even after more than
423 years maintains a polished appearance, due to extensive reconstruction
work done by Archaeological Department of Sri Lanka.
The fort has a colourful history, and today has a multi-ethnic and multi-religious
population. The Sri Lankan government and many Dutch people who still own
some of the properties inside the fort are looking at making this, one of the
modern wonders of the world. The heritage value of the fort has been
recognized by the UNESCO and the site has been inscribed as a cultural
heritage UNESCO World Heritage Site under criteria iv, for its unique
exposition of an urban ensemble which illustrates the interaction of European
architecture and South Asian traditions from the 16th to the 19th centuries.

Unawatuna
Unawatuna is a wondrful beach resort, located on the southern coast of Sri
Lanka and is one of the best Scuba Diving Locations in Sri Lanka. You can
enjoy the beach, Scuba Diving, Surfing and Sea Food in Sri Lankan Style. The
Jungle Beach, Roomassagla Hills, Kathaluwa Temple, Galle Fort are interesting
places to visit.
Weligama
Weligama is a fishing town in Matara district on the southern coast of Sri
Lanka. The term Weligama literally means `Sandy Village' which refers to the
area's sandy sweep bay. Situated at a distance of 143 km from Colombo,
Weligama is a popular tourist destination and hosts several boutique hotels. It is
most famous for its distinct Stilt Fishermen and an off shore islet known as
Taprobane, where a dream house of French Count de Maunay was built. This is
an ideal location for whale watching & water sports.

WHALE WATCHING-

Hambantota
Hambantota is a rural town in southeastern coastal area of Sri Lanka. It is also
the capital of the Hambantota District in the Southern Province of Sri Lanka.
MulgirigalaMulkirigala Rock Temple or the Raja Maha Viharaya can be reached coming along Beliatta -Weeraketiya main road and
turning off at Mulkirigala Junction. The temple is situated 2 kM from the Mulkirigala Junction. One can reach Beliatta Town
from either Dikwella or Tangalla.

Mulkirigala temple is also considered to be one of the 64 temples constructed


by King Kawantissa and was called as Muhudu Gira which dates bac k to the
3rd century BC. The Bo tree at the upper terrace is considered to be a shoot from
one of the 32 saplings of Anuradhapura Jaya Sri Maha Bodhi planted at the said
terrace during the rein of King Devanam Piyatissa. The Chetiya at uppermost
terrace is considered to house Lord Buddhas relics offered by King
Saddhatissa. According to historical manuscripts, King Mahanaga, King
Kawantissa, King Durtugemunu, King Parakramabhahu the Great, King
Saddhatissa, King Valagamba, King Jetta Tissa I, King Parakramabahu I; are
credited with construction work of the temple during their rein.
The temple remaining at present belongs to the Kandyan era and the Buddha
image and many cave paintings depicts magnificent examples of Kandyan era
arts and crafts. King Keerthi Sri Rajasinghe (1747 AD) gave his patronage to
reconstruct this temple after it being neglected for centuries since the rein of
Parakramabahu the Great.
Bundala National ParkLocated about fifteen kilometers east of Hambantota, Bundala National Park is
one of Sri Lanka's foremost destinations for birdwatchers, protecting an
important area of coastal wetland famous for its abundant aquatic (and other)
birdlife. The park is also home to significant populations of elephants, Marsh &
estuarine crocodiles, turtles & other fauna, including the leopard. Stretching
along the coast, east of Hambantota, Bundala National Park is ideal for instant
gratification. Afternoon safaris in the dry season (December - May) provide
visitors with the best chance of seeing the wildlife.
Ussangoda
Ussangoda is a place of natural beauty and a designated archaeological site,
situated on the Colombo Kataragama road near Ambalantota - Nonagama
Junction in Hambantota District of Sri Lanka. It is also a nature reserve and is
located in the southern turtle breeding zones. Ussangoda is a patch of high
ground by the sea and spreads over a significant area. But unlike the reset of the
land surrounding, it is only covered with grasses and a few small pockets of
pigmy forests. The summit of Ussangoda area spans like a plateau for a
significant length. It is believed that the fall of a meteorite is the cause of this
unusualness.
Geological and Archaeological Importance
Ussangoda is significant for unusual placement by soil structure, flora and
location. There are many folk stories related to this site which include different
takes about the land. General belief is that it is a part of a meteor or a proximity
to a meteor hit ground zero. The main rationale for this belief is the soils brick-

like hard quality with a reddish colour which is unique to this patch of land.
Some rocks and soil layers contain what some speculate to be remnants of an
extreme heat (caused by an event such as a meteor hit). It is also suspected that
the soil has a high concentration of minerals/metals giving its unique colour. In
several places, especially by the sea facing areas rocks and soil can be observed
clearly having multiple layers usually with distinct colourization. It is however
unclear whether these speculations have been tested in any proper scientific
study at all. It can be also noticed that Ussangoda is located geographically
closer to another archaeological site "Miniha Gal Kanda", where evidence for
pre-historic human existence has been found.
The rock debris has high iron concentration. Magnets attract them. Need further
testings to confirm.
YALA NATIONAL PARK
The reserve covers 979 km, although only the original 141 km are open to the
public. It was established in 1894 as a Game Sanctuary. Much of the reserve is
parkland, but it also contains jungle, beaches, freshwater lakes and rivers and
scrubland. The latter zone is punctuated with enormous rocky outcrops. The
range of habitats gives rise to a good range of wildlife.
NIMALAWA- Forest Hermitage, bordering Yala.
KATARAGAMA- The abode of God Kataragama (Skanda).
KIRINDA- The harbor to which princess Viharamaha Devi (daughter of King
Kelanitissa) believed to have landed after she was offered to the ocean as a vow
to ward off the effects of the Tsunami disaster. However according to legend she
has landed at this harbor and the ruler of this area, King Kawantissa has married
her and given birth to a prince who became the King of the unified Sri Lanka
The Great King Dutugemunu after defeating the chola ruler Elara.
SITULPAWWAThis is believed to be a forest retreat where more than 10,000 Arhats resided.

Situlpawwa

YUDAGANAWAYudaganawa Temple is located close to Buttala on the Wellawaya


Buttala Road. This is one of the largest Stupas in the country and dates back to
2 nd century BC. This is thought to be place prince Tissa and his brother
prince Gamini (Later The great king Dutugemunu) had a major battle after the
death of his father King Kavanthissa (2 nd century BC)
The Rajavaliya descries this battle;
. Prince Gemunu coming to know that his father has died, left Kothmale and
arriving at the city of Magama, sent word to prince Tissa requesting him to
dispatch the mother and the tusker(named Kadol), who was born on the same
day. But prince Tissa did not heed that request. Letters were sent 3 times and
when there was no response prince Gemunu setout to fight, taking with him his
men. The two brothers met each others at Yudaganapitiya. Thirty thousand
soldiers of prince Gemunu fell in the battlefield and taking defeat he started to
flee. When Prince Tissa was chasing after his brother, the Maha sangha came
and blocked his way, and noticed that prince Tissa return to Digamadulla
..

Buduruwagala
Buduruvagala is located about 4 miles (6.4 km) southeast of Wellawaya in Monaragala district, Sri Lanka.

Buduruwagala complex consists of seven statues and belongs to the


Mahayana school of thought. The statues date back to the 10th century. The
gigantic Buddha statue still bears traces of its original stuccoed robe and a long
streak of orange suggests it was once brightly painted. The central of the three
figures to the Buddha's right is thought to be the Buddhist mythological figurethe Bodhisattva Avalokitesvara. To the left of this white painted figure is a
female figure in the thrice-bent posture, which is thought to be his consort-Tara.
Size of the statues
The largest of the standing Buddha statues is 51 feet (16 m) from head to toe; is
the largest standing Buddha statue of the island.

Other explanations/ opinions- Avalokitesvara (the bodhisattva of


compassion). To the left of this white-painted figure is a female figure
thought to be his consort, Tara. Local legend says the third figure represents
Prince Sudhana.
The crowned figure at the centre of the group is thought to be Maitreya, the
future Buddha. To his left stands Vajrapani, who holds a vajra (an hourglassshaped thunderbolt symbol) an unusual example of the Tantric side of
Buddhism in Sri Lanka. The figure to the right may be either Vishnu or
Sahampath Brahma. Several of the figures hold up their right hands with two
fingers bent down to the palm a beckoning gesture.
Again it is emphasized that this works of art belongs to Mahayana traditions
and NOT Theravada tradition.
The Mustar Oil Lamp:
On the same rock where the sculptures are carved, there is a carved shape of
about 3 feet (0.91 m) wide and 4 feet (1.2 m) heigh. It is of the shape of a flame.
The inside wall of this carved shape is always wet of an oil that smells very
much like Mustard oil. This oil comes to the carved shape with no explainable
source or reason.

Maligawila Buddha statue


The Maligawila Buddha statue is located close to the village of Maligawila in
the Moneragala District of the Uva Province. This has been carved out of a
single large limestone rock during the 7th century by a prince named
Aggabodhi. It is the tallest free-standing ancient statue of the Buddha found in
the country at a height of 37 feet 10 inches (11.53 m). It had been broken into
several pieces by the time it was found in 1951. It bears a close resemblance to
the Avukana statue, and depicts the same asisa mudra, a variation of the Abhaya
mudra. The statue was reconstructed and raised again in 1980 under the
direction of the then president Ranasinghe Premadasa.
Ruins around the statue indicate that an image house had been constructed
around the statue. It appears to have been about 80 feet (24 m) each in length
and breadth, with walls 4 feet (1.2 m) thick. Its height would have been about
65 feet (20 m).
SINHARAJATo visit Sinharaja Forest Reserve, the most used and accessible route is Veddagala- Kudawa route. It is also the most
convenient route and can be reached coming along from Colombo, passing Avissawella, Ratnapura, turning off from
Tiruwanaketiya and passing Nivitigala, Kalawana, Deldoda, Veddagala and reaching Kudawa.
The other route to Kudawa is through Matugama,Agalawatta, Bellana, Baduraliya, Kukulegama then as above passing
Kalawana, Delgoda, Veddagala and reaching Kudawa.
The Morningside Route can be accessed either from Ratnapura, Pelmadulla, Kahawatta, Madampe, Rakwana, Suriyakanda
and to Morning Side or from Akuressa, Morawaka, Deniyaya and reaching Morning Side before going to Suriyakanda.

The World Heritage Virgin Rain Forest Cover in Sri Lanka


Sinharaja Forest Reserve is a national park. It is of international significance
and has been designated a Biosphere Reserve and World Heritage Site by
UNESCO. The hilly virgin rainforest, part of the Sri Lanka lowland rain forests
eco-region, was saved from the worst of commercial logging by its
inaccessibility, and was designated a World Biosphere Reserve in 1978 and a
World Heritage Site in 1988. The reserve's name translates as Kingdom of the
Lion.
Also referred as Sinharaja Forest Reserve, the location of the Sinharaja Rain
Forest is in the South Western part of the island and covers an area of 11,187 ha
(Hectares). Sinharaja Forest Reserve is bordering three districts of the island,
namely Galle, Matara and Ratnapura districts. The Rakwana Massif with its
mountain ranges is part of the area covered by Sinharaja rain forest.
A detailed description of facts is attached as an annexure.

EASTERN PROVINCE
Batticaloa-

Thoppigala (Barons Cap)This is an ancient Buddhist monastery. Known as the Barons Cap (Thoppigala
in Sinhala) for its distinctive shape of a hat, this rocky edged mountain was
known as the Piyagalaka Agali Pawatha in an era gone by.
Situated approximately 40km from Batticaloa amids a thick jungle, thoppigala
has played many a role in Sri Lankan history. Archeological evidence suggests
that the rocky mountain and the surrounding jungle had been the venue of a
large monastery built during the Anuradhapura era. Stone inscriptions found
atop the mountain details various donations made by King Kanishta Thissa to
the monastery.
It was used by the LTTE terrorists as a base camp and training ground for the
bloody attacks on the Sinhala villages and was a strategically important location
during the 30 year conflict. However the SL military succeeded in capturing this
site during the early stages of the final battle.
Today it is an ideal location for nature lovers.
Arugam Bay
Situated in the Indian Ocean in the dry zone of Sri Lanka's southeast coast. The
bay is located 320 km east of Colombo. It is a popular surfing and tourist
destination. While traditionally fishing has dominated the local economy,
tourism has grown rapidly in the area in recent years. Tourism in Arugam Bay is
dominated by surf tourism, thanks to several quality breaks in the area.
However tourists are also attracted by the local beaches, lagoons, historic
temples and the nearby Kumana National Park.

Kalkudah, PasikudahKalkudah or Kalkuda is a coastal resort town located about 35 kilometers


northwest of Batticaloa, Pasikudah and Kalkudah are located few kilometers
apart. Passekudah and Kalkudah beaches, adorned with coconut palms, set up
an ideal stretch for swimming, Windsurfing and water skiing. These beaches are
also home to a varied number of tropical fishes and exotic coral reefs which
makes for a splendid view. The combined beaches of Kalkudah and Passikudah
are ideal for swimming in their calm waters and clear sea.
AMPARA DISTRICT
KudumbigalaAccording to the historical facts, this monastery was built during the time of
King Devanampiyatissa. There are many rock caves in this site, which were
used by monks.
Kudumbigala Monastery is located in middle of the jungle by the Panama
Kumana road. This place is special because of its pagoda, the only cylindrical
shape dagoba in Sri Lanka.
DeegavapiIt is one of the 16 places which have been blessed by the Buddhas presence.
During his visit to Kelaniya, he has visited Deegavapi too with 500 arhaths and
spent time meditating.
The stupa has been built by King Saddhatiss (137-119 BC). King Keerthi Sri
Rajasinghe (1747-1781) has carried out major renovation and donated around

2500 acres of land in 1756. Two stone inscriptions by King Saddhatissa and
King Keerthi Sri Rajasinghe have existed until the last century but both have
mysteriously disappeared thereafter. It is believed that Muslim extremeists have
destroyed them to erase the history with the motive of alienating the land
belonging to the temple. Already most of the temple land has been captured by
them by destroying many invaluable artefacts and material evidence.
Lahugala- Hulan Nuge Tharulengala Raja Maha viharayaLocation: Hulan Nuge temple is located in Lahugala (A4 road), between Siyabalanduawa and Potuwil. If travelling from
Siyabalanduwa, you need to take a by road towards to your left hand side.

Hulan Nuge, Tharu lengala temple is famous for two reasons. This temple has
one of the oldest reclining Buddha statue made with clay. The other reason is
that the Hulannuge cave is considered as the longest natural cave in Asia. This
village got its name because of the large Nuga tree, which generate noise when
the wind (Hulan)blows.
This temple is believed to be built by king Kavanthissa and in this cave you can
see many drawings done by Vaddhas, Sri Lanka's aboriginal inhabitants.
Muhudu Maha Viharaya & Magul Maha viharaya- Potuvil
Direction: from Siyabalanduwa, drive along the A4 road via Lahuga to Potuvil, take a subway to your Right hand side and
follow the sign boad. If coming via Potthuvil, you need to travel to west via A4 road via Lahugala to Siyabalaanduwa side.

Magul Maha Viharaya is located by the Lahugla National Sanctuary in the


Ampara District. Even though most people believe that Princess Vihara Maha
Devi (mother of king Dutugemunu) reached Kirinda, there is evidence that it is
in fact Muhudu Maha Viharaya in Potuvil. Later, the wedding of her with king
Kavanthissa was held in the Magul Maha Vihara Premises. Magul is the word
in native Sinhala language for wedding. There is a remaining of the structure
in this Temple premises known as Magul Maduwa.

This is supposed to be the place, where the wedding of King Kawanthissa &
Queen Vihara Maha Devi was held

Bhuddangala MonastaryEstablished in the 2nd century BC by a provincial Princess named Chitra, the
ruins of a once thriving temple and monastery is found scattered over an area of
200 acres within the jungle. The standing ruins spreading across five rocky
mountains scattered with ponds tells the story of a vast hermitage in the days
gone by when Ampara was a flourishing agricultural and trade base in the East,
then know as Digamadulla.
RajagalaBuilt in the second century BC enshrining the remaining of the Arhant
Mahanida and Arhant Ittiya Theras, the envoys of Buddhism to Sri Lanka,
Rajagala had been a flourishing monastery under the sponsorship of the Royals
of East.
Built by the Kings of Anuradhapura and having flourished under the
sponsorship of Kings of Digamadulla, the Eastern kingdom of Lanka, Rajagala
was known as Girikibalawthisa in the ancient times. Standing 1030 feet tall the
Rajagala mount is covered in thick jungle today. Yet the climb upwards, through
an elegant rock steps formed in a gentle curve, along what once was a paved
roadway, is scattered with the ruins of rock structures and moon stones, silent
testimonies of a glorious age gone by.
Hidden away in the thick jungle is a huge block of stone 16 ft long with a semifinished Buddha image. The lines of the statue are straight and are in right

angles yet lack the detailed touch of a master, who after the first initiation of his
apprenctice had failed to finish the sculpture which is forgotten to the thick
jungle.
Neelagiri StupaThe largesst stupa in the Eastern province, it is assumed to be a significant
location where King Kawantissa advised his ten chief generals and the mana
Sangha to be impartial on a dispute between his two sons over the throne. This
has been later developed in to a massive monastery and now has become badly
ruined due to 3 decades of abandonment due to terrorism. Excavations have
commensed after the war and archeologists have unearthed a golden casket
containing relics of arhaths and some gold leaf inscriptions. This monastery is
believed to be spread in an area of 89 hectares with hitherto found evidence.
MullukulamalaiThis is believedto be a Bhikkhuni Monastery where Vihara Maha Devi, the
mother of the Great King Dutugemunu has spent her eve as a Bhikkuni. This
place has been vandalized by treasure hunters and some of the caves have been
destroyed by blowing up with dynamite by Muslim extremists. However one
inscription within a cave proves this site to be beyong doubt that it was the
place the most revered mother of Lanka spent her final years.
Westminster Abbey/ Govinda Hela-

How to get there: travel through Ratnapura, Balangoda to Siyambalanduwa junction and turn left to the road leading to
Amparai. A couple of kilometres on, you will see the rock rising like a sphinx on the right until you reach the temple.

According to legend and ancient scripts, the ruins on the mountain dates back to
the 6th Century AD to the time of King Buwanekabahu. The area had been

named Westminster Abbey' by colonial British rulers because of a resemblance


to that landmark in London.
The trek along the footpath begins from the Sri Buvaneka Vihara at
Siyambalanduwa, about 300 km from Colombo, in the Moneragala district.
Other archeologically important places in Ampara District
Samangala Forest HermitagePiyangala Forest HermitageBowattegala MonasteryVeheragala, PulukunawaTharulengala MonasteryHenanegala cave templeGonagolla MonasteryKudagal Monastery & forest reserveKotaveheragalaAlioluwa lakeMakarayayaVeddagalaNittawo- the dagger clawed peopleHot water wells, Maha OyaLahugala Kitulana forest reserveOkanda devalayaNuwaragalaGaloya National ParkKumana National ParkOmunugala cave monasteryOvagiriya ancient monasterySamanabedda cave templeWadinagalaMaduru oya national parkHenanigala Panchawasa Raja Maha ViharayaGamini Tissa monastery complexPannathgoda Purana Raja Maha ViharayaOkanda BeachDiviyagala viharayaKondawattuwan or Kandewattawana Ruins and Reservoir-

Trincomalee
Trincomalee is a port city on the east coast, about 110 miles northeast of Kandy.
The city is built on a peninsula, which divides the inner and outer harbours.
Historically referred to as Gokanna, or Gokarna it has been a sea port that has
played a major role in maritime and international trading history of Sri Lanka.
Trincomalee was important for its large all-season secure harbor.
Trincomalee which is a natural deep-water harbour that has attracted sea farers
like Marco Polo , Ptolemy and Sea Traders from China and East Asia since
ancient times. Trinco, as it is commonly called, has been a sea port since the
days of the ancient Sri Lankan Kings. The earliest known reference to the port
of Gokanna is found in the Mahavamsa stating that in 5th century BC, when
King Vijaya who having failed to convince his brother to come to Sri Lanka as
his successor, got down his youngest son Panduvasdeva, who landed at
Gokanna and was subsequently enthroned at Upatissagama.
Fort FredrickFort Fredrick is a fort built by Portuguese at Trincomalee, Sri Lanka in 1624. It
was built from the debris of an ancient Hindu temple that was destroyed by the
Portuguese. This was captured by a Dutch fleet under Admiral Westerwold in
1639.in 1795 it was taken over by the British and remained a British garrison
till 1948. Today it remains garrisoned by a detachment of the SL Army,
accessible to visitors.
Hot Springs- Kanniya
There are seven wells in a square shape. Wells are only 34 feet deep and you
can clearly see the bottom. The temperatures are considerably high but vary
from one spring to another.
The pre-history of Kanniya Hot water spring goes back Ravana era and the first
written references to the Hot water spring is found in the epic Ramayana.
It is believed that during the historical time, there was a Buddhist temple
complex in this site and the entrance of here is a part of a Buddhist monastery.
Bhikkhus had used it as a part of their complex. There are large numbers of
remains of Buddhist buildings and ruins scattered over the area, but it seems
that most of these historical ruins destroyed during the Tamil Terrorist War.
In the LTTE controlled period of this area, the Buddhist connections were
suppressed and it was managed by neighboring Mari Amman Kovil.
Now this site is under the authority of Sri Lankan Archaeological
department. Sri Lankan Archaeological department replaced the Pradeshiya
Saba's noticeboard and mentioned that these wells were probably a part of a
pond complex used by Buddhist monks of Velgam VeheraMonastery.

Thiriyaya- Giri hadu seyaSituated about 29 miles north of Trincomalee. The oldest incident connected
with the site is etched in an 8th century Sanskrit epigraph found at the site
which refers to a shrine named Girikandi chaitya being established on the hilltop by a company of merchants headed by Tapassu and Bhallika.
According to the Nidanakatha and Mahavagga a book on the Vinaya, Tapassu
and Bhallika were two brother merchants who offered some victuals to the
Buddha, in the 8th week after his enlightenment. They are considered the first
lay disciples of Lord Buddha who sought the refuge of the Master and the
Dhamma. And on request the Master gifted them with a handful of hair relics.
Tradition claims that the two merchants enshrined the holy relics and built a
shrine here.
As such this shrine would have been built during the lifetime of Lord Buddha.
The present structure or the ruins of the vatadage consisting of a small stupa
encircled by two concentric circles of stone pillars and a retaining wall of stone
slabs, however is believed to have evolved with time.
Professor Paranavitana states that the vatadage at Thiriyaya while conforming to
the general pattern of the vatadage had architectural features which have not
been noticed at any other shrine of this class.
Nilaveli
Nilaveli is a coastal resort town located about 20 km North-West of
Trincomalee. It is one of the magnificent coasts in Sri Lanka and is popular
among tourists for a long time.

POLONNARUWA
The second most ancient of Sri Lanka's kingdoms, Polonnaruwa was first
declared the capital city by King Vijayabahu I, who defeated the Chola invaders
in 1070 CE to reunite the country once more under a local leader.
Second only to Anuradhapura in the ancient history of Sri Lanka,
Polonnaruwa served as the islands capital from the 11th to 13th centuries, a
relatively brief but glorious epoch that witnessed a flowering of Buddhist arts
and architecture.
A contentious capital
In AD 993 the invading armies of the Tamil Cholas looted Anuradhapura and
moved the islands capital to Polonnaruwa for the next 77 years. From the
outset, the new city had a cosmopolitan mix of south Indian Hindu and
Sinhalese Buddhist cultures. The valiant King Vijayabahu I (10551110) drove
the Cholas out of the island in 1073, but retained Polannaruwa as his capital.
Forty years of bloody civil war followed his death, until, in 1161,
Parakramabahu I captured Polonnaruwa and assumed control of the whole
island. Regarded as the last great king of Sri Lanka, Parakramabahu embarked
on a lavish series of building works at his new capital and King Nissanka Malla,
his nephew and successor, further embellished and expanded the city. However
in about 1293, Sri Lanka was once again invaded by mercenaries from South
India, and Polonnaruwa was abandoned to the jungle.
Polonnaruwa's strategic importanceIn its prime, the city stretched for many kilometres along the eastern side of the
majestic Parakrama Samudra reservoir, its monasteries and sumptuous palaces
and temples, both Buddhist and Hindu, protected by 6km (4 miles) of strong
encircling walls. Its importance as a secure outpost for armies gave it the
name Kandavuru Nuvara (Camp City).
Places to visit in Polonnaruwa:
Polonnaruwa Museum
Most of the ruins of Polonnaruwa are protected within a specially fenced-off
archaeological site north of the modern town. Tickets to the site have to be
bought from the excellent Polonnaruwa Museum, well worth a visit for its
insightful displays on life in the ancient capital, and some fine exhibits
including a number of superb Chola bronzes recovered from the site.
The Quadrangle
At the heart of the ancient city, the Dalada Maluwa (Terrace of the Tooth
Relic), popularly known as the Quadrangle, was the centrepiece and sacred
precinct of ancient Polonnaruwa, home to the Tooth Relic and its most

important cluster of religious shrines. The Quadrangle is dominated by the


flamboyant Vatadage, a superbly decorated circular shrine and perhaps the most
ornate building in Sri Lanka: its outer walls are carved with friezes of lions,
dwarfs and lotuses, and, at each of the four entrances, with elaborate
moonstones and guardstones (depicting nagaraja king cobra figures with
seven-hooded heads).
The Lankatilaka
The impressive walls of the Lankatilaka image house soar to a height of 16
metres (55ft), enclosing a large but headless statue of the Buddha who stands
squashed inside the high, narrow space within. A section of the walls outside is
adorned with finely carved reliefs of flamboyant multi-storey houses topped
with domes not a portrait of ancient Polonnaruwa as is sometimes claimed,
but a fanciful representation of the celestial abodes (vimanas) of the gods.
Gal Vihara
The pinnacle of rock-carved art in ancient Sri Lanka, the Gal Vihara is home to
four magnificent Buddha statues hewn out of a granite cliff-face by unknown
artists. The highlight is the majestic 14-metre (46ft) reclining Buddha a figure
of such enormous but serene beauty that it inspired centuries of Sinhalese art
without ever being matched. The sculptor was working in a medium that to
some extent dictated his output. Dark strata in the rock appear as a veil of
ripples washing over the delicately carved facial features and figure of the
Buddha as he slips into nirvana, lending a beautifully fluid texture to the mass
of stone.

The reclining Buddha in Gal Vihara, Polonnaruwae reclining


Minneriya and Kaudulla national parks
The area around Polonnaruwa is one of the best in which to spot Sri Lankas

legendary elephants, with Minneriya and Kaudulla national parks being the
places to head for. Both parks are centred on extensive tanks where elephants
congregate in increasingly large numbers towards the end of the dry season,
particularly during the famous Gathering at Minneriya National Park. The two
parks are linked by an important elephant corridor, designed to allow the
animals to move from one park to the other as the fancy takes them.
SOMAWATI PAGODA-

Somawathiya (Somawathi Chethiya) was built in 2nd century BC and this stupa
is said to enshrine the right tooth relic of Lord Buddha.
According to chronicles, prince Giri-aba and princess Somawathi (sister of King
Kavanthissa) lived on a small community called Somapura on the beds of
Mahaveli River. Price Giriaba constructed Somawathi Chethiya on the request
of his wife who wanted to engage in religious activities. Upon completion of the
Stupa, at the request of the Prince, Maha Thera Mahinda gave him the right
tooth relic of Lord Buddha to deposit in the relics chamber.
According to history this tooth relic was received by a Na (serpent) king
Jayasena when the remaining relics from the Buddhas cremation site were
distributed. He took this to the Naga Lokaya (the kingdom of serpents) and
deposited it in a stupa made out of gold for worship. When prince Giriabas
request was made, the maha thero Mahinda visited the Naga Kingdom and
brought this tooth relic to be deposited in the stupa built by the prince.
Upon completion of the stupa and five viharas the prince and princess handed
over the temple to Mahinda maha thero and sixty other monks. Thereafter many
kings have contributed to this centre in many ways.
According to the historical documents the Somawathiya was built on the eastern
bank of the Mahaveli River. But today it is about km from the west bank of
the river. Though this caused confusion whether this is the real Somawathi
Stupa described in the chronicles, it was later realised the river has changed
course during the last 800 years and in fact the current sandy road leading to the
Somawathi was the path of the river some 800 years ago.
The site was rediscovered in 1940s and in 48 renovations were started by
group of enthusiasts. In 1964 archaeologists started excavating the site. While
excavating the main stupa, a smaller stupa at a depth of 5 feet 5 inches in to the

main stupa was found. It is believed this smaller stupa was the original
Somawathi Chethiya build by prince Giriaba in the 2 nd century BC and the
latter stupa build around the original was the work of King Kanitta Tissa in 164
AC.
MEDIRIGIRIYA WATADAGE-

Medirigiriya Vatadage is situated in a beautiful surrounding and has a history


going in to the pre-Christian times. The brami characters found on the bricks
and the some of the stone carvings is an indication of the long history of this
site. The first reference to this site in the chronicles is during king Kanitta Tissa
(192-194 BC) of the Anuradhapura Era. Later many kings have contributed to
this complex and finally after the invasion of Maga this site too was abandoned
when the Sinhalese migrated to the southern parts unable to withstand the
torture.
In 1937, 600 acres were reserved for this archaeological site due to the large
number of ruins found in this area. But when this area started to populate with
people migrating from various parts of the country, they gradually started
destroying and removing these invaluable ruins for sale and as well as to
remove any signs of ruins and capture the land. Today only 250 acres remains of
the original 600 acres and none of the ruins which filled the landscape around
the Vatadage.
Minneriya
Minneriya is a small town in Sri Lanka, and is famous for two things, for the

great Minneriya lake build by King Mahasen and for the Minneriya wildlife
sanctuary which is a hot spot for safari lovers because of the abundance of
Elephants. Furthermore it is situated near Habarana which have some high class
hotels for tourists and some famous world heritage sites like Anuradhapura,
Polonnaruwa and Sigiriya which are relatively close to Minneriya.
DIMBULAGALAGoing back many centuries it is said that Prince Pandukabahaya, son of
Unmadachitra and Deegagamini, lived in the stone cave here with Swarnapali
and was accorded much hospitality by the two demon Senadhipathies Chitra
Raja and Kala Vela, in human form. Then after some time, in the same stone
cave of Dimbulagala, Princess Swarnapali gave birth to a son. He was named
Mutasiva, after her fathers name. Its also mentioned that another Prince was
born and named Ganatissa.

Dimbulagala Raja maha Viharaya


Prince Pandukabhaya before he ascended the throne and made Anuradhapura
his abode had lived here for many years. After him Mutasiva, his son by
Swarnapali became king. It is said that Arahat Mahinda arrived in the Island
during his reign in BC 247. Mutasiva was followed by his son the famous King
Devanampiyatissa. From all this it becomes clear how important Dimbulagala is
to us in tracing the lives of our ancient kings and their survival even under
difficult circumstances.
King Dewanampiyatissa, the first properly acclaimed king of Anuradhapura our
first kingdom was responsible for the erection of many Viharas. One of the first
such Viharas was Dimbulagala. It is also historically important in that, from
Arahat Mahindas time up to the tenure of the last Arahat, Maliyadeva many
great Arahats dwelt in Dimbulagala. This is mentioned in the great literary work
Saddharmalankaraya. The credit should go to most Reverend Kitalagama Siri
Seelalankara thero who reestablished this important site after a long period of
abandonment and turned into a deserted wilderness. Until his brutal assesination
by LTTE terrorist, the thero treasured Dimbulagala and was a brave protector of
the Viharaya.

HABARANA National ParkKantalai-

CENTRAL PROVINCE
Kandy
Kandy is the English name for the city of Maha Nuwara (Senkadagalapura) in
the centre of Sri Lanka. It is the capital of the Central Province and Kandy
District. It lies in the midst of hills in the Kandy Valley which crosses an area
of tropical plantations, mainly tea. Kandy is one of the most scenic cities in Sri
Lanka. Kandy is of both an administrative and religious city.
Places to visit in KandySri Dalada Maligawa- Temple of Tooth Relic

Relics of the Lord Buddha are venerated by all Buddhists throughout the world
and the relic at the Dalada Maligawa is the left Canine Tooth of the Lord
Buddha which is one of the remains of the cremated body of the Lord Buddha
after the Parinirvana. It is said to be removed by the Arahanth Kema, who is a
pupil of the great Arahanth Sariputta and given to King Brahmadatta of

Kalinga, India. For centuries it was venerated and homage was paid by the
Buddhists of Kalinga. During the time of King Sirimeghavanna (301 - 328
AD) of Anuradhapura, the Tooth Relic was brought to Sri Lanka by Prince
Dantha (son of the King of Udeni) and Princess Hemamali (daughter of King
Guhasiva). During a war waged to obtain the posession of the Relic tooth by
the nephews of King Pandu against King Guhasiva, this was brought to Sri
Lanka by Hemamali and Danta in the guise of Brahmins and the Tooth Relic
was hidden and concealed in Princess Hemamali's hair.

A mural depicting Hemamali and Dantha bringing the Tooth Relic to Sri
Lanka
The Lord Buddhas Tooth relic which is presently at the Dalada Maligawa was
brought to Kandy during the rein of king Vimaladharmasuriy I and he made a
two storied Palace to place the Tooth Relic. During the first few centuries , it
had been placed at Anuradhapura, Polonnaruwa, Beligala Rock, Dambadeniya,
Yapahuwa, Kurunegala and Kotte kingdoms. Due to Portugese invasion it was
taken away by Buddhist priests to a mountanous region of Kandy and once

Kandy was under the rule of the king, it was brought back again. Later King
Vimaladharmasuriy II (1687-1707 AD) had made a three storied Tooth Relic
Palace. King Parakrama Narendrasinghe (1707-1739 AD) has also built a two
storied temple for the Tooth Relic. The Last King of Sri Lanka, Sri Wickrama
Rajasinghe made the Octagonal Building called Pattirippuwa and the moat
in front of the Palace.
Visitors are advised to wear preferably white clothes covering the most of the
body to avoid denial of entry. Shoes and head gear too has to be removed
before entry into the temple. For overseas vistors, tickets are issued at the
entrance and if you intend to take photographs within the palace an additional
ticket needs to be purchased as in most archeological sites. Visitos are not
allowed to take photographs turning their back to sacred statues / houses etc.
No liquor is allowed inside the palace.
The Sanctuary in the heart of Kandy with a Royal touch
Udawatta Kele Sanctuary or the Royal Forest Park of Kandy is siuated on the
hillside behind the Dalada Maligawa or the Temple of the Tooth Relic. This
forest extents about 257 acres and is considered to be a vital Bio reserve for
the much populated Kandy City. Centuries back, area surrounding Kandy had
been a Rain Forest and the human settlements took place during the era of
King Panditha Parakramabahu (1302-1326 AD) and in 1371 AD, King
Wickramabahu made Kandy his Kingdom. During this era Kandy was called
as "Senkadagala". This name came into being due to a Brahmin named
Senkanda, who lived in a cave at Udawattakele during that era. During the
Kandyan Kingdom, this forest area behind the palace was called " Uda wasala
watta" or the 'Upper Palace Garden' frequented by the royalty and was out of
bounds to the people. Since the downfall of the Kandyan Kingdom in 1815,
this forest area started to loose it's pristine condition due to wood cutting etc.
The condition of the forest deteriorated due to human activities and in 1856,
the Government declared it as a Forest Reserve and later in 1938, it was made
a sanctuary. The Kandy Lake gets it's water resourses mainly from this forest's
catchment areas. This precious forest area supplies the much needed air
purification activity to the Kandy city which is enclaved by several hills.
The forest is rich with vegetation consisting with canopy, sub canopy and an
underground layer. The dense plant life restricts sunlight reaching the ground
soil surface. The underground layer mostly consists of the seedlings of the
canopy layer species and creepers that reach to the top of caopy layer trees.
There is a giant 200 to 300 years old "Pus Wela" or 'Entada pusaetha' liana in
the forest.
The important places in Udawatta Kele are the The water Pond, Highest peak
"Kodimale", The Senkanda Cave, and the Garrison cemetery. There are also

several Buddhist temples and hermitages inside the forest reserve.


Some of the Tree species found in the forest are 'Acronychia pedunculata'
(Ankenda), Adenanthera pavonina (Madatiya), Aleurites moluccana (Tel
kekuna), Antidesma bunius (Karawala Kebella).
Botanical gardens- Peradeniya
Ambekke Dewalaya- Pilimatalawa
Situated 7 kilometers from the town of Pilimathalawa in Kandy district and
surrounded by tea plantations and paddy fields, the historic Embekke Devalaya
is an ancient shrine and a temple dedicated to lord Kataragama.
Build by king Vikramabahu the 3rd of Gampola (A.D 1357-1374) the shrine
consists of three sections, the sanctum or the Garbha, the Digge or dancing hall
and the Hevisimandapaya or the Drummers hall.
Embekke is world famous for wood carvings in the pillars of the drummer's
hall which are considered to be some of the best exhibitions of ancient Sri
Lankan craftsmanship.
GadaladeniyaBuilt almost exclusively of stone in 1344 by the Gampola King
Wickramabahu, situated on a hilltop, commanding views of the surrounding
countryside.
The architecture is Dravidian. The entrance porch features large stone pillars,
which support a roof of huge stone slabs. Within the vihara, an ancient stone
and plaster Buddha image. The 638-year-Old jack wood doors still exhibit
their original paintings.
LankathilakaCompleted in 1344, but in a more traditional Sinhalese style.
Situated on a top of a gray rock above the fertile highland green, it justifies its
name: "the beauty spot on Lanka's brow."
The shrine contains an ancient Buddha image of brick and plaster, plus devalas
to the four guardian deities of the island, each with his consort.
A Pali language rock inscription at the site records the valuable gifts to
craftsmen who toiled on the temple.
Kota Vehera- Nelumdeniya
Pinnawela
The Pinnawela Elephant Orphanage is situated northwest of the town of
Kegalle, halfway between the present capital Colombo and the ancient royal
residence Kandy in the hills of central Sri Lanka. It was established in 1975 by

the Sri Lanka wildlife department in a 25-acre coconut property near the Maha
Oya River. The orphanage was originally founded in order to afford care and
protection to the many orphaned elephants found in the jungle. There are over
100 elephants rehabilitated.
Kegalle >Holombuwa Sthripura Gal Len Viharaya (Stone Cave Temple)

Matale DistrictDambulla Cave Templeknown as the Golden Temple of Dambulla is a World Heritage Site (1991)
in Sri Lanka, situated in the central part of the country. This site is situated 148
kilometres (92 mi) east of Colombo and 72 kilometres (45 mi) north of Kandy.
It is the largest and best-preserved cave temple complex in Sri Lanka. The rock
towers 160 m over the surrounding plains.There are more than 80 documented
caves in the surrounding area. Major attractions are spread over five caves,
which contain statues and paintings. These paintings and statues are related to
Gautama Buddha and his life. There are a total of 153 Buddha statues, three
statues of Sri Lankan kings and four statues of gods and goddesses. The murals
cover an area of 2,100 square metres (23,000 sq ft). Depictions on the walls of
the caves include the temptation by the demon Mara, and Buddha's
first sermon.
Prehistoric Sri Lankans would have lived in these cave complexes before the
arrival of Buddhism in Sri Lanka as there are burial sites with human skeletons
about 2700 years old in this area, at Ibbankatuwa near the Dambulla cave
complexes.
This temple complex dates back to the first century BCE. It has five caves
under a vast overhanging rock, carved with a drip line to keep the interiors dry.
In 1938 the architecture was embellished with arched colonnades and gabled

entrances. Inside the caves, the ceilings are painted with intricate patterns of
religious images following the contours of the rock. There are images of the
Lord Buddha and Bodhisattvas, as well as various gods and goddesses. The
Dambulla cave monastery is still functional and remains the best-preserved
ancient edifice in Sri Lanka. This complex dates from the third and second
centuries BC, when it was already established as one of the largest and most
important monasteries. Valagamba of Anuradhapura (103 BC and 89-77 BC) is
traditionally thought to have converted the caves into a temple in the first
century BC. Exiled from Anuradhapura, he sought refuge here from South
Indian usurpers for 12 years. After reclaiming his capital, the King built a
temple in thankful worship. Many other kings added to it later and by the 11th
century, the caves had become a major religious centre and still are. Nissanka
Malla of Polonnaruwa gilded the caves and added about 70 Buddha statues in
1190. During the 18th century, the caves were restored and painted by
the Kingdom of Kandy. King Buwanekabahu (1372-1408 AD), King
Vickramabahu III (1360-1374 AD), King Rajasinha I (1581-1591 AD) and
King Vimaladharmasuriya I (1592-1604 AD ) are the other Kings merited with
the uplifting of the status of the Temple at various times of the years gone by.
The city also boasts to have the largest rose quartz mountain range in South
Asia, and the Iron wood forest, or Namal Uyana. Ibbankatuwa prehistoric
burial site near Dambulla cave temple complexes is the latest archaeological
site of significant historical importance found in Dambulla, which is located
within 3 kilometers of the cave temple providing evidence on presence of
indigenous civilisations long before the arrival of Indian influence on the
Island nation.
SIGIRIYA- 08th Wonder of the World?
Sigiriya (Lion's rock) is an ancient rock fortress and castle/palace ruin situated
in the Matale District, surrounded by the remains of an extensive network of
gardens, reservoirs, and other structures. It is a popular tourist destination, also
known for its ancient paintings (frescos), very similar to those in the Ajanta
Caves of India. The Sigiriya was built during the reign of King Kassapa I (AD
477 495), and it is one of the seven World Heritage Sites of Sri Lanka.

Sigiriya Citadel

More details can be found in an annexure


MAPAGALA FORTRESSis an ancient fortified complex of the Anuradhapura Kingdom long before
Kasyapa I built his city, Sigiriya. It is located to the South of Sigiriya and
closer to Sigiriya tank.
It was built by using unshaped boulders to about 20 ft high. Each stone is
broad and thick and some of them are about 10 ft high and about 4 ft long. It is
believed that it was built before the time of usage of metal tools.
Arthur Maurice Hocart note says that cyclopean style stone walls were used
for the fortress, and square hammered stones were used for the ramparts of the
citadel. However, his note suggests metal (iron) tools were used for
construction. Excavations work in this area found out a few stone forges,
which proved Hocart's claim on the usage of metal tool.
KnucklesThe Knuckles Mountain Range lies in central Sri Lanka, in the Districts of
Matale and Kandy. The range takes its name from a series of recumbent
folds and peaks in the west of the massif which resembles the knuckles of
clenched fist when viewed from certain locations in the Kandy District. Whilst
this name was assigned by early British surveyors, the Sinhalese residents
have traditionally referred to the area as Dumbara Kanduvetiya meaning mistladen mountain range (Cooray, 1984). The entire area is characterised by its
striking landscapes often robed in thick layers of cloud but in addition to its
aesthetic value the range is of great scientific interest. It is a climatic
microcosm of the rest of Sri Lanka. The conditions of all the climatic zones in
the country are exhibited in the massif. At higher elevations there is a series of
isolated cloud forests, harbouring a variety of flora and fauna, some of which

cannot be found anywhere else in the world. Although the range constitutes
approximately 0.03% of the islands total area it is home to a significantly
higher proportion of the countrys biodiversity.
Other places of interest in Matale district:
Alu Viharaya
Nalanda Image House
Spice Gardens
Patana
Thelgamuwa Bathing Pond
Wasgamuwa
Sera Ella
Vedda Pani Ella
Buduruwayaya
Moragaha Kanda
Nuwara Eliya
Nuwara Eliya meaning "city on the plain (table land)" or "city of light is a
holidaying resort/ plantation town in Sri Lanka. It is located at an altitude of
1,868 m (6,128 ft) in the central highlands and is considered one of the most
important locations for Tea production in Sri Lanka. The town is overlooked
by Pidurutalagala, the highest mountain in Sri Lanka.

Horton Plains- Worlds End / Bakers Falls


Horton Plains National Park "Maha-Eliya" in Sinhala is a national park. It lies
at a height of more than 2,000 m in the central highlands, and its altitude
means that it has a much cooler and windier with a mean annual temperature
of 16 C. The area was named in 1834 after Lady Anne Horton, wife of Sir
Robert Wilmot-Horton, then-governor of Ceylon.
Adam's Peak- is a 2,243 meters (7,359 ft) tall conical mountain located in
central province. It is well-known for the Sri Pada "sacred footprint", a 1.8 m
rock formation at the summit, in Buddhist tradition held to be the footprint of
Buddha.
SITA ELIYAHAGGALA GARDENS-

Ella-

Ella is blessed with some of the most beautiful views, you could find in Sri
Lanka.

Only 8 km from Bandarawela, this small town is used as a base for plenty of
trekking expeditions to the surrounding countryside.
A taste of the breathtaking scenery of Ella could be had, if you just walk into the
Garden of the Grand Ella Motel (Formerly Ella Rest House), where you seem to
be standing at the edge of the world, and everything around you seems to
disappear at your feet.
Another fine view is from the Ambiente Hotel, where the wide doorway, opens
out to the mountains, creating a dramatic cinematic like experience, on entry.
Some of the places you could see in Ella are the Ella Gap, Ravana Ella Falls,
Little Adam's Peak and Bambaragala Peak among the other many varied
pleasant walks with stunning scenery.
Adam's Peak is a 2,243 meters (7,359 ft) tall conical mountain located in
central Sri Lanka. It is well-known for the Sri Pada "sacred footprint", a 1.8 m
rock formation near the summit, in Buddhist tradition held to be the footprint of
Buddha, in Hindu tradition that of Shiva and in Muslim tradition that of Adam.

NORTH WESTERN PROVICE


Kalpitiya
Despite its natural beauty, the western peninsular area of KALPITIYA in the
Puttalam district of Sri Lanka is remarkably untouched by tourism. But for
those lucky enough to visit, there's a plethora of things to see and do! With the
small close-knit fishing community dominating the lives of the local people,
visitors can get a real insight into working life away from the city. After
watching the night fishing boats return in the morning, a visit to one of the fish
markets offers the opportunity to choose the evening meal direct from the fresh
catch! Leisurely boat rides up the lagoon and canoe trips down the river are a
pleasant way of exploring the coastline, whilst 4WD jeep rides along the
deserted sand dunes between the ocean and the lagoon offer a unique way of
watching the colourful evening sunsets.
Mannar
Mannar Island is part of Mannar District. It is linked to the rest of Sri Lanka by
a causeway.
Negombo
Negombo is a town of about 65,000, approximately 37 km north of Colombo, in
Sri Lanka. It is located at the mouth of the Negombo lagoon, about 7 km from
the Bandaranaike International Airport. Negombo has a small port, and its
economy is mainly based on tourism and its centuries-old fishing industry,
though it also produces cinnamon, ceramics, and brass ware. There are many
star class hotels and restaurants down the cost line.
Puttalam
The history of this dry zone district goes back to the arrival of North Indian
Prince Vijaya, 2500 years ago in Tammanna in the coastal belt above Puttalam.

SABARAGAMUWA PROVINCE
Kitulgala

Kitulgala is a small town in the west of Sri Lanka. It is in the wet zone
rainforest, which gets two monsoons each year, and is one of the wettest places
in the country. Nevertheless, it comes alive in the first three months of the year,
especially in February, the driest month. Kitulgala is also a base for white-water
rafting, which starts a few kilometers upstream.
Beli LenaThis cave was excavated and researched between the years 1978-1983 by the
Sri Lankan archeological deparment. The cultural deposits at the site after 25
radiometric tests were determined to be from 30,000-9000 years before the
present day. A diverse range of cultural, faunal and human remains were
excavated. Amongst the things discovered were some geometric microlithic
stone tools which at 30,000 years are among the oldest found in the world to
date. There are also some bone tools and evidence of fire being used from
30,000 years ago.
Bopath EllaMaduwanwela Walawwais a historical mansion located in upper South of Sri Lanka. Situated in the town
Kolonne which lies between Embilipitiya and Suriyawewa
in Ratnapura District, in a distance of 207 kilometres from the capital,
Colombo, Maduwanwela Walawwa is well known as an architectural heritage of
the country. Historical resources say the mansion had been built since 1700s to
1900s by the Maduwanwela clan in the middle of a land of over 80 000 acres in
area and the mansion with 121 bed rooms.

Ratnapura- City of Gems


Ratnapura is the name of the provincial capital of Sabaragamuwa Province of
Sri Lanka and the Ratnapura District in which the town is situated. The name
designates in Sinhala "ratna" meaning gems and "pura" meaning city. Located
some 101 km south east of Colombo, it is the centre of a long-established
industry of precious stone mining including rubies, sapphires, and other gems.
Apart from gem mining, the town is known for rice and fruit cultivations.
Wawulpane Limestone Cave-

Wawulpane Limestone caves have been in existence for more than 500 million
years. It sprawls across a large area on the Buluthota hill range. The cave has
two entrances which have been naturally formed due to the streams that flow
into the cave from two directions. The entrances are around 5-6 meters wide and
about 7 meters high. Once inside the cave you find stalactite formations on the
ceiling and stalagmite along the path of the stream.
Udawalawa National Park-

CENTRAL CULTURAL FUNDFull Ticket

Half Ticket

Telephone
number

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Sigiriya

066-4928793

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4260.00

15.00

2130.00

Polonnaruwa

027-2224850

25.00

3550.00

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1750.00

Anuradhapura

025-2227640

25.00

3500.00

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1775.00

Katharagama

047-2235505

5.00

710.00

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330.00

Galle

091-2227640

5.00

710.00

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355.00

Sigiriya (Museum)

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284.00

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142.00

Sites

Contact us:
Central Cultural Fund,
212/1, Bauddhaloka Mw., Colombo 07.
0112679921

A guide to Prehistory and Sites of Sri Lanka


Pre-historic
The pre-history of Sri Lanka goes back 125,000 years and possibly even as
far back as 500,000 years. The era spans the Palaeolithic (early phase of
Stone Age), Mesolithic (middle part of the Stone Age, between the
Palaeolithic and Neolithic) and early Iron Ages. Among the Paleolithic human
settlements discovered in Sri Lanka, Pahiyangala (named after
the Chinese traveller monk Faxian), which dates back to 37000 BP,
Batadombalena (28,500 BP) and Belilena (12,000 BP) are the most important.
In these caves, archaeologists have found the remains
of anatomically modern humans which they have named Balangoda Man and
other evidence suggesting that they may have engaged in agriculture and kept
domestic dogs for driving game.
One of the first written references to the island is found in the
Indian epic Ramayana, which provides details of a kingdom
named Lanka that was created by the divine
sculptor Vishwakarma for Kubera, the Lord of Wealth. It is said that Kubera
was overthrown by his demon stepbrother Ravana, the powerful emperor who
built a mythical flying machine named Dandu Monara. The modern city
of Wariyapola is described as Ravana's airport.
Prehistoric time line of Sri Lanka
770,000 BC Fire is used in China by Peking man
700,000 BC Humans in Lanka
Archeologists claim that Sri Lanka would have been inhabited by the humans by about 700,000 BC at a
time when India and Sri Lanka was bridged.
200,000 BC Beginning of Middle Paleolithic Period
Paleolithic means Old Stone Age. This was the earliest period of the Stone Age. The Lower
Paleolithic predates Homo sapiens, beginning with Homo habilis and the earliest use of stone tools
some 2.5 million years ago. Homo sapiens originated some 200,000 years ago, ushering in the Middle
Paleolithic. Sometime during the Middle Paleolithic, humans also developed language, music, early art,
as well as systematic burial of the dead.
123,000BC- Oldest human found in Lanka ( see here )
The evidence stems from excavations conducted in coastal deposits near Bundala. These people made
tools of quartz (and a few on chert) which are assignable to a Middle Palaeolithic complex
120,000 BP Modern Homo sapiens appears in Africa.
Pathirajawela in the Deep South The oldest Lankan humans remains and his stone tools were
recovered in Pathirajawela in Deep South, near Ambalantota, by a student from Bundala Central School.
This Lankan had lived 20,000 years before the Niandathal inhabited the earth. It has been estimated, at

an international average, that the population density for Lanka, at the time was 0.8-1.5 per Sq Km in dry
zone and 0.1 in wet zone. They had lived in groups of 1-2 families, not in large groups due to scarcity of
food. With this proof of pre-historic settlement in Lanka, Patirajawela also exposed a flake and stone tool
industry belonging to 125,000 to 75,000 BC. This meant that the Lankans had already started their long
journey towards civilization.
80,000 BC- Lions, Rhinoceroses and Hippos from an excavation in Ratnapura District
Archaeologists have found the remains of animals. That included a hippopotamus with six incisor teeth,
a rhinoceros, and a lion. Along with these animal remains, stone artifacts comprising, typically, large
choppers and flakes of quartz and chert, have been found. However, apart from a human calotte from a
gem pit near Ellawala, no human remains have been discovered yet from the Ratnapura.
80,000 BC 2nd oldest human found in Lanka, Bundala in the Deep South
These people made tools of quartz (and a few on chert). Apart from such tools, no other remains had
survived the ravages of time and tropical weathering.
35,000 BC Fa-Hien cave , has yielded the earliest evidence of anatomically modern man in
South Asia

3rd oldest Lankan human proves worlds oldest proof of consumption of rice, Kurahan, salt

Female body-remains found in Yatagampitiya near BulathSinhala, proved the consumption of rice,
kurahan, and salt. The Archaeologists named her Kalu-Menika. It was proof that 20,000 years before the
world, Lankans have gone agricultural. It was also the first anatomically modern human found in whole
of South Asia.Pahiyanagala is also the largest natural cave in South Asia. Over 150 feet in height, 282
feet long, Pahiyangala can accommodate over 3000 humans. In 600 AD, the visiting Chinese monk FaHien lived here for sometime.
28,500 BC Batadomba Lena near Kuruvita, the Balangoda man, stronger & taller
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Balangoda_Man
These remains, and the following Belilena and BellanBendi Palassa , have been subjected to detailed
analysis. These anatomically modern prehistoric humans in Sri Lanka are referred to as Balangoda Man.
Some males were 174 cm tall, and some females were 166 cm tall. This is considerably taller than the
present-day Sri Lankans. The bones also are robust. They had thick skull-bones and prominent browridges, depressed noses, heavy jaws and short necks. The teeth were conspicuously large. These traits
have survived among the Veddas and certain unmixed Sinhalese. Balangoda Man is regarded as the
original Lankan.S. U. Deraniyagala, Former Director-General of , Sri Lanka, says that such geometric
microliths have traditionally been considered the hallmark of the Mesolithic period as first defined in
Europe . The earliest dates for the geometric microlithic tradition in Europe being around 12,000 BP.
Hence it came as a surprise when such tools were found as early as 31,000 BP at Batadombalena and
even at other sites, like the two coastal sites in and at Belilena
28,500 BC Lankans live in Mannar, Horton plains to Bundala, in two family units

By this time Lankans were settled in every corner of Sri Lanka, from the damp and cold High Plains
such as Maha-eliya (Horton Plains) to the arid lowlands of Mannar and Vilpattu, to the steamy
rainforests of Sabaragamuwa. Their camps were small, rarely exceeding 50 sq.m in area, thus
suggesting occupation by not more than a couple of families at most. This life-style could not have been
too different from that described for the Vaddas of Sri Lanka, the Kadar, Malapantaram and Chenchus of
India, the Andaman lslanders and the Semang of Malaysia. They had been moving from place to place,
on an annual cycle of looking for food.
28,500 BC: Lankans have started business between the coast and the hills
Beads of shells have also been discovered deep inside the country. Discovery of marine shells in inland
sites such as Batadomba-lena , points to an extensive network of contacts between the coast and the
inland.
28,500 BC- Lankans have burial customs
Balangoda Man had a custom to bury his dead underneath his camp floor. He selected certain bones for
this purpose. At Ravana Ella cave and Fa Hien Lena , red ochre had been ceremonially smeared on the
bones.
28,500 BC- Geometric microliths (believed to be first used by the Europeans in 12,500BC) are found in
Batadomba Lena in the tool kit of Balangoda Man, 16,000 years earlier than Europe first used it.
The tool kit of Balangoda Man is distinguished by the occurrence of geometric microliths, comprising
small (less than 4 cm long) flakes of quartz and (rarely) chert fashioned into stylised lunate, triangular
and trapezoidal forms. Such geometric microliths have traditionally been considered the hallmark of the
Mesolithic period as first defined in Europe. The earliest dates for the geometric microlithic tradition in
Europe are around 12,000 BC. Hence it came as a surprise when such tools were found as early as
28,500 BC at Batadomba-lena , 28,000 BC at two coastal sites in Bundala and over 27,000 BC at Belilena. Sri Lanka has yielded evidence of this sophisticated technological phase some 16,000 years
earlier than in Europe. However, the geometric microliths were discovered in various parts of Africa,
such as Zaire and southern Africa, from periods in excess of 27,000 BC. Europe was late in manifesting
this techno-tradition due to as yet undefined reasons.
27,000 BC- Beli Lena at Kitulgala
There is evidence from Beli-lena that salt had been brought in from the coast at a date in excess of
27,000 BC.
15,000 BC Horton plains
Agro subsistence strategy 7000 years before the world did. There is pollen evidence from the Horton
Plains for herding and the farming of barley and oats by 15,000 BC and also around 8,000 BC. The new
evidence from the Horton Plains is of great importance. Ghar-i-Mar and Aq Kupruk in Afghanistan and
Mehrgarh in Pakistan were known to have had a Neolithic subsistence strategy by 7,000-6,000 BC.
There is tentative evidence of herding in northern Rajasthan by 7,000 BC, of rice and pottery at
Koldihwa, U.P. in India by 5,000 BC, and perhaps cereal management/farming in the Nilgiri Hills of South

India by 8,000 BC. Therefore Lankans had proof of Agro subsistence strategy 7000 years before the
world did.
15,000 BC SuriyaKanda near Ambilipitiya, use of necklaces & needles
The female body parts recovered by archaeologists proved the use of needles (made of rabbit bones),
and necklace made of a see-thru material like glass but as hardy as plastic. The Archaeologists have
named her Nimali.
13,000 BC The discovery of the remains of two pre-historic humans and other artifacts in a cave
in Alawala, Gampaha
This recent discovery has also unearthed tools to butcher animals, A shark tooth ornament and remains
of breadfruit seeds called Kekuna.
10,500 BC Alu-lena near Attanagoda , Kegalle More human remains were discovered here.

8,000 BC / 7,000 BC In northern Mesopotamia, now northern Iraq, cultivation of barley and wheat
begins.
6,500 BC Bellan-Bendi Pelessa near Embiliyapitiya Secret of the Strong Bones
Bellan-Bandi Palassa near Embiliyapitiya is an open-air site of human remains. The well-preserved
evidence from these caves showed that Lankans were having a very wide range of food-plants and
animals. Prominent among them were canarium nuts, wild breadfruit and wild bananas. It also showed
that Lankans ate almost any type animal, from elephants to snakes, rats, snails and small fish. This wellbalanced diet must be the secret behind the robusticity of the human skeletal remains. The degeneration
of the bone, caused by a specialized starchy diet and a sedentary life style, was yet to come.
6,300 BC Dorawaka-Kanda cave near Kegalle
Geometric Microlithic industry & pottery The transition from the Mesolithic Balangoda Culture to the
protohistoric early Iron Age has not been adequately documented in Sri Lanka. The relevant deposits
have been destroyed due to the extraction of fertilizer from prehistoric cave habitations. Recent
excavations in the cave of Dorawaka-kanda near Kegalle could resolve this problem. According to the
excavator, W.H. Wijayapala, there are indications at this site of pottery (together with stone stools) being
used as early as 6300. By this time, Dorawaka-lena shelter had proved a geometric microlithic industry.
It also proved a cereal and acrude red pottery by 5,300 BC, and Black and Red Ware by 3,100 BC.
6,000 BC Lankan city on Mahamevuna Uyana, Proof of Horses
35 feet under the present Mahamevuna Uyana in Anuradapura , the remains of a huge city dated to
9000-6000BC was uncovered by Archeologists in 2001 AD. It was proof that Lankans had used Horses
before the North Indians such as prince Vijaya came in 483BC.
6,000 BC PalleMalala site , first proof of a pre-historic shell midden in the country, fireplace, grinding
stone, burial room, Rough clothing

A group of pre-historic Lankans set up camp at a dried-up lagoon in Hambantota. There they lived,
hunted and fished for food and buried the dead under the very same ground. They hunted sambhur,
deer and wild boar with crude stone and sharpened bone tools. The meat was roasted over an open
hearth. Fish and reptile meat was a common diet. The bones were ground on a large flat stone to extract
the marrow. The skins were dried to make rough clothing. Animal remains found in the living floor
belonged to as many as 50 species including deer, hare, mouse, wild boar and kulumeema (Bos indica).
A primitive grinding stone and vestiges of a fireplace, probably for roasting molluscs, have been found.
A meter below the living floor was the burial floor. Seven adult skeletons have been found buried. A shell
midden is a mound of shells created when pre-historic humans threw the shells of animals such as
oysters and mussels after they had consumed them in a particular spot. There would have been at least
15 people originally dwelling at this single site, considering the size of the shell midden.
6,000 BC PalleMalala site indicates the origins of MahaSona beliefs
The discovery in the burial floor, of the skull of a wild boar with its tusks intact, next to a human skull
suggested some kind of a burial ritual. In Sinhalese folk traditions, Mahasona has been depicted as
having the head of a boar. Veddas still have this practice as the kirikoraha ceremony, using the head of
a boar, and offering tribute to Kande Yaka, the Veddas god of hunting.
6,000 BC Similarity of PalleMalala man with the rest of the world
Lankan is in the forefront of the human development The lifestyles of the stone age Lankan could not
have been any different from others who lived elsewhere in the world. There are striking similarities in
the stone tools found anywhere in the world belonging to the same age. Burial practices too appear to
have similarities. The human bodies found in Pallemalala have been buried in a curious folded position
where the knees and elbows had been folded towards the body in burial. Similar burials in folded
position have been unearthed from sites elsewhere in the world as well. This proved that the Lankan
was in the very front of the race for the human progress. There has been frequent migration between the
landmass that was Sri Lanka at the time and the Indian continent, across the Palk Strait. That probably
helped the Lankan to check what the other humans were doing.
4,000 BC A pre-historic grave
Archeologists

had

found

a pre-historic

grave

site

near

IbbanKatuwa

Weva

in

Dambulla

3,500 BC The boat that could carry over 150 passengers, is found in Lanka
On Attanagalla Oya, a ferry capable of carrying over 150 people, was discovered. This proved the
existence of a well-established water-based transport system.
3,000 BC Sigiriya is considered the AlakaMandava of the Ravana times
Historians and Archeologists claim that Sigirya must be the Alaka Mandava of Ravana, based on oldest
archaeological evidence found on site.
3,000 BC Stonehenge construction begins. In its first version, it consisted of a circular ditch and bank,
with 56 wooden posts

1,000 BC End of stone age and the beginning of Iron Age


900 BC Remains of extensive human settlements at Anuradhapura
The three major sites at Anuradhapura in north-central Sri Lanka have been intensively excavated by
the Archaeological Department, checked by the University of Cambridge, and over 75 radiocarbon dates
are available for this settlement. There is an excellent chronology starting from 900 B.C. In this layer
(early Iron Age), we found large quantities of artifacts, which are characterised by the use of iron,
horses, cattle, high-grade pottery, and possibly cultivation of rice.The settlement was fairly large, at least
10 hectares in size. It was not a small village. We have no mechanics of knowing why such a settlement
should have started in the first place. For it is the only major settlement of this period that has been
found in Sri Lanka. Further investigation will undoubtedly reveal other large settlements of this period.
This culture developed progressively and expanded into city life by 700 B.C.

Sri Lankan Indegenous Architecture

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

The Korawakgala lies on the sides of the steps leading to the door or the entrance of the building.
This is sometimes called the Makara Gala (Dragon Stone) as this stone represent an imaginary
animal. This animal, some times referred to as a dragon is made up of body parts of six animals. Each
of this body part is the strongest feature of each animal. In addition to these, this imaginary animal is
seen breathing a long flame of fire from the mouth.
Trunk of the Elephant
Jaws of the Crocodile
Ears of the mouse (some call it the ears of the Monkey)
The extruding teeth of the Wild boar
The tail feathers of the Peacock
Feet of a Lion

The guardstone or muragala were one of an association of three aspects of sculpture that adorned
the entrance to buildings in ancient times, the other two being the moonstone (Sandakada Pahana) and
balustrade (Korawak Gala) .
The guardstones, which provided a support to the heavy stone balustrade, were plain in the beginning.
Later they came to be sculptured with symbols significant of prosperity and protection.

Punkalasa

Punkalasa guardstone

There were three major stages of development. It was the custom on important occasions for pots of
water with flowers (usually of the coconut palm) and budded twigs to be placed in front of a building.
Known as the punkalasa the local equivalent of the western cornucopia this symbol, incised on the
guardstone, was the first stage of development.
Examples of carved punkalasa guardstones may be seen in the archaeological museum in
Anuradhapura. The pots of plenty in these specimens are placed on a lotus moulded pedestal.

Bahirawa

Bahirawa Guardstone Abhayagiri Vihara

In the second stage we get dwarf figures taking the place of the punkalasa. Local tradition knowns
them as Bahirawa. They represent two yaksas employed to protect the wealth of God Kuvera, which
is supposed to be stored in the ocean.
By name Padma and Sankha, they are distinguished by their headdresses, a lotus in the former and a
conch in the latter. They are depicted as pot-bellied persons wearing a loin cloth and holding a string
of coins.
Well preserved bahirawa specimens may be seen in Anuradhapura at theAbyayagiri Viharaya

Naga-Raja guardstone

Ratanaprasada

The cobra was considered the guardian of water and treasure. Zoomorphic sculptures of multi headed
cobras have been found at the sluices of reservoirs, and at the four corners of relic chambers enshrined
in dagabas
The concept of protection could have arisen out of popular belief that when people die they are
reincarnated as cobras to protect the treasures they had buried in their previous lives.

Gemstones Found in Sri Lanka


Sri Lanka lies at the southern tip of India which is located at latitude of 6 10 N and longitude of
80 82 E. The major part of Sri Lanka is made up of Precambrian crystalline rocks except for a belt
of sedimentary rocks along the north-west coast of the country. The Precambrian rocks which covers
nearly 90% of Sri Lanka, have been classified into three major lithological units, which are Highland /
Southwestern Complex, Vijayan Complex and Wanni Complex.
Sri Lanka is well known throughout the world for the large quantity and exquisite variety of its
gemstones. These gemstones occur mainly in alluvial gravels found in valley bottoms into which flow
tributary hillside streams which carry gem minerals released by weathering form the bed rock sources
located at hilltops or hillsides. Apart from the sedimentary formation which carry gemstones some
rocks too have been shown to contain gemstones particularly varieties of Corundum. There are also
gemstones associated with pegmatite which constituted an important source.
During early times Sri Lanka was once quite fittingly referred to as Rathna-dweepa which connotes
the meaning The Island of Gemstones. The name Rathna-dveepa is found in many chronicles. A
Merchants Guide Periplus of the Erythrean Sea presumed to have been complied during the first
century.
Today around 200 minerals have been classified as gemstones either due to their beauty, durability,
rarity or a combination of some of these attribute which should be fulfilled make a mineral worthy of
being classified as a gemstone. Of these gemstones, around 75 varieties have been mined or found in
Sri Lanka. Although exploitation of Sri Lanka gemstone deposits has been going on for many
centuries, its only in reason times that effort has been made to make study of the industry itself, the
locations
of
possible
gemstone
deposits
and
most
importantly.
Main species of Gemstones found in Sri Lanka are as follows.
Corundum

Beryl

Chrysoberyl

Zircon

Spinel

Quartz

Garnet

Topaz

Tourmaline

Feldspar

Corundum
Corundum as a group is one of the most important gemstone species that has the greatest number of
varieties as its members. This oxide of Aluminum probably produces the most important range of
valuable gemstones found in Sri Lanka. As water worn pebbles in Alluvial deposits or less frequently
in source rocks. The gemstones quality Corundum is highly priced and specific name are given
according to the shade of colour such as Ruby for deep red and Padmaraga for pinkish orange or
orangish pink. Corundum with colours of lesser importance commercial varieties, being prefixed by
the colour name.
Basic scientific details of Corundum family are mentioned below.
Chemical Composition - Al2O3

Crystal System - Trigonal

Hardness 9.0

Specific Gravity 3.99

Refractive Index 1.762 1.770

Blue Sapphire
Sri Lanka sapphires are universally renowned for their magnificent quality and the large sizes in
which these sometimes occur. Every possible shade of blue is represented among sapphires of Sri
Lanka, the various shades ranging from the palest to the darkest. High quality blue sapphires from Sri
Lanka are reputed for having pleasing tone of colour of whatever the shades are of remarkable
transparency. In superior quality material the Degree of transparency of very high and its clarity is
excellent. The most desired coloured and stones for a shapphire has been describe as an instance corn
flower blue with a Velvety luster. The combination such features those rare, is the pride of Sri
Lanka.

Ruby
Corundum of a red colour are identified as Rubies. Most Sri Lankan varieties are of a pinkish red and
display a tint of purple which factor perhaps is sufficient to betray to the experienced person that the
stones are of Sri Lankan origin. These purplish tints are attributed to the presence of iron in addition
to chromium oxide in the composition. Such stones when subject to instance heat would either lose or
diminish the purplish tint thereby highlighting the principle colour, red. This colour is referred to as
Pigeon Blood Red in gem circles.
As a rule, Ruby deposits as such have not been specifically localized in Sri Lanka and are found in
association with other members of Corundum family. However, as indicated earlier the stones of
better quality have been more often than not found within the Embilipitiya Udawalawe environs.

Padparadscha
The term Padparadscha is a Sinhalese term applied to a very special colour variety of Corundum, so
named after the lotus flower as its colour is sometimes akin to a variety of this flower. The
Padparadscha has an exceptional colour combination which is very attractive and rare. The colour
combination produces the beautiful colour of a sunset at its best as seen across a tropical sky. The
colour of Padparadscha is apparently a combination of pink and orange.

Yellow Sapphire
Among Yellow Sapphires various shades are noted varying from pale yellow to saffron yellow and
from yellow slightly tinted red to a deep citron yellow. In local terminology the Yellow Sapphires are
identified as Pushparaga. Yellow sapphires are widespread and are found in all Corundum
producing areas, one of the most reputed areas being places around Aluthnuwara in the Balangoda
region.

Asteriated Sapphires (Star Sapphires)


Asterism is a star like reflection effect caused by certain minerals within the host Corundum. These
are microscopic acicular mineral inclusions of special orientation. When these stones cut Cabochon,
displays a special reflection effect in the form of a six, or in rare instances a twelve rayed star on the
cabochon surface. Blue, Purple, Pink and Grey coloured Star Sapphires found in Sri Lanka.
Geuda
On a varietal basis Geuda Corundum is one of the more recently appreciated members of the
Corundum family. The term Geuda was initially used in Sri Lanka, to describe a property of
translucency associated with milky or cloudy appearance seen in some Corundum gemstones.
However with heat treatment of Geuda gemstones (a Corundum species) can be converted in to
transparent sapphires. The most common Geuda varieties are Diesel Geuda, Milky Geuda, Silky
Geuda, Dun Geuda, Ottu and Kowangu Pushparaga. The basic body colour in all these can be pale
Blue, Yellow or Pink.
It is thought that of all the Corundum mined in Sri Lanka, about 35 to 40 percent could be categorized
as treatable Geuda material in which the colours could be induced through heat treatment. The
treatable Geuda Sapphires of Sri Lanka are proven to give better results than Geuda from other part of
the world. Sri Lanka is blessed with a large supply of Geuda Sapphires suitable for heat treatment.
These deposits are widely spread within the Island.
Chrysoberyl
In Sri Lanka gem chrysoberyl is mostly found as water worn pebbles in the alluvial gem gravels.
Chrysoberyl occurs only in a few colours and the common colours being yellow, golden yellow,
brownish yellow, yellowish green, bluish green and faint olive green. Chrysoberyl occurs in varying
degrees of transparency ranging from transparent and clear to cloudy translucent and opaque. The
gemstones of this group are known to have wide distribution in and among the main gem producing
regions of this country and are mostly lacalized around Rakwana, Bulutota, Deniyaya, Morawaka,
Elahera, Avissawella, Pelawatte, Horana, Matugama, Panadura, Rathnapura, Aluthgama, Ambalantota,
Agalawaththa, Bulathsinghala, Kalapugama and Mestiya.
Basic scientific details of Chrysoberyl family are mentioned below.
Chemical Composition - BeO.Al2O3

Crystal System - Orthorhombic

Hardness 8.5

Specific Gravity 3.72

Refractive Index 1.746 1.755

Some inclusions make stones cloudy, reduce transparency and produce reflection effects. These if
properly oriented would, when cut cabochon displays the cats eye effect. What is produced is a
silvery streak of light which is displayed across the cabochon surface.

Alexandrite
Alexandrite is a variety of chrysoberyl is perhaps rarest and Sri Lanka is famous for producing larger
stones with fair colour change. The primary beauty of this gem is due to its colour change. At best Sri
Lankan stones can be grass green in daylight and violet red to raspberry red in incandescent or
artificial light. The gem is priced according the percentage of colour change found in the stone.

Although most alexandrite can be faceted, occasionally there is unusual colour changing alexandrite
cats eye too.

Spinel
Spinel is a gemstone found in greater abundance in Sri Lanka than either corundum or chrysoberyl. Its
very abundance makes Sri Lanka the second largest producer of this stone next to Myanmar (Burma).
Sri Lankan spinel range from ruby red, pink, orange, shades of reddish brown, purple, blue, bluish
green, mauve, greenish black, black to colourless. Apart from the common varieties of spinel are also
varieties identified as Ceylonite, Gahnite and Ghanospinel. The occurrence of natural blue spinel
coloured by cobalt has been found in Sri Lanka. Cobalt spinel has been found around Rathnapura,
Okkampitiya and Embilipitiya.
Basic scientific details of spinel family are mentioned below.
Chemical Composition - MgO.Al2O3

Crystal System - Cubic

Hardness 8.0

Specific Gravity 3.60 | 3.58 - 4.06 (Gahnospinel)

Refractive Index 1.712 1.725 | 1.725 1.753 (Gahnospinel)

Original colours are quite different to alexandrite, very often being violet in daylight and changing to
reddish Asteriatedspinels with either four or six rays are also found in the gravels of Sri Lanka. Colour
changing alexandrite-like spinel has also been found from time to time in this country.
Garnet
Garnets are a group of minerals; which refer to a fairly complex group with a great amount of
isomorphic replacement resulting in intermixtures of chemical compositions giving a distinct range of
colours.
Of these varieties andradite and uvarovite have not been found in Sri Lanka. As in other gem minerals
garnets too occurs in varying degrees of transparency, the fully transparent ones with good colour
being the most beautiful. They could also display asterism in the form of a four rayed star. Even
chatoyancy has been noted from among the Sri Lankan material as has been established by
somebrownish red cats eyes. Different varieties of garnets have different properties and these will be
discussed separately.
Types of Garnets
Pyralspite
Series

Other
Garnet

Ugrandite Series

Almandine
Fe3Al2(SiO4)3

Rhodolite

Grossular
Ca3Al2(SiO4)3

Andradite
Ca3Fe2(SiO4)

Pyrope
Malaya
Mg3Al2(SiO4)3

Hessonite

Demantoid

Spessartite Mali
Mn3Al2(SiO4)3

Tsavorite

Melanite

Uvarovite
Ca3Cr2(SiO4)3

Hydrogrossular

Topazolite

Colour
changing
garnet

Melanite
Topazolite
Rainbow
garnet
Red and its diverse shades are the commonest colours in which the varieties, pyrope and almandine
occur. The beautiful purplish tinted garnets which are fairly abundant in the Matale-Elahera regions
are really an intermediate variety between pyrope and almandine. The term Rhodolite seems to be the
more acceptable term probably because of its rhododendron-red colour. This intermediate type of
garnet is mostly confined to the Elahera regions. Here the colours are extremely fine, the stones clear
and transparent and what is more are found in reasonably large sizes. The superior quality of this
variety from this region is so renowned that these are sometimes identified as Elahera garnets in
order to make the variety more specific.

Tourmaline
Tourmaline naturally results in a wide range of colours and even colour variations in the same gem in
concentric or horizontal bands. The noteworthy colours found in Sri Lanka are yellowish green, dull
green, honey yellow brown and rarely blue and bright green. The yellowish brown tourmalines are
more abundant in Sri Lanka compared to other colour varieties. Attractive pink, bi-colour and Paraiba
tourmalines are not found in Sri Lanka. The different colours could be seen along the length of the
crystal and here the colours are at the two ends where the colour demarcations are very sharp.
Basic scientific details of tourmaline family are mentioned below.
Chemical Composition - Complex borosilicate of Aluminium, Magnesium and Iron
Crystal System - Trigonal
Hardness 7.0 - 7.5
Specific Gravity 3.01 3.11 (black 3.15 - 3.26)
Refractive Index 1.62 1.66
The red and reddish varieties are identified as rubellite and in instances where the shade of red carries
a purplish tint, these are identified as siberite. These varieties are not known to occur in Sri Lanka. Sri
Lankan green products have always been of a dull green. These are more yellowish green in
appearance. Most of the brown and yellowish brown varieties are located mainly around Uva,
Rathnapura and Tissamaharama regions. The brown, brownish yellow and the honey yellow colour
varieties are broadly identified as uvaite and dravite respectively. Uvaite has been named after the
province of Uva where these varieties are most abundant and widespread. The other areas in which
tourmalines are found widespread and in fair abundance are the Lunugala, Bibile, Passara, Nilgala
region, Horana, Matugama, Pelawatte, Morawaka, Deniyaya, Rakwana areas, around Rathnapura,
Avissawella, Haputale and also around Ambalantota in the south.

Beryl
When beryl absolutely pure in composition beryl should be colourless, but a very close scrutiny of
such colourless material will reveal that these are more often than not very faintly tinged with blue,
green, pink or yellow. Beryl occurs in different colours, such as grass green, blue-green, yellowish

green, yellow, pink and pinkish red. Accordingly different varieties are identified. These are emerald,
aquamarine, golden beryl (heliodor), morganite and goshenite. Goshenite is the term applied to the
colourless variety.
Basic scientific details of beryl family are mentioned below.
Chemical Composition - Be3Al2(SiO3)6

Crystal System - Hexagonal

Hardness 7.5 - 8.0

Specific Gravity 2.70 2.80

Refractive Index 1.56 1.59

Green variety of this family is named as emerald. Emerald is the most important member of this
family, but this variety is not indigenous to Sri Lanka. Morganite is a pinkish red or pink coloured
variety of beryl and this variety is also not found among Sri Lankan gem gravel. The term aquamarine
is applied to the pale blue and greenish blue coloured beryl. The general colour of aquamarine has
been often compared to the colour of sea water giving rise to the term aquamarine. The colours are
mostly pale or light, the dark shades being less abundant. Auamarine of a flawless deep blue or
greenish blue colour is undoubtedly a stone of beauty. The depth of colour is most intense in large
stones. The colour in smaller stones is comparatively lighter. Generally the colours in aquamarine are
very well distributed and large flawless stones are by no means rare. Stones of good quality should be
of deep colour and perfect transparency. In Sri Lanka aquamarine has been found in Rathnapura,
Rakwana, Morawaka, Hatton, Nawalapitiya, Galle, Matara, Tissamaharama and Lunugamwhera.
Asteriated beryl has also been found in Sri Lanka on rare occasions.
Quartz
Crystalline Polycrystalline
Rock
crystal

Chalcedony

Amethyst

Carnelian

Citrine

Sard

Smoky
quartz

Prase

Prasolite

Chrysoprase

Rose
quartz

Agate

Jasper

Quartzite

Quartz & silica


replacements

Aventurine
quartz

Tigers-eye
Silicified

Moss agate
Onyx
Bloodstone

SINHARAJA- The World Heritage Virgin Rain Forest Cover in Sri Lanka.

There are few interesting facts on the formation of the Sinharaja Rain Forest in Sri Lanka
and how it came in to being. The present rain forests in the world are being an evolution of
the earlier rain forests dating back to 150 - 200 million years. There had been three strips of
large rain forest lands called Amazon, African and Far Eastern at that time. However these
large extents of rain forest areas were later became less in area content and were confined to
smaller areas. Then about 140 million years back, during the Paleosoic era, a part of land
from the Southern hemisphere called Gondwana land, where present day India and Sri Lanka
also were situated, started its slow process of separating from the main land. About 55
million years back during Cretaceous era that land mass called Decan plate , where Sri
Lanka and India were located separated from the Southern hemisphere , started drifting
towards the equator and joined with the Northern hemisphere called Laurussia.
Due to this new environment, the Plant and Animal life of that land mass started to undergo
changes to evolve its own characteristics making way to unique botanical and biological
species. Later around 20 million years back, Sri Lanka separated from the Decan plate due
to changes of the Sea water level and sinkage. Today the Rain Forests in Sri Lanka are
confined to the Southern part of the Sri Lanka nearest to the equator. Forests in the the other
parts of the island differs much with Sinharaja Forest cover. It is a noticeable fact that the
animal and plant lives are having similarities in Sinharaja rain forest and the other rain
forests found in Madagascar, Andeman Islands, Mascarene Islands, African and South
Eastern islands.

Tropical rain forests need to have three main factors in common. First, there should be bright
sunlight, secondly there needs to be a high rainfall, distributed all along the year and also a
high temperature.This makes the region very humid. Only Sinharaja and few other scattered
forest cover of lesser extent in land area in the Southern Western part of Sri Lanka fulfils the
above criteria. There is also a good reason for Sinharaja to be a virgin forest but not for the
forests in the Northern parts of the Island. Sri Lanka was an agricultural country since 4th
Century BC and much of the land in the North Central part of the country, where there are
forest covers now, had been under the plough (with rice cultivation ) till around 10th Century
AD. so the age of the forest cover there dates back only for around thousand years or so.

Sinharaja forest cover receives between 3000-6000 mm of rain throughout the year and have
a minimum rainfall of over 200 mm even during non monsoon periods. The mean
temperature is between 18-27 degrees Celsius with a humidity of 75% - 90%. Only a faint
sunshine reaches the ground layer of the forest which ranges from 5% - 15% of the total sun
light. The land coverage of the Sinharaja Forest is 21 kM lengthwise, with a minimum width
of 3 kM and a maximum width of 7 kM throughout that land extent. The location of Sinharaja
rain Forest is between 6 D 21 M and 6 D 27 M , North and 80 D 25 M and 80 D 34 M, East.
Gin Ganga and Kalu Ganga [ Rivers Gin and Kalu] gets its water flow from this forest land.
The highest elevated mountain peak found at Sinharaja is 1170 Mts and has eight peaks over
600 Mts.

Rainfall figure Charts for Deniyaya and Sinharaja

Deniyaya and Sinharaja Area Rainfall


Monthly Rainfall graphs created by obtaining generalized values for Deniyaya and
Sinharaja

Carbon Sequestration
Carbon Sequestration is a natural phenomena taking place during the photosynthesis in Plants which
absorbs Carbon from the atmosphere for this process. The Plant leaves, branches, trunks and roots
stores these Carbon and the soil also gets deposited with Carbon. Emissions of Carbon Dioxide causes
Global climatic changes, mainly the green house effect that raises the global temperature and Carbon
sequestration helps to offset this effectively.

Sinharaja Forest's contribution to the World's Humankind becomes more and more prominent
with the advancement of the Earth Sciences and the role it does on Carbon Sequestration is
priceless as to the new findings. According to a CRS Report for Congress, (1) the Biome of
Tropical Forests sequestrates one of the highest percentages of Carbon which totals upto 109
tons per acre. Thus Sinharaja Rain Forest effectively sequestrates (1 hectare = 2.47105381
acres) around 3,013,160 tons of Carbon among its vegetation and the soil.
One must not forget the sister rain forests of Kanneliya(5108 ha), Dediyagala(3305 ha) and
Nakiyadeniya(1300 ha) totaling upto 9714 ha which is known as the KDN complex that lies
about 35 kM to the North West of Galle, which contributes to the Carbon Sequestration and
to the Island's bio diversity.

SIGIRIYA
An architectural masterpiece of ancient Sinhalese

Lion Rock, Sigiriya.


Little can prepare you for the experience of Sigiriya, the great rock citadel and
perhaps the most remarkable of all Sri Lankas former capitals.
Sigiriya's palace in the clouds
The rock has long attracted settlers. A community of reclusive monks lived in
the caves around the base of the rock as far back as the 3rd century BC, though
it was not until the 5th century AD that Sigiriya rose to sudden and spectacular
prominence in Sri Lankan affairs. The patricidal King Kassapa chose the almost
inaccessible summit as the unlikely setting for his new royal palace, a courtly
paradise of elegant pavilions set amid gardens and pools. The rock was
transformed into an immense recumbent lion by the addition of a brick-built
head and foreparts, of which only the artfully sculpted paws remain. Kassapas
palace in the clouds lasted just 18 years, though its remains have drawn visitors
ever since.
The story of SigiriyaThe following story of Kasyapa as obtained from the documents of AnandaSthavira, translated by Senarath Paranavitana, differs from the story that many
learned as school children; that King Datusena had been plastered alive to a
wall by his son Kasyapa who later died in battle facing his brother Moggallana.
Perhaps this is the story accepted until later documents and literary works
suggested otherwise.
King Kasyapa was the man who dared to hold the dream of his father of
building a palace in the sky, despite the many obstacles he faced. Kasyapa was

unfortunately called a parricide, owing to the earlier legend and later by his
famed epithet 'God-King'.
Places to visit in Sigiriya:
The Water Gardens- Framing the main, western approach to the rock, the wellpreserved Water Gardens are like a tiny piece of Versailles transported to
ancient Sri Lanka, with carefully tended lawns dotted with
symmetrically arranged ponds, water channels and diminutive fountains
(although all of these tend to dry up during periods of low rainfall).
The Boulder Gardens
The Boulder Gardens present a striking contrast to the classical symmetry of the
Water Gardens, comprising a small swathe of picturesque forest, with winding
pathways twisting between huge boulders and through quaint rock arches. Many
of the boulders are scored with long lines of notches; these would originally
have held supports for miniature wooden pavilions (long since vanished) which
once stood on almost every boulder. The Boulder Gardens are where the monks
of Sigiriya lived, and numerous mementoes of this ancient religious community
can still be seen amongst the various rocks and cave shelters.
Sigiriya Damsels
An incongruous pair of Victorian-era spiral metal staircases lead up to a
sheltered recess in the rock and the home of Sigiriyas single most celebrated
sight: the so-called Sigiriya Damsels. Commissioned by King Kassapa in the
5th century, this exquisite mural, perhaps the largest ever attempted, is painted
onto the sheer rock face and features 21 beautiful, bare-chested women,
swathed in a layer of fluffy cloud from the waist down, shown scattering flower
petals or offering trays of fruit. The paintings are quite unlike anything else in
Sri Lanka, whose artists have usually preferred to concentrate on the highly
stylised depiction of Buddhist religious themes.
John Still in 1907 suggested, "The whole face of the hill appears to have been a gigantic
picture gallery... the largest picture in the world perhaps".[9] The paintings would have
covered most of the western face of the rock, an area 140 metres long and 40 metres high.
There are references in the graffiti to 500 ladies in these paintings. However, most have been
lost forever. More frescoes, different from those on the rock face, can be seen elsewhere, for
example on the ceiling of the location called the "Cobra Hood Cave".
Although the frescoes are classified as in the Anuradhapura period, the painting style is
considered unique; the line and style of application of the paintings differing from
Anuradhapura paintings. The lines are painted in a form which enhances the sense of volume
of the figures. The paint has been applied in sweeping strokes, using more pressure on one
side, giving the effect of a deeper colour tone towards the edge. Other paintings of the
Anuradhapura period contain similar approaches to painting, but do not have the sketchy
lines of the Sigiriya style, having a distinct artists' boundary line. The true identity of the
ladies in these paintings still has not been confirmed. There are various ideas about their
identity. Some believe that they are the ladies of the king's while others think that they are
women taking part in religious observances. These pictures have a close resemblance to
paintings seen in the Ajanta caves in India.

The Mirror Wall


Another of Sigiriyas unique sights is the highly polished Mirror Wall, plastered
with a mixture of burnished lime, egg white, beeswax and wild honey, and
covered with a dense spiders web of ancient graffiti left by visitors to the rock
over the past 1,500 years. The graffiti something akin to an enormous
medieval visitors book include numerous short poems and other literary
fragments recording early visitors impressions of the rock, and, particularly, a
great many tributes to the heavenly beauty of the nearby Damsels. The oldest
graffiti date back to the 7th century.
The Summit
Heading up to the summit, the rickety-looking colonial-era metal staircase,
cantilevered off the face of the rock, looks in places as if it is about to sail
straight off into mid-air. And really, only those with a rock-solid head for
heights will fail to feel at least a frisson of vertigo on this final section of the
ascent. After the narrowness of the steps up though, the summit seems
surprisingly spacious. The top of the rock shelves steeply, covered in a
confusion of foundations and remains which were once part of Kassapas
palace. At the lowest end of the summit, a series of terraces, which were once
possibly gardens, offer wonderful views.

American Embassy in Colombo, Sri


Lanka
U.S. Embassy in Colombo, Sri Lanka
210, Galle Road
Colombo 03
Sri Lanka
City: Colombo
Phone: +94 (11) 244-9070
Fax: +94 (11) 242-1272
Web
Site: http://colombo.usembassy.gov/
Email: TisseraV@state.gov
Office Hours: Monday through
Thursday 8:00 AM - 5:30 PM Friday
8:00 AM - 12 PM
Austrian Consulate in Colombo, Sri
Lanka
Consulate of Austria in Colombo, Sri
Lanka send edits
Consulate of Austria
No.424, Carmart building
P.O.B. 903, Union Place
Colombo 02, Sri Lanka
City: Colombo
Phone: (+9411) 2691613
Consulate General (+9411)2696311,
(+9411)5400500
Consul's Direct (+9411) 2693
Fax: Consulate Direct (+9411) 5344576
General (+9411
Email:
austriacon@sltnet.lk;general_austria@sl
tnet.lk
Office Hours: Monday, Wednesday and
Friday between 9.30 am to 1.00 pm.
Bhutanese Consulate in Colombo, Sri
Lanka
Honorary Consul of Bhutan in
Colombo, Sri Lanka send edits
Level 06, Hemas House
No 75, Braybrooke Place
Colombo-02, Sri Lanka

Australian High Commission, Sri Lanka


No. 21 Gregory's Rd
Colombo 7
Sri Lanka
City: Colombo
Phone: +94-11- 246 3200 (General
Enquiries)
Fax: +94-11- 268 6453 (Administration)
Web
Site: http://www.srilanka.embassy.gov.a
u/
Email: austcom@sltnet.lk
Office Hours: The High Commission is
open between 08:30 and 04:30 on all
week-days except on public holidays.
Belgian Consulate in Colombo, Sri
Lanka
Honorary Consulate of Belgium in
Colombo, Sri Lanka send edits
Police Park Terrace, 3/1
Colombo 05 Sri Lanka
City: Colombo
Phone: + (94) (11) 250.43.51
Fax: + (94) (11) 250.43.52
Email: consul.belgium@unilink.lk

Brazilian Embassy in Colombo, Sri


Lanka
Embassy of Brazil in Sri Lanka send
edits
MORVEN HOUSE NR. 16
QUEENS ROAD, COLOMBO 3 SRI
LANKA

City: Colombo
Phone: 0094 11 2313131
Fax: 0094 23 00003
Email:
bhutan.consul@hemas.com,abbas@hem
as.com
Canadian Consulate in Colombo, Sri
Lanka
High Commission of Canada in
Colombo, Sri Lanka send edits
6 Gregory's Road, Cinnamon Garden
Colombo, Sri Lanka, 07
City: Colombo
Phone: 94 (11) 532-6232 or 522-6232
Fax: 94 (11) 532-6299 or 522-6299
Web Site: http://www.srilanka.gc.ca
Email: clmbo-cs@international.gc.ca

City: Colombo

Chinese Embassy in Colombo, Sri


Lanka
Chinese Embassy in Sri Lanka send
edits
381-A Bauddhaloka
Mawatha
Colombo 07, Sri Lanka
City: Colombo
Phone: 0094-11-2688610
Fax: 0094-11-2693799
Web Site: http://lk.chinaembassy.org/eng/
Email: chinaemb_lk@mfa.gov.cn
Cuban Embassy in Colombo, Sri Lanka Cypriot Consulate in Colombo, Sri
Cuban Embassy in Colombo, Sri Lanka
Lanka
send edits
Honorary Consulate of the Republic of
15/9 Maitland Crescent
Cyprus in Colombo, Sri Lanka send
Colombo 07, Sri Lanka
edits
City: Colombo
Ceylinco Seylan Towers, 16th Floor
Phone: (94-11) 2677170
90, Galle Road
Fax: (94-11) 2669380
Colombo 03, Sri Lanka
Email:
City: Colombo
consulcuba@sltnet.lk,cubaembalk@sltn Phone: (009411) 2456650, 2456675,
et.lk,embacuba@sltnet.lk
2456651, 2580252 (Res.)
Office Hours: Office Hours: Monday to Fax: (009411) 2452655, 2580252 (Res.
Friday 09:00 to 17:00 Consular Office Fax)
Hours: Monday to Friday 09:00 to 12:00 Email: sicille@lanka.ccom.lk, sicille@c
eygroup.ccom.lk
Office Hours: 09:00 - 15:00 (Flexible)
Czech Consulate in Colombo 03, Sri
Lanka
Honorary Consulate of the Czech
Republic in Colombo, Sri Lanka send
edits
Delmon Holdings Building
Level 02, No. 15, Mile Post Avenue

Danish Consulate in Colombo 1, Sri


Lanka
Royal Danish Consulate General in Sri
Lanka send edits
Unit #5-3C, East Tower
World Trade Center
Echelon Square

Colombo 03, Sri Lanka


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Fax: 009411/2375852
Email: czech2006@sltnet.lk
Office Hours: Monday - Thursday:
10.00 - 16.30
Finnish Consulate in Colombo, Sri
Lanka
Honorary Consulate General of Finland
in Colombo, Sri Lanka send edits
Honorary Consulate General of Finland
23-25 Rheinland Place 3
City: Colombo
Phone: +94-11-4727222
Fax: + 94-11-2576755 / 2575485
Email: ashroffo@brandix.com

City: Colombo 01
Phone: +94 (75) 556 699
Fax: +94 (75) 554 545
Email: kdconsul@sltnet.lk

German Embassy in Colombo, Sri


Lanka
Embassy of Germany in Colombo, Sri
Lanka send edits
No. 40, Alfred House Avenue
Colombo-03
Sri Lanka
City: Colombo
Phone: 94 1 580431
Fax: 94 1 580440
Web Site: http://www.colombo.diplo.de/
Email: germaemb@sltnet.lk
Office Hours: 9.00-12.00 MondayFriday
Greenlandic Consulate in Colombo, Sri
Lanka
Royal Danish Consulate General in Sri
Lanka send edits
Unit #5-3C, East Tower
World Trade Center
Echelon Square
Colombo 01
City: Colombo
Phone: +94 (75) 556 699

Greek Consulate in Colombo, Sri Lanka


Honorary Consulate General of Greece
in Colombo send edits
Meewella Building 4th Floor, 329 Galle
Road, Colombo 04, Sri Lanka
City: Colombo
Phone: (009411) 2556701
Fax: (009411) 2585995
Email: ajit@keells.com

French Embassy in Colombo, Sri Lanka


Embassy of France in Colombo, Sri
Lanka send edits
89 Rosmead place - Colombo 7
City: Colombo
Phone: [94] (11) 263 94 00
Fax: [94] (11) 263 94 02/ 263 94 01
(section consulaire
Web Site: http://www.colombo.diplo.de/
Email: ambfrclb@sltnet.lk

Indian Consulate in Colombo, Sri Lanka


High Commission of India in Colombo,
Sri Lanka send edits
36-38, Galle Road
PO Box No. 8823
City: Colombo
Phone: 00-94-1-2327587, 2421605
Fax: 00-94-1-2445403
Web Site: http://www.hcicolombo.org/
Email: cons.colombo@mea.gov.in, info.

Fax: +94 (75) 554 545


Email: kdconsul@sltnet.lk
Indian Consulate in Kandy, Sri Lanka
High Commission of India in Kandy,
Sri Lanka send edits
No. 31, Rajapihilla Mawatha
PO Box 47
City: Kandy
Phone: 00-94-8-234545, 224563
Email: ahciknd@telenett.net

colombo@mea.gov.in, hoc.colombo@m
ea.gov.in, com.colombo@mea.gov.in

Indonesian Embassy in Colombo, Sri


Lanka
Embassy of Indonesia in Colombo, Sri
Lanka send edits
400/50 Sarana Road
Off Budhaloka Mawatha
Colombo 07, Sri Lanka
City: Colombo
Phone: (94-11) 267 43 37
Fax: (94-11) 267 86 68
Email: indocola@sri.lanka.net
Irish Consulate in Colombo, Sri Lanka Italian Embassy in Colombo, Sri Lanka
Honorary Consul of Ireland in Sri Lanka Embassy of Italy in Sri Lanka send
send edits
edits
35 Edward Lane
55, Jawatta Road
City: Colombo 03
Colombo 5 - 00500
Phone: 0094 11 2587 895
Sri Lanka
Fax: 0094 11 4517 589
City: Colombo
Phone: 941 588 388
Fax: 941 588 622
Web Site: http://www.italyvfs.com/
Email: itemgen@slt.lk
Office Hours: Monday - Friday
08.30 - 12.30
Japanese Embassy in Colombo, Sri
Kuwaiti Embassy in Colombo, Sri
Lanka
Lanka
Embassy of Japan in Colombo, Sri
Embassy of Russia in Colombo, Sri
Lanka send edits
Lanka send edits
No. 20 Gregory's Road,
14 Jawatta Road
Colombo 7
Colombo 05
Democratic Socialist Republic
Sri Lanka
of Sri Lanka
City: Colombo
(P.O. Box 822 Colombo)
Phone: (+94-11) 2597957,
City: Colombo
2582428, 2597958
Phone: +94-11-2693831
Fax: (+94-11) 2597954
Fax: +94-11-2698629
Email: kuemcolombo@eureka.l
Web Site: http://www.lk.embk
japan.go.jp/
Email: cultujpn@sltnet.lk

Office Hours: Working Hours:


8:30-17:00 Weekly Holidays:
Saturday/Sunday
Malaysian Consulate in Colombo, Sri
Lanka
High Commission of Malaysia,
Colombo send edits
No. 33, Bagatalle Road,
Colombo 03,
Democratic Socialist Republic
of Sri Lanka
City: Colombo
Phone: 0094 112554681/2/3
Fax: 0094 112554684
Web
Site: http://www.kln.gov.my/per
wakilan/colombo
Email:
malcolmbo@eureka.lk,malhoc
@eureka.lk,malcon@eureka.lk
Office Hours: Monday - Friday
8.15 a.m - 4.15 p.m
Myanmar Embassy in Colombo, Sri
Lanka
Embassy of Myanmar in Colombo,
Sri Lanka send edits
No. 108 Barnes Place,
City: Colombo 07
Phone: (94) (1) 681197, 672197
Fax: (94) (1) 681196
Email: mecmb@itmin.com, mm
embcmb@eureka.lk
Dutch Embassy in Colombo, Sri Lanka
Royal Embassy of Netherlands in
Colombo, Sri Lanka send edits
25, Torrington Avenue
Colombo 07
Sri Lanka
City: Colombo
Phone: +94-(0)11-2596914
Fax: +94-(0)11-2502855
Web Site: http://srilanka.nlembassy.org/
Email: col@minbuza.nl

Maltese Consulate in Colombo, Sri


Lanka
Honorary Consulate of Malta in
Colombo, Sri Lanka send edits
c/o 2nd Floor, Lucky Plaza
No.70, St Anthony s Mawatha
Colombo 03
Sri Lanka
City: Colombo
Phone: 0094-11-2-575 511/ 2574 817
Fax: 0094-11-2-577 385
Email:
maltaconsul.colombo@gov.m

Nepalese Embassy in Colombo, Sri


Lanka
Embassy of Nepal in Colombo, Sri
Lanka send edits
153, Kynsey Road,
Colombo 08, Sri Lanka
City: Colombo
Phone: 0094-11-2689-656, 657
Fax: 0094-11-2689-655
Email: nepalembassy@eureka.lk
Pakistani Embassy in Colombo, Sri
Lanka
Embassy of the Islamic Republic of
Pakistan send edits
211 De Saram Place
Colombo 10
Sri Lanka
City: Colombo
Phone: (+94-11) 2697939, 2696301/2
Fax: (+94-11) 2695780, 2685635
Email: pakhicom@sri.lanka.net, parepc

Office Hours: Visa Centre Openings


Hours Monday to Thursday 8.30 15.00pm
Philippine Consulate in Colombo, Sri
Lanka
Consulate General of Philippines in
Colombo, Sri Lanka send edits
41 Sir Ernest de Silva Mawatha
Flower Road
Colombo 07
Sri Lanka
City: Colombo
Phone: (+94) (1) 370710 or (+94) (1)
370711
Fax: (+94) (1) 522524
Email: philcons@slt.lk
Russian Embassy in Colombo, Sri
Lanka
Embassy of Russia in Colombo, Sri
Lanka send edits
Embassy of the Russian Federation
62 Sir Ernest de Silva Mawatha
Colombo 07, Sri-Lanka
City: Colombo
Phone: +941 2574-959, 2573-555
Fax: +941 2574-959, 2573-555
Email: rusemb@itmin.net
Singaporean Consulate in Colombo, Sri
Lanka
Consulate of Singapore in Sri Lanka
send edits
No. 13, Dickman's Lane
City: Colombo
Phone: +94-11-2550-800
Fax: +94-11-2582-850 / +94-11-2502988
Email: chairman@ceylincoconsolidated.
com

olombo@sltnet.lk
Romanian Embassy in Colombo, Sri
Lanka
Embassy of Romania in Colombo, Sri
Lanka send edits
14A Cambridge Terrace
Colombo 07
Sri Lanka
City: Colombo
Phone: (00) (94) (11) 2683421
Fax: (00) (94) (11) 2683422
Email: romania@sri.lanka.net
Saudi Arabian Embassy in Colombo, Sri
Lanka
Saudi Arabia Embassy , Sri Lanka send
edits
29 Horton Place, 120 Horton Place
PO Box 155
City: Colombo
Phone: +94-696726 / +94-694874/+94691549/+94-697311
Fax: +94-338881
Email: saudiemb@sltnet.lk
South African Consulate in Colombo,
Sri Lanka
South African High Commission in Sri
Lanka
Level 26, East Tower
World Trade Center
Echelon Square
Colombo 01
City: Colombo
Phone: + 94 11 5635 966; + 94 11 2351
529
Fax: +94 11 5505 899
Email: sahc_info@sltnet.lk, sahc_consu
lar@sltnet.lk, sahc_finance@sltnet.lk

Swedish Embassy in Colombo, Sri


Lanka
Embassy of Sweden, Colombo send
edits
49 Bullers Lane
Colombo 07
Sri Lanka
City: Colombo
Phone: +94 (11) 4795 400
Fax: +94 (11) 4795 450
Email: ambassaden.colombo@sida.se
Office Hours: Monday-Thursday 9 a.m.
to 12 noon Visa (applications and
processing): Monday-Thursday 9 a.m.
to 12 noon

Thai Embassy in Colombo, Sri Lanka


Royal Thai Embassy, Sri Lanka send
edits
9th Floor, Green lanka Towers
46/46 Nawam Mawatha
Colombo 02
City: Colombo
Phone: (9411) 230-2500-3, 230-4514,
230-2482
Fax: (9411) 230-4511-2
Web
Site: http://www.thaiembassy.org/colom
bo
Email: thaicmb@sltnet.lk
Office Hours: Working hours: MondayFriday 8.30 hrs.-16.30 hrs.

Emirati Embassy in Colombo, Sri Lanka


Embassy of United Arab Emirates in Sri
Lanka send edits
44 Ernest de Silva Mw.
City: Colombo
Phone: +94-1-565052 / +94-1-565053
Fax: +94-1-564104
Email: uaeemb@pan.lk

TOURIST POLICE
The Sri Lanka Tourism Development Authority is committed to ensuring that
both local and foreign tourists have a safe, pleasurable and memorable travel
experience in Sri Lanka without being subjected to any harassment, fraud, theft
or inconvenience.
A fully fledged Tourist Police force has been established at SLTDA premises. Its
functions are to re-establish a network of tourists Police stations in key areas for
visitors, both local and foreign to enjoy a hassle free holiday.
Special Police units apart from the general police duties are assigned to serve
tourists in all maters of guidance relief in adverse situations they have coordination with the tourist hotels and cover locations of the frequent and lodge.

The division is responsible to safeguard Sri Lankans from negative practice


such as use of children for commercial sex, drugs, and other undesirable
activities.
Tourist Police Division
Telephone: 0112-421451
Services provided by the Police
Emergency services for the public
1-1-9 Police Emergency service free of charge to the caller from any location
Island wide.
The emergency service The Police have in operation strategies to assist the
public or any organization encountering adverse situations of any level, which
may arise at any unexpected hour disrupting the normal way of life in the
society.
The police emergency centre on 1-1-9 operating at Inspector Generals command
Information centre Mirihana receives all public calls of emergencies and prompt
action is taken.
The relevant local police station and the authorities too will be informed of the
complaint in any part of the Island depending on the nature of the complaint.
In case of Emergencies (personal and national cases eg. Disaster and accidents)
the Police Emergency Response Crew will be at the doorstep within 15 Minutes
(in the city), and in all other out station areas the distance and the terrain would
effect the response time in reaching the location but will be quickly as possible.
Island wide Policing
The entire Island is covered by 401 Police stations, which are at service 24 hrs
of the day
Entertaining complaints of the general public
The general public could make complains which are entertained and addressed
at the earliest. The public has the right to request an acknowledgment of the
complaint made.
Issue of extracts of complaints
The OIC of the Police station issues extracts of complaints made by the public
on an application made requesting for the same on payment of Rs.25 .00 per
hundred words each. An official receipt is issued for the payment.
These extract of complaints are issued only on the provisions of law. The extract
which the complainant is entitled in a criminal suit is mentioned in the criminal
procedure code section 444 (1). In civil maters, extracts of complaints may be
issued on request.

WATER FALLS
The following is a list of waterfalls in Sri Lanka. Waterfalls less than 10 m
(33 ft) in height are not included.
Waterfall

Height

Location

Province

Aberdeen Falls

098 m
(322 ft)

Aberdeen

Central

Dethiri Ella

030 m (98 ft) Dolosbage

Central

Ahupini Ella

010 m (33 ft) Aranayake, Mawanella

Sabaragamuwa

Alakola Falls

060 m
(197 ft)

Baker's Falls

020 m (66 ft)

Horton Plains National


Park

Central

Bambarakanda Falls

263 m
(863 ft)

Kalupahana

Uva

Perawella

Uva

Bomburu Ella
Bopath Ella Falls

030 m (98 ft) Ratnapura

Sabaragamuwa

Delta Falls

060 m
(197 ft)

Dessford Falls

020 m (66 ft)

Devon Falls

097 m
(318 ft)

Talawakele

Central

Diyaluma Falls

220 m
(722 ft)

Koslanda

Uva

Doovili Ella

040 m
(131 ft)

Dunhinda Falls

063 m
(207 ft)

Elgin Falls

025 m (82 ft) Ambewela

Central

Ethamala Falls

052 m
(171 ft)

Southern

Galboda Ella

030 m (98 ft) Nawalapitiya

Galdola Falls

100 m
(328 ft)

Garandi Ella

100 m
(328 ft)

Central
Badulla

Akurassa

Balangoda

Uva

Central

Central

Waterfall

Height

Location

Province

Gartmore Falls

020 m (66 ft) Maskeliya

Glain Falls

010 m (33 ft)

Handapan Ella

200 m
(656 ft)

Handun Ella

030 m (98 ft)

Hathmale Falls

045 m
(148 ft)

Deniyaya

Southern

Huluganga Falls

075 m
(246 ft)

Huluganga Town

Central[4]

Hunnas Falls

060 m
(197 ft)

Elkaduwa

Central

Kalupahana Falls

010 m (33 ft)

Kirindi Ella

116 m
(381 ft)

Kothmale
Mahakandura Falls

010 m (33 ft)

Kurunduoya Falls

206 m
(676 ft)

Laxapana Falls

129 m
(423 ft)

Lihinihela Ella

200 m
(656 ft)

Lovers Leap

030 m (98 ft) Nuwara Eliya

Madanagiri Falls

070 m
(230 ft)

Mahakandura Falls

120 m
(394 ft)

Manawela Falls

022 m (72 ft)

Mannakethi Ella

060 m
(197 ft)

Mapanana Falls

148 m
(486 ft)

Nakkawita Falls

100 m
(328 ft)

Central

pelmadulla;

Central
Hatton

Gilimale

Central

Central

Waterfall

Height

Nanuoya Falls

060 m
(197 ft)

Okandagala Falls

063 m
(207 ft)

Oolu Ella

200 m
(656 ft)

Peessa Ella

Location

Province
Central

Yatiyantota, Kegalle

Sabaragamuwa

Lunugala

Uva

Puna Falls

100 m
(328 ft)

Pundalu Oya Falls

100 m
(328 ft)

Ramboda Falls

109 m
(358 ft)

Rathna Falls

101 m
(331 ft)

Central

Ravana Falls

025 m (82 ft) Ella

Uva

Rawan Ella
Sampath Ella

030 m (98 ft)

St. Clair's Falls

080 m
(262 ft)

Seetha Kotuwa Falls

060 m
(197 ft)

Sri Pada Falls

075 m
(246 ft)

Yaka Andu Ella

060 m
(197 ft)

Windsor Forest Falls

010 m (33 ft)

Central

Pussellawa

Central

Uduhawara

Uva

Hatton

Central

National Parks
Name
Photo

Location

Area

Established

Yala

Southern Province
978.807 km2 (378 sq mi)
Uva

25-02-1938

Name
Photo

Location

Area

Wilpattu

North Central
Province
North Western
Province

1,316.671 km2 (508 sq mi) 25-02-1938

Gal Oya

Uva
259 km2 (100 sq mi)
Eastern Province

12-02-1954

Kumana

Eastern Province 181.482 km2 (70 sq mi)

20-01-1970

Udawalawe

Sabaragamuwa
Uva

30-06-1972

308.21 km2 (119 sq mi)

Lahugala Kitulana Eastern Province 15.54 km2 (6 sq mi)

Established

31-10-1980

Maduru Oya

Eastern Province
588.496 km2 (227 sq mi)
Uva

09-11-1983

Wasgamuwa

Central Province
North Central
Province

370.629 km2 (143 sq mi)

07-08-1984

Flood Plains

North Central
Province

173.50 km2 (67 sq mi)

07-08-1984

Somawathiya

North Central
Province
396.455 km2 (153 sq mi)
Eastern Province

Horton Plains

Central Province

Bundala

Southern Province 62.16 km2 (24 sq mi)

04-01-1993

Lunugamvehera

Uva
234.988 km2 (91 sq mi)
Southern Province

08-12-1995

Minneriya

North Central
Province

88.894 km2 (34 sq mi)

12-08-1997

Kaudulla

North Central
Province

69 km2 (27 sq mi)

01-04-2002

Hikkaduwa

Southern Province 1.016 km2 (0 sq mi)

08-10-2002

Pigeon Island

Eastern Province 4.714 km2 (2 sq mi)

24-06-2003

Horagolla

Western Province .133 km2 (0 sq mi)

24-06-2004

Galway's Land

Central Province

.267 km2 (0 sq mi)

18-05-2006

31.598 km2 (12 sq mi)

02-09-1986
16-03-1988

Name
Photo

Location

Area

Established

Angammedilla

North Central
Province

75.289 km2 (29 sq mi)

06-06-2006

Ussangoda

Southern Province 3.49 km2 (1 sq mi)

06-2010

Mullaitivu
National Park

Northern Province

12-2010

Historic and Heritage Sites


00
1

Abayagiri Monastery - The Main Refectory -

00
2

Abayagiriya Stupa at Anuradhapura -

00
3

Abhayagiri Monastery -

00
4

Agbopura monastic site -

00
5

Alahana Pirivena of Polonnaruwa -

00
6

Alawala Pothgul Len Rajamaha Viharaya -

00
7

Algama Kanda Ancient Cave Temple -

00
8

Aliwatte Caves -

00
9

All Angels Church in Colpetty (Gal Palliya) -

01

Alu Viharaya Rock Temple -

0
011

Alugallena Monastery at Maligawila -

01
2

Aluthnuwara Dedimunda Devalaya at Mawanella -

01
3

Ambagamuwa Inscriptions -

01
4

Ambastala Dagaba and the Vatadage -

01
5

Ambilla Raja Maha Viharaya -

01
6

Ambulgama Raja Maha Viharaya - Hanwella -

01
7

Ambulugala Rajamaha Viharaya - Mawanalla [Si] -

01
8

Ambuluwawa Biodiversity Complex -

01
9

Ampara Veheragala Ruins -

02
0

Ampitiya Rajamaha Viharaya -

02
1

Anandakulama Tissa Forest Hermitage -

02
2

Andigala Rajamaha Viharaya -

02
3

Angammedilla Gal Amuna (Rajabemma) at Polonnaruwa -

02
4

Anjaligala Rajamaha Viharaya Ruins at Tissamaharama -

02
5

Appallagoda Ambalama -

02
6

Aradhana Gala of Mihintale -

02
7

Arandora Fort -

02
8

Arankele Forest Monastery -

02
9

Araththana Rajamaha Viharaya -

03
0

Arippu Fort -

03
1

Arisimale Rajamaha Viharaya -

03
2

Arulmihu Sivasubramania Swami Kovil

03
3

Asgiri Raja Maha Viharaya - Kandy -

03

Asokaramaya (Pankuliya Buddha Statue) - ( )

4
03
5

Assembly Hall of Mihintale -

03
6

Ata Dahe Walawwa -

03
7

Atadage at Polonnaruwa -

03
8

Attanagalla Raja Maha Viharaya -

03
9

Aukana (Avukana) Buddha Statue -

04
0

Badda Sema Malakaya at Ancient Capital of Polonnaruwa -

04
1

Bahirawa Kanda -

04
2

Balana Fort -

04
3

Balapitiya Purana Viharaya -

04
4

Balapokuna Purana Viharaya at Kirulapone -

04
5

Bambaragala Monastery - Teldiniya - -

04
6

Bambaragasthalawa Naga Pabbata Monastery - Kumana -

04
7

Bandagiriya Rajamaha Viharaya -

04
8

Barandi Kovila of Sitawaka Kingdom -

04
9

Barathanaga Lena Cave Temple, Thanthirimale -

05
0

Batathota Lena Cave Temple -

05
1

Batticaloa Fort -

05
2

Beligala Rajamaha Viharaya at Balangoda -

05
3

Beligala Rajamaha Viharaya at Kegalle -

05
4

Bellanwila Rajamaha Viharaya -

05
5

Bembawa Archaeological Site at Yala -

05
6

Benthara Galapatha Raja Maha Vihara -

05
7

Bentota Wanawasa Rajamaha Viharaya -

05
8

Beruwala Lighthouse -

05
9

Bihalpola Rajamaha Viharaya -

06
0

Biso Pokuna At Galabedda -

06
1

Bodhinagala Forest Hermitage -

06
2

Bodhirajarama Maha Viharaya (Angurukaramulla Temple) -

06
3

Bogoda Bridge at Bogoda Raja Maha Viharaya -

06
4

Bolthumbe Saman Devalaya -

06
5

Bowattegala Monastery in Kumana -

06
6

British Garrison Cemetery of Kandy

06
7

Buddhangala Monastery -

06
8

Buddhannehela Ruins in Padaviya -

06
9

Budugala Monastery -

07
0

Budugallena Forest Monastery -

07
1

Budugehinna Rajamaha Viharaya -

07
2

Budulena Rajamaha Viharaya -

07
3

Budupatuna - Losing Heritage of Wila Oya -

07
4

Buduruwagala Buddha Statue -

07
5

Buduruwayaya Archaeological Site -

07
6

Bulankulame Walawwa at Anuradhapura -

07
7

Burrows Pavilion (Stone Canopy) - ( )

07
8

City of Galle -

07
9

Dakkhina Stupa (Dakshina Stupa) -

08
0

Dalada Maluwa at Kingdom of Polonnaruwa -

08
1

Dalada Viharaya Ruins at Kirinda -

08
2

Daladage Ruins at Ancient Anuradhapura -

08
3

Dambadeniya Kingdom and Palace Complex -

08
4

Dambadeniya Sri Wijayasundararamaya -

08
5

Dambagalla Bingoda Raja Maya Viharaya -

08
6

Dambakola Patuna Temple -

08
7

Dambulla Cave Temple -

08
8

Dambulla Maligathenna ( Nuwaragala Kanda) Ruins - ()

08
9

Dambulla Somawathiya -

09
0

Damila Maha Seya (Demala Maha Seya)

09
1

Dankumbura Purana Gallen Rajamaha Viharaya -

09
2

Danthure Viharaya -

09
3

Debarawewa Menik Vehera -

09
4

Debarawewa Pashchimarama Rajamaha Viharaya -

09
5

Dedigama Kota Vehera (Suthigara Chethiya) -

09
6

Deegamadutu Dagoba Ruins at Akkaraipattu -

09
7

Deegavapi Stupa -

09
8

Deepa Uyana ( Island Garden) of Polonnaruwa Kingdom -

09
9

Deepaduttaramaya of Kotahena -

10
0

Degaldoruwa Raja Maha Vihara -

10
1

Delft Island Fort - Jaffna -

10
2

Delgamuwa Rajamaha Viharaya - Kuruwita -

10
3

Deliwala Kota Vehera -

10
4

Dematamal Viharaya -

10
5

Devagiri Raja Maha Vihara at Bingiriya -

10
6

Devanagala Raja Maha Viharaya -

10
7

Devinuwara Raja Maha Viharaya -

10
8

Devinuwara Upulvan (Vishnu) Devalaya -

10
9

Devram Vehera Rajamaha Viharaya Ruins at Thanamalwila -


110

Dimbulagala Raja maha Viharaya -

111

Dodanwela Devale -

112

Doric House and Doric Tower at Arippu -

113

Dowa Raja Maha Viharaya -

114

Dutch Fort at Elephant Pass -

115

Dutch fort at Mullaitivu -

116

Dutch Fort of Kalpitiya -

117

Dutch Fort of Ruwanwella -

118

Dutch Reformed Church of Galle

119

Eastern Entrance to the Inner City of Polonnaruwa Kingdom -

12
0

Edagala Forest Hermitage at Thanamalwila -

12
1

Ehelapola Wella and Ehelapola Wewa -

12
2

Ekiriyankumbura Endagala Archaeological Site -

12
3

Elahera Gal Amuna and Prakarama Inscription -

12
4

Elamaldeniya Raja Maha Viharaya -

12
5

Elugala Rajamaha Viharaya at Balangoda -

12
6

Embekke Devalaya -

12
7

Erabadugaswewa Buddhist Ruins -

12
8

Etampitiya Kotugodella Fort -

12
9

Eth Pokuna (Elephant Pond) -

13
0

Eth Vehera Stupa in Mihintale Monastery -

13
1

Ethabandigala Pillar Inscription -

13
2

Five Hooded Cobra at Nagathambarani-

13
3

Fort Fredrick at Trincomalee -

13
4

Fort Macdowall at Matale -

13
5

Fort Ostenburg at Trincomalee -

13
6

Fort Pyl & Fort Beschutter

13
7

Frescoes at Gonagolla Punchi Sigiriya -

13
8

Gadaladeniya Rajamaha Viharaya -

13
9

Gal Messa (Dolman) of Padavigampola - ( )

14
0

Gal Palama (Stone Bridge) over Halpan Ela - Anuradhapura -

14
1

Gal Palama (Stone Bridge) over Malwathu Oya - Anuradhapura -

14
2

Gal Potha (Stone Book) at Polonnaruwa -

14
3

Gal Viharaya (Rock Temple) at Ancient Capital of Polonnaruwa -

14
4

Galenda Rajamaha Viharaya - Ambalantota -

14
5

Galgane (Galge) at Devinuwara -

14
6

Galge Ruins -

14
7

Galge Viharaya Ruins in Wilpattu -

14
8

Galhatha Archaeological Ruins at Karuwalagaswewa -

14
9

Galkanumandiya Ruins -

15
0

Galle Fort -

15
1

Galmaduwa Viharaya -

15
2

Galtemyaya Kirudiyawela Ancient Ruins -

15
3

Galvehera Maluwa Viharaya at Ahungalla -

15
4

Gamini Tissa Monastery complex in Mottagala -

15
5

Gampaha Asgiriya Raja Maha Viharaya -

15
6

Ganegama Aramunapola Rajamaha Viharaya -

15
7

Ganegodella Rajamaha Viharaya at Kosgoda -

15
8

Gangarama Raja Maha Viharaya - Lewella -

15
9

Gangaramaya Rajamaha Viharaya - Ambalantota -

16
0

Gatabaru Rajamaha Viharaya -

16
1

Gedige Ruins at Ancient Anuradhapura -

16
2

Gen. Kobbakaduwa Memorial at Jaffna -

16
3

Girihandu Rajamaha Viharaya - Ambalantota -

16
4

Girikumbila Ruins at Ampara -

16
5

Godawaya Gotha Pabbatha Rajamaha Viharaya - Ambalantota -

16
6

Gokanna Viharaya at Trincomalee -

16
7

Gokarella Polgolla Shastraravinda Pirivena -

16
8

Gopala Pabbatha of Ancient Capital of Polonnaruwa -

16
9

Gothapabbatha Rajamaha Viharaya (Veheragala Archaeological Site) -


( )

17
0

Gurulupotha Sita Kotuwa (Seetha Kotuwa) -

17
1

Habessa Ruins (Hebessa)

17
2

Haldummulla Portuguese Fort -

17
3

Halmillewa Chandrasara Forest Hermitage -

17
4

Halpe Pattini Devalaya at Ella -

17
5

Hammenhiel Fort in Jaffna -

17
6

Handagala Kanda Ancient Cave Temple -

17
7

Hanguranketha Maha Vishnu Devalaya -

17
8

Hanguranketha Pattini Devalaya -

17
9

Hanguranketha Pothgul Maliga Rajamaha Viharaya -

18
0

Hanwella Fort -

18
1

Haththota Amuna -

18
2

Hatthikuchchi Aramic Complex ( Rajanganaya Ruins) -

18
3

Helamulla Degalhela Viharaya Ruins -

18
4

Helamulla Pansalgoda Ruins at Siyambalanduwa -

18
5

Henanigala Raja Maha Viharaya - Dehiattakandiya - -

18
6

Hendeniya Rajamaha Viharaya -

18
7

Hennaanigala Rajamaha Viharaya -

18
8

Hetadage at Polonnaruwa -

18
9

Hindagala Raja Maha Viharaya -

19
0

Hiriwadunna Sri Bodhiraja Forest Hermitage -

19
1

Historic Bellanwila Rajamaha Vihara

19
2

Historic Colombo Fort -

19
3

Historic Nagadeepa Viharaya at Nainativu, Jaffna -

19
4

Holike Rajamaha Viharaya -

19
5

Hollombuwa Sthreepura Cave Temple - ""

19
6

Hospital Complex of Mihintale -

19
7

Hulannuge Tharulengala Rajamaha Viharaya at Lahugala -

19
8

Humbuluwa Raja Maha Viharaya -

19
9

Hunupitiya Gangaramaya Viharaya -

20
0

Ibbagala Raja Maha Viharaya -

20
1

Ilupandeniya Raja Maha Viharaya -

20
2

Indikatu Seya Complex at Mihintale -

20
3

Isinbassagala Ruwangiri Rajamaha Viharaya -

20
4

Isurumuniya Viharaya -

20
5

Jaffna Fort -

20
6

James Taylor's Loolkandura : The First Tea Plantation in Sri Lanka - ,


20
7

Japanese Peace Pagoda in Ampara -

20
8

Japanese Peace Pagoda In Rumassala -

20
9

Jathika Namal Uyana -

21
0

Jethawanaramaya of Anuradhapura Kingdom -

211

Kabella Lena Cave Temple -

21
2

Kabulumulla Pattini Devalaya -

21
3

Kadala Rajamaha Viharaya at Ritigahawatta -

21
4

Kadiragala Raja Maha Viharaya -

21
5

Kadugannawa Ambalama ( wayside rest ) -

21
6

Kadurugoda Viharaya at Kantarodai Jaffna - -

21
7

Kahandawa Raja Maha Viharaya -

21
8

Kahatagasdigiliya Sri Gonagiri Rajamaha Viharaya -

21
9

Kalagam Vehera Ruins in Kebithigollewa -

22
0

Kaludiya Pokuna in Dambulla -

22
1

Kaludiya Pokuna of Mihintale -

22
2

Kalugala Monastery -

22
3

Kalutara Bodhiya -

22
4

Kalutara Fort -

22
5

Kaluwamodara Sri Kalyanaramaya Purana Viharaya -

22
6

Kanabiso Pokuna and Rajamaha Viharaya at Handapanagala -


22
7

Kanawegalla Maligathanna Ruins -

22
8

Kanchikudichchi Aru Ruins -

22
9

Kandanketiya Ancient Temple

23
0

Kandasurindugama Gallen Viharaya at Kataragama -

23
1

Kande Viharaya - Aluthgama -

23
2

Kande Viharaya - Haputale -

23
3

Kandegama Kanda Lena Viharaya and Silumini Seya -

23
4

Kandy Lake (Nuwara Weva) -

23
5

Kantaka Chethiya at Mihintale -

23
6

Karagahagedara Ambalama -

23
7

Karambagala Hermitage (Karandulena) -

23
8

Karandeniya Shailatharama Viharaya -

23
9

Karathana Gal Len Viharaya -

24
0

Kasagala Rajamaha Viharaya Kurunegala

24
1

Kataragama Devalaya & Kiri Vehera -

24
2

Kataragama Devalaya in Badulla -

24
3

Kataragama Devalaya of Kandyan Kingdom -

24
4

Kathiraveli Prehistoric Burial and Grounds & Archaeological Site -

24
5

Katupelellegala Ancient Buddhist Ruins -

24
6

Katuwana Fort -

24
7

Kayts Island Fort -

24
8

Keerimalai Fresh water Spring -

24
9

Kelaniya Raja Maha Viharaya -

25
0

Kele Dambulla Raja Maha Viharaya -

25
1

Kengalla Ambalama -

25
2

Kinihiri Kanda Rajamaha Viharaya -

25
3

Kiri Vehera at Polonnaruwa -

25
4

Kiribath Vehera of Ancient Anuradhapura -

25
5

Kirinda Raja Maha Viharaya -

25
6

Kirthi Sri Rajasinghe Rajamaha Vihara -

25
7

Kithulpe Raja Maha Viharaya [Si] -

25
8

Kivulekada Hindu Kovil Ruins -

25
9

Kivulekada Shailabimbaramaya Viharaya -

26
0

Koddiyar Fort -

26
1

Koduruwapola Raja Maha Viharaya -

26
2

Kolambagama Miyugunarama Rajamaha Viharaya -

26
3

Kondawattuwana Wewa and Monastic Ruins -

26
4

Korathota Raja Maha Viharaya -

26
5

Kotagala Piyangalu Raja Maha Viharaya -

26
6

Kotamudungala Raja Maha Viharaya, Molagoda -

26
7

Kotasara Piyangala Rajamaha Viharaya -

26
8

Kothduwa Raja Maha Viharaya -

26
9

Kotmale Kadadora (Dehadu Kadulla) - ( )

27
0

Kotte Gal Ambalama -

27
1

Kotte Kingdom -

27
2

Kottimbulwala Raja Maha Vihara at Balangoda -

27
3

Kuda Gal Viharaya at Polonnaruwa Ancient City -

27
4

Kudumbigala Monastery -

27
5

Kumara Ella Archaeological Reserve -

27
6

Kumara Kanda Palace Ruins -

27
7

Kumara Pokuna in Ancient city of Polonnaruwa -

27
8

Kundasale Kele Devale -

27
9

Kuragala buddhist monastery at Balangoda -

28
0

Kurudana Gangathilake Rajamaha Viharaya -

28
1

Kurullangala Prehistoric Cave Art Site at Karandagolla -

28
2

Kushtaraja Gala at Weligama -

28
3

Kuttam Pokuna (Twin Ponds) -

28
4

Kuweni Palace at Wilpattu -

28
5

Lahugala Kota Vehera -

28
6

Lahugala Magul Maha Viharaya -

28
7

Lahugala Neelagiri Maha Seya -

28
8

Lankapatuna Samudragiri Viharaya - Trincomalee -

28
9

Lankaramaya in Anuradhapura Kingdom -

29
0

Lankathilaka Image House at Polonnaruwa - -

29
1

Lankatilaka Raja Maha Viharaya -

29
2

Lenawara Rajamaha Viharaya at Akarawita -

29
3

Lendora Raja Maha Viharaya -

29
4

Lihiniyagala Len Viharaya -

29
5

Lovamahapaya - The Great Copper Roofed Mansion -

29
6

Madanwala Rajamaha Viharaya -

29
7

Madawala Stone Inscription -

29
8

Maddegama Raja Maha Viharaya -

29
9

Madhu Church at Mannar - (Ancient Pattini Devalaya of Madhu) -

30
0

Madukanda Viharaya at Vavuniya -

30
1

Madunagala Temple Hermitage -

30
2

Maduru Oya Ancient Sluice -

30
3

Maduwa Pattini Devalaya -

30
4

Maduwanwela Aramaya -

30
5

Maduwanwela Walawwa -

30
6

Magul Maduwa (Audience Hall) of the Kandyan Palace - -

30
7

Maha Kebiliththa Devalaya -

30
8

Maha Saman Devalaya, Ratnapura -

30
9

Mahakanadarawa Stone Bridge -

31
0

Mahapali Alms Hall of Abayagiriya Monastery -

311

Mahaweli Maha Seya (Kotmale Seya) -

31
2

Mahiyangana Rajamaha Viharaya -

31
3

Makulatenna Raja Maha Viharaya -

31
4

Maligatenna Raja Maha Viharaya - Gampaha -

31
5

Maligawila Buddha Statue and and Dambegoda Bodhisattva Statue -

31
6

Malwana Fort -

31
7

Malwatu Maha Viharaya at Kandy -

31
8

Malwila Ruins of Saliyapura -

31
9

Maniyangama Raja Maha Viharaya -

32
0

Mannar Fort -

32
1

Manthiri Manai Mansion in Jaffna -

32
2

Mantota Rajamaha Viharaya -

32
3

Mapagala Fortress in Sigiriya -

32
4

Maragala Gallenagoda Len Viharaya -

32
5

Martello Tower at Hambantota

32
6

Masjidul Abrar Jumma Mosque of Beruwala - The oldest mosque in Sri Lanka

32
7

Matara Fort -

32
8

Maviddapuram Kanthaswamy Kovil -

32
9

Mawaragala forest monastery -

33
0

Mawela Walagamba Len Viharaya [Si] -

33
1

Mayura Pirivena of Anuradhapura Kingdom -

33
2

Medagoda Pattini Devalaya -

33
3

Medawala Rajamaha Viharaya [Si] -

33
4

Medirigiriya Vatadage -

33
5

Meeduma Sri Mahindaramaya Ancient Viharaya -

33
6

Meepe Ambalama -

33
7

Menik Vehera - Polonnaruwa -

33
8

Menikdena Archeological Reserve -

33
9

Menikkadawara Fort of the Portuguese -

34
0

Methagama Dimbula Maliyadeva Rajamaha Viharaya -

34
1

Miella (Myella) Kanda Ancient Caves at Kotiyagala -

34
2

Mihindu Guhawa -

34
3

Mihindu Seya of Mihintale Monastery -

34
4

Mihintale - The cradle of Buddhism -

34
5

Mihintale Maha Seya -

34
6

Minimarupitiya Tampita Viharaya -

34
7

Mirisawetiya Dagaba -

34
8

Moat and Ramparts of Kotte Kingdom

34
9

Monaragala Buddama Rajamaha Viharaya -

35
0

Monastic Ruins of Haththota Amuna -

35
1

Monument of the Battle of Randeniwela -

35
2

Moonstone at Mahasen Maligaya (Anuradhapura) -

35
3

Moonstone at Pancavasa (Biso Maligawa) -

35
4

Muhudu Maha Viharaya at Pottuvil -

35
5

Mulkirigala Rajamaha Viharaya -

35
6

Mullaitivu Sri Samudragiri Rajamaha Viharaya -

35
7

Mullikulamalai Monastery Ruins -

35
8

Muthiyangana Raja Maha Viharaya at Badulla -

35
9

Muttur Galkanda Temple Ruins -

36
0

Muwapitiya Tempita Viharaya -

36
1

Naga Pokuna of Mihintale -

36
2

Naga Vimanaya (Sri Naga Viharaya) in Kandy -

36
3

Nagadeepa Rajamaha Viharaya at Mahiyanganaya

36
4

Nagalakanda Mahasen Monastery [Si] -

36
5

Nagapooshani Amman Kovil

36
6

Nagolla Aramaya -

36
7

Nagolla Raja Maha Viharaya -

36
8

Naindanawa Rajamaha Viharaya -

36
9

Naipena Viharaya - Vishnu Devala (number 4) - ( 4)

37
0

Nakha Vehera of Ancient Anuradhapura -

37
1

Nakuleswaram Kovil in Jaffna - Oldest Siva Temple in Sri Lanka

37
2

Nalanda Gedige at Matale -

37
3

Nallur Kandaswamy Kovil - Jaffna

37
4

Namal Pokuna Aramic Complex at Dimbulagala -

37
5

Nandimithra Raja Maha Viharaya -

37
6

Natha Devalaya at Kandy -

37
7

Navehera Archaeological Site -

37
8

Navodagama Archaeological Reserve -

37
9

Nawagala Rajamaha Viharaya -

38
0

Nawagamuwa Pattini Devalaya (Sri Sugathabimbaramaya) -

38
1

Nedigamwila Wilpita Rajamaha Viharaya in Hambanthota -

38
2

Nedun Rajamaha Vihara in Kiriella -

38
3

Negombo Fort -

38
4

Nelum Pokuna (Lotus Pond) at Polonnaruwa Kingdom -

38
5

Nelumgama Wilgamvehera Maha Seya -

38
6

Newgala Lion Engraved Rock -

38
7

Nikasala Nuwara Tomb of King Vijaya at Kande Medagama Rajamaha Viharaya -


38
8

Nilavarai Well in Jaffna -

38
9

Nilgala Mukkaru Sohona -

39
0

Nillakgama Bodhigaraya -

39
1

Nimalawa Aranya Senasanaya and Talaguru Vehera at Kirinda -


/

39
2

Nissanga Malla Audience Hall -

39
3

Nissanka Latha Mandapaya of the Polonnaruwa Ancient Kingdom -

39
4

Nittawela Raja Maha Viharaya - Kandy

39
5

Niyamgamdora Pattini Devalaya -

39
6

Niyamgampaya Rajamaha Viharaya in Gampola -

39
7

Nupe Ancient Trade Center Building -

39
8

Nuwara Eliya Post Office Building -

39
9

Nuwarakanda Rajamaha Viharaya -

40
0

Ochchappu Kallu Buddhist Ruins in Wilpattu -

40
1

Okanda Devalaya -

40
2

Olumadu Buddhist Ruins at Ampakamam -

40
3

Orukemgala Viharaya Ruins at Udamattala -

40
4

Oth Pilimaya at Dalada Maluwa in Polonnaruwa -

40
5

Oyamaduwa Archaeological Reserve -

40
6

Pabalu Vehera at Polonnaruwa -

40
7

Padalanchana Chethiya of Ancient Anuradhapura -

40
8

Padanagara I of Ancient Anuradhapura - I

40
9

Padanagara II of Ancient Anuradhapura - II

41
0

Padaviya Parakramapura Archaeological Site Without a Name -


411

Padeniya Raja Maha Viharaya -

41
2

Padikemgala Raja Maha Viharaya -

41
3

Padiyadora Rajamaha Viharaya -

41
4

Pahalagama Archaeology Site in Trincomalee District -

41
5

Palace of King Nissanka Malla -

41
6

Palace of King Parakramabahu the Great -

41
7

Palkumbura Raja Maha Viharaya -

41
8

Paluvilandawa Tank Weeransole Ruins in Wilpattu -

41
9

Panamure Eth Gala and 'Diya Bubula' -

42
0

Panduwasnuwara Ancient Kigdom -

42
1

Pannipitiya Devram Vehera -

42
2

Parakrama Samudraya (The Sea of Parakrama) -

42
3

Parakramabahu Statue at Pothgul Vehera - ()

42
4

Paramakanda Cave Temple at Anamaduwa -

42
5

Pathahawatte Raja maha Viharaya -

42
6

Pattini Devale in Kandy -

42
7

Paurukanda Rajamaha Viharaya -

42
8

Pelmadulla Rajamaha Viharaya -

42
9

Pemaduwa Rajamaha Viharaya at Mahavilachchiya -

43
0

Pepiliyana Sunethradevi Pirivena -

43
1

Pethangoda Banboo Grove - Where the King Rajasinhe met his fate -

43
2

Pidurangala Rajamaha Viharaya -

43
3

Pilikuththuwa Raja Maha Viharaya -

43
4

Pillaiyar Kovil at Kandy -

43
5

Piyangala Chithralena at Ampara -

43
6

Piyangala Forest Hermitage at Ampara -

43
7

Place where King Sri Wickrama Rajasinghe was Captured @ Bomure -


43
8

Pokunuwita Rajamaha Viharaya -

43
9

Polonnaruwa Vatadage (The Stupa House) -

44
0

Pooneryn Fort -

44
1

Poothathamby Arch (Sangili Toppu) in Jaffna -

44
2

Pothgul Vehera (Polonnaruwa) -

44
3

Prasada Stupa ( Indikatu Seya) of the Anuradhapura Kingdom - ( )

44
4

Pulinatalaramaya at Kalutara - The Lost Glory of the Temple by the Beach -

44
5

Pulinatalaramaya Viharaya - Ambalantota -

44
6

Pulligoda Galge Frescos -

44
7

Pulukunava Raja Maha Viharaya at Ampara -

44
8

Pusulpitiya Rajamaha Viharaya at Kothmale -

44
9

Rahathangala Kanda at Buttala

45
0

Rajagala Monastery -

45
1

Rajagiri Kanda of Mihintale -

45
2

Rakkhiththakanda Rajamaha Viharaya at Karandagolla -

45
3

Ramakele Stupa at Sigiriya -

45
4

Ramba Rajamaha Viharaya at Ambalantota -

45
5

Rambadagalla Vihara at Kurunegala -

45
6

Rambakan Oya Ruins of Ancient Granite Canal -

45
7

Ran Avuda Mandapaya of Kandyan Kingdom -

45
8

Rangiri Rajamaha Viharaya at Ambalantota -

45
9

Rangiri Ulpotha Rajamaha Viharaya at Gomarankadawala -

46
0

Rankoth Vehera of Ancient Polonnaruwa Kingdom -

46
1

Ransimalakaya at Anuradhapura -

46
2

Ras Vehera (Sesuruwa) Buddha Statue -

46
3

Rathna Prasada (Jewel Palace) of Abhayagiri Monastery -

46
4

Ratnapura Dutch Fort -

46
5

Ratnapura Portuguese Fort -

46
6

Rawa Ela Maligathenna Archaeological Ruins -

46
7

Refectory (Bath Ge) of Mihintale Monastery -

46
8

Relic House and the Inscription of King Mahinda IV - 4

46
9

Relic Shrine in Abayagiri Monastery - -

47
0

Richmond Castle - A Landmark of Kalutara -

47
1

Ridi Viharaya at Kurunegala -

47
2

Ridikanda Rajamaha Viharaya at Gomarankadawala -

47
3

Ritigala Ruins -

47
4

Robert Knox's Tamarind Tree at Muttur -

47
5

Royal Court of king Parakramabahu -

47
6

Royal Goldfish Park (Ranmasu Uyana) -

47
7

Royal Palace of King Vijayabahu I -

47
8

Ruins at Inginiyagala Ovagiriya -

47
9

Ruins of a Unnamed Stupa at Verugal -

48
0

Ruins of the Palace of Sri Weeraparakrama Narendrasinghe at Kundasale -

48
1

Ruwanweli Maha Seya -

48
2

Ruwanwella Ambalama -

48
3

Sagama Unnamed Archaeological Site -

48
4

Salgala Monastery - The Rocky serenity -

48
5

Samadhi Buddha Statue at Anuradhapura -

48
6

Samanbedda Ancient Cave Temple at Ampara -

48
7

Samangala Ancient Forest Hermitage in Ampara -

48
8

Samgamiththa Stupa of Ancient Anuradhapura -

48
9

Samudragiri Pichchamal Viharaya at Kuchchaveli -

49
0

Sandagirigodella of Tissamaharama -

49
1

Sandagiriya Stupa of Tissamaharama -

49
2

Sandakebella Aranya Senasanaya Ruins

49
3

Sangaman Kanda Ruins -

49
4

Sangamuwa Rajamaha Viharaya -

49
5

Sanghappalaya Wedisagiri Aranyaya -

49
6

Sapugoda Rajamaha Viharaya at Beruwala -

49
7

Sastrawela Mani Naga Pabbatha Viharaya -

49
8

Sathmahal Prasadaya (Seven Storied Palace) -

49
9

Second Samadhi Statue and bodhigara -

50
0

Secret Tunnel of Kotte Kingdom

50
1

Seemapauwa Forest Monastery at Angunakolapalessa -

50
2

Seenigama Devalaya -

50
3

Seetha Amman Temple (Kovil) at Sita Eliya -

50
4

Seethakanda Ancient Monastery at Monaragala -

50
5

Sella Kataragama -

50
6

Sellaba Rajamaha Viharaya at Wellawaya -

50
7

Serunuwara Pashana Pabbatha Rajamaha Viharaya -

50
8

Seruwila Raja Maha Viharaya -

50
9

Shailabembaramaya Viharaya at Dodanduwa -

51
0

Shiva Devalaya (no. 5) - ( 5)

511

Shiva Kovil (no. 1) of Ancient Polonnaruwa - ( 1)

51
2

Shiva Kovil (no. 2) of Polonnauwa Kingdom - ( 2)

51
3

Shiva Kovil (no. 3) And Gansh Kovil of Polonnaruwa Kingdom - ( 3)

51
4

Sigiriya Rock Fortress and Ancient Palace Complex -

51
5

Silachetiya (Kujjatissa) Stupa at Anuradhapura - ()

51
6

Sinha Pokuna of Mihintale -

51
7

Sitawaka Fort and the Palace of Rajasinghe I -

51
8

Siththamgallena Raja Maha Viharaya -

51
9

Sithulpawwa Magul Maha Viharaya -

52
0

Sithulpawwa Rajamaha Viharaya -

52
1

Siyagul Rajamaha Viharaya Ruins at Siyambalagune -

52
2

Somawathiya (Somawathi Chethiya) -

52
3

Soranatota Buduge Kanda Rajamaha Viharaya -

52
4

Sri Gajaba Len Viharaya at Morawewa -

52
5

Sri Maha Bodhi (The sacred Bo-Tree) -

52
6

Sri Mahendrarama Rajamaha Viharaya -

52
7

Sri Manabarana Rajamaha Viharaya at Siyambalanduwa -

52
8

Sri Pada Mountain (Adams Peak) - ( )

52
9

Sri Sankapala Raja Maha Viharaya - Pallebedda - -

53
0

St. Anne's Church Thalawila -

53
1

Star Fort of Matara -

53
2

Sthreepura Cave - Erathna -

53
3

Suriyagoda Rajamaha Viharaya -

53
4

Surulumahamuniyawa Rajamaha Viharaya -

53
5

Swami Rock and Koneswaram temple -

53
6

Talaguru Rajamaha Viharaya -

53
7

Tangalle fort -

53
8

Telulla Archaeological Site -

53
9

Temple of the Tooth Relic (Dalada Maligawa) -

54
0

Thanthirimale Rajamaha Viharaya -

54
1

Thapowanaya Monastery -

54
2

The Mystic Ruins of Divulwewa -

54
3

Theraputta Rajamaha Viharaya at Ambalantota -

54
4

Thimbiriya Rajamaha Viharaya -

54
5

Third Samadhi Statue and the Asanaghara -

54
6

Thiriyaya Girihandu Seya -

54
7

Thivanka Pilimage (Image House) -

54
8

Thonigala Inscriptions at Anamaduwa -

54
9

Thuparama Image House of the Polonnaruwa Ancient Kingdom -

55
0

Thuparamaya of Ancient Anuradhapura -

55
1

Tiruketeeswaram Kovil - Mannar

55
2

Tissa Forest Hermitage at Wellawaya -

55
3

Tissamaharama Rajamaha Viharaya -

55
4

Toluvila Ruins at Anuradhapura -

55
5

Tomb of Alakeshwara - Pittakotte

55
6

Tomb of Henry Engelbrecht in Hambanthota -

55
7

Tomb of King Sitawaka Rajasinhe -

55
8

Totagamu Rajamaha Viharaya -

55
9

Tsunami Honganji Viharaya at Paraliya -

56
0

Uchchawalike Rajamaha Viharaya at Ambalantota -

56
1

Uda Aludeniya Raja Maha Viharaya -

56
2

Uda Tambana Dewagiri Raja Maha Viharaya

56
3

Udaberagama Punyawardanaramaya Viharaya at Ambalantota -

56
4

Udawela Rajamaha Viharaya Ruins at Wellawaya -

56
5

Udayagiri Raja Maha Viharaya at Ampara -

56
6

Ulpange (Queen's Bathing Pavilion)

56
7

Unathuwewa Rajamaha Viharaya at Lunugamvehera -

56
8

Unidentified structure at the Nissanga Mallas court -

56
9

Unnamed Archaeological Site in Medawachchiya on Adampane Morawewa Road -

57
0

Uttara Mula of Abayagiri Monastery -

57
1

Vakaneri Ancient Buddhist Ruins -

57
2

Vallahagoda Devalaya at Gampola -

57
3

Vannad Brdge - The Ancient Stone Bridge at Kayankerni -

57
4

Varana Rajamaha Viharaya -

57
5

Veddagala Monastery Ruins -

57
6

Vehera Kanda Ruins of Kotte Kingdom -

57
7

Veheragala Aranya Senasanaya in Hambanthota -

57
8

Veheragala Siri Sangabo Rajamaha Viharaya Ruins -

57
9

Veheragalla Samudragiri Purana Viharaya -

58
0

Veheragama Ruins - The forest of the Kubira Thero - -

58
1

Veheragoda Ruins in Ampara -

58
2

Veheragodella Rajamaha Viharaya at Ambalantota -

58
3

Velgam Vehera in Trincomalee -

58
4

Vessagiriya Aramic Complex at Anuradhapura -

58
5

Viharahinna Ruins at Galewela -

58
6

Vijayarama Aramic Complex at Anuradhapura -

58
7

Vijithapura Rajamaha Viharaya -

58
8

Vilankulama Tank Archaeological Ruins -

58
9

Vilgam Rajamaha Viharaya at Ambalantota -

59
0

Vishnu Devalya of Kandy Kingdom -

59
1

Vishnu Kovil (no. 2) of Polonnaruwa Kingdom - ( 2)

59
2

Walalgoda Tampita Viharaya -

59
3

Wariyapola Sri Sumangala Raja Maha Viharaya -

59
4

Wathuruwa Rajamaha Viharaya at Sella Kataragama -

59
5

Wattarama Rajamaha Viharaya - Siyambalanduwa - -

59
6

Weboda Gallen Raja Maha Viharaya -

59
7

Wedihiti Kanda at Kataragama -

59
8

Wegama Rajamaha Viharaya -

59
9

Wegiriya Rajamaha Viharaya and Devalaya -

60
0

Weherabendigala / Kiralagala Archaeological Reserve - /


60
1

Weheragala Reservoir and Archeological Ruins -

60
2

Weherahena Viharaya -

60
3

Weherapudama Ancient Buddhist Ruins -

60
4

Weligama Agrabodhi Rajamaha Viharaya -

60
5

Wewalketiya Slab Inscription -

60
6

Wewurukannala Viharaya at Dikwella -

60
7

Wilandagoda Aranya and Salawana Viharaya - Hideout of Saliya Asokamala -

60
8

Yahangala Archealogocal Ruins at Hambantota -

60
9

Yapahuwa Kingdom of Ancient Sri Lanka -

61
0

Yatagala Rajamaha Viharaya -

611

Yatala Vehera - Debarawewa -

61
2

Yodakandiya Ancient Naga Maha Viharaya -

61
3

Yudaganawa and Chulangani Viharaya -

Tour Plans
1) Route wise
2) Interest wise
Route wiseKandy routePinnawala Peradeniya Gardens Dalada Maligawa (Udawatte forest).
Extended tour
Kota vehera, Ambekka, Lankatilleke, Gadaladeniya.
Extended tour
Matale district1) Nalanda Thelgamuwa Patana Atanwala Duwili Ella Sera Ella
Manigala Wasgomuwa
2) Narangamuwa Meemure
3) Wattegama Meemure
4) Rattota trekking in Bambaragala, night drive to Memalai
Extended tour
Kandy Nuwara Eliya Horton Plains Bandarawela
Anuradhapura route- via Dambulla
Dambulla Avukana/ Raswehera Ritigala Anuradhapura Thanthirimale
Mihintale Wilpattu
Extended tourAnuradhapura Jaffna

Anuradhapura route via Padeniya


Alawwa Dambadeniya Kurunegala Wariyapola Panduwasnuwara
Padeniya Maho Yapahuwa Galgamuwa Hasthikuchchi Avukana/
Raswehera Wilachchiya Gal Viharaya Anuradhapura Thanthirimale
Mihintale Wilpattu
Polonnaruwa routeDambulla Sigiriya Mapagala Fortress Habarana Minneriya
Polonnaruwa Gal Viharaya Medirigiriya Somawathie
Extended tourPolonnaruwa Dimbulagala Passikudah/ Kalkudah Trincomalee
Southern RouteKalutara (Faxian rock) Bentota Madu Ganga Hikkaduwa Galle
Unawatuna Weligama Matara Tangalle Mulgirigala Nonagama
Ussangoda Bundala Tissamaharamaya Kataragama Wedasiti Kanda
Extended tour-
Yala Nimalawa Situlpawwa Udaganawa Buduruwagala Maligawila
Extended tour -
Maligawila Siyambalanduwa Ampara Batticaloa
Sabaragamuwa RouteAwissawella Beli Lena Kitulgala Hatton Nuwara Eliya
Extended tour-
Awissawella Kuruwita Bopath Ella Ratnapura Pelmadulla Madampe
Pallebadda Sri Sankapala Viharaya Wawulpane limestone caves
Thimbolketiya Udawalawe Nonagama Kataragama
Extended tour -
Deraniyagala Kuruwita Ratnapura Pelmadulla Rakwana Suriyakanda
Kolonna (Maduwanwala) Suriyakanda Deniyaya Sinharaja
Extended tour-
Awissawella Ratnapura Thimbolketiya Udawalawe Nonagama
Kataragama
Colombo City & GampahaLight House, Museum, Independence Square, Wetland Park, Waters Edge, Dutch
Museum, Shopping, Dehiwela Zoo, Kotte Ruins, Gampaha places of interest.
According to Interests1) Historical/ Archeological sites
2) Marine & River sports
3) Spiritual
4) Adventure
5) Research
6) Leisure
7) Sight seeing

Historical/ Archeological sitesKandy, Anuradhapura, Polonnaruwa, Ritigala, Ampara District, Sigiriya,


Yapahuwa, Dambadeniya,
Panduwasnuwara, Avukana, Thanthirimale, Kadurugoda, Thiriyaya, Serunuwara,
Buduruwayaya/ Kumara Ella, Dimbulagala, Potuvil Muhudu Maha Viharaya,
Kirivehera, Situlpawwa,
Marine & River sportsBentota, Madu Ganga, Hikkaduwa, Mirissa, Passikudah
SpiritualHantana, Nilambe, Vipassana Institute,
AdventureWildlife parks- Wasgomuwa, Udawalawe, Yala, Wilpattu, Maduru Oya, Minneriya,
Gal Oya,
Rain Forest- Sinharaja
Hiking- knuckles
Trekking- Meemure, Govinda Hela, Bambaragala, Horton Plains
Research (Bio)Sinharaja, Knuckles
LeisureBeach Resorts- Nilaveli, Tangalle, Polhena, Weligama, Koggala, Unawatuna,
Hikkaduwa, Bentota, Katukurunda, Mt. Lavinia, Negombo
Other resortsHeritage APura, Ella 98 Acres, Amaya Kandy, Sigiri Village, Kandalama, Chaaya
Wild Yala, Elephant Corridor, Grand Hotel, Amaya Lake Dambulla, Heritance
Kandalama, Cinnamon Lodge Habarana, Water Garden Belihul Oya
SightseeingWater falls, Patana, Thelgamuwa, Hot water wells, Govinda Hela, Horton Plains,
Knuckles, Nuwara Eliya, Faxian cave, Sigiriya, Beli Lena,
Please inquire for a customized tour itinerary.

May all be well, Secure & happy!


May this tour be an eye opener to the reality of Life
and a gateway to search of Wisdom

The EIGHT spoke wheel- Dharma Chakra


The above represents Eight laws relating to the vicissitude of life namelyGain & Loss, Fame & Anonymity, Honour & Humiliation, Happiness & Sorrow
are called the eight Laws Relating to the Vicissitude of Life

Here I will attempt to explain about Buddhism as briefly as possible. It should


be noted that in order to understand Buddhism quite well, you have to either
associate a learned Buddhist priest / layman or read reliable texts.

Firstly Buddhism is better termed as a philosophy rather than a religion


in which the pride of place is given for wisdom of the individual (here we would
limit the topic to only Buddhism and wouldnt intend to make a comparison).
Buddhism has shown the path to realization of truth where man is responsible
for his actions and man is his own savior in freeing himself of suffering. It is the
law of nature (the Dhamma) that decides the destiny of man after his death
depending on his deeds. In other words, one is the decider of his own fate. The
life goes on and on reincarnating in various bases until the man achieves

emancipation (Nirvana). But the goal of a Buddhist should be to realize


emancipation during this life itself without waiting to be born again as a human
being as one will never know of his next birth as a human being. If one purely
attempts to realize emancipation at this life and fails to achieve it, he will surely
carry forward his developments and get the opportunity to complete it by
having another human life after his death. It is quite similar to carrying forward
balances to next financial year in accountancy.
The Buddha has clearly shown the path in attaining Nirvana by developing
ones wisdom which can be attained through leading a righteous life and deep
meditation as has been taught by Lord Buddha. Accordingly the Buddha has
taught to see things in its true nature forgetting the visible nature.

To explain briefly about Lord Buddha and his teachings (Buddhism);


Among the founders of religions the Buddha (if we are permitted to call him the founder of a religion
in the popular sense of the term) was the only teacher who did not claim to be other than a human
being, pure and simple. Other teachers were either God or his incarnations in different forms, or
inspired by him. The Buddha was not only a human being; he claimed no inspiration from any god or
external power either. He attributed all his realization, attainments and achievements to human
endeavor and human intelligence. A man and only a man can become a Buddha. Every man has within
himself the potentiality of becoming a Buddha, if he so wills it and endeavors. We can call the Buddha
a man par excellence. He was so perfect in his humanness that he came to be regarded later in
popular religion almost as super-human.
Mans position, according to Buddhism, is supreme. Man is his own master, and there is no higher
being or power that sits in judgment over his destiny. One is ones own refuge, who else could be the
refuge? said the Buddha. He admonished his disciples to be a refuge to themselves, and never to
seek refuge in or help from anybody else. He taught, encouraged and stimulated each person to
develop himself and to work out his own emancipation, for man has the power to liberate himself
from all bondage through his own personal effort and intelligence. The Buddha says: You should do
your work; the Tathagatas only teach the way. If the Buddha is to be called a savior at all, it is only
in the sense that he discovered and showed the Path to Liberation, Nirvana. But we must tread the
Path ourselves. .(extracted from the book What the Buddha Taught by Ven. Dr. Walpola
Rahula)
According to Lord Buddha, the subject of Creation or Evolution is better ignored, as it is a waste of
time in searching an answer, as the important subject is to find the path to free oneself of suffering
during our short span of life. However he has clearly outlined the cause of existence as clinging due
to craving(tanha) and the root cause of all is Ignaorance (avijja) which is rather a philosophical
point of explanation. By the following parable, Lord Buddha has explained the importance of
concentrating in finding the truth during our short span of life rather than wasting time on arguments
or research on the origins of matter which cannot be discovered by an ordinary human being. This is
what lord Buddha has to say;
In the Majjhima Nikaya, a potential follower asks the Buddha for an answer to the problem
of cosmogony:
"Suppose someone was hit by a poisoned arrow and his friends and relatives found a doctor able to
remove the arrow. If this man were to say, 'I will not have this arrow taken out until I know whether

the person who had shot it was a priest, a prince or a merchant, his name and his family. I will not
have it taken out until I know what kind of bow was used and whether the arrowhead was an ordinary
one or an iron one.' That person would die before all these things are ever known to him.
This Parable of the arrow has often been used to illustrate the Buddha's teachings that "practitioners
who concern themselves with the origins of the universe and other topics are missing the point of
religious practice."

Simply, Buddhism is based on Ahimsa or pacifism on visible & invisible


beings (to be precise, Buddhism disapprove physical as well as mental
aggression on any living being). Buddhism gives pride of place for ones
wisdom. The most important factor is that Buddhism is acknowledged as a
philosophy, rather than a religion. Accordingly every living being has to go
through suffering in different stages of life (during birth, while sick, distress on
loss of loved ones/ wealth/ eminence/pride, when one become aged & feeble
and at death-bed etc.) and it is called Karma. The Buddha showed the path to
free ourselves from this suffering. Accordingly the doctrine is based on the three
essentials of Buddhist training and discipline; namely 1) Ethical Conduct (Sila),
2) Mental Discipline (Samadhi) and 3) Wisdom (Panna).As human being is the
only living being on earth with a highly advanced mind, it is the human being
that will have an opportunity to realize the truth and act upon it. Hence,
logically man has to suffer because of being born (coming into being) into this
world. The Buddha showed the path to rid of this suffering which is called
emancipation. If one has to suffer due to coming into being, the only way to
rid of suffering is to look for the cause of coming into being (the logic) and to
blow out that cause. Accordingly the reason for coming into being is craving
or Tan h. Therefore by ceasing this craving (this is the logic) one can attain
emancipation which is called Nirvana. To give a very brief definition for
Nirvana; the extinction of desire, the extinction of hatred, the extinction of
illusion.
Accordingly Lord Buddha has categorized this suffering and the path to
cessation of suffering in to four steps which are called the Four Noble
Truths.
1) Dukka (suffering)
2) Samudaya (the arising or origin of suffering)
3) Nirodha (cessation of suffering) Nirvana
4) Magga (the way leading to the cessation of suffering)- Noble Eight
fold path
Attaining Nirvana (emancipation) should be achieved through practicing
the Noble Eight Fold Path, namely;

1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
7)
8)

Samma Ditthi- Complete or Perfect Vision,


Samma Sankappa- Perfected Resolution, Emotion or Aspiration,
Samma Vacha - Perfected or whole Speech,
Samma Kammanta - Integral Action,
Samma Ajiva - Proper Livelihood,
Samma Vayama - Complete or Full Effort, Energy or Vitality,
Samma Sati - Complete or Thorough Mindfulness/Awareness,
Samma Samadhi - Full, Integral or Holistic Samadhi or concentration.

As this subject is of deep insight, it will be impossible to explain in a few


lines. (If interested you can be linked to a Buddhist priest who will
explain in detail and guide you through meditation practices etc. Further
there are many dedicated meditation centers throughout the island where
residential programs are conducted and many foreigners practice
meditation. Buddhist priesthood is prohibited from making any charges
from devotees for their services unless one makes a donation at his/her
own will to upkeep the monastery).
The ultimate goal of a true Buddhist is to see the Truth through wisdom
and realize emancipation. Lord Buddha has instructed the path for
liberation from suffering which is the cessation of craving through the
development of ones mind through meditation. This type of meditation is
termed as Vidharshana (Awareness) meditation and if you are interested
further in this subject, you could be linked to a practicing Buddhist monk
who will instruct you free of charge.
Since many people find different reasons for the difficulty to go deep into
realizing the truth, they at least try to live a virtuous life by practicing the
least while enjoying the lay life. However everyone has to go through this
suffering someday and when realizing the teachings of Buddhism at late
stages cannot bring results.
Leaving the truth as it is, following are the observances of majority, in
brief.
o Many good hearted Buddhists observe the Five precepts (pancha
seela) as a routine at home or by visiting a temple. They are to;
Refrain from hurting or killing living beings
Refrain from steeling or captivating things those are not
freely given
Refrain from sexual adultery
Refrain from lying
Refrain from consumption of intoxicants

o Engage in offering alms to the Buddhist clergy


o Offering various other requirements of Buddhist clergy and
temples
o Practice meditation
o Gifting the needs of less fortunate
o Helping the aged & destitute at charity Centres
o Observe the 08 noble precepts on Full moon Day (Poya) to
acquaint mental & physical discipline for a gradual journey for
emancipation.
o Hold Dhamma discourses and chant stanzas (pirith) at home or in
temples
These traditional observances, though inessential, have their value in
satisfying the religious emotions and needs of those who are less
advanced intellectually and spiritually, and helping them gradually along
the Path. Further these observances have greatly helped in maintaining a
disciplined and compassionate society.

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