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PBL 2 REPORT

VITAMIN C AND ELECTROPLATING

GROUP 4
Muhammad Aya Addina M.

(1506712266)

Nastia Siti Deviena Widodo

(1606864664)

Raihan Ilham Sulaiman

(1606862822)

Rayhan Mustofa Kartiyasa

(1606897050)

Tito Wira Pramudita

(1506789215)

FACULTY OF ENGINEERING
INTERNATIONAL PROGRAMME
UNIVERSITAS INDONESIA
DEPOK 2016

I.

INTRODUCTION
The movement of electron on a redox reaction is taking place with a direct contact
between the particles which are atom, molecule or ion which transfers electron for each
other. The movement of electron through outside circuit as electrical and redox reaction is
studied in the electrochemical field

Electro chemical cell is a cell where the flow of electrons happen caused by the change of
the chemical energy into electrical energy or otherwise. The cell is divided into two: Volta
cell and electrolysis cell.

In electrolysis cell, the


create redox reaction/ the
usage. And in electrolysis
called faraday (f), which
Michael faraday is an
who studied the
of electrolysis. He
the mass of compound
being used.

II.

cell uses electrical current to


accumulator battery is one of its
cell, the unit hat is being used is
will be explained down below.
expert in chemistry and physics
quantitive and qualitative aspect
explained the relation between
and the amount of current that is

Theories

Oxidation-reduction Reaction and Reducing and Oxidizing Agents


An oxidation-reduction (redox) reaction is a type of chemical reaction that involves a
transfer of electrons between two species or a change of oxidation number of a molecule,
atom or ion. Redox reactions are common and vital to some of the basic functions of life,
including photosynthesis, respiration, combustion, and corrosion or rusting. The following
are various definitions of oxidation and reduction:
1. Oxidation and reduction in terms of transfer of oxygen
a. Definition

i. Oxidation: gain of oxygen


ii. Reduction: loss of oxygen
The following is an example:
FeO + 3CO 2Fe + 3CO
FeO 2Fe: Reduction
3CO 3 CO: Oxidation
In the chemical reaction above, FeO loses oxygen and becomes Fe while CO gains
one oxygen from FeO and become CO. Since FeO loses oxygen, FeO went through a
reduction process while CO went through an oxidation process.
b. Reducing and oxidizing agents
i. An oxidizing agent is the substance which oxidizes something else.
ii. A reducing agent is the substance that reduces something else.
In the chemical reaction of iron(III) oxide with carbon monoxide, iron(III) oxide
which gives the oxygen molecule is the oxidizing agent while carbon monoxide that receives
the oxygen molecule is the reducing agent.
2. Oxidation and reduction in terms of hydrogen transfer
a. Definition
i. Oxidation: loss of hydrogen
ii. Reduction: gain of hydrogen
The following is an example:
CHCHOH CHCHO
Ethanol can be oxidized to ethanal
In the chemical reaction above, ethanol loses 2 hydrogen molecules and becomes
ethanal. Ethanol experiences oxidation by loss of hydrogen. In this reaction, they would need
an oxidizing agent to remove the hydrogen from ethanol and the most commonly used
oxidizing agent is potassium dichromate (VI) that is acidified with dilute sulphuric acid.
However, we can reduce ethanal back to ethanol by adding hydrogen to it. A possible
reducing agent is NaBH4. The following is the process of reduction of ethanal by gaining
hydrogen to become ethanol:
CHCHO CHCHOH
b. Reducing and Oxidizing Agents
i. Oxidising agents give oxygen to another substance or remove
hydrogen from it.
ii. Reducing agents remove oxygen from another substance or give
hydrogen to it.
3. Oxidation and reduction in terms of electron transfer
a. Definition
i. Oxidation: loss of electrons or increase of oxidation state
(oxidation number)

ii. Reduction: gain of electrons or decrease of oxidation state


(oxidation number)
An easy way to remember this is by Oxidation Is Loss (OIL) and Reduction Is Gain (RIG)
The following is an example:
CuO + Mg Cu + MgO
If we rewrite the chemical equation above and turn it into an ionic equation
Cu2+ + O2- + Mg Cu + Mg2+ O2Cu2+ experiences reduction as it gains 2 electrons and become Cu while Mg
experiences oxidation as it loses 2 electrons and become an ion of Mg2+. The oxide ions
dont change therefor they or spectator ions.
b. Reducing and Oxidizing Agents
i. Oxidizing agents receive electrons (oxidizes something else)
ii. Reducing agents give or provide electrons (reduces something else)
In the chemical reaction above, magnesium reduces the copper(II) ions by giving
them electrons to neutralize the charger. Therefore, magnesium is the reducing agent. On the
other side, copper(II) ions are removing electrons from magnesium to create the magnesium
ions hence, causing copper(II) ions to be the oxidizing agent.
Potential Reduction Standards
The standard reduction potential is the tendency for a chemical species to be reduced
and is measured in volts at standard conditions. The more positive the potential is the more
likely it will be reduced.
The standard reduction potential is in a category known as the standard cell potentials
or standard electrode potentials. The standard cell potential is the potential difference
between the cathode and anode. The standard potentials are all measured at 298 K, 1 atm,
and with 1 M solutions.
A + Ce A
For example, copper's Standard Reduction Potential of Eo=+0.340V is for the following
reaction:
Cu + 2e Cu
Standard reduction potential is experimentally determined using SHE (standard
hydrogen electrode). Hydrogen has reduction and oxidation potentials of zero. Therefore,
when the standard reduction and oxidation potential of chemical species are measured, it is
actually the difference in the potential from hydrogen. By using a galvanic cell in which one
side is a SHE, and the other side is half of the cell of the unknown chemical species, the
potential difference from hydrogen can be determined using a voltmeter. When the standard
reduction potential is determined, the unknown chemical species is being reduced while
hydrogen is being oxidized. The following diagrams show how a standard reduction potential
is determined (in this case, copper)

E cell = E reduction of reaction at cathode + E oxidation of reaction at anode


Or
E cell = E reduction of reaction at cathode E reduction of reaction at anode

Properties of Acid
There are physical and chemical properties of acid explained by the following:
Physical properties of acid:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Acids have a sour taste


All acids are soluble in water
Acids solutions turn blue litmus paper red
Acid solutions have a pH values < 7
Most acid solutions are corrosive
All dilute acids conduct electricity due to the presence mobile ions in solution

Chemical properties of acid:


1. React with Metals
The following are examples:
With zinc:

Zn + 2HCl ZnCl2 + H2

With Aluminum:

2Al + 6HCl 2AlCl3 + 3H2

With iron oxide:

6HCl + Fe2O3 2FeCl3 + 3H2O

2. React with Carbonate


Acid and carbonates are combined to produce salt, water and carbon dioxide. The
following are some examples:
MgCO3 + 2HCl MgCl2 + CO2 + H2O
CaCO3 + 2HCl CaCl2 + CO2 + H2O

Na2CO3 + H2SO4 Na2SO4 + CO2 + H2O


CaCO3 + H2SO4 CaSO4 + CO2 + H2O
3. React with Bicarbonates
Acid and bicarbonates are combined to produce salt, water and carbon dioxide. The
following is an example:
NaHCO3 + HCl NaCl + CO2 + H2O
4. React with Bases/Alkali to form Salt & Water (Neutralistion Reaction)
An acid when reacts with a base, salt & water are produced. This reaction is called
neutralization. The following are some examples:
HCl + NaOH NaCl + H2O
HNO3 + NaOH NaNO3 + H2O
HCl + KOH KCl + H2O
ELECTROLYSIS THEORY

What is Electrolysis
The decomposition (breaking down) of a liquid by passing an electric current through
it. Electrolysis needs: an electrolyte the liquid that the electric current flows through. a
negative electrode (the cathode)
What happens during electrolysis?
Positively charged ions migrate to the negative electrode (cathode) during
electrolysis. They gain electrons and are reduced. Negatively charged ions migrate to the
positive electrode (anode) during electrolysis. They lose electrons and are oxidised.
Example : Electrolysis of water

Uses of water electrolysis : The process is extremely useful for producing a variety of
elements and compounds, including hydrogen, oxygen, chlorine, lithium, sodium, potassium,
aluminum, sodium hydroxide, potassium chlorate, and aspirin. The electrolysis of
water is used in submarines and space stations to generate oxygen for the crew.
Vitamin C in General
Vitamin C, also known as L-ascorbic acid, is a water-soluble vitamin that is naturally
present in some foods, added to others, and available as a dietary supplement. Humans,
unlike most animals, are unable to synthesize vitamin C endogenously, so it is an essential
dietary component.
Vitamin C is required for the biosynthesis of collagen, L-carnitine, and certain
neurotransmitters; vitamin C is also involved in protein metabolism. Collagen is an essential
component of connective tissue, which plays a vital role in wound healing. Vitamin C is also
an important physiological antioxidant and has been shown to regenerate other antioxidants
within the body, including alpha-tocopherol (vitamin E).

How Vitamin C Works on Body


Vit C is acidic and is also a reducing agent ie it works as an antioxidant by donating or
receiving extra oxygen to stabilise another molecule, like iron, making it more soluble so that
it can be absorbed. This is why the doctor may tell us to take Vit C at the same time we take
iron tablets. Iron tends to bind up the bowels but as well as changing iron to a more
absorbable form, taking a little more Vit C than the body really needs will attract more water
back to the bowel by osmosis, keeping faeces soft and easier to keep moving through the gut.
This way we dont get constipated.
Conversely, too much Vit C will give us diarrhoea, as too much water will be drawn
back to the gut. This will leave our circulation levels low so we need to drink sufficient water
not to become dehydrated and thirsty. This is also an excellent way of determining how
much Vit C we need - enough to keep our bowels working regularly every day without effort
but not to make them too loose.

Antioxidants
Antioxidants are man-made or natural substances that may prevent or delay some
types of cell damage. Vegetables and fruits are rich sources of antioxidants. There is good
evidence that eating a diet with lots of vegetables and fruits is healthy and lowers risks of
certain diseases. But it isn't clear whether this is because of the antioxidants, something else
in the foods, or other factors.
High-dose supplements of antioxidants may be linked to health risks in some cases.
For example, high doses of beta-carotene may increase the risk of lung cancer in smokers.
High doses of vitamin E may increase risks of prostate cancer and one type of stroke.
Antioxidant supplements may also interact with some medicines. To minimize risk, tell you
of your health care providers about any antioxidants you use.
While oxygen is one of the most essential components for living, it is also a double
edged sword. Oxygen is a highly reactive atom that is capable of becoming part of potentially
damaging molecules commonly called free radicals. These free radicals are capable of
attacking the healthy cells of the body. This may lead to damage, disease and severe
disorders. Overall, free radicals have been implicated in the pathogenesis of at least 50
diseases.
Since free radicals contain an unpaired electron they are unstable and reach out and
capture electrons from other substances in order to neutralize themselves. This initially
stabilizes the free radical but generates another in the process. Soon a chain reaction begins
and thousands of free radical reactions can occur within a few seconds on the primary
reaction.

Theory
1 Mol of electron = 1
faraday

1 Faraday equals to 96500 coulomb (electrical


current)
Q= n.F

Q
n
F

= Electrical current
= Amount of electrons mol
= Electrical current for each mol (coulomb/mol)

Faraday First Law

The mass produced on electrode is directly proportional to the

The mass of substance that is produced on the electrode is directly proportional to the
amount of the mol electron. Then, then amount of mol electron is directly
proportional to the electrical current.
So we can conclude:

WQ

With Q Showing the amount of Electrical Current, If the current works for t seconds:
Q= I x t
I = Current (ampere), t= time (second)

So, the combination of the two equation is:

WIxt

Faraday Second Law


The mass of substance produced on electrode is directly
proportional to the substances equivalent mass
Substance Mass Produced Substances equivalent mass

Equivalent mass is the atoms relative mass divided by the oxidation numbers change

ME =

AR
Oxidation Number

Collagen
Collagen is the most abundant protein in the human body and is the substance that
holds the whole body together. It can be found in the bones, muscles, skin and
tendons, where it forms a scaffold to provide strength and structures

Cartilage
Cartilage is an important structural components of the body. It is a firm tissue but soft
nad more flexible than the bone.
Cartilage is a connective tissue found in many areas of the body. It is made of
specialized cells called condocytes

Questions and Answers


1. Why vitamin C deficiency could affect your health?
Persistent lack of vitamin C in your diet can lead to a condition called scurvy.
Symptoms of scurvy include easy bruising, easy bleeding and joint and muscle pains. Vitamin
C deficiency can be treated with supplements of vitamin C and a diet rich in vitamin C.
Beside that, it helps the body to maintain and re-produce the tissues, maintain proper immune
function and prevent the body from disease (gallbladder, cataracts, bronchitis, etc). Vitamin C
deficiency can be treated with supplements of vitamin C and a diet rich in vitamin C.

2. How does vitamin C work in our body system?

Boost the immune system by attacking the nucleic acid of the virus.

Support the body to produce collagen.

Combat the free radicals, allowing the immune system to be better equippeed
to combat invading bacteria and microbes.

3. What is sustained release formulation? Why vitamin C should be sustained


release?
Time-release vitamin C capsules promote delayed and continual absorption
throughout the day. These capsules are surrounded by a semi-permeable sugar coating,
blended with fats and waxes. When swallowed, moisture from saliva causes the coating to
slowly rupture and the vitamin C is continually delivered into the body's fluids over an
extended period of time.
A classic study, published in a 1969 edition of the "International Journal of Vitamin
Research," investigated the effects of one particular variety of time-release vitamin C, known
as the "Spansule" on 25 subjects over a three-day period, while 25 others were given nonsustained vitamin C capsules. Results showed that those given the time-release capsule
demonstrated much better delivery of vitamin C into the body's tissues than those given the
non-sustained capsule.
4. Is ascorbic acid different from hydrochloric acid?
Yes, they are completely different.

Ascorbic Acid
Weak acid
Six carbon compound
related to glucose
Essential nutrient in
human diet
Found naturally in citrus
fruits and vegetables
Reducing agent and
coenzyme in several
metabolic pathways.
Considered an
antioxidant.

Hydrochloric Acid

Strong acid
Very corrosive
Colorless watery liquid
Sharp, irritating odor
solution and produces
irritating vapor
production of chlorides,
fertilizers, and dyes, in
electroplating, and in the
photographic, textile, and
rubber industries

5. How does ascorbic acid react with water? Why does ascorbic acid have two
equilibrium constants? How are the equations of these equilibrium constants?
Ascorbic acid reacting with water:
H2CHO(aq) + H2O(l) <==> H3O+(aq) + HCHO-(aq)
HCHO-(aq) + H2O(l) <==> H3O+(aq) + CHO2-(aq)

Ascorbic acids are polyprotic acids that can release more than one proton from each
molecule. Ascorbic acid is a diprotic acid and has two acidic protons causing it to have two
equilibrium constants.
H2CHO(aq) <==> H+(aq) + HCHO-(aq); Ka1 = 7.9 x 10-5
HCHO-(aq) <==> H+(aq) + CHO2-(aq); Ka2 = 1.6 x 10-12

6. In order to determine the amount of ascorbic acid content inside one tablet of
Vitamin C, you will do a small experiment in the labs: 0,5gram of vit C tablet is
diluted in 100ml water. At neutral point you need only 23,5ml of NaOH solution
of 0.12M to be added to this acid solution. What is the amount (weight) of
ascorbic acid in this tablet? Is this tablet contain only ascorbic acid, what is the
percentage?
We use titration to solve this problem:
Mol of vitamin C = mol of NaOH
MV = MV
Mol of vitamin C = (23,5)(0,12)
Mol of vitamin C = 2,82 mmol = (mol of vitamin c/100)(100)
2,82 mmol = gr of vitamin C/176
Gr of vitamin C = 0,496 gram
Percentage mass of vitamin C = (0,496/0,5) x 100% = 99,3%

9. How do you know about reduction-oxidation reactions and potential reduction


standard? Write some examples of redox reactions related to copper
There 3 ways in which we can explain reduction-oxidation reactions:
1. Oxidation and reduction in terms of transfer of oxygen
a. Definition
i. Oxidation: gain of oxygen
ii. Reduction: loss of oxygen
b. Reducing and oxidizing agents
i. An oxidizing agent is the substance which oxidizes something else.
ii. A reducing agent is the substance that reduces something else.
2. Oxidation and reduction in terms of transfer of hydrogen
a. Definition
i. Oxidation: loss of hydrogen
ii. Reduction: gain of hydrogen
b. Reducing and oxidizing agents
i. Oxidising agents give oxygen to another substance or remove
hydrogen from it.

ii. Reducing agents remove oxygen from another substance or give


hydrogen to it.
3. Oxidation and reduction in terms of electron transfer
a. Definition
i. Oxidation: loss of electrons or increase of oxidation state (oxidation
number)
ii. Reduction: gain of electrons or decrease of oxidation state (oxidation
number)
b. Reducing and oxidizing agents
i. Oxidizing agents receive electrons (oxidizes something else)
ii. Reducing agents give or provide electrons (reduces something else)
The standard reduction potential is the tendency for a chemical species to be reduced and is
measured in volts at standard conditions. The more positive the potential is the more likely it
will be reduced.
The following is a redox reactions related to copper:
Zinc metal can displace copper ions from a solution of copper(II) sulphate. Copper
metal and a solution of zinc(II) sulphate are produced.
Ionic equation:
Zn(s) + Cu(aq) + SO(aq) Cu(s) + Zn(aq) + SO(aq)
The equation shows that the zinc atoms (metal) have formed positively charged zinc
ions (they have lost electrons). This means the zinc atoms have been oxidized and acts as
reducing agent. The positively charged copper ions have formed copper atoms (they have
gained the electrons) which the zinc atoms have lost. This means the copper ions have
been reduced and act as oxidizing agent. The sulphate ions have neither lost nor gained
electrons so they are spectator ions

10. Why people coat one metal with other metal using electrolysis technique?

It enhances electrical conductivity. For many mass produced pieces, electroplating


with silver, gold, or tin-lead alloy will increase a components conductivity cheaply.

Electroplating increases heat resistance. Using a zinc alloy or gold will enable the
electroplated piece to resist higher temperatures than just the base metal would allow.
This can be used to increase the durability of engine parts and other components.

It is used to prevent corrosion. Coating steel with zinc prevents rust formation and
electroplating is often less expensive than hot dip or inline galvanization.

To prevent rust,metal has to be coated with another metal that has lower tendency to
be oxidized.

11. How electrolysis process is carried out? What principles used in electrolysis process?
Electrolysis process is carried out using the principles of Redox,and also Volta series.
Redox (short for reductionoxidation reaction) is a chemical reaction in which
the oxidation states of atoms are changed. Any such reaction involves both a reduction
process and a complementary oxidation process, two key concepts involved with electron
transfer processes.https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Redox - cite_note-1 Redox reactions include
all chemical reactions in which atoms have their oxidation state changed; in general, redox
reactions involve the transfer of electrons between chemical species. The chemical species
from which the electron is stripped is said to have been oxidized, while the chemical species
to which the electron is added is said to have been reduced. It can be explained in simple
terms:

Oxidation is the loss of electrons or an increase in oxidation state by


a molecule, atom, or ion.

Reduction is the gain of electrons or a decrease in oxidation state by a molecule,


atom, or ion.

For the principle of Volta series is based on substances Standard potential reduction
The standard reduction potential is the tendency for a chemical species to be reduced,
and is measured in volts at standard conditions. The more positive the potential is the
more likely it will be reduced

12. If it takes 2.30 minutes using a current of 2.00A to plate out all of the silver from 0.250L
of a solution containing Ag+ what was the original concentration of Ag+ Solution?

Time ( s ) x Current ( A ) x Molarity


Faraday Constant ( C mol1 ) x mole of electronneeded

138 s x 2.00 A x (1 mol Ag+ 0.250 L)


=0.0114 M Ag+
96500C mol1 x 1 mol

So th original concentration of Ag+ solution is 0.0114M Ag

1. Is Ascorbic Acid different from hydrochloric acid?


2. You work something else in the labs. 1.8 gram of ascorbic acid was dissolved in
100ml of water. How do you determine pH of solution of Ascorbic acid, given the Ka
of this acid is 8.010-5 M.

Answer

1. Yes, they are completely different. Hydrochloric acid (HCl) is a strong acid that is
extremely corrosive to the eyes, skin and mucous membranes while ascorbic acid
(C6H8O6) is a weak acid that is soluble in water. Ascorbic acid is an essential nutrient
in human diets and necessary to maintain connective tissue and bone.
2. First of all, the chemical equilibrium of ascorbic acid which dissolved in water has to
be stated.

H2C6H6O6 + H2O H3O+ + HC6H6O6-

The given Ka is = 8.010-5 M.


1.8 gram of Ascorbic acid (H2C6H6O6) has Relative Mass (Mr) = 176,12. Converting
to mol (n) is by using the equation n=

1.8 gr
176.12

the result is 0.0102 mol.

Then since the Ascorbic acid was dissolved in 100ml water, mol (n) have to divided
by volume (L) to become molarity (M)

M=

0.0102
0.1

the result is 0.102 M.

Hence, the ICE(Initial, Change, Equilibrium) table is summed up as below,


Initial

0.102 M

Change

-x M

+x M

+x M

Equilibrium

(0.102 x) M

xM

xM

8.010-5 M = Ka =

H 3O+

HC 6 H 6 O 6

x
[H+]

= 2.85610-3
= 2.85610-3 M
pH

= -log [H+]
= -log [2.85610-3]
= 2.544

9. How do you know about reduction-oxidation reaction and potential reduction


standard?
12. If it takes only 2.30 minutes using a current of 2.00 a to plate out all the silver
from o,25 l of a solution containing Ag+. What was the original concentration of Ag+
in solution?
9. Reduction-Oxidation reactions (redox) is a process of transfer of one or more
electron from one substance into another substance in some chemical reaction. The
Oxidation reaction is the release process of electron by a molecule. Reduction is the
addition process of electron into a molecule.
Potential cell standard is the values of conductivity cell which equals to the difference
between reductions potential reduction and oxidations potential reduction

12.

I x t x Me
Mole of Ag=Zn +
96500
Mole of Ag=

Cu2+ Zn2+ +
Cu
2 x 138 x 1
96500

=0.00286

Concentration=

n
v

Concentration=

0.00286
=0.01144
0.25

REFERENCES

1.Brown, Chemistry: The central science, Prentice Hall International (UK) Limited, London.
2.Brown, Lawrence, Chemistry for engineering students, Cengage Learning, Belmont.
3.Zumdahl, Steven S., Chemistry 2nd Edition, Cengage Learning, Belmont.