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By :
Student ID

: Lutfia Nirwana
: B1K014029
: 2
: Lucky Pratama Suharto




1.1 Background
Living things have a system which is known as the coordination system or
the nervous system to regulate and control the working of the system of body
organs. The nervous system is a coordination system which functions as the
recipient and conductor impulses to all parts of the body and then give the
response to the stimuli. So, nerve network is a communication network in the
body. The nervous system is a special network related to all parts of the body
(Campbell et al., 2000).
Reflex movement also merely reflect s is a response to the effector organs
are automatically or without conscious of a certain stimulus. This impulse is
received by nerves sensory and forwarded by the spinal nerve to the backbone
and then from the backbone is forwarded to the nervous system to become a
motoric movement. This movement is not realized because not through the
brain so called movement also merely reflects (Weichert, 1959).
One of the species of frogs are frog (Fejerbvarya cancrivora) . The body is
divided into 4 parts, namely caput (Head), truncus (body), extrimitas anterior
reasoning (front legs) and extrimitas posterior (rear legs). Following caput
shaped triangle on the dorsal and truncus following on the dorsal shaped and
evenly on the ventral. Extrimitas anterior reasoning and posterior him each
amounted to a pair of equipped with digiti and swimming membrane (web) that
there is only on the posterior extrimitas (Gordon, 1972).
1.2 Purpose
The purpose of this practicum is to determine the occurrence of spinal
reflexes in frogs.


2.1 Materials
The tools used in this practicum is needle, scissors, tweezers, beaker glass,
and alumunium foil.
The materials used are frog (Fejerbvarya cancrivora) and H2SO4 1%.
2.2 Methods
1. Brain frog attenuated using a needle preparations .
2. The spinal reflexes are observed such as the reversal of the frog 's body,
withdrawal of the front legs, hind legs and immersion in H2SO4 solution .
3. The spinal cord in frog marred , , and total , then the response
observed after immersion in H2SO4 solution .
4. The results are recorded in table frog spinal reflex response .

3.2 Discussion
Based on the experiments that have been done by the frogs that have been
tampered with his brain to give a positive response to the four treatment and
given the reversal of the body, withdrawal front legs, withdrawal rear legs and
the immersion extrimitas to H2SO4. After the frogs have been destroyed his brain
when the position of the frogs they had stretched frogs is not able to reverse his
body and then when done the withdrawal on the front legs and rear frogs give
interesting response the two extremities is relying with the treatment of the
immersion of the rear legs of frogs into the H 2SO4, the frogs are still able to give
the response with his feet. This is in accordance with the statement Frandson
(1992), that the destruction of the brain will cause the destruction of the corda
imaging, so that the relationship with the brain will be disconnected.
Medulla spinalis frogs done , , and total. The positive reaction is still
shown frogs up to the destruction of medulla spinalis. New frogs showed
negative reactions when total destruction on medulla spinalis. This is in
accordance with the statement Frandson (1992), which stated that the frogs that
destroyed vertebrae suffer spinal shock caused by the termination of the nervous
system so that the frogs became lame and does not give the response. The total
destruction of the spinal cord showed negative response. The lack of the
response occurs because the Peripheral nerve system which contains imaging
nervous on imaging medulla have been destroyed. The spinal cord has two
important function is to regulate implus to the brain and as the center of the
reflex with the existence of the spinal cord and spinal nerve pair and kranial
connect each of the receptor and the effector in the body to occur the response.
When the spinal cord is damaged the total there was no longer the effector that
shows the response to the stimulus package/goad (Ville et al ., 1988).
This experiment using the solution H2SO4 which is a strong acid and
dangerous when exposed to the feet of the frogs that is dipped into the solution
H2SO4. This cause frogs as much as possible will attract its feet from the solution
because the solution H2SO4 provides heat stimuli that burn the skin. This is one
of the Movement for the protection of the body from the chemical substances
that dangerous. Given reflex frogs when the treatment in accordance with the

statement Ville et al. (1988), which is an interesting response to the foot after is
dipped into the solution H2SO4 involves a number of muscles that work in an
integrated and is a pure reflex. According to Frandson (1992), frogs will attract
its feet when given the stimulus package as the entry of amino acid stimuli, for
example H2SO4.
According to Goenarso (1989), the nervous system is a system that would
convey the impulses received by the receptors and sent to the central nervous
system to responded. The nervous system consists of the central nervous system
and peripheral nervous system (nervous system edge). Central nervous system
useful as a coordination center for the activities to be carried out while the
Peripheral nerve system function provides information to the central nervous
system when there is a stimulus package that cause the muscles and glands to
do the response.
The factors that affect the spinal reflex one is there must be a stimulus or
stimuli, especially the stimuli from the outside, as derivate temperature,
humidity, brightness, pressure, ingredients or chemicals and so on. Some of the
stimuli directly act on the cells or network, but most of the animals have
receptors that special for the organ that has the sensitivity. Spinal reflex,
somatosensory inserted in the tendons on the dorsal spinal. Melting texture that
come from different receptor groups provide the influence on the spinal nerve, so
happened spinal reflex (Gordon et.al., 1972). Other factors that affect the spinal
reflex is still functioning of the spinal cord. The spinal cord has two important
functions that regulate impulses from and to the brain and as the center of the
reflex with the existence of the spinal cord, spinal nerve pair and cranial will
connect each of the receptor and the effector in the body to occur the response.
The bone marrow behind them have damaged the total then the ropes of the
spinal as nerve path will be damaged and no longer showing the response to the
stimulus package (Ville et.al., 1988). Other factors that affect the spinal reflex
according to Gunawan (2002) namely the spinal reflex from the frogs in the form
of the response by pulling the front legs or rear legs when the destruction of the
spinal cord due to still happen interconnection from one side of the cord imaging
side to the other.

According to Gordon et.al. (1972), is has moved away from the nerve
consists of some of the axon or nerve coir which is derived from the base of the
brain. The nervous system with two branches, namely somatic (especially
control muscles) and cleaners (control functions of the unconscious). The
nervous system consists of nerve cells neurons with the procesus called dendrites
and axon. This structure consists of nerve cells or neurons. The nervous system
is divided into two namely:
1) Central nervous system consists of the brain and spinal cord
2) The edge of the nervous system or peripheral that including pairs of cranial
nerves and spinal nerve together with nerves sympathetic.
The nervous system is very important on a high level of animal as a
complex communication system and quickly. Recent intracell communication by
nerve impulses, impulses can be bubbles were walking in the form of ion
currents. The signal transmission between neurons and between neurons muscles
often mediated chemically by neurotransmitter (Gunawan, 2002). The nervous
system on the frogs in the simple only covers two parts, namely neurons melting
texture and motoric neuron located on the ventral both connected directly by the
spinal cord. Neural is part of a spinal nerve and protrudes into the spinal
(Djuhanda, 1988).
Autonomic nervous system is the part of the nervous system that regulates
the edge of visceral functions of the body. Autonomic nervous system especially
activated by centers are located in the medulla imaging, the trunk of the brain
and the hypothalamus. Part especially limbik serebri cortex, can deliver
electrical impulses to the centers to more low and so affect otonomic settings.
Autonomic nervous system consists of two subsystems namely sympathetic
nervous system and the parasympathetic autonomic nervous system that works
opposite each other (Cahyono et al., 2009).
Movement of the reflex is spontaneous movement that does not involve the
work of the brain. This movement is done without consciousness. Movement is
useful to resolve the events that suddenly. According to Wulangi (1994)
mechanism that is first -began to goad received the receptor and forwarded to
the spinal cord through the nerves then sensor from the spinal cord, goad

forwarded to the effector without through the nerves to the brain, motoric but
directly to the muscles through the shortest called rounded reflex is:
stimulus receptor neuron afferent nerve center neuron efferent
effector responses
The center of the movement also merely reflect is the spinal cord. According
to Prawirohartono (1990), the spinal cord has a function as the impulses to the
brain and allows the shortest for reflex movement. The existence of the spinal
cord, spinal nerve pair and cranial will connect each of the receptor and the
effector in the body to occur the response. Motoneuron impulses and bone
marrow interneurons is a minimum when recording the reflex during a different
task on the level of contraction of the muscles of the weak. However, it should
be noted that the input afferen sensorik can combine differently during different
motor tasks (Knikou, 2008).



Based on the results and the discussion above it can be concluded that :
1. Spinal also merely reflect on the frogs can occur if there is a good impulses in

the form of mechanical stimuli reversals of the body, the withdrawal of the front
legs, withdrawing the rear legs or chemically by immersion in H2SO4 .
2. Spinal also merely reflect on the frogs controlled by the spinal cord with the
process started from the stimulus package that is received by the neurons melting
texture and forwarded to the spinal cord and then forwarded to the motoric
neurons and there arose a response.

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