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Institutional Review Boards

Campus offices developed to monitor adherence to these three principles, and offices of
institutional review boards emerged. Federal funds could be withheld from campuses.
educational researchers need to :
1. learn about the procedures involved in applying for approval from our institutional review
board offices
2. follow guidelines in developing applications for approval, and
3. designing consent forms for participants to complete that guarantee our protection.

Professional Associations
Before participating in research, individuals need to know the purpose and aims of the study,
(educational research 4th Edition John W. Creswell, page 23) :
1. how the results will be used, and the likely social consequences the study will have on our
2. We also have the right to refuse to participate in a study and to withdraw at any time.
When we participate and provide information :
1. our anonymity is protected and guaranteed by the researcher.
2. Individuals are not to be offered excessive financial inducements to participate in a
3. Participants also have the right to gain something from a study
4. Researchers need to actively look for ways to give back (or reciprocate) to participants
in a study because the participants have freely provided our time.

Ethical Practices throughout the Research Process

In all steps of the research process, we need to engage in ethical practices, (Hesse-Bieber &
Leavy, 2006) :
1. Practicing ethics is involved by following a set of static guidelines.
Ex : such as those from professional associations or conforming to guidelines from
campus institutional review boards.
2. Ethics has become a more pervasive idea stretching from the origins of a research study
to its final completion and distribution.
3. Ethics should be a primary consideration rather than an afterthought.
Ex : should be at the forefront of the researchers agenda

Some Ethical Issues in Data Collection

It is important to respect the site in which the research takes place. This respect should be
shown by (Lincoln Public Schools (n.d.) in Lincoln, Nebraska) :
1. gaining permission before entering a site
2. disturbing the site as little as possible during a study
3. viewing oneself as a guest at the place of study

Guidelines list several reasons why a project may not be approved:

1. take away considerable amounts of instructional time
2. require large amounts of teacher, administrator, or office time (the district may ask to be
reimbursed for the costs of compiling information, staff time, or materials)
3. interfere with district data collection or the work of current research projects.
4. Projects are planned for the first or last month of the school year
5. Projects are received too late in the year to be adequately reviewed
strategy for respecting the research site with minimal disruption (Access through gatekeepers
or officials) is we may need to consult with different gatekeepers at multiple levels in an
ethical issues arise in data collection and associate with specific types of research designs :
1. No need to purposefully deprive some participants of helpful treatments
2. publish positive results
this way is helpful to involve stakeholders in assessing risk to participants, and to not
pressure participants into signing consent forms to not engage in practices that create power
imbalances, and to respect norms of indigenous cultures (Lincoln, 2009).

Some Ethical Issues in Data Reporting

Ethical Data reporting issue that we know :
1. We need to show respect to audiences who read and use information from studies.
2. Data should be reported honestly. Without changing or altering the findings to satisfy
certain predictions or interest groups
3. Should not be plagiarized, and
4. Credit should be given for material quoted from other studies (credit involves citing the
authors and The date of the publication, and listing the publication in the reference
5. Research should be free of jargon
6. Understandable to those being studied