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Purpose

1. To sorted bottles whose contents are not within specification


2. To count the number of bottles produced
Target
To sorted bottles whose contents are not within specification To count the number of bottles
produced using RGB sensor and proximity sensor
3D image
Front

Top

Description
This system use 4 important component, there is:
1. Conveyor
A conveyor is a common piece of mechanical handling equipment that moves
materials from one location to another. Conveyors are especially useful in applications
involving the transportation of heavy or bulky materials. Conveyor systems allow quick
and efficient transportation for a wide variety of materials, which make them very popular
in the material handling and packaging industries. Many kinds of conveying systems are
available, and are used according to the various needs of different industries.
a. Slat/Apron
b. Ball Transfer
c. Belt
d. Bucket
e. Chute
f. Drag/Chain/Tow
g. Overhead
h. Roller

2. Cylinder
Pneumatic cylinder(s) (sometimes known as air cylinders) are mechanical
devices which use the power of compressed gas to produce a force in a reciprocating linear
motion.
Like hydraulic cylinders, something forces a piston to move in the desired direction. The
piston is a disc or cylinder, and the piston rod transfers the force it develops to the object to
be moved. Engineers sometimes prefer to use pneumatics because they are quieter, cleaner,
and do not require large amounts of space for fluid storage.
Because the operating fluid is a gas, leakage from a pneumatic cylinder will not drip out and
contaminate the surroundings, making pneumatics more desirable where cleanliness is a
requirement.
Although pneumatic cylinders will vary in appearance, size and function, they
generally fall into one of the specific categories shown below. However, there are also
numerous other types of pneumatic cylinder available, many of which are designed to fulfill
specific and specialized functions.
Single-acting cylinders
Single-acting cylinders (SAC) use the pressure imparted by compressed air to create a driving
force in one direction (usually out), and a spring to return to the "home" position. More often
than not, this type of cylinder has limited extension due to the space the compressed spring
takes up. Another downside to SACs is that part of the force produced by the cylinder is lost
as it tries to push against the spring.
Double-acting cylinders
Double-acting cylinders (DAC) use the force of air to move in both extend and retract
strokes. They have two ports to allow air in, one for outstroke and one for instroke. Stroke
length for this design is not limited, however, the piston rod is more vulnerable to buckling
and bending. Additional calculations should be performed as well.
Multi-stage, telescoping cylinder

Telescoping cylinders, also known as telescopic cylinders can be either single or doubleacting. The telescoping cylinder incorporates a piston rod nested within a series of hollow
stages of increasing diameter. Upon actuation, the piston rod and each succeeding stage
"telescopes" out as a segmented piston. The main benefit of this design is the allowance for a
notably longer stroke than would be achieved with a single-stage cylinder of the same
collapsed (retracted) length. One cited drawback to telescoping cylinders is the increased
potential for piston flexion due to the segmented piston design. Consequently, telescoping
cylinders are primarily utilized in applications where the piston bears minimal side loading.

3. RGB sensor
The RGB color model is an additive color model in which red, green and blue light
are added together in various ways to reproduce a broad array of colors. The name of the
model comes from the initials of the three additive primary colors, red, green and blue.
The main purpose of the RGB color model is for the sensing, representation and display of
images in electronic systems, such as televisions and computers, though it has also been used
in conventional photography. Before the electronic age, the RGB color model already had a
solid theory behind it, based in human perception of colors.
RGB is a device-dependent color model: different devices detect or reproduce a given RGB
value differently, since the color elements (such as phosphors or dyes) and their response to
the individual R, G and B levels vary from manufacturer to manufacturer, or even in the same
device over time. Thus an RGB value does not define the same color across devices without
some kind of color management.
4. Proximity Sensor
A proximity sensor is a sensor able to detect the presence of nearby objects without
any physical contact.
A proximity sensor often emits an electromagnetic field or a beam of electromagnetic
radiation (infrared, for instance), and looks for changes in the field or return signal. The
object being sensed is often referred to as the proximity sensor's target. Different
4

proximity

sensor

targets

a capacitive or photoelectric

demand

sensor might

different
be

suitable

sensors.
for

For
a

plastic

example,
target;

an inductive proximity sensor always requires a metal target.


The maximum distance that this sensor can detect is defined "nominal range". Some
sensors have adjustments of the nominal range or means to report a graduated detection
distance. Some know these process as "thermosensation".
Proximity sensors can have a high reliability and long functional life because of the
absence of mechanical parts and lack of physical contact between sensor and the sensed
object.
Proximity sensors are commonly used on smartphones to detect (and skip) accidental
touchscreen taps when held to the ear during a call. [1] They are also used in machine
vibration monitoring to measure the variation in distance between a shaft and its support
bearing. This is common in large steam turbines, compressors, and motors that use sleevetype bearings.

Algorithm
1. If start buttun on will activate the conveyor.
2. RGB sensor will detected bottle. If bottle color not accordance with range data
actuator (pneumatic cylinder) will push the bottle until fall. If bottle color is
accordance with range data, bottle will continued to next process.
3. Cylinder will extend 1 sekon after RGB sensor detected incompatibility color bottle
and cylinder will directly back to retract possition after cylinder reach maximum
extend possition.
4. Proximity sensor will derected bottle as input for counting number of bottle.
5. Conveyor still active until stop buttun be pressing.
Convention
1. RGB sensor:

1 = detected incompatibility
0 = content compatible

2. proximity Sensor : 1 = detected bottle


5

0 = not detected bottle


3. Cylinder :

1 = extract
0 = retract

4. Conveyor:

1 = active

Spesification
1. Conveyor

Use DC motor
Can bring 30 bottle
Only for bottle conveyor
Use DC motor

2. Cylinder

Use pneumatic model


Can extract and retract
Capable to push load until 2 kg

3. RGB sensor

Range voltage : 2,7 V -5,5 V


Convertion from light intentition to high frequence : 2Hz-500KHz
High accuration
With 4 leds

4. Proximity Sensor

Range voltage : 6V-36V


Detection distance : 30 mm
Head diameter : 15 mm
Output : PNP-NC
Type : capasitive

I/O Table
Input from this system is bottle, and output is bottle with compatible content and
incompatible content.
6

output
Motor/conveyor
Cylinder

Input
RGB sensor
Proximity Sensor

(Pneumatic)

Truth Table
RGB sensor

proximit

Cylinder

conveyor

1
0
1
0

y
1
0
0
1

1
0
1
0

1
1
1
1

From the truth table above can be explained that the conveyor will continue to run
whatever condition of the three other parameters. Proximiti will detect the presence of
bottles and perform calculations or counter. While the cylinder will be active when the RGB
sensor 1 or detects a discrepancy in the bottle.
Timing Diagram
start
conveyor
cylinder
RGB sensor
Counter
Proximity
Stop

conveyor will begin started if button ON be pressed. Cilinder associated with RGB sensor
while the counter associated with proximity. Cilinder will be active (extend) when the RGB
sensor sends pulse or detect non-conformance of the bottle. While the counter will count
along with proximity to detect the presence of the bottle.
Block Dagram
Bottle

Proximitx or RGB sensorController (PLC)Cylinder extend or counter ON

This system use PLC as a controller, PLC input is proximity sensor or RGB (colour)
sensor. And output from this system is cylinder extend or retract and counter ON.

Flowchart