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NOTES IN PHILOSOPHY

Prepared by: Ding Flores

INTRODUCTION
I. PHILOSOPHY
A. DEFINITIONS OF PHILOSOPHY
a. Popular/Common/Broad Definitions: principles, standards, foundation, rules, beliefs, policies or norms governing certain
judgment, decision, and action of a person, institution or society. It is a guide in life or way of life.
e.g. 1. For a principled person: It is better to die of hunger than to steal
2. For capitalist: Aim for profit at all costs.
3. For Juan de la Cruz: Honesty is the best policy
4. For UNO-R students: Kung may tiyaga, may nilaga. No guts, no glory
5. For a desperate or a lazy person: Bahala na.
* How the individual, group or society decide and act depend on their PHILOSOPHY.
b. Nominal/etymological definition:
Beginning/origin- traceable to the Greek colony of Miletus about 600 B.C.
Coined by: Pythagoras, an early Greek scholar.
Thales- Father of Philosophy.
Derived from the Greek/Latin words- Philia, Philein, Philos- love, lover, friend.
Sophia- wisdom or knowledge.
Literally/nominally- Love of knowledge/wisdom
* All wisdom are knowledge, but not all knowledge are wisdom
c. Real meaning (C. Bittle): Science of beings in their ultimate causes, reasons, and principles acquired by the aid of human
reason alone.
-

- As a science it contains systematic, orderly, accurate and proven to be perfectly true knowledge.
Subject matter: beings
Beings everything that exists (God, man, world)
Concern about: final causes, reasons and principles behind the existence of God, man, and the world.
Method in knowing/proving something: rational/inferential
it involves in the search of man for the meaning of his life.
Functions of Philosophy as a Science
1. carefully examines and criticizes the premises and conclusions of all sciences
2. synthesizes or blends the findings of the sciences into a unified whole.
3. harmonizes the conflicting findings of the different sciences, so that they will support/compliment each other.
Three Major Fields/Categories

I.

Theoretical Philosophy- seeking knowledge as it is, or seeking knowledge for knowledge sake. It direct itself in
knowing things as they are w/o thinking of their practical application.
1. Metaphysics (meta- beyond and physikon- nature/physical)- investigates the fundamental nature of reality, being
and existence.
2. Ontology (onta- the really existing things or beings, and logos-study of) studies the essential cha. Of particular
existing things, of the ultimate Being (God) of existence and the status, order and structure of reality.
3. Cosmology (Kosmos- world or universe, and logos- study of)- study of the universe as a rational and orderly
system. Popularly known as the theory of the universe

II.

III.

4. Psychology (psyche- mind, soul, spirit, and logos- study of)- studies the nature and functioning of the mind.
Otherwise known as the science of behavior and the theory of the mind.
5. Epistemology (episteme- knowledge, and logos- study of)- study of the origins, nature, extent and the veracity
(vera-truth) reliability, truthfulness, validity of knowledge.
- closely related with philosophy.
- Known as theory of knowledge
- Investigates different ways of knowing, and whether there are limits to knowing.
6. Theodicy (Theos- God, and Dike- right, just)- studies the nature, being, goodness, and justice of God, and also
God and man relationship and other doctrines related to divinity
- known as rational theology, because it uses reason to attain its objectives.
Differs from theology because though similar in concern, theology uses revelation such as the Bible, and
testimonies of saints and relies on faith in its quest for divine truth.
Practical Philosophy- concerns with the material usefulness of knowledge and how knowledge can be applied for
concrete daily life situation.
1. Semantics (semantikos- significant)- studies the meaning and functions of words and linguistic forms.
2. Logic inquires into the nature and problems of correct thinking and orderly reasoning.
3. Ethics (ethos-customs, manners)- investigates the right and wrong in mans behavior and the morality of human
acts and conducts.
4. Aesthetics- studies beauty and the art.
Art- mans creativeness/skills in doing things beautifully.
Beauty- quality attributed to whatever pleases the beholder, such as form, color, behavior.
5. Axiology (axios- worth or value)- analyzes the meaning, cha. Origin, types, criteria and knowledge of values.
Productive Philosophy- combination or application of either of the branches of the theoretical and practical branches
or other fields of studies.
1. Philosophy of education
4. Legal Philosophy
2. Philosophy of religion
5. Social Philosophy
3. Philosophy of science
6. Political Philosophy

Objectives of Philosophy
General Objectives:
a. Develop self-awareness
Socrates: gnoti seuton know thyself. an unexamined life is not worth living.
- man must be aware what, who he is?
- Why is he here in this world?
- otherwise, according to Socrates, there is no reason for him/her to exists.
b. Develop critical thinking
- through critical thinking, man is capable of knowing what is right and what is wrong.
Specific Objectives:
a. Inquiry
meaning and structure of man
- man (human being)- is rational being- capable of thinking/reasoning
- composed of body and soul
face reality directly
b. Liberation
ignorance
meaninglessness
aimlessness
indifference to human needs
c. Develop mature habit of thinking
reflective
analytical
critical
- loves not only knowledge but wisdom
- always seeks truth
- strives to be a better person
* Philosophy makes us a better person