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TELECOMMUNICATION

TRANSMISSION AND
SWITCHING SYSTEMS

Telecommunication Network

A telecommunications network
consists of
Transmission

systems
Switching
S it hi systems
t
Stations

Transmission Systems
y

Transmission ((abbreviation: Tx):


)

is the process of sending and propagating an analogue or digital


information signal over a physical point-to-point or point-tomultipoint transmission medium, either wired, optical fiber or
wireless.

Transmission System:

is a system that transmits a signal from one place to another. The


signal can be an electrical, optical or radio signal.

carries messages from an originating station to one or more


distant stations.

is engineered
g
and installed in sufficient q
quantity
y to p
provide a
quality of service compatible with the cost and expected benefits.

Transmission Systems
y
Source

Transmission Medium

Destination

The source may be a simple telephone microphone, keyboard


The
Th destination
d ti ti may be
b a simple
i l telephone
t l h
speaker,
k monitor
it

Source

Medium

Medium

Medium

Destination

It
It can be a single electrical medi
medium,
m or a cascade of electrical media

Switching
g systems
y

Switching systems are an assembly of switching


and control devices provided so that any station in a
communications system
y
may
y be connected as
desired with any other station.

To enable the transmission facilities to be shared,


shared
stations are connected to and reached through
switching system nodes that are part of most
telecommunications networks.
networks

Switching
g Systems
y
act under built-in control to
direct messages toward their ultimate destination or
address.

High Availability Network Design


Simplified
p
Using
g Virtual Switching
g
System

http://www.cisco.com/en/US/prod/collateral/switches/ps5718/ps9336/images/prod_qas0900aecd806ed74b-2.jpg

Review of
Telecommunications

Development of
Telecommunications

1837:
Beginning
of
electrical
communication, invention of Telegraph by
Wheatstone and Morse
1876: Invention of Telephone by Alexander
Graham Bell
1878: Opening of the first Telephone
Exchange,
g at New Haven, Connecticut.

Global Telephony
p
y Trends

2008: 1.27 billion fixed line


according to ITU
At the end of 2011:
Total

subscribers

mobile cellular subscriptions reached almost


6 billion corresponding to a global penetration of
86%.
86%
more
than
1
billion
mobile broadband
subscriptions worldwide.
590 million fixed (wired) broadband subscriptions
worldwide.
2.3
2 3 billion people were online.
online

Global ICT developments 20012011


GlobalICTdevelopments,20012011
100
90

Mobilecellulartelephonesubscriptions

80

IndividualsusingtheInternet
Fixedtelephonesubscriptions

Per100inh
habitants

70
Activemobilebroadbandsubscriptions

60

Fixed(wired)broadbandsubscriptions

50
40
30
20
10
0

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

Source: ITU World Telecommunication /ICT Indicators database

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

Business of Telecommunication

Involves various participants. These include:


The

public telecommunication Operators (PTO)


Providers
of
Services
that
involve
telecommunications
Manufacturers of equipment and components
Both

hardware and software

Financial

investors
Governments
The users
who

must pay charges to cover the cost of providing


the network so they are referred to as Subscribers or
Customers

Telephony
p
y in action

Two way communication is required,


Two-way
required on
demand, between any pair of stations
It must be possible for many conversations to
take place at the same time
How?

Network Structures
User1
User 5

U
User
1
User 2

User 4

User 3

Ring Network

N=1

U
User
6

U
User
7

User1
User 2

User 5

User 3

User 4

Bus Network

User 8

Hub1

User3
User4

N=1
HUB

Us
er
4

User5
User6
User7

Us
er
2
Us
er
3

Hub2

User 1

Us
er1

User2

User 5

User 2

Hub

Hub3

User8
User9

User 4

User 3

Mesh Network N=1/2n(n-1) Star Network N=n

Tree Network

Exchange
g

Solution can be provided by connecting a line


from each users station to the central switching
center/telephone exchange
a telephone exchange or telephone switch is a
system of electronic components that connects
t l h
telephone
calls
ll

Area with a single


exchange

Area with several


exchanges

Telecommunication networks
hierarchy
L

A National Public Switched


Telecommunication Network
(PSTN) consists of:

Local network

connects customers station to their


local exchanges.

These are also called subscribers


distribution networks, customer
access networks or the customer
loop.

L
L
Junction circuits

Junction Network
Multi exchange area.
L L
L=
Locall E
Exchange
h
T=Tandem Exchange

Junction networks

interconnects a group of local


exchanges serving as area and a
tandem or trunk exchange.

The trunk network or toll network

which
provides
long-distance
circuits
between
local
areas
throughout the country

National Telecommunication Network


Satellite Links and Submarine
Cables
International Gateway
Exchange
g
(Centre de Transit3)
National Tandem Exchanges
(tertiary trunk switching centres)

nodes

International Network
PBX
Trunk Network

Regional Tandem Exchanges


(Secondary trunk switching
centres)
ce t es)
Local Tandem Exchanges
(Primary trunk switching
centres)
Local
Exchanges
Customer
Lines

Junction Network

Local Network

Core
Network

Elements of a Telecommunication
Network

Transmission System
Switching System
Signaling system
Responsible

for interchange of information

Which are made up by interconnecting


Customer

nodes
Switching nodes
Transmission nodes
Service nodes

Network Services

Customers of a PTO may require different


services which appear to require different
networks. Examples
p
include:
Public

Switched Telephone Network (PSTN)


The Public Switched Telegraph Network (Telex)
Private Networks for voice and data
Radio networks providing mobile communication
Public data networks (PDN)
Special Service Networks

Network Services Continued..


Visua
l

PD
N

Tele
x

PC

PST
N

Transmission Bearer Network

Loo
p

Customers are connected to transmission bearer network at their


local exchange via the local access network or local loop.

The services provided over the telecommunication network can thus


be divided into two categories:

1.

Teleservices

2.

Provision
P
i i
off the
th service
i
d
depends
d on particular
ti l
t
terminal
i l
apparatus ( e.g. telephone or tele-printer).

Bearer Services

Present the customer with transmission capacity that can be


used for any desired function (e.g. private circuits)

Terminology
gy
North American

British

Customers Loop

Local network
Access Network

Central office

Exchange

End Office

Local Exchange

Class 5 Office
Inter-office Trunk

Junction

Junctor

Trunk

Toll Office

Trunk Exchange

Toll network

Trunk Network