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Просмотров: 610 стр.The purpose of this study is to produce a mathematical model to describe the operation of a water-to-water heat pump system for steady-state condition. The set-up model is deterministic. It consists of distributed as well as lumped parameters. The proposed mathematical models of heat exchangers were described by coupled differential equations, while the models of the compressor and the expansion valve are of lumped parameters. The Runge-Kutta and the Adams-Moulton predictor-corrector methods were applied for the numerical solution of differential equations, i.e. the equation systems. The developed mathematical model is validated with 118 tests using R134a as a working fluid. The results show that an average difference between the modeled and experimental results for the coefficient of performance is 1.73%, which means that the proposed mathematical model can be used to determine the optimum operating point of a heat pump system for a given heat demand for heating, by determining the maximum value of the coefficient of performance.

Nov 30, 2016

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The purpose of this study is to produce a mathematical model to describe the operation of a water-to-water heat pump system for steady-state condition. The set-up model is deterministic. It consists of distributed as well as lumped parameters. The proposed mathematical models of heat exchangers were described by coupled differential equations, while the models of the compressor and the expansion valve are of lumped parameters. The Runge-Kutta and the Adams-Moulton predictor-corrector methods were applied for the numerical solution of differential equations, i.e. the equation systems. The developed mathematical model is validated with 118 tests using R134a as a working fluid. The results show that an average difference between the modeled and experimental results for the coefficient of performance is 1.73%, which means that the proposed mathematical model can be used to determine the optimum operating point of a heat pump system for a given heat demand for heating, by determining the maximum value of the coefficient of performance.

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Просмотров: 6

The purpose of this study is to produce a mathematical model to describe the operation of a water-to-water heat pump system for steady-state condition. The set-up model is deterministic. It consists of distributed as well as lumped parameters. The proposed mathematical models of heat exchangers were described by coupled differential equations, while the models of the compressor and the expansion valve are of lumped parameters. The Runge-Kutta and the Adams-Moulton predictor-corrector methods were applied for the numerical solution of differential equations, i.e. the equation systems. The developed mathematical model is validated with 118 tests using R134a as a working fluid. The results show that an average difference between the modeled and experimental results for the coefficient of performance is 1.73%, which means that the proposed mathematical model can be used to determine the optimum operating point of a heat pump system for a given heat demand for heating, by determining the maximum value of the coefficient of performance.

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Energy

journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/energy

bert Sa

nta a, *, La

szlo

Garbai b, Igor Frstner a

Ro

a

b

Department of Building Service and Process Engineering, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Hungary

a r t i c l e i n f o

a b s t r a c t

Article history:

Received 23 January 2015

Received in revised form

10 July 2015

Accepted 11 July 2015

Available online xxx

The purpose of this study is to produce a mathematical model to describe the operation of a water-towater heat pump system for steady-state condition. The set-up model is deterministic. It consists of

distributed as well as lumped parameters. The proposed mathematical models of heat exchangers were

described by coupled differential equations, while the models of the compressor and the expansion valve

are of lumped parameters. The RungeeKutta and the AdamseMoulton predictor-corrector methods were

applied for the numerical solution of differential equations, i.e. the equation systems. The developed

mathematical model is validated with 118 tests using R134a as a working uid. The results show that an

average difference between the modeled and experimental results for the coefcient of performance is

1.73%, which means that the proposed mathematical model can be used to determine the optimum

operating point of a heat pump system for a given heat demand for heating, by determining the

maximum value of the coefcient of performance.

2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Keywords:

COP (coefcient of performance)

Heat pump

Mathematical model

R134a

Optimization

1. Introduction

Early 2008, the European Commission adopted a futureoriented proposal [1], intended to reduce greenhouse gases still

causing increases of the greenhouse effect, and at the same time to

increase the application of renewable energy resources to a 20%

ratio within the total of energy use by 2020. Hungary, as an EU

Member State, incorporated the EU decision on such major increase

of renewable energy resources in its legal system, and its objective

is to raise the proportions of renewable energy use from the current

5e6% to14.65%. In the authors' view, the spreading of heat pump

technology, the most energy-efcient method for heating and

cooling buildings, is the best solution for Hungary, having in mind

the given natural conditions.

In order to improve the energy efciency of heat pumps and to

increase the quality of operation, it is unavoidable to strive to

describe, as precisely as possible, heat pump operation and the

processes therein. Therefore, on the one hand, the theoretical basis

of the present study is the development and renement of the

mathematical model of the heat pump, while on the other hand, it

is the optimization of the system's operation.

A thorough literature review reveals that the mathematical

modeling of heat pumps was discussed extensively in the past.

Koury et al. [2] proposed a model for a refrigeration system with

* Corresponding author. Tel.: 36 309556449.

E-mail address: santa@vts.su.ac.rs (R. S

anta).

simulations were carried out to verify the possibility of controlling

the refrigeration system and the superheating of the refrigerant in

the evaporator outlet by varying the compressor speed and the

throttling valve position. Choi et al. [3] also carried out numerical

simulations for a multi-type heat pump, to examine the performance of the system in transient conditions. Hermes et al. [4]

presented a mathematical model for transient and steady simulations of the thermal and uid-dynamic behavior of the refrigerant

ow through adiabatic and non-adiabatic capillary tubes. YoubieIdrissi et al. [5] developed a rather simple simulation model,

which allows the highlighting of the behavior of a water-to-water

heat pump operating under steady-state conditions, from its heat

exchangers geometry and compressor characteristics.

In their paper Sheng et al. [6] investigated the energy saving

potential of HTHP&DW system compared to the reference technologies based on vapor compression (CVC (conventional vapor

compression) system) and desiccant cooling (HDC (hybrid desiccant cooling) system).

Zhenjun et al. [7] presented the biogas engine-driven heat pump

air conditioner in a new-style system which includes a biogas engine driven heat pump, primary heat exchanger, second heat

exchanger, sprayed room and fans, pumps, etc. The authors investigated the inuence of various factors including the outdoor air

temperature and humidity both in summer and winter.

The mathematical model of the heat pump enables the design of

optimal systems, searching for more economical solutions,

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.energy.2015.07.042

0360-5442/ 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Please cite this article in press as: Santa R, et al., Optimization of heat pump system, Energy (2015), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/

j.energy.2015.07.042

R. Sa

cost planning. The energy optimum of a heat pump is realized

when the COP (coefcient of performance) takes up the maximum

value.

In the design phase, the nominal state of the maximum energy

efciency can be set by selecting the optimal system parameters, in

an effort to jointly minimize the total cost of system installation and

operation. In the case that the system had already been designed

and manufactured, the coefcient of performance can only be

improved by reducing the mechanical work invested. Therefore,

the aim is to set the optimum operating point by aligning the rpm

of the motors running the compressor and the pumps as well as by

other decisions detailed later on, which, in turn, can be realized by

setting up a mathematical model to enable the optimization of

operation.

The literature review shows that numerous researchers have

discussed the optimization and analysis of heat pump operation.

Nyers et al. [8] discussed the COP value of the heat pump

condenser, by varying the mass ow of the heated media and the

refrigerant. Sarkar et al. [9] presented the experimental results for a

heat pump system for simultaneous water cooling and heating. The

cooling and heating capacities and the COP have been studied for

various operating conditions (water mass ow rates and water inlet

temperatures of both evaporator and gas cooler) and expansion

valve openings. Primal et al. [10] detected an important inuence of

the evaporator conditions on the charge, when a water-to-water

heat pump under different evaporation temperatures was tested.

They found that the optimal charge decreased with the evaporating

temperature. Zhang et al. [11] presented a system optimization of

air source heat pump water heater, including calculation and

testing. Zhao et al. [12] analyzed the steady state performance of

the heat pump system, showing that the overall system is a two

time-scale dynamic system.

Based on the presented literature review it can be concluded

that the researchers carried out a deep and thorough analysis of

numerous specic heat pump systems. The present study aims at

contributing to this eld in order to ll a gap in literature by discussing the scientic design of the steady state operation of the

water-to-water heat pump system that was missing or just partially

discussed in literature. Thus, the objective is to describe, more

precisely than before, the thermodynamic heat transfer and uid

mechanics processes within the system components in order to

realize the heat pump's cycle, as well as to be able to identify

changes of state at each point e and otherwise at discretionary

points e of the cycle.

The proposed mathematical model allows the optimization of

the system operation for different heating demands; that is, it examines how to satisfy a given heat demand by using a minimum

amount of electric power. Therefore, the aim is to maximize COP as

the target function of the system by examining what decision parameters can be used to set it, both on the water side of the

evaporator and the condenser e and what values thereof e, taking

into consideration the behavior of the compressor and the expansion valve at operating points other than nominal ones. The goal

function of system operation is:

Qcon

/max!:

COP

W

(1)

Heating capacity:

Qcon Qeva W:

Cooling capacity:

Qeva f m_ cw ; Tcw;i; Tcw;o :

(3)

Compression power:

W f m_ ref ; peva;i; pcon;o ; h :

(4)

system

The physical model of the major elements of the heat pump

system is shown in Fig. 1. This physical model, which is described

mathematically, consists of an evaporator, a compressor, a

condenser, and an expansion valve.

The presented study focuses on shell and tube heat exchangers.

The test model developed for the entire heat pump system also

includes investigations of plate heat exchangers; however, the

characteristics of different types of heat exchangers e the relationship of input and output proles e are specied by the

manufacturers.

In the present case, the refrigerant is R134a; owing in the tubes

of heat exchangers, while the primary and secondary uid-water,

ows in the shell side. In the shell side of heat exchangers bafes

are applied primarily for supporting the tubes and for inducing

cross ow over the tubes, resulting in improved heat transfer performance. The bafes are perpendicular to the tube bundle. The

examined heat exchangers have segmental bafes.

The mathematical model of the heat pump system is set up for

steady state behavior. It is deterministic, and of distributed parameters, meaning that the relations between variables can be

uniquely dened. They are independent of time, and the parameters with their values are taken into account according to location.

The mathematical model of the heat exchangers consists of basic

equations e governing equations in a different terminology e and

auxiliary equations, while the models of the compressor and the

expansion valve are of lumped parameters.

The following assumptions have been made regarding the

physical and mathematical models:

refrigerant ow in the evaporator and the condenser is onedimensional and permanent,

refrigerant liquid and vapor phases are in thermodynamic

equilibrium,

in heat exchangers, only axial ows are taken into account.

In the following subsections, basic equations and conditional

equations are stated separately for each system component. By

solving them, changes of state of the refrigerant can be specied at

certain points of the cycle, namely in the evaporator, at the inlet and

outlet points of the compressor, in the condenser, and in the

expansion valve, thereby making it possible to set control parameters according to discretional consumer demands, which in turn

can be used for specifying the optimal operating point of the

system.

2.1. Heat exchangers

(2)

For the mathematical model of heat exchangers, a two zone

model is utilized. The evaporator is divided into two zones

Please cite this article in press as: Santa R, et al., Optimization of heat pump system, Energy (2015), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/

j.energy.2015.07.042

R. Sa

divided into two zones (superheating and condensation zones).

Each zone is considered as a control volume. The model is established by applying the energy conservation equation for each heat

exchanger control volume (refrigerant, secondary uid and pipe

wall), as well as the mass and momentum conservation equations

(refrigerant). This procedure generated the following set of differential equations.

Mass conservation equation of the refrigerant

vr$w

0 /r$w Gref const:

vz

aw $Tw Twall aref $ Twall Tref 0:

(8)

(5)

m_ w $cw $ Tw;i Tw;o aw $Aout $ Tw Twall 0:

(6)

In addition to the afore-mentioned basic energy equations,

several auxiliary equations are required in the simulation of the

heat pump. These include the heat transfer, pressure drops, thermodynamic property relations, and other thermo-physical data.

(9)

v r$w2

vp fwall 2

$w $r 0:

vz 2din

vz

Energy conservation equation of the refrigerant

v

w2

K

_

h

q$

Gref $

0:

vz

Ain

2

Heat transfer

(7)

system, the correlations for heat transfer coefcient for the refrigerant should be selected considering its phase.

Please cite this article in press as: Santa R, et al., Optimization of heat pump system, Energy (2015), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/

j.energy.2015.07.042

R. Sa

4

Table 1

Refrigerant side heat transfer coefcients.

Region

Single phase

l

av 0:023$Re0:8 $Pr n $ :

din

(10)

Evaporation

Co4:1

aeva 12:6$

Xtt4:8

Condensation

5

acon 28:6$e3:15$10

$Ree

l

$Pr 1:11 $

:

din

(11)

aw 1:66$Re

$Pr

0:038

l

$ :

De

determined by the P-R state equation [19]:

(13)

introduced into the model. The single-phase (vapor) ow friction

factor was calculated using the Darcy [18] equation, while the shell

(water) side of the heat exchangers is determined from the correlation by Santa [17], (Eq. (14)).

fwall $

2

Dz

w

3:09 $ $r:

De

2

(15)

Pressure drops

Dp

Dp

Dx

f

G2ref $vv $ wall $G2ref $vv $x:

Dz

Dz 2$din

(12)

the DittuseBoelter correlation [13], (Eq. (10)) was selected. The

Santa correlation [14], (Eq. (11)) was used for the prediction of the

heat transfer coefcient in ow boiling. The proposed heat transfer

coefcient of evaporation was partly based on the GungoreWinterton correlation [15]. The Santa correlation [14], (Eq.

(12)) was applied to obtain the condensation heat transfer coefcient, which is modied by the Akers correlation [16].

Internal heat transfer coefcients for both evaporator and

condenser are shown in Table 1.

In the DittuseBoelter (Eq. (10)) correlation, the exponent of Pr

should n 0.4 for heating and n 0.3 for cooling, so the correlation

is different when it is used in the evaporator and condenser.

The external (water-side) heat transfer coefcient for horizontal

tubes is given by Santa [17] (Eq. (13)).

0:43

drop is the sum of the momentum pressure drop and the frictional

pressure drop. The total pressure drop in the evaporator and the

condenser for the two-phase refrigerant and superheated vapor

has been adopted by using the simple correlation proposed by

Santa [17].

(14)

on the variation of kinetic and potential energy of the refrigerant

and on the friction on the ow channel wall. The total pressure

R$T

aT

:

v b v$v b b$v b

(16)

with

s!#2

"

R2 $Tc2

T

aT 0:45724$

$ 1 k$ 1

:

Tc

pc

R$Tc

:

b 0:07780$

pc

where a and b are energy and size parameters, respectively. R is the

universal gas constant. T, p and v are temperature, pressure and

molar volume, respectively. u 0.3268 is the acentric factor.

Subscript c indicates the critical value.

The above equations, supplemented by auxiliary equations, and

together with the equations of state on the refrigerant and the

water, and the equations describing heat exchanger characteristics,

comprise the steady state mathematical model of distributed

characteristics of the evaporator and the condenser. The systems of

equations (5)e(7) are suitable for solution by the RungeeKutta and

AdameMoulton methods. By knowing the initial characteristics,

and by progressing at step intervals of Dz (Fig. 2), the equation

system can be used to dene the values of refrigerant pressure and

enthalpy, as well as temperature changes of the cooled water

owing in the shell side.

Fig. 2. Changes of working medium parameters in a shell and tube evaporator in function of length.

j.energy.2015.07.042

R. Sa

2.2. Compressor

system

enthalpy change specied by the compression ratio and the internal efciency of the compressor. The output demand of the

compressor is:

1

W m_ ref $ hcon;in heva;o $ :

h

(17)

The expansion valve (proportioning valve) is intended to supply

appropriate quantities of refrigerant to the evaporator in function

of overheating. Isenthalpic throttling is assumed in operation. The

mass ux of the refrigerant owing through the expansion valve is:

q

Gref C$ Dp$rref :

(18)

system required the simulation to be performed by solving the

equations of the model through an iterative process, which is

shown as a general owchart in Fig. 3. The simulation algorithm is

developed for steady state behavior. In the simulation, each variable of the model was made discrete, meaning that each function of

independent variables was represented by discrete numbers.

The developed simulation algorithm is coded in C.

The input data into the simulation is organized in three subgroups:

Transport properties (thermodynamic and physical properties

of the refrigerant, physical properties of water),

Thermodynamic parameters (water mass ow rate, refrigerant

mass ow rate, cold water inlet temperature, temperature of the

superheated refrigerant vapor),

Geometric properties (dimensions of the evaporator and

condenser).

The simulation process consists of four sub-processes, which are

based on the mathematical models of the compressor, condenser,

expansion valve and evaporator. First, the compressor's mathematical model runs, followed by the condenser's and expansion

valve's mathematical models. The computation results for the mass

ow of the refrigerant in the compressor (m_ ref ;comp ) and the mass

ow of the refrigerant in the expansion valve e (m_ ref ;tev ) are

compared. The temperature of the superheated refrigerant vapor is

adjusted (Tsh) until the resulted difference between computation

results is greater than the dened acceptable error. Following this

procedure, the evaporator's mathematical model runs. The

computation result output enthalpy from the condenser (hcon,o) is

compared to the input enthalpy to the evaporator (heva,in). Until the

resulted difference between enthalpies is greater than the dened

acceptable error, the evaporator's temperature is adjusted (Teva),

and the procedure is repeated. Following this, an output is generated, which contains the required data for the analysis of the heat

pump system.

In terms of the numerical resolution of differential equations/

equation systems, application of the RungeeKutta method e

among the great number of such methods e represents a

compromise between simplicity and accuracy. This method has

been made more precise by applying the AdamseMoulton

predictor-corrector method.

The method essentially requires the rst 4 iterations to be performed using RungeeKutta's method in order to provide an input

for the AdamseMoulton method. This latter method can be used

for the calculation of solutions starting from iteration 5.

AdamseMoulton's is an iterative method: the desired level of accuracy can be achieved in the given step, usually by performing

iteration several times (n < 10).

The function that is sought F(z) (p(z), h(z), T(z)) is a vector

function with the following components: p(z) e refrigerant pressure, h(z) e refrigerant enthalpy, T(z) e water temperature, each of

them is a function of the distance z from the starting point of the

tube (z 0). This means that the calculation of F actually involves

the calculation of three quantities. The equation F0 G (p,h,T,z) is to

be solved.

4. Experimental results and model validation

of measuring instruments. The specication of the heat pump is

j.energy.2015.07.042

R. Sa

6

Table 2

Specications of the main components of the heat pump system.

Name

Remarks

Compressor

Evaporation

Reciprocating compressor, R134a, rated input power: 904 W, piston displacement: 32.7 cm3.

Shell and tube heat exchanger.

Shell inner diameter Din 32 mm. The tubes are made of copper and have a staggered layout.

Number of tubes: 5. Tube inner diameter din 6 mm. Number of bafes: 15. Bufe cut 30%. Length of evaporator z 3 m

Shell and tube heat exchanger.

Shell inner diameter Din 32 mm. The tubes are made of copper and have a staggered layout.

Number of tubes: 5. Tube inner diameter din 6 mm. Number of bafes: 15. Bufe cut 30%. Length of condenser z 3 m

Internally-equalized type

Condensation

Expansion valve

sensors to measure key variables such as pressures, temperatures,

volumetric and mass ow rates, and compressor energy consumptions, which is presented in Fig. 4. The parameters of the

Table 3

Measured parameters and uncertainty.

Measuring instruments

Name

Acc.

Thermocouples

Dallas

DS18S20

Meters Prematlak

0e400 kPa,

Mihajlo Pupin

Transducers MP-1M2

Wattmeter, 0e3 kW,

tip el2, Iskra

Volumetric ow meters:

INSA 4.115

BMET 55643811

Coriolis ow meter:

Krohne Optimas 6400

0.3 K

Power

Flow meters

1%

0.5%

0.5

0.6%, 0.2%

0.1%

measuring instruments are presented in Table 3. Measuring instruments were placed along the shell and tube evaporator and the

condenser, the length of which was z 3 m. Measuring points were

installed at 10 discrete points in the heat exchangers. The distance

between measuring points was Dz 30 cm (Fig. 5). At the

measuring points thus installed, the temperature and pressure of

the refrigerant as well as of the cooled and the heated medium

were to be measured. Meters were applied to measure the volumetric ow of the cooled and the heated mediums, and a mass ow

meter was used for measuring the mass ow of the refrigerant.

To validate the mathematical model of the heat pumps, a

comparison between experimental data and model outputs was

carried out.

Below, the following measurement and mathematical conditions are given:

Working medium:

Mass velocity of refrigerant:

Reynolds number range of refrigerant:

Volumetric ow of water

Reynolds number range of water

G 106, 114, 135 [kg/m2s].

3500 < Re < 5000 [].

V_ 1; 1:5; 2 m3 =h

2000 < Re < 8500 [].

j.energy.2015.07.042

R. Sa

the shell side of the evaporator and the condenser are shown in

Fig. 6 and Fig. 11.

Fig. 6 reects the prediction of the primary water temperature

of the evaporator, where the maximum prediction error is 0.37 C,

measured values, where the prediction error is 0.46 C.

Figs. 7 and 12 present the operating temperatures predicted by

the model compared with the measured values. The model prediction error in the evaporating temperatures is within 0.18 C. For

j.energy.2015.07.042

R. Sa

Fig. 11. Prediction of the water temperature in the shell side condenser.

0.79 C.

Fig. 8 shows the predicted values for the cooling capacity. The

predicted values are within an error margin of 18.48%. The relative

error predictions for the condenser capacity are about 26.98%. They

are shown in Fig. 14.

Fig. 10 shows the prediction for the compressor power consumption against the power measured by the digital wattmeter.

The prediction error is about 6.45%.

tube of evaporator and condenser. The predicted values are within

an error margin of 16.37%. The predicted values of the condenser

are within an error margin of 19.21%.

Finally, the coefcient of performance, COP, of the facility is

embodied in Fig. 15. The model predicts that 21 of the performed

tests are within the acceptable limits with a relative error of

11.48%.

Fig. 12. Predicted temperature of the two-phase refrigerant in the tube of condenser.

j.energy.2015.07.042

R. Sa

cycle, setting the optimal operating point in the case of a

given consumer heat demand

The methodology for maximizing the coefcient of performance

is presented in respect to the case of a given heat demand, together

with the results yielded for an example worked up. In order to

adjust an optimal operating point e the maximum COP, the intervening features are as follows:

mass ow of cooled water m_ cw ,

mass ow of refrigerant m_ ref ,

mass ow of heated water m_ hw.

Basic data:

thermal conductance: kA 330.6 W/K,

temperature of water returning from consumer: Thw 30 C,

temperature of primary water: Tcw 13 C,

surface of condenser and evaporator: Ain 0.376 m2.

Results are shown below in the optimization matrices.

6. Conclusions

invariable value. The optimal operating point is set to a given heat

demand, i.e., to the given heat transfer surfaces at the consumer.

This should be associated with an also known value of medium

temperature difference at the heat transfer surfaces.

The optimal operating point is to be determined in the

following manner. The value of one of the intervening parameters is xed and the values of the other two parameters are

changed along the rows and columns of the matrix. The matrix

components are to also include the obtained COP values. At the

function of one of the columns and one of the rows of the matrix,

the maximum COP appears among the matrix elements. A new

COP matrix is calculated by changing the xed parameter value,

whereby the absolute maximum COP value can be obtained

through the set of maximum COP values. The course of the

calculation is presented through the data of an example in

Table 4.

Table 4

Optimization matrices: with matrix elements containing COP values.

QH 3.5 kW

_ cw 0:27 kg=s

m

_ ref g=s

m

_ hw kg=s

m

0.368

_ hw kg=s

m

0.481

_ hw kg=s

m

0.602

_ hw kg=s

m

0.715

17.19

17.14

17.08

16.98

4.81

4.78

4.68

4.62

4.80

4.77

4.65

4.60

4.78

4.76

4.64

4.59

4.77

4.74

4.63

4.57

QH 3.5 kW

_ cw 0:42 kg=s

m

_ ref g=s

m

_ hw kg=s

m

0.368

_ hw kg=s

m

0.481

_ hw kg=s

m

0.602

_ hw kg=s

m

0.715

17.81

17.76

17.70

17.66

5.02

4.97

4.85

4.77

5.01

4.96

4.84

4.76

4.99

4.95

4.83

4.75

4.98

4.94

4.82

4.74

QH 3.5 kW

_ cw 0:52 kg=s

m

_ ref g=s

m

_ hw kg=s

m

0.368

_ hw kg=s

m

0.481

_ hw kg=s

m

0.602

_ hw kg=s

m

0.715

18.40

18.21

18.10

18.07

5.24

5.20

5.10

5.02

5.23

5.19

5.09

5.01

5.22

5.18

5.08

4.99

5.21

5.17

5.07

4.98

QH 3.5 kW

_ cw 0:64 kg=s

m

_ ref g=s

m

_ hw kg=s

m

0.368

_ hw kg=s

m

0.481

_ hw kg=s

m

0.602

_ hw kg=s

m

0.715

18.87

18.69

18.55

18.40

5.42

5.34

5.23

5.15

5.41

5.33

5.22

5.14

5.40

5.32

5.22

5.14

5.40

5.31

5.21

5.13

This paper presents a steady-state model for a vapor compression heat pumps using R134a as working uid. The experimental

tests for the model validation were performed in a wide range of

operating conditions, allowing checking the robustness of the

model.

The solution of the mathematical model presented above can be

used for the determination of several changes of state: of the

refrigerant in the cycle, and of water owing in the shell side of the

evaporator and the condenser. The solution is given for a steadystate condition. Also, the impact on the coefcient of performance of the cycle can be qualied. Through the solution of the

mathematical model the main objective was to dene and set an

operating point for each of the various heat demands whereby the

cycle and the coefcient of performance (COP) of the system is

maximal. At the same time, the results yielded by the solution of

the mathematical model also conrm the correctness of the model

setup as well as its suitability for meeting the objective.

It has been stated that a maximum COP value can be achieved in

the course of satisfying a given heat demand by minimizing the

mass ux of the heated medium while maximizing the mass ux of

the cooled medium.

Based on the analysis and discussions of the calculating results,

some conclusions can be drawn, as listed below:

a.) When solving the basic equations, the accuracy of the results

is primarily determined by the accuracy of the input parameters, the heat transfer and the pressure drop correlations. The proposed correlations describe the heat transfer

coefcient value as a function of the Re number and the

vapor quality with smaller standard deviation and relative

error. Also, the refrigerant's pressure drop correlations are

also determined more accurately.

b.) The developed mathematical model is validated with 118

tests using R134a as a working uid. The results show that an

average difference between the modeled and experimental

results for the coefcient of performance is 1.73%.

c.) By establishing and solving the proposed mathematical

model, the optimum operating point of a heat pump system

for a given heat demand for heating can be determined, by

determining the maximum value of the coefcient of

performance.

d.) The optimum operating point is determined by using optimization matrices (Table 4). Testing was performed using the

following data:

Mass ow of cooled water m_ cw 0:27 0:64kg=s ,

Mass ow of refrigerant m_ ref 16:98 18:97 g=s;

Mass ow of heated water m_ hw 0:368 0:715kg=s :

The value of one parameter, the mass ow of the cooled water

was xed, while the other two parameters' values were changed

along the rows and columns of the matrix. The values of the COP

were written into cells. The procedure was repeated for different

j.energy.2015.07.042

R. Sa

10

values of cooled water mass ows, and the maximum COP was

determined.

e.) The testing example was performed for a QH 3.5 kW heat

demand. The maximum COP of 5.42 was determined for inlet

cold water temperature of Tcw 13 C, if the mass ow of the

cold water was maximized m_ cw 0:64 kg=s, while the mass

ow

of

the

heated

medium

was

minimized

m_ hw 0:368 kg=s.

References

[1] European Commission. Directorate-General Communication. Combating

climate change: the EU leads the way. Cat number: NA-AB-08-128-EN-C.

Luxembourg: EUR-OP; 2008.

[2] Koury RNN, Machado L, Ismail KAR. Numerical simulation of a variable speed

refrigeration system. Int J Refrig 2001;24:192e200.

[3] Choi JW, Lee G, Kim MS. Numerical study on the steady state and transient

performance of a multi-type heat pump system. Int J Refrig 2011;34:429e43.

[4] Hermes CJL, Melo C, Goncalves JM. Modeling of non-adiabatic capillary tube

ows. A simplied approach and comprehensive experimental validation. Int J

Refrig 2008;31:1358e67.

[5] Youbi-Idrissi M, Bonjour J, Meunier F. Local shifts of the uid composition in a

simulated heat pump using R-407C. Appl Therm Eng 2005;25:2827e41.

[6] Sheng Y, Zhang Y, Zhang G. Simulation and energy saving analysis of high

temperature heat pump coupling to desiccant wheel air conditioning system.

Energy 2015;83:583e96.

[7] Zhenjun X, Huaizhi W, Meiling W. Energy performance and consumption for

biogas heat pump air conditioner. Energy 2010;35:5497e502.

[8] Nyers J, Garbai L, Nyers A. A modied mathematical model of heat pump's

condenser for analytical optimization. Energy 2015;80:706e14.

[9] Sarkar J, Bhattacharyya S, Ramgopal M. Experimental investigation of transcritical Co2 heat pump for simultaneous water cooling and heating. Therm Sci

2010;14(1):57e64.

[10] Primal F, Palm B, Lundqvist P, Granryd E. Propane heat pump with low

refrigerant charge: design and laboratory tests. Int J Refrig 2004;27:761e73.

[11] Zhang J, Wang RZ, Wu JY. System optimization and experimental research on

air source heat pump water heater. Appl Therm Eng 2007;27:1029e35.

[12] Zhao L, Zaheeruddin M. Dynamic simulation and analysis of a water chiller

refrigeration system. Appl Therm Eng 2005;25:2258e71.

[13] Dittus FW, Boelter LMK. Heat transfer in automobile radiators of the tubular

type. Publ Eng 1930;2:443.

[14] Santa R, Garbai L. Measurement testing of heat transfer coefcients in the

evaporator and condenser of heat pumps. J Therm Anal Calorim 2015;119:

2099e106.

[15] Gungor KE, Winterton RHS. A general correlation for ow boiling in tubes and

annuli. Int J Heat Mass Transf 1986;29(3):351e8.

[16] Akers WW, Deans HA, Crosser O. Condensing heat transfer within horizontal

tubes. Chem Eng Program Symp 1959;55:171e6.

[17] Santa R. Simulation and optimisation of compressor driven heat pumps for

building services. Budapest: University of Technology and Economics Faculty

of Mechanical Engineering; 2014. p. 69e74.

[18] Darcy H. Recherches Experimentales Relatives au Mouvement de L'Eau dans

les Tuyaux. Mallet-Bachelier 1857;2:268.

[19] Alexander DJ, Libretto SE. An overview of the toxicology of HFA-134a (1,1,1,2tetrauoroethane). Hum Exp Toxicol 1995;14(9):715e20.

Nomenclature

A: area (m2)

d: diameter (m)

De: hydraulic diameter (m)

x: vapor quality ()

K: perimeter (m)

G: mass ux (kg/sm2)

_ mass ow rate (kg/s)

m:

T: temperature (K)

T: average uid temperature (K)

f: friction factor ()

p: pressure (Pa)

Dp: pressure drop (Pa)

_ heat ux (Wm/2)

q:

w: velocity (m/s)

H: enthalpy (J/kg)

z: tube length (m)

_ volumetric ow rate (m3/s)

V:

v: specic volume (m3/kg)

C: characteristic constant of the TEV valve ()

Re: Reynolds number

Pr: Prandtl number

Xtt: Martinelli parameter

Co: convection number

Greek letters

l: thermal conductivity (W/mK)

r: density (kg/m3)

h: efciency ()

Subscripts

eq: equivalent

tp: two-phase

sh: superheated

ref: refrigerant

c: cold

h: hot

i: inlet

o: outlet

in: inside

out: outside

l: liquid phase

v: vapor phase

w: water

wall: tube wall

eva: evaporation

con: condensation

comp: compressor

tev: expansion valve

j.energy.2015.07.042

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