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- 2003
517 (07)
22.11
-49
:
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-49 :
. 3 .: . 1. .: , 2003. 703 : .
ISBN 5-7325-0766-3 .
ISBN 5-7325-0767-1. 1

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ISBN 5-7325-0767-1 517(07)
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1
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010292 18.08.98
22.05.03. 13.08.03. 60x90 ^^. .
. Times New Roman. . . . 44.0 \'.-. . 43,2.
3000 . . 2848.

"". 191023, -, ., 6.


. . . . 185005, . , . , 4.

ISBN 5-7325-0766-3 .
ISBN 5-7325-0767-1 . 1 . . , 2003
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1
.
11
1.1. .
1.2 .
22
1.3. .
31
1.4. 39
1.5. 41
1.6.
45
1.7.
( ) 46
1.8. 50
1.9. .
- 55

2
63
2.1. . .

2.2. 72
2.3. 78
2.4. 85
2.5. 89
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3

95
3.1.
.
3.2. .
. 99
3.3. .
106
3.4. 116
3.5. 132
3.6. 136
3.7. 153
3.8. . 161
3.9. 170

4
173
4.1.
4.2. 175
4.3. 182
4.4. 186
4.5. 191
4.6.
203
4.7. ..207

5
209
5.1.
5.2. .
214
5.3. 220
5.4.
223
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6
227
6.1. 227
6.2. 229
6.3. 230
6.4. . 239
6.5. 252

7

265
7.1.
7.2. , ..279
7.3. 284
7.4. 296
7.5. ... 3 04
7.6. 315
7.7. 320
7.8. 325
7.9. 329
7.10. 336
7.11. 340
7.12. . 354
7.13. 357
7.14. 365
7.15. 378

8

387
8.1. .

8.2. .
392
8.3. 394
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6

8.4.
399
8.5.
404
8.6. 411
8.7.
415
8.8. ... 429
8.9. 435
8.10. 443
8.11. . 450

9

457
9.1.
9.2. 460
9.3. 470
9.4. 483
9.5. 488
9.6. - 493
9.7. .

500
9.8. 508

10
513
10.1. .
.

10.2. 520
10.3. 524
10.4. 531
10.5. ,
538

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10.6. 547
10.7. 560
10.8. 572
10.9. 578
10.10. ,
581

11
583
11.1. . .
-
11.2. 587
11.3. ^ 591
11.4. 594
11.5. .597
11.6. 599

12

,
611
12.1.

12.2. 614
12.3. 626
12.4. 638
12.5. 645
12.6.
651
12.7. 669
12.8.
682
704

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9


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, 1975; ..
, 1972;
, .. , 1968;
.. P.O.
, . 1-3, 1959; .
.., .1-2, 1993-1994; ..,
.., ..
, 1980; .., .. .
, 1982; ..
, 1998;
,
, ..,
1970.

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(2.3),
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(3.4).
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10

2. (4.6).
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( 13-20) ,
2- . ( 21-34)
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.

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1
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1 1 ..

1. 2- ,

, 6,
= ^-,. (1)
2 ,
2, bj, b2 .
3- ,


, Cl\ ( +\ ^ -(hh^x "^^i^j -- (2)
^ h \

-
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12 1

^1 ^2 - ^

^1 ^22 - ^
deL4 =
(3)
.'\ .'2 ^
a.j ,
/ - - .
2. .
1. ,
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2. ()
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bi+c, 1 b, 1 ,
+ (4)
. bj+Cj Oj ^2 2 ^21
7. ,
,

, 6, , b^+ kcL^
(5)
2 ^2 ^2 *" ^ ^

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. 13

3. .
1.
(1).
2. . )
3-

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^), -a^bjC-^ -^] +^2 -^^ ^^ a-Jbfy
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14 1


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(1 = .. (6)

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2-

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. 15

, 6, . d,
6, , rfj , , flf,
^2 ^2 ^2 ^2
= (-1, &3 ^3 ^3 +(-1, ^3 +
, d,
^4 ^4 ^4 ^4 ^4 <^4
^4 4 flf4

^ 6j fl?j ^ 6, ,

+(-1'., b, d. + (-!)"*"<'= 6 ^3
, b. ^4 ^4 ^4 ^4


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^/1^1 4 - 2 ^ , 2 + - ^ ^ 14^ J.

^/l^yi+M,2+ ^'^ ^'^ [ i^j


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16 1

i = /
'"^^^ 2' ^' '^""J [ ii^i
5. .

/-
-

6,2
^21 ^22 ^1 ^1 ^21 ^22 ^2rt

^ ^2 . h^ ... h ^nl ^nl


ni nl nn

*=i

6.
/l-l
1 a, of oi
1 a^ a] ... Oj"
A =
^n-\
1 a at
y,2' .... ,a^
. ,
- . . .

,
, ,

. =K-^i)K-i-^i)-.(a2~^i)A.-i-

www.kodges.ru
. 17

1.1. :
) |3 - 6) 1 sinx cosx
V 5 1 -cosx siru:
, ) (1) :
3 -4
=3-5-(-4)-2=23.
2 5

) 1 siiw cosxl
= sin^x+cos^A:=l.
|-cosx sinx]
1.2. :

) | 2 -A 1 6) a 1 -a B) 1 0 X
3 1 -2 1 a 1 2 x 1
5 ?
1 5 3 - a 1 -a ) 0 -1 X
no .
, ) , . .

2 - 4 1|
3 1 - 2 =2-1 3+3- 5-1+1(-4)(-2)-1 1 1-2- 5(-2)-)3=84.
1 5 |
2 -4 1
3 1 -2
) , . .

I - 1
1 1 1 = - {-)-\-\\{-)+{-)\-{-){-)-
- 1 - - 1
-\- a-i,-a)\\=-2a{a^+\).
www.kodges.ru
18 1

1 0 \
|2 X 1 = 1JCJC+0- 1 0 + 2 ( - 1 ) X - 0 X J C - 1 ( - 1 ) 1 - 2 0 X =
0 -1 '

=jc2-2x+l=(x-l)2.
1.3.

4 3 2 6
-8 5 1 -2
=
3 4 2 3
4 -2 -1 1
.
.

4 3 2 6
-8 5 1 -2
=:
3 4 2 3
- 4 3 0 -1
(-1)

4 3 2 6
-8 5 1 -2
=
-1 1 0 -3
-4 3 0 -1
(-2)
,
www.kodges.ru
MA . 19

20 - 7 10
20 - 7 10
-8 5 1 -2
= -1 1 -3
-1 1 0 -3Ul.(-l)(3+2)
^ 3 - 1
|-4 3 -l|
,

13 - 7 10|
= (-1) 1 -3
-1 3 -1
3

13 -7 11
13 -11
= (-1) 1 0 = (-1) = -93.
-1 Xj
-1 3 8
1.4. -
|1 1 1 ... 1
1 1
1 1

II 1 1 ...
. 7
, ,
, , 1- ,
1 1 1 . . . 1
-1
0-1 0 .. . 0

0 0 -1 .. . 0 -1
-1) 1+1 =(-1) /1-1
-1
0 0 0 . . . -1

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20 1

1.5.
2 -3 1 1 3
4 0 5
4 1
1 -2 3 -2 4
(.
2 -3 1 1 3 4
4 0 5 4 1 5
1 -2 3 -2 4 3

21+(-3)-4+1(-2) 2-3+(-3)-1 + 1-4 2-4+(-3)-5 + 1-3


4-0-4+5(-2) 4-3 + 0 1 + 5-4 4-4+0-5 + 5-3
+(2)-4+3(-2) 1-3+(-2)-1 + 3-4 1-4+(-2)-5+3-3
1-12 7 -41
- 6 32 31 =-363.
-13 13 |
,

2 -3 1 1 3 4
4 0 5 = 33; 4 1 5 = -11; 33 (-11) = -363.
1 -2 3 -2 4 3
1.6. X
I 3 X'^ 2
-1 X 1 = 0.
I 1
. :
= 3 + :^ - 2 x + ax^ =x('3a + x - 2 + axj = 0.
= (2-)/( + \), jc = 0.

www.kodges.ru
. 21

1.7.

\ } ?
\ b ^ '
4 =
\ ^ "
|1 d cf rf"
. ,

- --- '-'\
\ =
- ^-^ ^-^
d-a d^-a^ d^-a^

b-a {b-a){b + a) ( 6 - ) ( " + 6 + ^)


1+1
(-1) - ( - ) ( + ) ( - ) ( ^ + + ^)
d-a {d-a){d-{-a) {d-a)(^d^+ad + a^^

1 b + a b^+ab-\-a^
= {d-a){c-a){b-a) 1 c + a c^+ac + a^
1 d + a d^+ad + a^

1 6+ b^+ab + a^
4 ={d-a)[c-a){b-a) + -- ^ -^-^ -
d + a-b-a d^ +ad-b^ -ab

c-b {c-b){c + b)+a{c-b)


= {-lf\d-a){c-a){b-a)
d-b {d-b){d+b)-ha{d-b)
www.kodges.ru
22 1

ci + b + c
= {d-a){c-a){b-a){c-b){d-b)].^ ^^^^^

|1 + +
A,={d-a){c-a){b-a){c-b){d-b)\ ^_^

= {d-a){c-a){b-a){c-b){d-b){d-c).

1 *

1.

(1)



(2)
^ ' ^

, 6, , 6, , ,
=
2 .
.
* =
X
,
'
' . =
<h Cl\

.

:
) ^ ,
;
) = , 9^ ?t ,
^
;
www.kodges.ru
. 23

) = ^ = ^ = , . .
(
).
2.

^ + b^y + c^z = (3)

^
x =k y = -k (4)
2

.
(4) ,
.
3.

\2-\-2 + ^ = 0,
(5)
\a^x-\-b^y + c^z = 0.
:
)
, , ,
= .
, , .
.
) = , , , ,
. ,
,
www.kodges.ru
24 1


.
, (3)
.
) = , .
, . .
,
.
4.

:
) ;^ , ,
(2)
^ \
"^ ^^
) = , , , ,
.
, ,

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,
,

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) = , .
,
. -
www.kodges.ru
. 25

,
, .
2.1. 2-
:
+ 2/ = 12; -2/ = 4; + ^/ = 3;
)\ )\ ){
[ 4 x - i / = 5; 1-4/ = 9; ^[2 + 2// = 6.
, )
|3 2|
= = -11.
|4 - 1 |

|12 2| 12
= -33.
5

-22 -33
= 3.
-11 -11
)
3 -2| 4 -2
= = -12 + 12 = 0; = = 2 ^ 0 ; ^ = = 39^0.
6 ^1 9 -4
.
)
1 1| 3 1 1 3
= = 0; = = 0; = = 0.
2 2 6 2 2 6
;
.
2.2.
\2x-y + 5z = 0;
\-4-7 = 0.
www.kodges.ru
26 1

. (4)

-1 5 2 -1
x-k : 21k; y = -k :29AJ; z =k = -5k,
~4 -7 3 -4
.

.
2.3. :

) 3x + 2y + 4z^0; ) x + 2y-4z-0;
5x + y-8z = 0; 2x + 3y + z = 0;
4x + 2y + 3z^0, 3x + 5y-3z = 0.
, a)

3 2
A=5 1 = -13?iO.
4 2
= = z =0.
)
1 2 -4
2 3 1 U ~ 9 - 4 0 + 6 + 36-5 + 12-0.
3 5-3
,
, (
).
(4),

2 -4 1 -4 1 ?,
x=k = 14;fe; = -k = -9k; z=k k
3 1 2 1 2 3

www.kodges.ru
. 27

2.4. :
) 2 - 3 ^ + = 14; ) 2x + y-{-z = 2;
X + // + 2z = 2;
[4x + 3y = 2z = l0, + 2/ + 3 = 4,

) fx + 2r/ + z = l; ) 2x + y-{-z = 3;
x + 2y + z = l; 2x + y + z = 2;
x + 2y + z = l, 2x + y-\-z = 3,
, )
|2 -3 II
A= 1 ~3 =4+15+36-4+30+18=99.
3 2

14 -3 1 14 1 -3 14
\ = 7 1 -3 = 297;A^ = 7 -3 :-198; = 1 7 = 198.
10 3 2 10 2 3 10

, 297 _ Ay 198 198


.-2- = ^ = 2;
99 99 ' 99

2 1 1 2 1 2
)
= 1 1 2 = 0;,= 1 1 2 = 0.
3 2 3 3 2 4


\2x + y + z = 2; \2x + y = 2'-z;
[x + y + 2z = 2, [ x + y = 2-2z,
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28 1

2 1 2-2 1 2 2-2
= 1 1 = 1; = 2 - 2 2 1 = 2; = 1 2 - 2 2 = 2-32,

:2-32,

Z , . . .
) 2
2
2
.

,
X = l-2y-z,
, Z .
) |2 1 11
2 1 1 =0
2 1 l|
.

, .
2.5. ,

\ + 4/ - 5 = ,
\9x-\-Sy-lz = 0,
[: + 4 ^ - 3 2 = 0.
. ,
,

www.kodges.ru
. 29

4 -5
= 9 8 - 7 = 0.
3 4 -|
, - 2 4 -
-180=84+120+28+108 = , = 9.
= 9 .
= ,
, ,
8 -7|
7W,= = 4?t0.
14 -3

9 + 8/-72 = 0,
[: + 4/-32 = 0.
(4)

8 -7 9 -7 9 8
x-k = 4/, / =k = 6/, z = k = \2k
4 -3 3 -3 3 4
X -2,- , 2 = 6/:, .
,
.
2.6. :
2 + = 4,
4y + 3z = n,
< 5z + 2u= \9.
u + 7v = 9,
6-<-5 = ] 1.
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30 1

.
|2 1 0|
4 3 0 0
10 4 3 |
0 5 2 0
10 5 2 01
0 0 1 7
10 1 71
0 0 0 6
5 0 0 0 6

1 0 0 0
|4 3
+5(-1 5 2 |
2-4-51-6 + 51-3-2-7 = 450.

0 0 1 7

^

4 1 01
4 3 0 0 17 3
17 4 3
0 5 2 0 19 5 2
= 19 5 2 01 = 4
0 0 1 7
.(-, 9 0 17
9 0 0 17
0 0 0 6 6
11 6

19 2
= 4-4-51-6-17-51-6 + 3 9 1 7 = 450.
11 6

= ^ = 1. -

= 1
y^l, z = 3, = 2, v=\.

.
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. 31

1.3. .

1. ,
-., ,

, ^2 ,,
22
= 21 *2

1 ^ml ^ 1ml

=, ; -1,
-

= 1,

^21


a-j = .-, .

, ,

1 ... 0^
1 ... I II i= j;
= ,=^ i ^ /.
V

'
1
- J
,
det ^- \.
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32 1

AVLB ,

, . . .. = 6..
2. AVLB
,
.. = .^..
= +.
,
kl ^2 ^13 ' ^ 6,2 ^13 ' 4l+6ll ^2+^12 ,+6,^
^21 ^22 ^23 + ^21 ^^22 '' = 21+^21 ^22+^22 23+^23

[^1 ^2 ^3 ^ ^^31 ^32 ^33 J ^031+63, ^32+^32 33+^33 J


:
1.
(+) + = + {B+Q.
2.
+^ --+.
3. , .
. ,

Cy = a.j-b,j.
4. .

.-= --
= .
: 1.
{kj+k^A -kjA +^,
2.
(+)= -.
www.kodges.ru
. 33

5. .
{)
{nxk) (^),


^ ^-
. . .
,
,
, ,
^ ,
:
A-B = C[^(mxn)(nxk) = (mxk)j.
,


11 12 13 6,1 6,2 6,3^ =^ =2 =
21 22 23 , 6 .
22 -'23 =1 Hi=M2 ?='
31 32 33 &, .32 ^^33
-=1 I.IM2 -=
:
1. {+)=+;
2. (+) =-^;
3. (+) (C-^D) = AC+AD+BC+BD;
4. {)={
, , , , Z>
.
6. (), ^ =
^ = , . .
,
.
www.kodges.ru
34 1

3.1.
(1 (1 3
= 3 5 , ' = 4 -2

.
1 2
^v ) b 7

(3 6^
=+= 7 3
3 9
3.2.
2 1 4^ 4 1
=
2 3 7> 3 5-2
\
.
-2 1 3
= -:
-5 -2 9

3 4 7 1
3.3. = 2 3 5 2
4 1 - 2 3
= 3. J
.
9 12 21 3\
B = kA = 6 9 15 6
^12 3 - 6 9^
3.4.

1 - 1 2^ 1 -1 2\ f 1 -1 2'\
=2 +3
4 3 5 4 3 5) 3 5
.
www.kodges.ru
. 35

i-1 2V (5 - 5 10 ^
(\

1V4 3 5 /' V2 1 15 25 /

2
{\ -1 2\ -1 2
+ -3
- 2 4 ^ -3 +1
6^
=
4 3 5 4 3 5 /"V8 6 10 V
12 9 15
\ / \ /
( -5 10"
[20 15 .
3.5. :
(\ 2 ^ Y 4 3 1^
'\ 3 Y4 \ \
) ; ) 3 - 1 5 - 1 2 3 \
2 -2 5 2
\ j \ / 2 3 2J^-2 4 ^
V
( \ 2^ 1^6^
'2 4 3^
)
16 5 1
\ 2 ^"^ " 3); ){3 2 5) -1
V > 5 1 7 3
\. / V / V
.
) '\ 3Y4 1\ / 1-4+3-5 11 + 3-2 ^ ^19 7^
? -'> 2 / \
2-4+(^-2>5 2-l+f-2;-2^ -2 -2

) .'\ 2 -4 4 3
3 -1 5 1 -1 2 3 =
2 3 2 -2 4 !

(\- + 2(-\) + (-)(-2) \- + 2-2 + (-) \ + 2 + (-)5\
--\-(-\)(-\) + 5(-2) 3-3+(^-i;2 + 5-4 3-l + f-i;3 + 5-5
2- + (-\) + 2(-2) 2-3 + 3-2 + 2-4 2-1 + 3-3 + 2-5
^10 - 9 -13^
3 27 25
1 20 21
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36 1

^3
2 4 3 ^2-3+4-4+3-2 2--4-2 + 3-5'\ (1% \
4 2
16 5 1-3 + 6-4+5-2 1--6-2+5-5 \1 38 j
2 5

) (2\ 2-2 2-3 6^


3 (2 3) = 3-2 3-3 6 9
7-2 7-3 14 21
) /
(3 2 5) - 1 = (3-6 + 2(-1)+5-3) = 31.
,V 3J,
3.6.
( 1 4^ ( 2 6^
(2 1 3^
=
5 4 2J , = -1 3 . = -1 2
V 5 2
: ) (+); ) +.
^ ) [ ' ')
, )
/ 1 4 / 2 \ 3 10"!
(2 1 3| /"2 1 3
(+)= -1 3 -1 4
5 4 2J 5 4 2
5 2 5 3 10
^ /J

2-3 + 1(-2) + 310 2 1 0 + 1-7 + 3-5 34 42


5-3 + 4 ( - 2 ) + 2 1 0 5 1 0 + 4-7 + 2-5 27 88

) 1 4
2 1 \ 2 1
^= -1 3 +
5 4 2 5 4 2
5 2
(2 + \(-\)+-5 2-4 + 1-3+3-3'|
\5 + (-\)-^25 5-6+4-3 + 2-2J
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, 37

^2-2 + 1(-1) + 3-5 2-6 + 1-4 + 3-3


5-2 + 4(-1) + 2-5 5-6 + 4-4 + 2-3I

(\ \1\ 18 25'|_['34 42
11 36 "^ 16 52 27 88
3.7.
3 -1 ^4 5 4^
= =\ =
2 6 5 3
: ) (); ) ().
, )
(3 -1 5 -1 4 (3-4+(-\)2 3-5+r-U6 -1 4^
()-.
2 4
LV 1^ 6,. 5 3 2-4+4-2 2-5+4-6 5 3

10 9 (-\ 4 10(-1) + 9-5 10-4 + 9-3


16 34 5 3 16(-1)+34-5 16-4 + 34-3

9^ -1 4 ^ 1" 10('-i;+9-5 10-4+9-3 "1 35 67 "1


16 34 5 3 [l6f-i;+34-5 16-4+34-] 154 166 j
) (3 - /4 5 -1 4
() =
[2 4 2 6 5 3
LV
'3 -\ 4(-1)+5-5 4-4 + 5-3 3 - (2\ 31
|2(-1)+6-5 2-4 + 6-3 28 26

3-21 + (-1)28 3-31 + ( - l ) 2 6 ' | _ f 35 67^1


2-21 + 4-28 2-31 + 4-26 154 166

3.8. = -
2 5 4

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38 1

^\ 0^
(\
= , 1
J 1
. V J

(\ 3 1 ^3
^- =
1^ ;i 2 5 4

0 0\
V
2
\=;

( 6
,= 1 = .
4I 12 4
1
3.9. ,
^4
2 4 3^
3 3 5 7
=
-1 8 6 8
5 4 1 6
^ = ^.
. ,
^ 4 2 4 1 0 0 0^ ( 2 4 ^
3 3 5 0 1 0 0 3 3 5 7
,= =
-1 8 6 0 0 1 0 -1 8 6 8

\
5 4 1 0 0 0 1 V 5 4 1
J
6

''I OY 4 2 4 ^ 4 2 4 3^
0 10 0 3 3 5 3 3 5 7
, = =
0 0 1 0 -1 8 6 -1 8 6 8
0 0 0 1,^ 5 4 1 5 4 1 6/
, ^ = ^^.
www.kodges.ru
. 39

(\ 4^
3.10. \ =
3 2
.
1 4Yl 4'\ 1 + 12 4 + 8 ' \ (\ \1\
'=\
3 2 3 + 6 12 + 4 9 16

( 12l 4^ + 36 52 + 24^
' =
9 16 3 2 9 + 48 36+32 57 68
3.11. 2^+4+,
^1 -1 1^
= .

-10 4^
2' 18 12 14
-12 8

4 ^ 4 ^ ( 0 0"! ^7 -14 8"!


4: 8 12 4 ; = 0 3 0 1 2 4 + 3: 24 27 18
4-4 8 V0 0 3J -16 19
)

1 *4*
/
.. = .^'".
: 1. ( ),
"*, (/ m );
2.{" = ;
www.kodges.ru
40 1

3. { -^)^ = ^ + ^ { -^) ,
AVLB ;
4. {^ = ^^
, 5'" ^,
5. ^ =
.
^2 4^
4.1. = 3 6 '" ('")"
5 1
V
. ,
^2 3 5"^
'" =
4 6 1
,

(^=\ 3 6
5 1
V
. . ,
(2 ^ (3 -
4.2. = 6 4 . = 1 2

{+)"^ '^-^'^, 2 5
.
5 2
5 7 5^
+= 7 6 (^ + 5)" =
2 6 6
5 6
V
'2 6 3 3 1 2\
"' = 5" =
3 4 1 -12 5
www.kodges.ru
. 41

'5 7 5^
"'+"' =
2 6 6

2 4
4.3. = 5 = . -
2 3 -12 3
, {=''.

f3 2 -2^
. , =
1 14 11

(^ = 2 14
-2 11
V

(7. \ \
( ' ^1 "
"' = = 4 2 "4'" = 2 14
\
-1 3
J
.
^
1 ^\
) V
1.5.

,
'^^
-^^^ -^=,
, ,
~^,
(det 9^ 0),

www.kodges.ru
42 1

^
/


deL4
^1

^\

2 ^2 2
' =
deU
1 ^ i^/i> t\,t%,

, ~^

,
nadet^.
: 1.
.
2. -

deU-^=-^.
det^
3.
(^"^ ^
4.

('^-'-\ det^O; detB^^O.
5.

6.
(^4"^)"* = {~^^.

5.1. = , ~
2 1"
www.kodges.ru
. 43

4 -5
. det = = 14;^0
2 1
,, = (-1)^ 1 = 1; ^^ = {-\^ 2 = -2;
, = ( - 1 ( - 5 ) = 5 ; ,, = e i y - 4 = 4.

1 - 2 1 1 1 5
14 5 4 14 - 2 4

1 4
5.2. = 5 2 5 '.
3 1 2
.
1 4 -3
deM= 5 2 5 =22.
13 1 2I
deti4 ^t , "'
^ ^
1 /i|, /1,, /ij,
-'=- 2 32
(11


2 5 5 5 5 2
= -1;=(-1)' = 5;=(-1)' = -1;
1 2 3 2 3 1

4 -3 1 -3
.=) 1 2
= -11; ,=(-1)
3 2
;

1 4 4 -3
=) 3 1
= 11; 4 , = ( - l )
2 5
= 26;

www.kodges.ru
44 1

1 -3 1 4
= -20; =(-1)' :-18.
5 5 5 2

-11 1(
5 11 -20
22
-1 11 -18
/
2 3 1
5.3. = . =
-1 1 4 -3
, : ) (^ = ~^-^; ) (^^^ = (.4-')"'.
fl4 -9
, )
3 -3
-3 9
det(AB) = -l5; ()-'=- I,- dety4=5; detB = -3.
-3 14
V /

-=1 1 - - ' = - ^ 3 Q\
1 2 -4 1
V

-3 OYl - 3 ' | _ _ 1 (- 9\
--'=-
15 [-4 { 2f-TI[-3 14 J
,
) ^4;
(2 - \; <1 = 5; (^ =-( 1 \
' =
3 2

l O -3
= L
1 2

-3 2
.\
www.kodges.ru
. 45

16*

<


/v
*12
= 22 -2
, = , =

fl^, 2
\ v^^y v"..
- .

= -^\ dtiA^Q.
6.1.

2~3/- = 17;
[5x + r/-3z = ~2.
.
^4 3 2^ ( 16^
=: -3 1 , = . = 17


1
-^J \
Z
)
-2

4 3 2
detA = 2 - 3 1 :99?^0.
5 1 -3
www.kodges.ru
46 1


^8 11 17^' 8 11 9^
-22 11 _1_ 11 -22 0
99 99 17
9 -18 11 -18
V / V


11 / 16 / 297 ^
11 -22 17 -198 -2
99 99
17 11 -18 , - 2 , 495
7 V
= 3; --2\ z = 5.

1 .
( )

.

,
.

.

^
21 .
31 . ,
, ^.
.
www.kodges.ru
MA TPHUbL 47

^ ,
,

^2 ^^^2^ ~^1>

,
.
7.1.
[2, - 2 - h= 4,
, + 4^2 - 2 = 11,
[, - 2 ^ 2 + 4 = 11.
: ) ;
) .
.
|2 - 1 ~ 1 |
= 3 4 -2 =60,
| ~2 41
, .
) .
. Xj
, ,
.
2

11 - 1 - S
1 11
X , +X, =5.
2 ' 2 '
www.kodges.ru
48 1

.
.
^ ,

^/\ ' J\fj "" I^

-1 -s
60 60
-, =
11 ' 11
: x,=3, ^^2=1, =1.
) .

(2 -1 - /v / 4^
= 3 4 -2 = -, = 11
3 -2
det
2 -1 -1
det^= 3 4 - 2 = 609^0.
| -2 4

12 -18 -18 \ ( 12 6 6^
_ 1
6 11 1 -18 11 1
60 ~60
6 1 11 ) -18 1
V \
/ \ \
12 6 ^80^ ^
= -'
J_ 18 11 1 11 _J_ 60 1
60 ~60 60
18 1
V V
: x,=3, ^=1, ^= 1.
www.kodges.ru
. 49

7.2.

4x + 5z + 2^ =3,
Ix-y + z-^-t =1,
2x^y-\-Az =1.
. 4
, 2
. ,

4i/-z+2^ = -3,
^-1 = - 1 ,
y-2z-b2t = - 1 .
4 3

y-2z+2t = -l
lz-6t =1,
72-5^ =2.
,

--z + /=0,
y-2z-^2t=-\,
lz-6t = l
t = \.

/ = 1, z = 1, ' = - 1 , : = - 1 .
www.kodges.ru
50 1

1.8.
-
,
, /-
.

,
.

, .
, , -
.^ -^
.
,
, , , .
:
1. ().
2. - ()
(), .
3. () , .
4. (), .

, , .


^12 13 1 .
0 ^22 23 .. ,, . 2
0 0 33 3*

0 0 0 . * *

^= i >j; / = /
www.kodges.ru
. 51

,
:- .
,
,
.
.
/, /+1,
( ), ,
.
.
, ,
,
. .
,
+1 .
( ,
), ,
.
8.1.
(2 1 4 1^
= 1 3 -1
2 1,
.

2 1|
.= = -\,
1 0

2 1 4 2 1 1
1 0 3 = 0, 1 0 -1 = 0,
5 2 5 2 1
www.kodges.ru
52 1

, ,
, Mj.
8.2. :
^ 3 -1 1 5^
) (1 2 - 1 8 l^ )
1 7 5 -1
7 4 -2 1 5
-1 4 2 -3
4 2 - 1 -2 3 ,
J 7 1 7 9
, )
/"2 2 - 1 8
^2 2 - 1 8
7 4-2 15 4 7 -2 1 5
^4 2 - 1 - 2 3 2 4-1 -2
V
,
1
~
(\ 2 -1 8
2 7 -2 1 5
1 4 -1 -2 3
V
,
(-2) (-1),
^1 2-1 8
0 3 -15 3
0 2 -10 2

(\ 2 -1 8
0 1 0 -5 1
0 2 0 -10 2
www.kodges.ru
. 53

(-2)

(\ 2 - 1 8 1
1 -5 1
0 0 0

^\ 2 -1 8
1 -5
, = 2.
)
( -\ \ 5 ( \ 15-1^
1 7 5 -1 3 -1 1 5
-1 4 2 -3 -1 4 2 -3
7 1 7 9 7 1 7 9
3 ,
, ,
(-7)
(\ 7 5 -
-22 -14 8
11 7 -
^8 -28 16

, -

7 5 -
11 7 -4
11 7 -4
-12 -7
www.kodges.ru
54 1

(\ -1 5 -
0 -4 7 11
0 -4 7 11
[0 4 -7 -12

(
4
,

1 >* /
5 7 1 i 5
4 4
1 7 ~ 0 1 7 11
1 7 11 0 0 0 0
-1 - 7 -22 0 0 0 -1
V

(
1 i 5 7 1 i 7 5
4 4
0 1 7 11 ~\ 1 11 7
0 0 0 -1 0 0 - 1 0
) \ J
, = 3.

www.kodges.ru
. 55

1.9. .
-


, ,. ,.
= ^ <22 ^-In

*2


,
^2
= 21 22

'2

-.
, ,
, . . {) = (),
,
.
.
,
, ,
. ,
, .. {)=
, , ..()< .
www.kodges.ru
56 1

6j= ^ ... = ^ ,

.
, ,
< (/iv m),
^ .
... ,Xj. , , ^^^,... ,^

. (
),
. ,
, .
< ,
- ,
.

- . <,
.
9.1.
./1 I " ^ """ - ~~~ tJ f

2:, +2+ = 4,
2x^ + ^2 - 4 =11,
I ;, + 2^2 + = 4,
2, +2-7 =16.
.
^1 1 -1 5 ^
2 1 3 4
6 = 12 1 - 4 11
12 1 4
2 3 - 7 16^
www.kodges.ru
. 57

,
f\ 1 -\ \
2 1 3 4
~ 2 1 - 4 11
3 3 -3 15
4 4 - 4 20
3, 4
f\ \ -\ 5\
2 1 3 4
- 1 -4
1 1 - 1 5
1 1 - 1 5

^1 1 -1 5^
2 1 3 4
~\ 1 1 - 2 6
0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0

(\ 1 -1 5^
B~\l 1 3 4
1 1 - 2 6
\

(\
~ 3
-2

www.kodges.ru
58 1

1 1 -1 1 1 -1
2 1 3 = 2 1 3 = 1;^0.
1 1 -2 0 0 -1
, {)-,
(5)=3,

. , .
, ,

12Xj + ^2 + 3^3 = 4,
Xj + 2^2 + = 4.
, Xj=3,
^ 1, xf^X. ,
.
9.2.
2, + 2^2 + 8 - 3^4 + 9^5 = 2,
2, + 2^2 + 4 - ^4 + 3^5 = 2,
Xj + 2 + 3 - 2X4 + 5 = 1,
, + 3 X 2 + 5 X 3 - 2 X 4 + 3 X 3 = 1 .

.
.

^2 2 8 - 3 9 2 ^
2 2 4 - 1 3 2
=
1 1 3 - 2 3 1
^ 3 3 5 - 2 3 1
www.kodges.ru
MA TPHUbL 59

^0 2 8 - 3 9 21
0 2 4 -1 3 2
~ 0 1 3 -2 3 1
0 3 5 -2 3 1>

(1 8 - 3 9^
2 4 -1 3
~
1 3 -2 3
13 5 - 2 3
3
(1 8 - 3 3^
2 4 -1 1
~
1 3 -2 1
V ' -2 1

1'28 -3 0^V
2 4 -1 0
~\
1 3 -2 -1
' 3 5 -2 -1 1
>

1'28 -3 0^V
2 4 -1 0
~\
1 3 -2 -1
2 2 0 0

www.kodges.ru
60 1


2 8 -3 1 4 -3 1 3 -3
A^33=(-lf 2 4 - 1 = - 4 1 2 -1 1 1 -1 = 0.
2 2 0 1 1 0 1 0 0
, {)-\.
, 3

(1 8 -3 3 2^
2 4 -1 1 2
-
1 3 -2 1 1
3 5 -2 1 1,
,

j'0

0 4-1
8 -3 3 .
1 2 1

~\ 0 3 - 2 1 1
2 2 0 0 0

1 0 1 - 1 ^ ("0 1 0 1 - V ^0 0 0 1 0
0 4 - 1 1 2 0 1 10 1 0 1 0 0 0
~
0 3 - 2 1 1 0 2 - 1 1 0 0 0 -1 0 0
\
2 0 0 0 0) 1 0 0 0 0 / .0 0 0 0 0

0 0 1
^4,=(-1/ 1 0 0 =1.
0 - 1 0
www.kodges.ru
. 61

, (5)=3.

5, .
9.3.

:, + 9^2 + 6^3 = 3,
[,+3x2+4^3 = 1.
.
(\
-3 2 -
\ 9 6 3
1 3 4 1
3, 2
-1 1 -
\ 3 3 3
1 1 2 1
)
2.
,
(\ -1 1 -\\ ^11 -1 1 -
= 2 1 1 2 1-
2 0 0 0 0
,
() = 2.
-3 2^
(\ -1 (\ -1 -1 1^
= 1 9 6 1 3 3 2 2 4 1 2
1 3 1 V
1 1 1 2
2
www.kodges.ru
62 1

-1
1 1 2 () = 2.

V ^

, ^

^1+9x2= 3-6x3.

, ^, Xj
3

-1-2 -3 1 -1-2X3
3-, 9 1 3-6.
1-,
,= jx^, 2
12 '' ^ 12 3
,
, .

www.kodges.ru
2

2.1. .

1. . ,
,
, .
,
, .
,
,
.
,
( ),

.
,
, .
, , -
. - .
www.kodges.ru
64 2

, ,
.
, ,
.
, 6 ,
:
,
,
(. 2.1).

) [ + ^- =^{-, ) d + b =b+d.
6 , ^
b , . . b + =.
,
,
(. 2.2).


. 2.2
www.kodges.ru
65


) + (~&) = - 6 ; ) - ( - ) = + 6.
3.
= ,
1|.
> , b ;
< .

) X(iid) = {X/i)d; ) = ;) ( + ) = + .
4.
.
^, ,
, . . = || , ^ =-
\\
1.1. 6 (. 2.3).
.
, ) b .
(. 2.4).


. 2.3 . 2.4
,
b , ,
b, -.
-
www.kodges.ru
66 2

\\ = a-\-b\ .^Ja'+b\
) .
, -
- , - (. 2.5).
\\
\\ = \d-b\ = yja} ^b'^.

b.
b
-ft, . . .
b
, - , -
, . .
- (. 2.6).

. 2,6
, - (. 2.5
. 2.6) , ,
.
1.2. (. 2.7). : ) ;

) - - .
^ 2
, ) 3 ,
.
www.kodges.ru
67

\0 = (. 2.8)
2_
) = -^,
2.
180. = -^ (. 2.9). -
^ 2
- ,
.


. 2.7 . 2.8 . 2.9
1.3. ,
, ,
,
.
.
, . 2.10. ,
~ = -('-) JF = -('CD-^'AB).
EF

. 2.10
www.kodges.ru
68 2

EF AF
^ = ^ ^ ; '^]; ^ = ~ 1 ( + );


, =-~(+])++-(5+)=-(+^^
.
.
1.4. DO
(. 2.11) , , ,

. ,
DO
.
, DO = DA + = -AD -AM .

1 = ^( + ), =-+-(+) =

3
www.kodges.ru
69

1.5. ABCD M,N,P,Q


(. 2.12).
D

AC,AQ, QD,
= AN = b.
.
= + AD = 2a + 2b , AQ = AS + BQ = 2 +b ,
QD = QC + CD = b'-2a, CP = CB + W = ^ - a .
1.6. -
/^, fj, ^,2,^. - R
.
. (. 2.13).

. 2.13

. -
www.kodges.ru
70 2

, M^N,
1 1
, M^N ^^^^^ NM ^-NM^.
= R
R = - M^N + NM. OMi = ^ .
M^N NM r^^f^.r^ .
^^ ^^^-,
M^N^(-) ^ M^M^N
]Vi\l^ = - ( , 7 +/"); ^^
,^ =2-\, : NM^ =-2 - ,- + - - 2 ) ] = - - ( 2 + ) ;
NM =- -\ 1 [
+ -
3

,/ =/'2+-(-2)+- (+) =-(+2+).
1.7. 3
(. 2.14).
, ,
=60^ j8=135^

75'

. 2.14
www.kodges.ru
71

. fj^.f^viP
. ,
.
.
(. 2.14).
f^ ,
7J.. ^^^
^ = 7J., C,i4j = f^ .
. .
^ 30,
j 45"", , Cj 105.
, sinl05=sin75,
^ ^C __
sin45 sin30 smlS"

,= '"^''^
sin75
29;='-^=^155;
" sin75
1.8.
ABCOGDEF(. 2.15) ,
0 , ^G, ,
f.

www.kodges.ru
72 2

. = , ^ = 6,0D = ,
0 = + 6, = + , 0 D = 6 + c.
? = + 0 + ,

. . f^
OF.

2.2.

1.
, ,
Oz
a = aj +aj -a^k, (1)
J J ,k .

|a| = ^ a , 4 a j + a , ' . (2)


, j8, ,
,

cosa = T-^; cosp=T-^; cosy = 7--


\\ \d\ \\ ^^

.

cos^a + cos^ j8 + cos V = 1 (4)


www.kodges.ru
73

2. .
1.
ab=(a^bjJ + (a^b^)]^(a,bJk. (5)
2.
= XaJ + XaJ + Xa^k. (6)
3. ) ^(Xpj^pZj) Bix^^y^.z^
,
^=^-,, ^=^-,, a^=z^-z,. (7)
)

= ^1(^2 -,/ +(, -y,f+(z, -zj\ (8)


)

cosa= ^,^1 ^; cosj8= ,^, ^; cosy= ^|_^, ^ /


1 1 1
) /
, /?, 7 ?

= a^cosa + a^cosj3 + a^cos/. (10)
3. .
1. Mj(Xj,j^pZj) 2(2,;^2'^2)

,
(11)
d = ylx'+y'+z\ (12)
www.kodges.ru
74 2

2. ^ .
M{x,y,z) ^2

=
^

1+ 1+ 1+

^ + .
=-1-^. (14)
^^^ , =1
(13)
X, + X. V, + . , + .
= ^ ^ , / = ^ ^ - ^ , = ^ ~ ^ . (15)
2 2 2 ^ ^
3.
^., ,

2.1. ^4(3,2,-1) 1,5,2) .


,
.
. (7)

(^) =1-3=-2; (v45) =5-2=3; (^).=2+1=3.
= -2i + 3/ + 3fe ,

= ^ ( ^ - 2 / + ' = / 2 2 ,
(9)
2 3 3
cosa = i=^, cos = ., cosy = r=r
V22 V22
www.kodges.ru
>/22
75

2.2.
= 1 - 5 / -Ak .
. | | (2)
\\ = 7 ' + - 5 / + / - 5/2.


-.0 3 1 4 -
|| 5V2 V2 5/2
2.3. = 1 + 2] + 5k,
b =4i-J + 3k, =-1 -^-ij + lk .
. (5)
d + b+ = (3-\-4'-1)1+ (2-1 + 2)]+ (5 + 3 + 2)k=6i-h3j-\-\0k.
2.4. (2;4;-\), (4;'-3;5).
. (5)
d-b =(2-4)1 + (4 + 3)] + (-l-5)k =-2l + 1] -6k,
2.5. , ,
j6| = 5 , = yjll- 5/ + 2^
.
. , , z,
. . b ={x,y,z}. ,
b = = yjlXi-5Xj + 2Xk ,
X i + yj + zk = / / - 5/ + 2^ :
=/, = -5, =2. |& 1 = 5 , (2)
^^ +(-5)^ +(2Xf = 5, = - -
^ _ ^ 5
, >0, . . ^ = 7
6
, :
5 25 5
= -, =
6 ^ 6
, = - .
3
www.kodges.ru
76 2

2.6. (3;1;4) b (-2;7;1)


. .
.
ABCD (. 2.16).

.
ABC fiD = b -d = (-2 - ) + (1 - 4)J +
-\-(l-'4)k =-5i +6j -3k. BD
\BD\ = yj(-'5f' + 6^ + (-3)^ = v70.
(3)
5 ^ 6 3
cosa = r = , cosp==-, cosy = p = .
/ VTO VTO
= - 5 = ~ 2 , 5 + 7 - 1 , 5
2 ^
ABM AM: AM = + = - + 4/ + 2,5fe.
2
= 2 ' = + 8/ + 5^.
= Vl^+8^+5^ = V90,

1 ^ 8 5
cosa, = 7==, cosp, =7=^, COST, = p=r.
/ /
www.kodges.ru
77

2.7. (1,2,-1) (-,2),


,
.
.
cos^a + cos^ j8 + cos V = 1 ,
^ ^^ _ 1 _
c o s a - c o s p - c o s / - - ^ .
(, - 5 , 3 / (10) ,

, = ^^+-7=^ =.
/ / 7 3
2.8.
^ F, {14,5,4}, F, {-6,2,7}, ^ {4,2,9} .
.
R=l2i+9j-^20k,
LR = V144 4-81 + 400 = 25 .

12 ^ 9 4
cosa=, cosp=, cosr = ~
25 25 5'

2.9. ^(1,2,3) (-1,4,2).

, = - .
. (11),
(13)

1 + -(-1) , 2+-4 . 3+-2 ,,


_ 3 _ 1 _ 3_5 _ 3_11
~ 1 ~?' 1 "?' ~ 1 ~4

www.kodges.ru
3 3 3
78 2

2.10. , 2.
(3,4,-1) (2,-3,1) ,
.
(13), (^, ^, z^
_ ( l + A)x~Xj _{^)-^ _^(1 + A)z-Zj
""'' ' ^'^ ' '^"
,
' 2 - ^^ 3(-3)-4 31 + 1 .
^ 2 = - = 15; ^^^^ = -6,5; Z2= = 2.

2.3.
1. b
(), -

-6 =|||8. (2)
2.
1.
d'b=bd. (2)
2.
[d-hb)-c={d-c)+{bc), (3)
3.

(^Xdb^ = X(^dby (4)
4.
dd = a^. (5)
5.

www.kodges.ru
79

i-i=j-j=k-k=l, i-j=jk=ki=0. (6)


3.
.


d'b=a^b^+ayby+a^b^. (7)

(OS,"--"*- "++
^ ' \\\\ ^al+a]^a]^bl+bl+bl' (8)


^+^+^=0- (9)



cos( = cos cos2 - cos cos 2 + cos7i cos72 (

cos J cos 2 + cos cos + cos 7, cos 72 = 0. (11)
4. A F

A = \F cos [F,S). (12)


3.1. 2- + !.
. (25 - 3 ^ ) ( c + 4 J ) = 2 5 c + 8 5 ( i -
---!
3.2. ABCD (. 2.17). ,
.
www.kodges.ru
80 2

. ,
. 2.17. ~ = '- 5 , = + ~.
~DA = -, DB = -.
^ D5: ACDB =
= (1B+JC)(1B-W\ = (1B)^ -{Bcf =0,
U5 = .
DB ,
-, .


. 2.17
3.3. a = 2i -3] + 5,
b=i-j + 3k.
. (8),
aj)^+ab +ajj.
COS'" " ^^ ^^
^ ' \\\\

2 1 + (-3)(-1)+5-3 _ 20
/2(-3)5^^1(-1)^ >/418"
3.4. ABC
^(1,1,1); 5(2-1,3); (05). _ _
. :
^45(1,-2,2), yiC (-1,-1,4).
(8)
www.kodges.ru
81

1(-1) + (-2)(-1) + 2-4 /2


COS . ^= ^ ^ ^ ^^ ^ z=.
VI'+(-2)42V(-1)4H)44^ 2 ' ^=45.
(-1,2,-2); 5 (-2,1,2).

cosi>= , -'(-)^2..(-2).2 ^. ^,,.^


V(-l)' + 2' + (-2)' V("2)' + 1 4 2'
, = 45.
3.5. /^(45;45;90) /2(45;90;45).
( .
. (10)
1
cos<p = cos45cos45H-cos45cos90+cos90cos45 = ~ .
( =60.
3.6. ,
6 {3, -4,12} .
. = + ^7 .
-4=0. b
= /9 + 16 + 144=13,|| = 7 ^ ^ + .2
. _2
, jc^+j'^=169. -',
/ + / = 1 6 9 = : > j ; = , x = . a=(4i +3j) ,
3.7. ,
{5,-4,3} .
. =1 + ] + zk -
, = (0,y,z).
|| = 1 => ;^ + z^ = 1.
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82 2

=-4:^^+32=0; ^-^^
9 2 2 , ..4 ^3 1 -^ -^
Z +Z =1, z = - , > ; = - . , = -(3/-4:).
16 5 5 5
3.8. d = xi-\- yj + zk,
a = i-2j + 3k b = 2i + 6k^^
d c = i-\-j + 2k - 1 .
.
.
x-2y+3z=0 2x+6z=0.
d ^
x+y-h2z=-l.


\x-2y + 3z = ,
2x + 6z = ,
[+ y + 2z = - 1 .

1 -2 3|
D = \2 6 =-4.
1 1 21
,
.

D^, D wD^
www.kodges.ru
83

0-2 3 1 3 1 -2

= 0 0 6 = 1 2 ; / ) , = 2 0 6 =0; 2 0 0 = ^.

-1 1 2 1 -1 2 1 1 -1

12 , 0 ^ - 4 ,
; = - = -3,>' = - = 0,z = - = 1.
- 4 - 4 - 4
, d d = -31 + k
3.9. d = 1 + ] + zk ,
d = 2i ',
d b=J + ] + 1 d -
- - 1
= 3J-4k - .
. d
, 2x-z = 0.
dub 1, x-y+z = 1.
d
- cd 3y-4z 1
nPcd=-rzr= . =-
V3 +(-4)' 5
3j;-4z = 1.
,

2x-z = ,
\x-y + z = 1,
3>^-4z = 1.

www.kodges.ru
84 2

2 0-1
D = 1 -1 1 :-1.
0 3 ^
,
. .

0 0-1 2 0-1 2 0 0
= | 1 -1 \\=-\
= Z)^,= =-11, ==| 11 -1 11|=-8.
D.,=ll1 11 11|=-11,
1 3 -^ 0 1 -4 0 3 1

D -1 D -1 D -1

, d d = 4i-^l lj+8k.
. ,
= ^+22 ^ = 3?! - ej ,
\^ 1 = 1, 1^21 = 4 ^ ^2 --.
.

db =(^ +2e2)(35j ^2) =
= {, 2)'-{, 2)+6{, ^2)-2(, 2) = 0.


7 1

{,^) = \; {e,e,) = \e,\\e,\cosj = l-4- = 2;

www.kodges.ru
. - 2 +6-2-2-16=0 =20.
85

3.11. , F = {6,1,2}
5 = {2,4,1 }.
. ,

^ = ^ - 5 = 6-2 + 4 + 2(-1) = 14(;7.).

2.4.
1. b
, :
1. ,
6 ,. .

\c\=\a\\b\s\n{a,by (1)
2. ,
6 .
3. , .
.
c=dxb = [].
2. .
1. dxb =0, ^ ^^
.
2. =-( (2)
3.

[Xaxb) = X[axb), (3)
4.

www.kodges.ru
86 2

ixJ = jxj =kxk =0; ixj=k; jxk=J; kxj = j . (4)


5.
(d + b)xc=^axc-{-bxc, (5)
3.

J j \
dxb ., (6)



<3v ci

b. (7)

4. . 1. F,

M^IBXF. (8)
2. ABC
ABDC (. 2.18)

J
S.=-\ABXAC ,.
(9)
.

. 2.18
www.kodges.ru
87

4.1. (3,4,1) b (-1,2,5).


[ ].
. (6)

i j
4 1 1 3 3 4
= ^ S zz I + yt=18r-167 + 10/t,
5 - 1 7+ -1 2
^^
2 5
. h h


[ ] = {18,-16,10}.
4.2. (\ ,0,6),
4,5,-2) (7,3,4). _ _
. :
(3,5, -8), (6,3,-2) (9)

i ]
1
5= 3 5-8 \1-1]-2\
6 3-2

= 1 ^ ( 1 4 ) 4 ( ^ 2 ) ' + ( - 2 1 ) ' =24,5.

4.3. ^{\,2,0),
^2(-l,2,l), (2,0,5), ^{-1,5,). : ) ^ 2 ^ 3 '
) y4j^2^3' ^) ,^2 ^^.
, ) ^-^

^^ = (2 + \)1 + ( - 2)7 + (5 - \) =3i-2j + 4k .

AjA.^ - /^^ + (~2)' + 4' = v29 ,

) ^^ : 4 4 =(1 + 1)+(2-2)7 + (0-1)^ =2-.


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88 2

i J
^ 9 -^1 ^ -^1 - ^ 1 2 0 - 1U-2r-ll7-4^
3-2 4

(9)

) ^^=-^^ =-2i+k. AiA^

4 ^4 = (-2 -1)/ + (5 - 2) + (4 - 0) = - 3 / + + 4
(8)
2.3
(-2)(-3) + 0-3 + 1-4 10
COS^: = 0,766.
7(-2)01^(-3)4' >/70
^ = 40.
4.4. , ,
{1,0,3}, 6 {-2,4,-3}
, 39.
. ,

i j
= ) = 1 3 = (-12-37 + 4).
-2 4 -3

,
|| = 39 = ||^/144+9 + 16, = 3.

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89


COS j8 = -- > , , =-3.
\\
, = 1 -^9]-\2
4.5. ,
--2 ^ = 5 + 4, |m |=2, ||=3,
.
6
.
5 = |^ |.
, , mxm = 0, = 0, fhxn=-nxm
^ = ( - 2 ) ( 5 + 4) = 1 5 +
+ 1 2 ( ) - 1 0 ( ) - 8 ( ) = 22 ( ) .
fhxn
= ||||8 (] = 2-3-3.
2

5' = 22|| = 22-3 = 66/.^

2.5.
1.

{) '
,

. '^y
{\ = . (1)
. S :

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90 2

2. .
1.

(ax6)c--ffexaVc=(5xc)-6 =-(). (2)
2.
( ) = ( ^ ) = ()6. (3)
3. ,
.
3.
,
= (^)=56. (4)
4. , 5,6,

^=;^()=16. (5)

5. .
5,6,
: = .
5.1. : (1,1,1),
(2,4,7), (-1,2,-3), D (-3,2,1). ^5CZ)
, [ .
. .
1, JC ~AD (. 2.19): 5 = {1,3,6},
= {-2,1,-4}, AD = {-4,1,0}.
(5)
I 1 3 |
32
-2 1 -^
6 3
1
www.kodges.ru
91

. 2.19

' 1 \ ~*
1
S= ACxAD\ -2 1 -4 [i Ai+\ej + 2k\ 769.
- 1 0

, 3F ,3-32 32/9
= , = = = .
S /9 69
5.2. ,
{1,-3,2}, fc {3,1,-2}, {2,-1,2},
, 6, .
.

1 -3 2
{\ = 3 1 - 2 = 20.
2 - 1 2

, .


www.kodges.ru
92 2

5.3.
{4,3,5}, {2,2,2}, {~3,-2,-4}
. = 0.

I4 3 5|
(^)= 2 2 2 =0,
|-3 -2 -41
, .
5.4. = (-1,-1,2) 6 = (1,-2,2).
x = (x,y,z),
5 = -7 5 = ,
= 2.
. - = 1 >
- x - j ^ + 2z= - 7 x + ; ; - 2 z = 7.

^ J
= -1 -1 '{z + 2y)I + (2x + z)] + {x-y)k,
X
,
^ , ^= - {2y+z) = 0.
= 2

X z
1-1 -1 2 :2, .. 2x + 4>; + 3z = 2 .
1 -2 2
www.kodges.ru
93


x-\-y 2z = l,
ly + z = 0,
[2++2 = 2.
.

1 1 -2
D = 2 1 = 12^0.
2 4 3
,
^
= ^ , = ^, z = ^.
7 1 -2 1 7 -2' 1 1 7
D = 0 2 1 = 24: . 0 0 1 12; D = 0 2 0 = -24;
2 4 3 2 2 3 2 4 2

24 ^ 12 , -24 ^
jc = = 2, v = = 1, z= = -2.
12 12 12
, = {2,1, -2} .
5.5. d = 2i-\-j-k, b=3J-2j + 4k
= -4k . ,
, due.
. (4)

2 1-1
= |6|= 3 - 2 41 = 116 + 1 2 - 6 + 121 = 34.
II3 0 - 4 1
, V = S- h, S -
www.kodges.ru
94 2

5 = || = 2 1 -1 = -4 + 57 - 3it| = J(-4)'+ 5'+ (-3)'= 572.


3 0 ^
,

s = F _ 34 _llsl2
5~5V2~ 5

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3

3.1.
.

1.
, , ,
.

- ;
(. 3.1).

^^

. 3.1
www.kodges.ru
96 3


- (,>^).
,
Mj(Xj) ^^. ^^.^
.
2. ^^\^^,
;

MyJ\df^-\M^M^,

^^^-^^ (1)

t/=MiM2=|jC2-JCi|. (2)

(. 3.1),
Mj(xj,jj) ^^.^ ,

^ = 7(-,)(>;,-;,)^ (3)
,
(3)

d=4777. (4)
3. ( / ,
, ,

cosy = -7= ^ ^ ; cosii/=j= ^ ^ (^\


V(x, -x,f - V(^2 - ^ i ) ' ' ^^
1.1. ^4(-4), {5), (1),
, , ,
-^-,
www.kodges.ru
97

.
, ( .3.2).
(1)


-4 0 1 5

. 3.2

= -^=5-(-4) = 9, = -=1-5=-4,
= -^=1-(-4) = 5.
(2)
d= \BC\=\x^-x,\=\-4\=4.

, 9+(-4)=5, 5=5.
1.2. {-1,-3) {4,2),
.
. ,
(3)

^ = | ^ 5 | = 7 ( 4 + 1)'+(2 + 3)'=/50=5/2.
(5)
4+1 1 /2 2+3 V2


( = 45, / = 45"".
1.3. , ^4(1,2)
5 .
.

www.kodges.ru
98 3

5 (. 3.3), . . = 5.
M(5,j^) , (3)

5=7(5^4)40^'
25=16+(-2)2 (-2)2=9.

\
.

{1.2)

1 1 h-

.
. 3.3
, ^=5, ^2""^-
, Mj(5,5), 2(5,-1).
1.4. ,
^(2,1), -3,2), (-1,1).
.
X, , i?, (3)
R'={x-2f+(y-l)\
'={ + +{-2)\
R'={x + lf+(y-^\)\
1
, , ^ ~
1
^ = -
^ 13
, , ~'^- ,
/
, , R =
1.5. ,
4(1,5), 5(-2,1), (1,-2), Z)(10,2) .
www.kodges.ru
99

. , ,
, .
CD (
DA).

, = CD.
: d^^ = V(7 + 2 ) ' + ( - 2 ~ 1 ) ' = / ,
dj,^=yl{l-lOf+i5-2f =3VlO,ToecTb BC = DA.
,
ABCD ,
.

3.2. .
.

l"". (,), ^^
^ = , (. 3.1)
JC, + ^ , + v^
=- -\ = (1)
1+ -^ 1+ ^^
^^ , = 1

X 4- ^ V, + -
^ = ^ ^ ; =^^^- (2)
,
^^ .
www.kodges.ru
100 3

2. Mj(jCj ^y^^M^Xj,y>^
^^.^

, Mj ^ ^,
, S
, .
,
(3) .
, (3)

, ^ , ^ ^ ^
.
3. ^{^,^,
M^Xj,y^, ... ,MJ^x^y^)

fh'
1
+ ^2 + ....+
X.
(5)
2
11^^
4. ^{^,^, 2{2,^, -^,^
X,


)\

^,2,^ ,

_ mjXj + 1712X2 + ^3X3 ^1'^2 + ^
m, + m2 + W3
Wj + W2 + ^
(6)


X,+,+x, _\^'^
^ - =- (7)
3
,
^{^,^,2{2,2), ... 5^(^'^)'
^,2, ,^,
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101

m,x,+m,x,+... + mx ^+2+- + ^^
^ ^ ' (8)

2.1. , -1,8)
<.(3,3) ^ - ~ .
^ 2
. , -
, 3
^ ~ ;>^, (1)
3 3
-1---3 . 8+ -.3
2 5 2
- 1+-
- = 7' ^ = V = ^-
' 1+ -
2 2
2.2. , {-2)
5(4) ==-2.
. , AVLB ,

(1)
- 1 - 2 - 4 ^^
= = 10.
1-2
2.3. >4(-2,0), {,6\ (1 ,-4)
AD, ,
,
.
. AD 5 (.
3.4), = 1 D (2)
6+1 7 6-4 ,
"" 2 2 "" 2
AD = ^(7 / 2 + 2) + (1 - 0) = v5 .
BHCCKTpHca^^" -
BE
, . . = .
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102 3

. 3.4

\AB\=yl(6 + 2f+6^ =10; 1=7(1 + 2)'+ (-4)' = 5 -


=2
6+2_8 _6-2-4_ 2
Xg
1+2~3' ^^~ 1 + 2 ~ 3 '

t 2V
\\=.
8
+2 +
)
=f^-
(3),
,^,^, ^2, 2-, ^,^

5 = -|[-2(6 + 4) + 6 ( - 4 - 0 ) + 1(0-6)]| = 25..

(7)
_ - 2 + 6 + 1_5^ _0 + 6-4_2
3 ~ 3 ' ^~ 3 ~3'
2.4.
^(1), {2,2), (3,-1). .
.
jE" (. 3.5).
www.kodges.ru
103

. 3.5
, (2)

1+3 . 1-1 ^
2 ^ 3
D
2+ ^ 2+
2=^-, 0=^ , = 2, = -2.

2.5. ^(2,1), 5(-1,3), (-2,5)


50, 20 30.
.
.
(6)
2.50-20-2-30 ^, 50 + 3-20 + 5-30 ^^
= = 0,2, = = 2,6.
"^ 50 + 20 + 30 ^ 50 + 20 + 30
2.5. 50
20 80.
.
. ,
20.

(6) www.kodges.ru
104 3

,,+^. 2 0 0 + 80-50 ^^
= LJ LJ. = = 40.
^ +2 20 + 80

25 . ,
Xj=25 ^=100 ,
^2=40 ,

100-25+ 100-40
^ = 32,5.
100 + 100
2.7. , Mj(2,l), 2(0,5), M^(-IJ)
.
. (4)
2 ( 5 - 7 ) + 0 ( 7 - 1 ) - 1 ( 1 - 5 ) = - 4 + 4 = 0.
,
.
2.8.
,(2,3), ^{-2,2), (-4-1), ,(-1-5), ,{4-2).
. (5)

S= fh' ^'+ ^2 2
+
+ ^4 \ 1^5 5
\
\[\2 h ^4 ^ ^5 $\ Fl J

\(\1 3 -2 2 -4 -1 -1 -5| |4 -2h
+ + +
2
iv
-2 2 - -1 -1 -5 4 - V 3
'/1
= - | ( 4 + 6 ) + (2 + 8) + (20-1) + (2 + 20) + (12 + 4)| = 38,5..

2.9. (. 3.6),
.
www.kodges.ru
105

^

1.5

4 \D


1.5
1 \
0 J X^

. 3.6
. , .
/., . = 1.,
.
. 3.6,
.
)
,=3 ,(1,5;0)
2=5 M^iUS;!)
=4 (0;2)
CD ^=\,5 //0,75;2)
EF ^=\,5 ^5(1,5;!)
0D /6=2,5 ,(0,75;1)


..., ^ (8)
_ (3-1,5 + 51,5 + 40+1,5-0,75 + 1,51,5 + 2,5-0,75
^^~ (3 + 5+4+1,5 + 1,5+2,5) ~ '
_ ( 3 - 0 + 5 - 2 + 4 - 2 + 1,5-2 + 1,5-1+2,5-1^
^^~ (3+5+4+1,5 + 1,5+2,5)
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106 3

.. .



.
1.
^x + 5 j + C = 0, (1)
,, .
V,
^^-, (2)
= tg(p , (
, b
,
(. 3.7).

. 3J
(2) ,
, L
(. 3.8), .


. . 3.8. 1.
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107


X. . 3.8 2.

. . 3.8 3.

. 3.8
3"".

(3)
b
, ,
(. 3.7).
4. ,

-
(4)
-
5.
xcosa + j ; s i n a - / ? = 0, (5)
/? ,
, ,
, ,
/? (. 3.7). (1)
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108 3

^= 1- (6)
, ,
= , .
6.
. -^+^
, :^
. = = 0
, ,
;
,
. = ,
.
3.1.
(3,4) 45.

(2). k=ig(p= tg45''=l.
(2) /,
: 4 = 3+, =1 j ; = :+1
-+1 = 0.
3.2. j^ =-2JC+3
, .
.
.
}^ = 2-3;
= 2+3;
=-2x-3.
. 3.9 , ,
1,2,3.
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109

. 3.9
3.3. 0(0,0) ^(4,0).
, (0,3).
.
. ,
, ,
,
Z) (. 3.10).

. 3.10
,
OD , y=Q,
=0. CD -
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110 3

6 , ;; = 6.
. AC^^ AD
-, -, =4,6=6 ,
(3),

^ ^
4 3 4 6
-^- = 3x+2j-12 = 0.
-
-^ /= t g 9 =
t g ( | + Z C O D ) = -ctg(ZCOD) = - ^ = - | . , = -\
3x+2j;=0.
3.4. ,
^(4;2)
, 2 . .
. , ^,
a\ib (. 3.11), -
^
=11.
-

. 3.11

, = 2 = 4-
4,
www.kodges.ru
1[

4 2 ,
' = .


b^-b-2 = 0, b,=2, b,=-\ ^1=2, ^=-4.
^, ^ ,
X
+ - ^ = 1 j c - y - 2 = 0.
2 - 2
X
^, ^, + ~ = 1 jc-4y + 4 = 0.
^ ^ ~4 1
, , .
3.5. 4(-2;0), 5 ; 3 ) , ( 1 ; - 1 )
AD.
. ,
(4),
-5 -

,
D

^~ 2 ~ 2 " ' ^^"" 2 " 2 "


(4),
4)

-^^ =1 ^ -5^1 = ^.

3.6. ,
{\, V3 )
2 .
. /? = 2
(5), cos + / sin -2 =
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112 3

1 / .
-cosa:
2 + - 2^ s i n a = l. sin30''cosa+ cos30sina
= sin(30+a) = l H a = 6 0 ^
+ 2 = 0 + ^ j - 4 = 0.
1 /1
2 2
3.7. ,
^(3;4) 3;8).
. ,
-4 -
(4), .
8-4 3-3
, -3 = 0. , = 3.
, .
3.8. , :
) -+2<0; ) 2x+j;+5>0; ) 4x-3j;>0.
, )
X = ;; = ,
.
-3>'+2 =
(. 3.12).

--2<0

2-^5^0

4-3 = 0
. 3.12
) X = , j^ =
,
2+>'+5 = .
www.kodges.ru
113

) . 3.12.
(0;1),
-3>;0. ,
,
,
. ,
.
3.9. , :
[jc-2>^-f3> , \-1^> , \-1-^< ,
^ ^ [ j c - 2 j ; - 3 < 0; ^^ | ; c - 2 j ; - 3 > 0; ^^ [-2:^-3> 0;
. x-2j;+3 = -1- = ,
(. 3.13).
. = , j ; = ,
.
: )
,
-2+3 = ; )

, ,
-2-3>0
(. 3.14); )
, (. 3.15).



^ '
/^
..^^f ..////^
^ ^ - ^' 1 ^ '
^

. 3.13 . :114
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114 3

. 3.15
. , -
X
> 2JC+4, : > - 5 , +- S 1 .
.
= 2+4. = 0, = 0,
= 4, = -2
(. 3.16). > 2:+ 4
,
,
. > -5
= -5.
.
\

www.kodges.ru
115

, [ = 5 6 =
, ,
.
, ABC,
.
3.11. ,
:
\- + > ,
\2- + > , x + y-l > ,
) X < 0;
)
[-2-6 > 0.
, ) =0, j^^O
4>0, (. 3.17).

<0
.
, 2x-j^+4=0, =0
.
) X = , j^ = ,
(. 3.18);
, ;
, . ,
, ,
, , j8, / --^ = ,
+-2 = 0 x - 2 j ; - 6 = 0.
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116 3

3.4.
1. .

^^.^, = 0 ; ^^^^^ =0. (1)


^
(2)
,, ,, ^-,,
:
) ^- 9^0
.
A B C
) 4^2-4^=0 ^^-^^^ =-^'^7^
^2 ^2 ^2

, .
A B C
) ,^-^,=02,-,^=01 - l = - ^ = ~i-
,
, .
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117

2. (. 3.19)
(Lj) y^k^x+b^\ {L^ y-k^x-^b^, (3)
(, Lj,
, L^

tg<P = (4)
1 + ^^

. 3.19
(1),
(4)
5 , - "

tgP=- ^\"l (5)

^1""^2 5, (6)

J_
^,=- 4^+5,52=0. (V)
,
3. . ,
M(XQ,JVQ),
,

www.kodges.ru
118 3

M(XQ,JQ) .
.
,
(1),
4x+5i>; + C,+A(4^4-52>^+C2) = 0. (9)
.
4. .
Mj(jCpjj) ,

^

d =1 ^ zosa + y^ sina-/71. (10)
, (10)

\^ +^ + |
d= >2 ()
5. (1)

6.
^{^,^), 2{2,2)^
^(-^'-) ^^

^=- -, (13)
!" ^2-^1
4.1.
v4(-3,4) 2x->'-3=0.
. (8)

-4 = { + 3).
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119


j ; = 2x - 3,
/:=2. ,
(6).
-1
2->^ + 10 = 0.
(7), -
1
= -,
,

jc + 2:^~5 = 0.
4.2. , 2+^'-2 =
2-^-5 = ,
1:5.
. ^ ,
, , .
2.
(. 2.20).

,2.20
= -2, ,
^^= ~
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2
120 3

(8), -
1
J-2 = (-0) -2-^4 = 0.

6 13
, (- ? ~ ) .

= ,

j^i ^
5 5
,
=-2.
,
j;-2,I=-2(x-0,2) 2x+j-2,5=0.
4.3. ,
-3-3=0,1-+19=0, ++1 =0.
. , ,


\-- = , \-- = , 7:-:^ + 19= ,
[7JC~>; + 1 9 = 0; [+ +1 = 0; [+:^ +1 =0;


^(-3;-2), {0;\) (-2;5).
ABC (. 3.21) ,
, .
4 (5),
4 JSj
, 2, ^ ^
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121

. 3.21 . 3.22

1(-1)-7(-3) ^
1-7 + ( - 3 ) )
^2? ^2 ^ (5)

-(-)
tgB = ZB = 'L
1-3 + ( - 3 ) 1 2'
,
1
ZC = arctg2 = arctg.
4.4.
, (1;4), 5(-9;-8), (-2; 16).
.
. ,
1:2 ,
. (. 3.22)
. D

2 ~ 2 ~ ' ^^" 2 " 2


_\
Z) =
~2'

www.kodges.ru
122 3

1+ j^i " 3 ' ^ ^ ~ 1+ 1^1


2 2
,
,

- _ ^ -4
-^ -1 3 5

-8-4 -9-7 = -
4 4
- ^ ^-^
- ^ -^ J +8 +9 24 160
^ = , = + .
- ^ ^^
16 + 8 - 2 + 9 7 7

(7)
^ 1
''~ 3 ' ' ^ " 24-

(8),

4
3;-16 = - ~ ( + 2) 4x + 3j;-40 = 0,
7
-^ = -{-1) 7x+24j;-145 = 0.
,
(7;4), 4, . .

- .
:
3 J C - 4 J ; ~ 5 = 0, 24-1 + 160 = 0.
BFyrna (12)
-4-5 24-1 + \60
^= V576.49 '--'3>'+>85=0.
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123

4.5. ,
+-1-Q ^4(3;-!) .
.
3 7 , 3
3^ = --^ + , * (8),

+ \=--[-), 3JC+4J;-5 = 0 .

X, ,
,
,

+ ^
d=
^'+' >2
(1= ,, , -
|3X+4J;-5|
3 = , , \5 = -\--5
I 5 I
15 = -4; + 5.
+ 4>'-20 = 0 3JC + 4J; + 10 = 0.
4.6. 2--^ = -^-1 -
, 3JC - 4 - 7 = .
. (9),
,

2->; + 3 + ( + >;~2) = 0 (2 + ); + (-1):^ + 3-2 = 0.


7_ 2+
^ - --,
1
, 3
^j - . -
1 2+
3 , ,r^^
: = , = , - . -
, www.kodges.ru
-1 4
124 3

,
\2 + 9-\1 = 0.
4.7. v4(-4;2) 5(2;-5) -
8
{ ; -2).
.
. ,
v4 5,
-2 _jc + 4 ___!_ _^
- 5 ~ 2 ~ 2 + 4 ' ^~ 6^ 3'
(7),
(8) -
( 8^
, (. 3.23) >' + 2 = -- -
6-7>;-30 = 0.

. 3.23


+ 5 __ -2
= -14.
-2 + 5 8 2

, (7)..
, ,

www.kodges.ru
125

-2 =(+4), 2 + 9;;-10 = 0.

v4 ,
(5;0). wACb
(12),
1 + 6 + \() _ 2JC + 9 > ' - 1 0
+ 5 + 2 = .
/49 + 36 74+81
(11)

3-5 + 5-0 + 2 17
d=
-/9 + 25 I /34
4.8. (3;3), --2 =
1--% = 0 .
.
.
(. 3.24)

. 3.24

--2 = ,
\lx-y-S = , ^ " 1 ' = -^-
2:1,
AM'.MD = 2:1, = 2
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126 3

_(1 + - , _ 3-3-1 {\-)^-,_- +\


~ 2 "^'^^' ~ 2 "
5
AC^^
7--^ = 0, ^-^-2 = 0.
D
+^ =Xj, =8, -\-^=2^,=\0.
^^, (^,^, ^,
: ^=2,^= 6, ^ = 3, j^^ = 4.
, ,

- _-6
jc + 2j;-14 = 0.
6-4 2-6
5
4.9. (-3; *) ,
2-^ -3 = 2+>^ -5 =
2- -1= 0.
.
(. 3.25) , .

j2x + j ; - 3 = ,
| 2 J C - ; ; - 1 = , ^^^' -^^^^'
\2 + -5 = 0, ^3 _
[2JC-J;-1 = , - ^ ^ " 2 ' ^^~'^'

,
^/^ BDN , ^
.
www.kodges.ru
127

^ "'"^i?

4' -^^^ 2 "2

J \

~\
^^^^^"
^ ^
^

^. 5.25
NB ,
,

-^_ 4
5 3 8x + 3 4 j - 6 1 = 0
2 2 4
4.10.
7 7
2x+j;H-9 = -^'- = (--, )
.
.
.
, (. 3.26)

www.kodges.ru
128 3

2-+ + 9 = ,
I -- = , ^^~^^ ""-^'

.
7 7

CD
. AD,
k = 2,
>'-12 = 2(jc + 5), 2 + ; ; - 2 = 0.
CD ,
:=1
j;-12=x+5, -+17=0.
4.11. (5;1), i5(l;3)
(3;4) .
.
. (. 3.27).

D. , D
JC.+ 5+1 ^ VJ-^VR 1+3 ^
"" 2 2 "" 2 2

/
^ .
X

. 3.27 . 3.28
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129

, ,
2:1.
2 ,
, - -- - . ,
,

%- . ^ - . =(1+)^-/=3-3-2'3=3,
J^c=(l+%A/-^J^z)=3.4-2.2=8.
, (3;8). ,
,
-1_-5
: :~-";~, -\-2-1=0,
3-1 1-5
; ^ - 8 ._ j c - 3
: -~-~, 7x+2j^-37=0,
1-8 5-3
>;-8_ _ - 3
: T ^ T ' T Z T ' 5x-2j;+l=0.

4.12. :+>'-8=0, --2=0


^(4;6).
.
. (4;6)
, , .
,
Xj^ = 5, ^ = 3.
,
^ (. 3.28).
, , 5 fx^j^^j
, . .
,
. ^+^- 8=0, ^-^- 2=0.
.
. , -
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130 3

^ -
_1 _.
D. D\ ~ -- .
MD 1
^ - LXjy + 2 x^. . - 2 x^. _ 3 - 5 - 4
^ ~~ '
1+2 1+2
^- ^3-3-6^3

2 2 2"
( 3^
, D
2'2

Z) , ,
^
>^D=^ , ^+^-11=0, J^+3^(^-3=0.

+ = 3,

^- = 2

|1 1
0 0 1 1
= = -2
10 1 0
| 1 - 1
^
111 1
3 0 1 1
= -14.
8 0 1 0
2 1 0 - 1
www.kodges.ru
131^

_ ^ -14 ^
^ - " " " - ~ ' ^ ' - ^
, ^-.
, ^-1, (^^2.
5(7; 1) (4;2),

-6_-
: "~7^' 5+3;;-38 = ,
-_-4
: Y ^ ~ ' A ^ ' = 4,
-\ _-1
^37~'4^' ^^ +-10 = 0.
4.13. {-'-2), {'-\) (1;3)
ABCD { II ). ,
. D.
. \\ AD, ,
. ,
.

+ \ -4 4 13 , 4
= 3V+4Y=13 = +, = .
3 + 1 1-4 ' ^ ' ^ 3 3 3
AD
,
5 II AD
- = {-\ ;; + 2 = ( + 3), 4 + 3;; + 18 = 0.
. ,
, ^4

+2 +3 5 7 , 5
= , - + , =.
3+2 1+3
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^ 4 4 4
132 3

BD\ ^i ~ ""' ^i = """7


/
, ,
BD
y+l=k^(x-4l 4
y+l = --(x^l 4x+5j;-ll=0.
5
BD AD ,
D
4 + 5>'-11 = ,
[4x + 3>' + 18 = 0.
29 ^ 5-29 ,, ^ 123
2;;-29=0, =, 4+^^ 11 = 0, ^ = -

J 123 29
: \ ; .

3.5.


. ,
, ,
.

.
,


" +2 + ^ +2Dx + 2Ey + F --Q. (1)
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133

: -^ > ,
, -^ <
, -^ = 0 .
(1)
-,
=
D^-^E^ > AF, .
> ,
Ax^-^Ay^+lDx+lEy-^F < ,
, ,
Ax4Ay42Dx-^2Ey-\-F > 0.
, . .
,
-
, - .

,
.

:
1) ;
2) ;
3) , (,)
,
;
4) ,
- (),
;
5) ,
, , .
3x^-4
5.1. (0;4), ( 1 ;-2) = ?
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134 3

. ,
.
,

. 4 = = 4 .
, , ^ .
, -
3-4
-2 ^ - - - - 1 . ,
.
1 .
5.2. ^=, = ^.
.
,
. ,

[/=4,
1 2

, ^- , Xrf^ 4 j^j= , ^ 4.
, (0;0) ^(4;4).
5.3. : ( - 3)^ + >^^ = 1
X + j ; = .
.
.
.
--, x^-3x+4= 0.
3/^ ^ -
Xj 2 = . /-5 ,
, ,
.
www.kodges.ru
135

5.4. ,
^(3;5) 5(1;-4).
. AviB (. 3.29).

, ,
, ,
. {,), ,
, =,
AM = ^J(x--\-{y-5f BM = ^{x-lf+(y + 4f ,
/(-3)^+(^-5)^ = yjix-lf-^(-^ .

4+18j^ - 17= 0. .
5.5. ,
^(1;1),
JB(7;-2).
. 2 = . ,
, AM = ^/(x-1)^ + (^ ~ 1)^
4 ( ( x - l ) 4 ( j ; ~ l ) ^ ) = ( x - 7 ) 4 ( ; ; + 2)^
, {+\-+{-2 = 20,
. .
0\-\ ;2) , 2 /
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136 3

3.6.
1. ,
,
.
{x-^af^{y-bf=R\ (1)
, ; R
.
:
1. 6 = 0; = 7?, x^-^y'^-lRx.
R (. 3.30).

( \^(

, 3.30 . 3.31
2. = 0; Z? = 7?, x^+jn^ = IRy.
R (. 3.31).
3. = 6 = , ^+ = /^
. R .
2. ,
,
, r^-^r^-la,
const (. 3.32).

(2)

, .
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137

\-
Fl-c,0) F^icO)

. 3.32
-
_
^ - .
<,
. = , =
^ + '^ =^ ,^ .
,
^ =^ - ^ ; , ^ =^ -^^.
Jp (^2' -

,
= .



,
IL-IL-
^ 2 /

Tj =, 2= + , (3)
X .
\
,
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138 3

, (. 3.33)

- (4)
.
2 =tg^2 .

. 3.33
^, ,

. '

\ ',
, ,
. ,

.
/^ A:j (5)
, ,
/ /2.
. 1. ,
- ,
, (a')^'+(b'p=a^'^b^.
2. ,
- ,
,
= 'sin (.
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139

3. ,

, ,
Vj- rj= 2, const (. 3.34).

. 3.34

2 2

(6)
; b .
, , ,
,
,
. = ,


,

= ,

<,
> 1.
,
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^ =^ -^, , ^ = ^ -^.
140 3

d^^d^^ -

. -

^ - - .


Y
, ^ = - j - = .
d^ 2
r^r^ (,)

Tj = { - \ ^ = ( + ). (7)
,

'-^'=\ (8)

= .
,
, ,

=- (9)

^ = ""-
(9)

= 42
,
,
-
cjc + a
<2, , , d .
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141

(10)
(9).
4. ,
,
, (. 3.35).

, 3.35

/=2, ()
/7 ,
.
(,) -

=+ . ,
^'=^~Z

. ,
^ = = 1.
,
,
j ; = ax^+6x + c, (12)
, , .
www.kodges.ru
142 3

6.1.

.
, x^-2x+l+j;2+8j+16 = 4 (x-l)^+(j;+4)^ = 4.
- \,b--4,R-l.
6.2. ,
v4(l;l), 0;2) (2;-2).
.
,, .
,
(1),

{2-af+{2-bf=R\
,
, : 2-6 = 6, 4a-Sb = 4,
= - 3 , b = -2. , R^ = 25.
,
(x+3)2+(j+2)2=25.
6.3. ,
{1;9) (4;0).
. (. 3.36).

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143

, = = 4, = Z? = R,

(,).
{x-Ay-^iy-Ry- - R^.
4(7;9), (7-4)^+(9-7?)^ = 7?^,
7? = 5. ,
(-4)2+0;-5)2=25.
6.4. , ,
x^+>'^+8x-4j^-29 = : {4;3),
5(-1;2), ;9).
.
, 16+9+32-12-29 = 16, ,
.
, 1+4-8-8-
-29 = -40, , J5 .
, 16+81-32-36-
-29 = , , .
6.5. , ,

. ,
,
.
. (2). N
,
. ,
^ ^

(S.t^^l t ^ . ^ = .. . - , 5 , * - 5 .

2 2

, + = 1.

www.kodges.ru
^ = ^-^ = 15-5 =10.
144 3

, a = v l 5 , 6=5 c~-s[)Ss.
/lO / ^, . 2/10 ^
= = = . : - . -
Vl5 3 *^ ^ "^ 2
(. 3.37): ^{^ fS) ^2(-Vl5 ,0), B^(0,^l ^(0-^),
: F^( VlO, 0), F^i-/ ,0).
(3): , = Vl5 - v 2 , 2 = + V2 .

6.6.
, , 8 2.
.
.
- = 2 + = 8. 2 = 10,2 = 6 = 5, = 3.
^ = ^-^, ^= 25-9=16. ,
2 2

+ = 11.
^
25 16
^' / 1
6.7. ~'^~'^^ -
9 16
j;=-2x. .
. ^ = 9, Z?^ = 16, /:^ = - 1 . (5) -
16 8
, f<^2 "^9(-2)
~Q. 9 = ~. -
8
= ^ .
www.kodges.ru
145

6.8. :
= 10,6 = 1. '
Z?'H 2\ , 2*
2 20.

. = 1.
- ^ .
,
10 10:,
,^=-7=
1,2 V, 2==-

^+1' ''' ^+1
, :, =tg(p^= tg 20 - 0,364,

^ ' ^' ^ja^kf+b^ V 100(0,364)41



(')^=^-(')^, fe' = 7lOO + l-(2,82)' - 9 , 5 9 .

(5)

,= = = -0,0275, tg(p = k,, ( = 178^25'


' ', 1000,364 ' ' 2.
6.9. , ,

(5;-2) N(3 /2 ; 2 )
.
. 7V
(6).

www.kodges.ru
146 3

25 4 18 2

1 1 1 1
--j ?

1 7 , , 22
^':^- ^-11, ^= -. : -
22 7

2_ 22 __ 99
^-^+^, - 1 1 + - .
[W ^/7
= = J = 3 -.

. /77
= = .
3
6.10. (12;3 v3 )
^^1
--'z^ . .
.
= , = - . = = 2,
2
.
,
(6), -
144 27
- = 1. ^ = 9, , = 6, -.
"'' '' .^ / ,
:7^"" "^ ~ ^
6.11. ,
-6,
-^+ = , x-^y-l- 0.
. (. 3.38)
. - 6, -^-^ =
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147

4(-3;-2), 5 ( - 2 ; - 3 ) . - 6,
-^-1- (6; 1) D{\\6),

(-2)

(-2

. 3.38


CD = /(6-1)" + (1 - = 5/2 ;
= ]{-2 + 3)^ + (-3 + 2)^ = 72 .
/^ ,
.
= -^+5 =
5 5 7 7
( - ; - - ) N( - ; - ) .

MN = J ( - + -Y + (- + - = 6/2 . ,

S ^tUlAe^^ 36 ..
4-3
6.12. = ~
, .
.
='-^, ='+.
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148 3

5 4
-^- 4 = -3 + --\.
5 4
{ '+)( '+Z?)+ ( '-) ( '+)= - 1 , -
4 5 4 5
X + '(Z? ) +7 '(^+ ~ ) = "" -. -
4 5
, =0 + =0,
5 4
- ' ^ ~ ^ ^ -
4 5 54 5 4 29
:= ( ) ()- -1=
^ ^ 33 3 3 9
29
[ -
11 IV (. 3.39).
11 IV -

, = 0\

. 3.39
6.13. ,
0'(2;-3) .4(4;-!).

www.kodges.ru
149

.
0'(2;-3) -

'~~~,.

' = -2, ' = j^+3. -

+ 3 =

. -
-2

2

^=(4-2)^+(-1+3)^= 8, ^ = ~ ,
/ = 4. ,
^^_ 4 -3JC + 10
y + jt V = .
-2 ^ -2
6.14. , ,
,
5.
.

^ = 2. " =5, /7=10.
^=20,
6.15. ,
^
, 0;3).
.
, ^ = 2 . -
= 3, -.
2
^ = \2,
6.16. ^ = 2 ,
.

. F{0\ -).
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150 3

(;)

(. 3.40), - ^-.
/7, , MN
2.

, 3.40
6.17. ,
,
}P--^x-Ay-^\2-Q.
.

/ - 4 j + 4 ^ 8 x + 1 2 - 4 = 0 {y-2f = 2- 4(-1).
, ^- 1,
^- 2. /? = 4,
J = 2.
6.18. ,
, ,
(-3;6) 7V(2;-4).
.
-^-^. , 6= 9+, -
4 = +. , , =2, =-12.
, j =2x^-12.
6.19. , -
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151

, ,
(1;2), (2;4) (3;8).
.
,
-\- + = 2,
\4 + 2 + = 4,
\9 + -\- = 8.
, a=l,b=-l,c -2.
, ^ =^-+2.
6.20. ,
,
= 5+4-^.
. ,
= 5-(^-4+4)+4=9-(-2)^.
, ,
. . =2, = 9. = 3.

='-^2 = '+9 ' ^^( )^.
, .
:'';;'
0'(2;9), j ^ ' = -()^ (. 3.41).

' \

=-2\
0 X

. 3.41
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152 3

6.21.
2_ ^ _ + 4= 0.
. ,
-8;;+16=6-4+16
(y-4)^=6(x+2). ,
(-2;4) ;= 0.
- '+4, = -2
''j^' 0'(-2;4), , (')^=6'.
, (. 3.42).
i

0\-2;4) /
X

0 X

. 3.42
6.22. ,
=^-4-\2, ,

.
. = ,
, ^4(0;-!2) (. 3.43).
= 12.
- = -\2.
DC
^--12= , Xj =-2, ^2= 6,
^-4= , ^= , ^2= 4. ,
DC= 8, = 4.
5* = 12 = 72 ..
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153

\
J"
"^--^

, 3.43
6.23. , ;; = ^-1,
X = 2, .
.
= ^-1 X = 2 (. 3.44).
j;=x^-l, =2 (2;3).
j ; = .

. 3.44

.

1. .
(. 3.45).

= -\-, = '+, ' = ' = , (1)
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154 3

, \ \'
' ''; ,
' 'x'j^' ,

'
{,)
ix'.y')
'(.) '

. 3.45
2. .
.
' '
(X (. 3.46),

. 3.46
x = xco^a-ysma^ y^xsina-^rycosa,
X = cos + j^ sin , = sin+ cos , (2)
. . O'x'j;'
(. 3.47),

X = X cosa-/^\-\-^ = 'sma-'cosa-. (3)


www.kodges.ru
155

{.)
^ ix'.y') / ^

\/(
0'(,)
X

. 3.47

'-(-) ^-^(-) sin ,
'=- (-) sin + (-) cos . (4)
7.1. -, --1.
, 0'(-2;5).
. =3, --1, --2, -5.
jiyi: *---+2-5, '----1-5^=^12.

7.2. , -
2
J
= 45.
. .
(2)
Vi ,/2 , V 2 ^ - , / 2 ^ ,V2
= , - 2 v 2 =jc Vy .

, '-- ,'-- ~.
7.3. (1;2),
0\-\,\)
^"".
. - \ , =2, =-1, Z? = 1, = 30.
(3)
, ,73 ,1 . ,1 .4.
\ = 1, 2 = j c + V + 1.
2 "^ 2
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2 2
156 3

1 + 2/ , V3-2
, = =
1 ' -^ 2
7.4.
= 2JC^-4X+9
Y - ^.
. (1).
, '--2('+)2-('-)-^9
' =^2'^^(-\)'^2^ - + -,
.

\
2^ - + 9- = 0 (2-1 = 0. = 1 ,
6 = 7. 0 \
* = 2'^ ^ . 3.48.

0\,)


. 3.48
7.5. ,
.
.
^ -^ =2. ;; =. t g a = 1,
= 45.
=45 (. 3.49). (2)

=' 00845-;^' sin45, ^ = -Jz-,


www.kodges.ru
157

X -
j;=x'sin45+;;'cos45, ^"""/^

. 3.49
, ,
{-) 2
{+)
^", =
2 2 2?
7.6. ,

: ) x^-4x+j;+1 =0; ) J;^-3JC-2J^+10=0.
, ) x^-4x+4+j^+l-4=(x-
2)^+>^-3=0. \\
X = -2, = J^'+3,
.
X', >^' : ^+ - ^=-'.
,
(. 3.50).
) >'^-2j;H-l-3x+10-l=(y-l)^-
+9=0 9(-1)^=3(-3).
, j;=j;'+l, ='+3,
3
1 (. 3.51). >^'^=3'
.
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158 3

. 3.50 . 3.51
7.7.
x^+y^-^lOx-lSy-^10=0,
.
. (1)
, (' + )^ + 0 ' + bf + 10('-^ a)-lS(y'+ b) + 70=
='^2-^10)'+(2-'+10-18+10= 0.
2+10=0 2Z?-18=
= -5, b = 9.
x'^+j'2+25+81-50-162+70 =
^+'^^,
7.8.
Sx4\2xy+3y^-40x-24y+l= 0.
.
(1).
0'(,),
8x'^-M2x'j'+3j'^+ {I6a-^\2b-
40)x'+il2a+6b~24)y'-\-Sa4l2ab+3b^-40a-24b+l=0.
, b , 16+12/40=0,
12^+66-24=0,
. , : =\,=2.

01;2).
8;^+12>'+;=0.
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159

,
\\
, (3), (8 cos^ +
+3 sin^Q: + i2 cos sin ) "^+(-16 s i n a c o s a + 6 s i n a c o s a +
+12cos2a42sin2a)x>''+(8sin2a:+3cos^a-12sinacosa)j;'M3 = 0.
, x"j^"
-1 Osin cos +12cos^ -12sin^ = ,
6 t g 2 a + 5 tga-6=0.

2 3
tg , : igC)C-~ t g a = - .
, -
. t g , c o s a = 1, i 3 ' sina =
R^
tga 2
~ Vl + tg'a ~ / . '\ "-
^^2
156 .2
JC
- j;^^ = 13 -^ = 1. -
13
12
-/ 1 (. 3.52).

. 3.52
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160 3

7.9. 3x^-6^^+3;^^-
23
-2JC-8J;+-=0.
4
. (1),
0\;) 3'^+6'-\3^- Gix'y'-^x'b+y'a-^ab)-^
23
-^-'-^^- 2'- 2 Sy'-Sb-^~j= 0.
,
\ ': --\=0, -+-4= 0.
, ,
.
(3) , -
23
3x^-6y+3y^-2x-Sy+ =3 ^cos^ -6';; 'cos sin ^
+3y'hin^-6{x'^cossina +xy'cos^-'' sin^a-y'^ cos^a
'Sina)-^3x'^ sin^a+e^'j;' cosa:sina+3j;'^cos^a-2x' c o s a +
23
^2y 'sin a -Sx' sin a -Sy 'cos + " ^ = 0-
, x'j;'-

: cos^a- sin^a = , = .
4
: '\ sin^a +2 sin coso: + cos^a) -
23
-2:' cos + 2 v ' s i n a - S x ' s i n a - S v ' c o s a + = 0

6y<'-6y'^-5^x'+~ = 0.
^ 1 4

''.

6 ilY =5V^ x.J,S^


' 8
2
V www.kodges.ru
161

V2 1
X = ' , = J^'+ , -
2 8
^ ^ 1

2
\ '\ ^"
2 5v2 ^
= X . -
6
"
(. 3.53).

. 3.53

5/2
X ", "; =

3.8. .

1. (. 3. 54)
,
[0,>[ ( [0,2[
([-,[.
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162 3


,
,

x = pcos^, 3; = psin(jO. (1)


p = ^x^-hy\ (p = arctg^. (2)
(2)

sm(p = -j=I=====- cos(p = -jJ=^, .3)


:
X2-x^=dcos(p, y2-y^=dsm(p. (4)

2^.
(. 3.55),


=\ ' (5)
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1-08 ^^
163

. - , d ( , ()

d
, ,
,
.

. 3.55
= , (5) ,
<\ , >\ , = 1 .

,

=\ (6)
3. ,
.
1. (jO = { ) ,
, ,
(. 3.56).

. 3.56
www.kodges.ru
164 3

2. - ,
.
3. -1 cos < ,
(<,0) (. 3.57).

. 3.57
4. = ( { const) (. 3.58).

. 3.58

5. = (a=const) (^
(. 3.59).
, . . ,
, .

. 3.59
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165

6. = ^ (<^0) (. 3.60).

. 3.60
,
. <
-^ ,
(. 3.60).
7. = 2 (1 + coscp) (. 3.61).
, ,
, .

. 3.61
8. ^ = 2^ cos2(p (. 3.62).
\F^M\ |/^2^| ~ ^^ const,
F^(-a;Ol F^(a;0),

. 3.62
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166 3

8.1.
iK
2;
' 2
1
. (1), . = 2cos = -1

-1 sin = v3 . {\ /)

: ^ =3cos = 0,

j^5=3sin =-3,5(0;-3).
8.2. (-2;0), {\'-).
. (2), (3),

^ ( - 2 )^ + 0^ = 2, sin ^ = - = , cos ( -1.


2 ' ^ 2
,
(^=. , A(2;7i).

pB=\l0fH-^= /2, sin(p^=-^= , cos(p5=-y-=^ .


_ 7
( - ~ " ,
8.3.
, , . 3.63.
. = = CD = DA = 1.

-> n t -^'
V2

5 In
: (= , / ) = " " ' ^-'^ >-~- :
4 4 4 4
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167

^72 7 ^ ' ^V2 ^


, ^
2 ' 4 2 ' 4 2 '4 2 ' 4
V / V / V J V J

'

/?

Pwc. i.6J
8.4. ,
d= 6 = 120 ^.
. (4)

X = 6cosl20 = 6 | - - | = - 3 , r = 6sinl20 = 6 = 3/.


8.5. ,
,(3;2/) ,(4;/3).
. ^^
^ = 7(4-3)'+(/3-2/)'=2.
(4), :
4-3 1 . ^--iS / ^
cos = = , sin = = . ,
2 2 2 2
( = 300.
8.6. Mj(l ;0) 2(3;5).
^^ , (-1;2) (3;5)
.
. / (. 3.64),
( (^ ^2.

www.kodges.ru
, .^^2=
168 3

= MjM2 COS ((pj~ <) = MjM2 ( cos^i COS ^+sin(Pj sin <p).
, (4)
X,Y ,
X^Y^ ^^, : .^^2 =
X, X
=MiM2( ^ ) = ^, -
,^ d
, d = yJx^ + Y^ = = 7(3 + 1 ) ' + ( 5 - 2 ) ' = 5

, ,^^2 =- ^^ = .

. 3.64

1
8.7. = - -. :
2 + 28
) , = = 2:, -

( --; )
,
,
; )
, .
, )
(. 3.65)
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169

, 3.65

5 1
< 0 2
' 4 4 2 4
coscp 1 0,707 0 -0,707 -1 -0,707 0 0,707 1
1
0,25 0,29 0,5 1,7 1,7 0,5 0,29 0,25
2 + 2cos<p

)
j ; = sm , : = cos (, = >/:^-,.=v^
COS^:
4^77
,

2// = ^^ , 2 ( / : / + ) = 1, ^Jx'+/=-
1+
77^7
4 x 4 4 / = l - 4 x + 4x', 4: = 1 - 4 / , = - - / .

) =
.
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170 3

3.9.

x = ^ ( / ) , y-\^{t^^ t ,
.
,
.
1. : jc = (2C0S^,
^, [0,2:].
2. : x = (2C0sr,
^, t^ [0,2:].
t
, (. 3.66).

. 3.66
3. , ,
,
(. 3.67).

2 X

. 3.67
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171

: x-a^t ^xnt),
(1 -cos ^), / [0,2:]. / 2
.
9.1.
^ + j ; ^ = IRx, ,
.
.
= cos (, j ; = sin (.
= / ,
= 27?cos^ = 2i?cos^.
( /,

X = (^)cos^ = 2/?cos^ t, = {t)smt = IRcostsint = Rsm2t,


x = R(\ + cos2t), y^Rsinlt,
9.2.
: 3i) x = -2 + t, y = l + 2t; ) x = t^+2t + 4, y = t + l;
) x = l-f2cos^5 ;; = ~3 + 2sin/; ) x = flfCos^ j^ = Z>sin /;
) x = 2R c o s ' t , y = R sin 2t.
, a) / = + 2
.
= \ + 2( + 2) 2 - >^ + 5 = . .
) x = (t + \y +3,
= >^^ + 3 . ,
.
)
2cos/ = - 1 , 2sin/ = jH + 3.
4 = ( -1)^ + (j^ + 3)^.
(1; -3) 2.
) , 6,
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172 3

2 2
\ (
:cos r + sin + 7 ^ ^ "
^ ybj


)
y^=^R^sm^2t=>y^=4R^{l-cos^t)cos^t,
2 X
cos t = ,
2/?

y^=4R' 1 - ^ / = 2Rx-x^ => {x-Rf +y^=R''


27? 2R
,
R.

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4

4 . 1 .
1.
- :
, Oz.
,
, yz, zx


, ,
.

- (. 4.1) .
2.
z
(. 4.1).

(3)
= 8; y = ps\nq)\ z-z. (1)
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174 4

(1)

P = V ^ ' + / ; tg<p = ^ ; z^z. (2)


>
, , .

2^ {,,)
(,,^)

, 4.1
3. (. 4.2)
:
(-) ( < < ); (,
-
{0<(<2)\ Q, -
Oz{Q<Q <).

. 4.2
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175



x = psin0cos(p; j^ = psin0sin(p; z = pcos0. (3)
(3) , ^ , 0,

Z
p = ^ x ' + / + z ' ; ig(p = ^\ cosO = I 1 9 9 '
(4)
X
-sJX^ + -h Z"
(
, , ;;.

4.2.
1. .
1. .

Ax-^By+Cz+D = 0. (1)
2.
- / ? = 0 jccosa + j;cos/3 + z c o s 7 - / ? = 0, (2)
/7 ,
; a,f5,y ,
;
(. 4.3).

N(A,B,C)

^M(x,y,z)

. 4.3
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176 4

(1)
-

= = ,
D
(1). ( D = , ).
,
cosa = ^ - M ;
cos = ; cosy = ,
P=\D-M\,
3.

- + f + - = l, (3)

,, ,
(. 4.3).
4. ,
,(xpj^pZj)

A{x-x,) + B{y-y,) + C{z--z,) = 0. (4)


5.

y = y^+uay+vb/, ^^^
z = ZQ+ua^+vb^,
u,v- ; a^,b^,ay,by,a^,b^,
^ =N.
2. .
1.
.
www.kodges.ru
177

2. ,
^l(^l.J^p-^l)' ^2{2^2^2^), ^^^^^^)

-, -, Z-Z,
^ - ^ - Z2-Z, =0.
(6)
^-^1 - ^3-2,
3. ,
,

(7)

4.
/i/, (, , Q) ^2 ( . . Q )

A^A^ + B^B^+QC^
cos<p = . ^ ,. J-, -
^A^ + Bf+Cf^A^+B',+C, (8)

5. -,


44+^^2+QQ=0. (9)
6. ,

(10)
2 2 2

7. M^ (, ,;>;,, z,)

\Ax^+By^+Cz^+D
d = \x^cosa+^ COS P + z^ cosy\ = ()
SIA^+B^+C^
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178 4

2.1. 9x - 2 j + 6z - 1 1 = 0.
: ) ; )
.
, )

=
7 / ^2 77 11 ,

9 2 6 , ^
jc Z 1 = 0,
11 11 11
9_
cos cosB= , cosr = - l .
11 11 11
)
,

^ + - ^ = 1.
11
9
11 11 _1_1_
= -
9 2' ~ 6'
2.2.
, 4(1,1,0); (3,2,-1)
(2,-1,4).
. (6)

-\ -\
2 1 = 0.
1 -2
2x-9y-5z+l = 0.

(7)
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179

jc = l + 2wH-t;,
y = \-\-u-2v,
= -u + 4v.
2.3. (2,1,3) ,
x+3y-z+2=0
(3,-1,5).
. (4),

N{A,B,C)
{-2)+{-\)+{2-) = 0. (*)
(9)
-^- - = 0.

(3,-1,5), (*),
-2+2 = 0.

,, .
, ,

\2 -\ ^-3|
1 3 - 1 =0.
1 -2 21
4x-3y-5z+l0 = 0.
2.4. ,
MQ (2,1,-2)
jc+3j;+2z+l = 3x+2j;-z+8 = 0.
.

www.kodges.ru
180 4

I J
N = N,xN^ = 1 3 l\ = -li+lj-lk.
3 2 -1

,
^,

-7(:-2) + 7(-1)-7(2 + 2) = 0 x-y + z + l = 0.
2.5. (2,-1,3) ,
x - 2 j / + 4 z - 5 = 0.
. ,
, A[x-2) + B[y + \) + C[z-3) = 0.
, ,
(10), , J5,
(
, 1)
- 2 - 2 ( ^ + 1) + 4 ( 2 - 3 ) = 0
x-2y + 4z-\6 = 0.
2.6. (2;-1;3)
11-2^ + 10 + 6 = 0.
. (10)

11-2-2(-1) + 10-3 + 6
d=
V(ii)4(-2)4(io)^ 15

2.7. ,
Mj (1;-1;2) ^(4;3;-1).
. (5)
4 ( - 1 ) + 3(^/ + 1 ) - ( ~ 2 ) = , 4x + 3y-z + \ = 0.
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181

2.8.
x + 2y-3z-4 = 0; 2x-y + z + l = 0.
. (7),
1-2 + 2 ( - 1 ) + ( - 3 ) 1 _ 3
cos^

( 3 ^
= arccos, ,
. 2721^
, .
-(.
2.9.
5 + 2--1 = 0 5x + 2i/-3e + 4 = 0.
.
, , .
,
/
= 0; = 0. z=. 0 ; 0 ; - -
(11)

|5-0 + 2 - 0 - ( - ^ ) + 4 | JJ
d=
/25 + 4 + 9 /38'
2.10. ,
x + 2y-2z + 4 = 0 d = 3.
. , - .
M(^x,y,z) -
.
,
\x + 2y-2z + 4\^^
Vl + 2 4 2 '
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182 4

,
-2/-2 + 4 ^ -2^-22: + 4
= 3; = -3.
3 3
,
x + 2 i / - 2 z ~ 5 = 0; - 2 / - 2 + 13 = 0.

4.3.
1. .
1.
J^jc + ^jj^ + CiZ + D, = 0 ;
[A^x + B^y-^C^z + D^ =0. (1)
2. ()
X _ Z 2
_- [_
3 (2)
/

, ,
; = -
,
/ = ; =
1 2 .
- (/, ,) ,
^ (^, Jo' ^)
3. ,
M(XQ,JHO,ZQ) {/,,}

= +//; y = yQ-\-mt; z = ZQ-\-nt, (3)
t .
, t , (3)
M(x,y,z)
v = yjl^ +^ +^ [1,,}.
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1[83

MQ (XQ, JO' ^)
M{x,y,z), / = 0.
2. ,
1. ,

JC-JC, _ -1 _ ^-^i
(4)
Xj "~~Xj - ^2-z,
2.

3. -,


1^2 + ^^1^2 + ,2 = 0. (6)
4. ,

/, .
7" (7)
3.1.

[5JC + >^-3Z + 5 = 0.

. XQ = ,
M ; ; - z + 6 = 0;
| j ; - 3 z + 5 = 0,
^ =1; z^ = 2.
(2)
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184 4

-4 -1 8 -1 8 -4|
1= = 13; - = 19; = = 28.
1 -3 5 -! 5 1
X -\ Z-1

19 28
3.2.
jc-2_>' + l _

.
t
-2 V+1 Z

X = 2 + 3^ y = -'l-\-4t, z = t.
3.3. ,
, (2,1,-1) ^ (4,-3,2).
. ,
, Mj ^2 (2,-4,3),
(4)
- 2 ^y-l __ z + l

3.4. ,
x + 2y-3z-2 = 0
-5 ^-3 ^z -1 _-\ __z + l
"5 1 2 "" """"4~""~'
.
= 5 5t, = 3+/, z = 2/.

t
5 - 5 / + 6 + 2 / - 6 / - 2 = 0, - 9 / = - 9 , / = 1.
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185

^ = 0 , ^=4,
Zj = 2 .
X = 7+5,
= 1+4^ Z =-1+.
74-5/+2+8/+3-3/-2 = , , = -1
JC2 = 2, >^2 ~ ""-^' 2:2 = 2 .
, ,
-4 Z-2 -4 _z-2
2 - 3 - 4 - 2 - 2 -2 - 7 - 4
3.5. ,
MQ (1,0,-3) -^2-
- 2 + 3 = 0 3 x - j ; - 4 z + 2 = 0.
.
,

J j
N = N,xN^ = 1 2 -11= -9i+j-lk.
3 -1 -4
, ^
N,
JC 1 _ _ 2 + 3

3.6. , :
j c - l _ j/ + 3__7^ x + l _ j / - 5 __z-2

. (5)
2-3 + 6-2 + 9-6 72
cos^ = = = 0,936,
/2'+9'+2' 77
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186 4

( = 20'30'.
3.7. , ,
^ (1; 2; 1),

={4;4; 2}
V = \SM/C.
. ,
|| = v4^ + 4^ + 2^ = 6 v = 18/ , ,
s
, . . 5 ={12; 12; 6}. (3)

x = l + l2t; y = 2 + l2t; = 1 + 6/.

4.4.
1.
1 + +
8 = -
(1)
2.
1 + + = 0. (2)
3.
A B C

4.

5. ^ = -=^ = ^ -

www.kodges.ru
I
187

Ax-^By^Cz-^D - x-x^^rtl\
AXQ - ^ -^CZQ + D
= -^^^'-> z = ZQ+tn, t
Al + Bm + Cn
4.1. -- =
2 1 3
Ix-^y- Z-1 =^0.
.
: x = 2t; = /+2; z = 3t-l.
x,y,z ,
t: 4t+t+2-3t+l-l = 0.
/ = 2 = 4;
=4; Z = 5.
4.2. ,
x-^2y-3z - 1 = 2x+y-3z- 4 =
(2,-1,3).
. (4),

JC + 2 J ; - 3 Z - 1 + A(2JC + J ; - 3 Z - 4 ) = 0.
,
:
2 + 2(-1)-"3-3~1 + (2.2 + ( - 1 ) - 3 - 3 - 4 ) = 0.
= - 1 .
, -+3 = 0.
4.3. ,
Mj (2,-1,4) 2 (5,2,-3).
.
Mj 74( - 2)+5(+1)+( - 4)=0.
,
, . . ^ = 0.
^,
+-1 = 0.
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188 4

,

|jc-2 ^- z - 4 |
1 7j; + 3z-5 = 0.

4.4. ,
+1 _ _z-\
M Q ( 3 , 2 , ~ 1 ) =^=
JC-1 _ -\-2 ___ Z + 3
~ 1 3~*
. , ^,
^(jc - 3) + { - 2) + C{z +1) = .
, (2) 2-\--2 = 0
44 + JB + = . ,

\-3 -2 Z + 1
2 3 - 2 = 0.
4 1 3

1 1 J C - 1 4 ; ; - 1 0 Z - 1 5 = 0.
4.5. ,
Mj(0,2,6) 2(3,6,-6), 2 J C - 3 ; - 2 Z - 1 = 0.
. , ^
1 ^ >''"2 Z-6
Mj, ^^ = .
' 3 4 -12
(1)
2 - 3 - 4 + 2>12 ^ 26 ^ 2
sm(p =
/4 + 1 + 4/9 + 16 + 144 " 3 1 3 ~ 3 *
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189

4.6. (1,2,3)

. ,
MQ ,
\ __ 2 __ 2-
I

, (3)

-1 _ -2 _ Z-3
= /.
1 -2 1
jc = l + /, j ; = 2--2/, z = 3+ /.
,
.
t: 1-f/-4 + 4/ + 3 + / - 6 = 0, t = l.
X = 2, ;; = , Z = 4.
4.7. ,

j8x + 2>; + 3z + 6 = 0,

^ +1 V-4 Z-1
= = .
2 3 - 2
. (4),

8JC + 2>^ + 3Z + 6 + A(3JC + 4;;H-Z + 1) = 0.

, .

www.kodges.ru
(8 + 3A)jc + (2 + 4A)j; + (3 + A)z + 6 + A = 0.
190 4

(2),
2(8 + ) + 3(2 + 4)~2(3 + ) = 0, = - 1 .
,
5 - 2 j^ + 2z + 5 = .
4.8.
Jjc~33^-z + 4 = 0,
l 2 r - 4 +3 - 2 = 0 3JC + 2;; + z - 7 = 0.
. ,
,
. ,

x~J^-z4-4 + (2JC-4J;^-z-2) = 0

(l + 2)x-(3 + 4)J^-(l-)z + 4 - 2 = 0.

.
,
3(-2)-2(3 + 4)-(1-) = 0, = 4-
,
,
9 -19j^ +1 Iz - 4 = .


r9jc-19j;-Mlz-4 = 0,
[+ 1 + z - 7 = 0.
4.9. (1,2,~1)
jc-3_j;-2_z-4
"~~ 1 ""*
. ,
. -
www.kodges.ru
191^


.
, ,
{ -1) + { - 2) + C{z +1) = .
A B C
" ~ ~ "'
, ^4 = 1, 5 = 1, = 2.
,
x + j H - 2 z - l = 0.

.
: jc = / + 3, j ; = ^ + 2,
z = 2/ + 4
/ + 3 + / + 2 + 2(2/ + 4) - 1 = , ,
/ = 2. ,
^0 = 1, >' = , ZQ = .


J = ^ ( 1 - 1 ) 4 ( 2 - 0 ) 4 ( - 1 - 0 ) ' =/5.

4.5.
,
, .
1. ,


,, (. 4.4).
, ,
-^
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192 4

(2)
a

-+- = 1 Oz.

. 4.4
2. .

2 2 2

(3)
' '
, (. 4.5).

. 4.5
www.kodges.ru
193

. z=0
^ ' ' ,
- + - = 1

, .
yOz xOz
2 2 2 2


- -
z ^
h = 0; = 0. ,
b e b e
,
.

.
= 6, (3)


, ,
.
.
3. .

' ' (5)


X = ^,0,0) ^{^,^^^^
(. 4.6). || >
. xOz
2 2 2 2

- ^ - " ^ ' "~~^-


b
(5) ^'Oz.
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194 4

, 4,6

- (5) -^-^ = 1
b
, ,
.
,
4. .

-+j^ = z; >0; >0, (6)


2 2
z = h (6)
(. 4.7).

. 4.7
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195

xOzuyOz
^ = Ipz vi ^ =. Iqz. /? = q (6)
^ +^ = 2pz ,
, .
z.
5. .

2 1
X
= z; >0; q>0. (7)
2 2q
(7)

J^--^ I "~^i - J~^ (. 4.8).


Z = (/| > 0),
. z = ( < 0)
,
. xOz yOz
^ = 2pz ^ = -2qz.

. 4.8
/7 = q, (7) ^ -k-y^ = 2pz,
, -
www.kodges.ru
196 4

.
Oz
135 (7) = pz.
Z = .
.
6. . ,
- ,
,
.

.
1. (. 4.9)
2 2

(8)
, , .
=, ,
.

. 4,9
2. (. 4.10)
2 2

(9)
.
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197

, 4.10
3. (. 4.11)
^ = 2, (10)

. 4.11
.

,
OxwOy,
7. , ,

,
.
www.kodges.ru
198 4

,
.
,
Oz (. 4.12),
2 2 2

(11)
' b'

. 4.12
= ; = = ,
^ +^ -z^ =0 ,
45.
5.1. f(x,y,z) =
:
) x^ + y^+z^-2x + 4y-6z + 5 = 0; ) 4 x 4 4 / + 5 z ' - 2 0 = 0;
) 5 x ' + 5 / - 4 z ' - 2 0 = 0; ) 4 x ' + / - 2 z = 0; ) x^+z^-y = 0;
) / - 4 z - 5 = 0; ) / - 8 x + 3 = 0.
, )
^-2 + 1 + ^ +4y + 4+z^-6z + 9-9 = 0
(x-lf+(y + 2fHz-3y-=3\
jc' = jc~l; j ; ' = j ; + l; z' = z - 3 , ,
:', \ z\ ,
, Z
JCQ = 1; jVo = - 1 ; ZQ = 3 ,
www.kodges.ru
199

jc'^H->'*^+z'^ = 3 ^ . ,
0*(1,-2,3)
i? = 3.
)
,
2 2 2

X Z ^
5 5 4

Z = = yfS; = 2.
)
2 2 2
, = 1.
^ 4 4 5

(4) z.
) z,
2 2
X
1 2
2

(5).
) ,
y = x^+z^' ,
(. 4.13).

. 4.13
www.kodges.ru
200 4

) ,
z^y'^ -
4 4
(. 4.14).
Oyz ,
5
z = - - - .

. 4.14
) z ,
_1 2 3
^ - J^ + - , -

z (. 4.15).
,
3
= .

^ I

. 4.15
www.kodges.ru
201[

5.2. , :
) 4 J C ' + V + 1 6 Z ' - 1 6 J C + 36J; + 3 2 Z + 5 9 = 0 ;
) j c ' - 4 / + 4 z 4 2 x + 8 ; ; - 7 = 0 ;
) J C ' - 1 6 / - 4 Z ' - 1 0 J C - 6 4 ; ; + 2 4 Z - 4 8 = 0 ;
) 5 x 4 2 ; ; + 3 z ' - 9 = 0.
, )
,
.

" + 9 / +16z' -16x + 36;; + 32z + 59 =


= 4(x'~4x-f4) + 9(/+4>^ + 4) + 1 6 ( z 4 2 z + l)"-9 =
= 4(jc-2)'+9(>^ + 2)'+16(z + l ) ' - 9 .
x* = x - 2 , '--2, z* = z + l, ,
\ \ z\
x,y,z
fl = 2, Z> = - 2 , = -1

(jc') () (zjc)
4 ( j c f + 9 ( > ^ ' ) 4 l 6 ( z y = 9 / / \ ' " ^ 1' " ^ f V f " ^ '

,
(1) 0'(2,~2,-1)
= 3 / 2 , Z? = l, = 3 / 4 .
) .

X 4 2 J C + 1 - 4 ( / - 2 > ; + 1 ) H - 4 Z ' - 4 = (X + 1 ) ' - 4 ( : H - 1 ) ' - H 4 Z ' - 4 .

JC* = JC + 1, y ' = jv-l,z* = z ,


x'j^'z'
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202 4

x,y,z
O'(-l,l,0)

( ' ) ^ - 4 ( ; ; ' ) 4 ( 2 ' ) ^ = : 4 ^ ^ - ( 3 ^ ^ + ( z f =1.

{x'f (z')^
, { ')^ ,
(3),
j^'.
) ,
(^ - 5)^ ~ 1 { + Tf - 4(z - 3)^ = ,
jc* = x - 5 , '--1, z'-z-
\ \z\
x,y,z
(5,-2,3)
(jcf-16(>^')'-4(zf=0.

,
(11)
X' (5, -2,3).
)
, ,
(5).
5^ +3z^ = - 2 ( j ; - 9 / 2 ) , ,
'(0,9/2,0)
;;.
JC' = X, '=^ -912, Z * = Z,
(. 4.16)

www.kodges.ru
203

, 4.16

4.6.

1.
F{x,y^z) = 0.
,
Z, Z = / (:, ).

.
, . .
,
,
. ,
, ,
.
2.
F{x,y, z) = (, JH, ^) = .
,
,
.
6.1. ,
(2,1,-1) ^(~3,0,3).
www.kodges.ru
204 4

. P(x,y,z)
. , (11, .2.2)

V(x-2)(;;-l)(z + l)^=V(^-^3)(J-0)(z-3)^
,
5x + y-4z + 6 = 0,
, MN
.
6.2. ,
5 (1, -2,1).
. M{x,y,z)
. , (11,.2.2),
( -1)^ + (j^ + 2)^ + (^"" 1)^ = 25.

R = 5.
6.3.

. ,
. z = 3
, x^+j;^ =16.
, ,
(0,0,3) 4.
6.4.
x^+y^-3z^ =0 (z > 0) ( -if -^+z^ =\
.
. .
z.
3 ,
4JC^ - 6 + 4^ = . , -
www.kodges.ru
205

: ^ -^ = 0;
2 = 0. ,
3Y 9
X +>'^ = ,

, ( 4^ ;01 , - j .
6.5. .
, .

: ) x ^ + y < ( z ~ 2 ) S x " + y < z ) x^+3;^+z" < 2 5 ,
/<9;) x'+/-9>z', / < 1 6 .
, ) ^ +^ ={2- if
, Oz 2.
^ +^ <{z- Tf ,
.
^ -'^ -z ,
^ -'^ <z ,
. ,
, , ,
(. 4.17).

. 4,17

^ +^ =z
^ -{-^ ={z- if, , z = 1, -
www.kodges.ru
206 4

^ + j ; ^ = 1 z = 1.
) ^ + j ; ^ + z^ = 25
5. ^ + >?^ + z^ < 25
, .
^+>'^=9
Oz 3. ^ -^ <9
, .
, , ,
(. 4.18).
,
, .
, .
x\iy.
jt^ -^ , z^ = 16, z = 4.
,
z = 4.

, 4,18
) j ^ - \ - ^ - ^ >9 -
Oz
3. ^ + j ; ^ - 9 > z^
, .
^ +^= 16
4 Oz. ^ + j ; ^ < 16 ,
. ,
(. 4.19).
www.kodges.ru
207

,
. , ^+;^--9 = 2^,
^ + j ; ^ = 16, , z^ =1 >
Z = yjl .

. 4.19

4 .

1^.
x = x{t\ y = y{t\ z = zitl (1)
t ,
.
(1) t,

.
2^. ,
,
R,
,
(. 4.20).

jc = 7?cos /, y = Rsin t, z = kt, (k = Rtga>0). (2)
www.kodges.ru
208 4

/ > , (2)
, / <
.
, z
/ ,
, / = InR tg .

. 4.20,
7.1. , jc = (/ -1)^,
>^ = 3(^4-1) z = - ( / + 2).
.
t, j ; + 3zH-3 = 0 .
t ,
9JC = {y-iy . ,

.
7.2. , : = 3 cos t ?
>^ = 4cos/, z = 5sinr.
. ,
4 - 3j; = .

, ^ + j^^ +z^ = 25 .
, .
www.kodges.ru
5

5.1.

= ^^+^^\
(1)
= ^,+^^
-
' '.
(1)
( ) .
(1)

=
V^21 '^22 J

y = a^^x+a22y'+a2jz', (2)

x,y,z
','
www.kodges.ru
210 5

(2)
() .
(2)
. *12 .
^ 21 22 1
*1 33
(^ ^'^
R - ' = ,
, Z .
/
, Z .
V
(2)
R=AR\ (3)
. . = '

.

.

, z
,

, z .
= .
1.1.
x = x - +Z,
= +>; - Z ,
Z = JC + Z

x ' , j ' z ' : (1,-1,2) (2,-3,0).


x,y,z.
www.kodges.ru
211

.
, : * = 1, '--\^ z' = 2, jc = 4,
--2, 2 = 3; :' = 2, '--, z' = 0, jc = 5, --\, z = 2.
1.2.
X = 2JC '+ ',

?
. j , = \ = '- :
X = 2 + , = 4 + .
, = ' = 0, = ' = 0.
1.3.
\^ =Xj +2X2+3X3, z,=3y,+2y^'-2y^,
12 =-^1 -4x2 +2, ^2 =3^,+4^2-4^3,
1_ =2xj +2 +2X3. ^3= J^i+ 3^2-2j;3.
,
Zp ^2, z^ 2, .
. 1,

^1 2 3"! /"3 2 - 2 ^
.4 = 1 -4 5 = 3 4-4
2 1 1 1 -2

,

(3 2 -2Yl 2 3 -4
= = 3 4-4 1 -4 -1 -14 9
1 1 -2 2 1 -2 - 4 1
V V
,
www.kodges.ru
212 5

1.4.

j;, = X, - 3^2 + ,
>'2 = -^1 - 4 ^ 2 + 2 ^ 3 ,
^ = 2JCI 4x2 "*" 2-^

.
.
Y=AX,
3^
7 = 1V, I, = \\ -4 2 ^ =
^
) 2 -4 2
-"' V 'J

1 -3
det^ = 1 -
2 -4
det 4 9^ , ^

, -^21 -^31
1
^12 ^22 -^32
det^
:
,, ,
.-.

www.kodges.ru
213

-4 2 1 2| |1 ^1
,= - 4 2
= 0, ,=-
2 2| - 2' ^13 -

-3 3 1 31 |1 -3
^21 " " " , 22 = -4, 4=- = -2,
-4 2 2 21 '' |2 -4
-3 3 1 3| 1 -3
,= -4 2 = 6, ^2 = - = 4 =1 -4 = - 1 .
1 21 ~

/^ >
0 -1 1
/"0 - 6 6 "j
2-4 1 1 =
6 3 3 '
^4 -2 - i j 2 1 6
1
1 3 6.
^^,
^-'=:^-'^4- '^ = ,
, A'^Y = X = ' Y,
"^,
/
0 -1 1
/^
1 _1 1
3 3 6
^ 2_ __]_ _ J _
3 3 6

,= -2+'
2 ]_
2=^-^2+^
6
1 1
,= -1 ^.~
www.kodges.ru
214 5

1.5.
JCi T'-Xi "" 3 ^ 2 " ^^ 9

I /* "~~ .Jy\/t "| ^/' /-3 ,

.
'^','^\'^' ^,2,^.
.
,
3 -1 5^ (4 3
= 1 2 4 , = 3 1 2
3 2 -1 1 -2 1 ,
V /
,

3 iV3 -1 s^i (IS 4
= = 1 2 1 2 4 16 3 17
-2 1 3 2-1 4 3-4
/
,
,"=18, +4x2+31^3;
^2'= 16, + 3^2 + 17;

5.2. .

1.
X = x(xpA:2,...,x),
:Cj,X2,...,x^ -
www.kodges.ru
215

{^...,^}
, Aj,...,A^,
, , \^ +... + ^^ = ,
.
(,,...,?^) /^
Q ,
x^Q
Ai,...,A^ ,

^ = ^^^^' (1)
Ai,...,A^ .
(1)
(?...,5,).
2. 5(ei,...,e) '{^,...,[)
,
' \[= t^j^e^ + t^f^e^ +... + t^j^e^
'

ft ... /
=
\ \ J

^
5 .
X , X'
^',


= -', (2)
www.kodges.ru
216 5

2.1. ,
Xj = (3,1,1), ^2 =(1,-1,11), =(1,1,-5)
. - .
. X, -
,, ^2, ^
( 1
= \\ -1 1
-5 ,
V1
, -
|3 11
^ 2 =1 = - 4 ^ 0 ,
2
.
, ^, ^
.
2.2. , 5(2,1,-4), 6(1,-4,-3), (3,6,-2)

J(l,-4,3) .
. 5, 6, ,

^ 2 1 3^1
1 -4 6
-4 -3 -2
V /

2 1 3
1 -4 6 = - 2 7 7^0.
-4 -3 -2
www.kodges.ru
217

, = 3.
, ,

.
d 5, , ,
Aj, ^, '

1= 21+^4-,
[-4= ,-4^+6,
3 = -4,-^-2
AjjA^?^
= -27.

1 1 3 2 1 3
=- 1 - -
^ -27 1
- 1 -4 6 = 3,
3 -3 -2 -2
3
2 1 1|
1
^=3 1 -4 -4 = 2.
27
-4 -3 3
d 5,6, : yli=-4,
^=3, =2, .. J = - 4 5 + 3^ + 2c.
2.3. , ^1 (2,4,1), ?2(,6), ? (5,3,1)
(24,20,6)
.
. 5 ^2, ej,

www.kodges.ru
218 5

2 1 5
=\ 3 3
1 6 1
JV

|2 1 5|
detr=4 3 3=749^0.
|l 6 l|
, = 3.
, ,

.
, (2).

3 3 4 3\\
^,=(-1 = -15, = ( - ! ) - = -1,
6 1 '12 1 1
4 3
={-^\1 6
= 21,

|1 5 2 5|
-^ = 29, ,,=(-1 = -3,
| 1 1 l|
2 1|
<-^\1 |
=-,
1 5 |2 5
.={-^ 3 = -12, ,=(-1 = 14,
3 V 3
|2 1
={-^ = 2.

] npi1
www.kodges.ru
219

-15 29 - 1 2 2 4 ' \ (2^


'=-' = -1 -3 14 20
14 21 -11 2 , 6 ,
^^^^' ,
jc = 2^ + 4.
2.4. ,
?, =(1,1,1,1,1) ,={\\\ ? =(0,0,1,1,1), 5, =(0,0,0,1,1),
?5 =(0,0,0,0,1)
X = (1,0,1,0,1) .
.
?!,..., ?5 J
1 0 0 0 0\
1 1 0 0 0
1 1 1 0 0
1 1 1 1 0
1 1 1 1 1
1
, = 5.
, .
5...,?5
/Ij, / 5 >^ 4
X = \^ + ^^ + ^ + ^ + ^5^5'

0 = ,+^,

0 = ,+2 + + 4,
1 = ,+2++4+5.
www.kodges.ru
220 5

, ^ =1, ^ =~1, =
^ = - 1 , = 1 . ,
" ^ t i ^^ I t^"! ^ ' *^

5.3.

1.
2
, Aix^-y^^Ax-^Ay
^ = (). ^ 5 = (^5...,^)
, J4e^ (/: = 1,..., w)

^^^=^1+- + . : = 1,...,.

^11 ^12 ,.
^21 ^22 *'1
1 =


.

= ,
, jc
, .

{A-?iE)X = 0, ^, (1)
X ,
.
www.kodges.ru
221

,
^
det(^-A') = 0.
2.

. ,12 ,13
^ 21 .22 '*23

V^3i 32 33

,1- *12

^21 11 - 23 = 0.
(2)
^
*31 ^^32 33-

.
^,^, xa/?a/cm^/7wc-
.
, (2)
.

( 1 1 - ^ ) ^ 1 +12^2 +13^3= '

21^1 +(22 - ) ^ 2 +23^3 = 0 , (3)

31^1 + 3 2 ^ 2 + ( 3 3 - ^ ) ^ 3 = 0 '
^,2,^
, ^j, ^2' ^'
.
^^2 5^ =^j/ +^27+^3^'
.
3.1.
www.kodges.ru
222 5

( - 5 2^
^=5 -7 3
1^6 -9 4
.
|4-1 -5 2 I
5 -7- 3 =0
6 -9 4-|
-(4-)'(7 + ) + 12(7 + ) + 52(4-)-180 = 0, '(-1) = 0.
: , = ^ = , 3 = 1.

, (3)
[4^,-5<^,+2^=0,
5<^,-7^,+3^=0,
[<^,-9^+4^=0.
,
, ^ =
[4^,-5^3+2^3=0,
2<^,-^,=0, ^,=2<^ ^3=3^,.
2^,-^2=0,
(^j = , ^2 = 2 ^^=3.
, ^ = 2 = ^/ + 2 + 3^ j ,
.
, = 1.

www.kodges.ru
223

5^,-8<^,+3^=0,
[6^,-9^,+3^3=0-
,

[3^,-5.^,+2^3= ,

^j =<^2 =<- L=a, E,2^t,^=a


= (/ + + ^ j , ,
.

5.4.

^^^

( ^2 ) =fljjXf + 2aj2XjJC2 + ^22^2 ' (1)


<2i 1, ^12 5 ^22 .
^12 =ci2\ ^ (1)

(jCp ^2 ) = 1 jXf + ^12X1X2 + ^i2-^l-^2 "^ ^22-^2

(2) = ,>;,+272 (2)

+12^2=>^
(3)
2+22^2=>^2-
www.kodges.ru
224 5

- . ^12
(3),
V^21 *22
, (2)
.
, ,
. . ,^ =^21 = 0 .
. ^,2
:', ^2, ^.^
.
(2)
{[,[) = [[ + ^[, (4)

(5)


' = , ,
12

^ ^22

,

^'=
"!
,'
^,2 .
(5) '^ - 2 = ^\,
(4)
{\,',) = \{\)'^,{\)\ (6)

.
www.kodges.ru
225



.
4.1. ,

5^-8 + 5 / = 9 .
.

=
^ 5/

5- 4
= 0, 5 - = 4, Ai=9, ^2=1.
4 5-
, = 9,

-4^,+4^3=0,
1 4^,-4^,=0.
(^j=^2^ ^ = ^ + 7- /^:

^ =

4]1+4772=0,
[477,+47]2=0.

r]j = -772 ^ ^2 = ^ ~ 7 ,
www.kodges.ru
226 5

^2 =

^ ?2 : ^ ^ = .

Z),=-l.
1 1_

: = -j= j=r\ = = ^ .

1 ,^ 1 ,
-8
1 , 1 , 1 , 1 /
V2 V2 J
1 , 1 ,
+5 = 9,
V42 42 J

+
2 2
V /^
2 2 2 -^ 2

\ V J
'2

^-9^ =9 ~'^ =1

www.kodges.ru
6

6.1.
1.
.
A,B,N, ... ,,
,,,....
,
. ai ,
.
,
0. ,


N.
,
{(3,6,}.
^ = {1,2,3,...}
, Z = {...,-2,-1,0,1,2,...} .

www.kodges.ru
228 6

^~\ , , Z, ,
. .

JR.
,
= .
4,
BZD AczB .
,
,
>
,
,
.
.
,
,
, = , =-

: = , = ^
2. .
,
,
< .

sup . ,
,
infA. ,
.
www.kodges.ru
MA 229

1.1.
yi = {jcGA^|jc'-3jc-4<0}.
. ,
j c ^ - 3 x - 4 < 0 .
^ - - 4 = ( + 1)(:-4)<0, j c e [ - l , 4 ] .
, ^ = {1,2,3,4}.

6.2.
1.
.
.

yi, . .
.

,
() Av (+).

, (
) ()-
v4 ,
=^ .
, ,
, <=> ^
v ,
. \/ : .
3 .
: .
2^. :
1. ()
= ; AVB = BVA.
www.kodges.ru
230 6

2. ()
{) = {)\ AV{BVC) = {AVB)VC.

3. ()
AA{BVC) = {AAB)V{AAC); AW{B AC) = {AV B)A{AVC).
2.1. , -
: X.
. ,
X, = sup X [<),

\/>03 X (>-').

63.
.

;;, ,
>^ =/(^)-

, , .
, .
,
;;, , ,
f{x,y) = Q.
xviy
( /),
, , ,

'^ = /(0'
y = (p{t).
www.kodges.ru
MA 2^

\ (^) -1? ^'^ X ,


\ (^) = 0^ X
X
|sgnjc = l, :>0;
sgn X = - 1 , X < 0;
[sgnO = 0.
2^.
,
->{)^
= / ( ) . :=^'
= log^ .
. = ^
= ^ .
:

?>(/W)=^' f{(p{y))=y-

= ((),

y = f{u),
j ; y = f{(p{x))
X, . . .
3. > = / ( ) ,

, . ./() = / ( - ).
.
www.kodges.ru
232 6

,

, , . .
f (-x) = -f ().
.
,
/, ,

, . .
/(jc) = / ( x + /) = / ( x + 2/) = ... = /(jc + A:/),
.
.
4.
,
.
5^.
;; =/():
) ;; -f{x-d)
,
, , ;
) ;; -f{x)-^b
b ,
, , ;
) ;; = Af{x) { > 0)
, > 1,3,
1
<1 , 4 < ,
;
) ;; =f(kx) { > 0)
>1 , <\ -
1
" , : < ,

,
www.kodges.ru
MA 233


,
f{x) = Af[k{x -a)] + b.
xl
3.1. f(x) = 2^ - ^ + 3 . -
+4
= 1,
. = 1,
.

1+4

3.2. f(x) = ^ + log^ -f sin . -



=.
.

f(a) = ^ + log^ + sin = ^ +\



3.3.

{ jc = acos/,
y-bsint.
.
. ,
/.
2 1 2

\ = cos t,
[y^=b^sm4
, j+ "^ ^
b
3.4. :
www.kodges.ru
234 6

[ >0\

\^ <0;
) / ( x ) = Jo 0<jc<2;
-2 + 4 > 2 .
, ) jc < : >
(. 6.1.).
) :
< 0 ; 0 < < 2 ; >2 (. 6.2.).

. 6.1 . 6.2
3.5. :

) y = yll-ylu^; ) 3; = l g ( 2 - V b ^ ) ; ) >; = a r c s i n ^ ; )
___! 1_ _-

. )
, . . l + jc>0 1-VTHTJC > :> 1
Vr+jc < 1; 1 + JC< 1; X < 0. , [-1,0].
www.kodges.ru
235

)
, . . 2 - / 1 - > 0 ; > / l - x < 2 ; 1 - < 4 ; > 3
1 - > 0; < 1.
, XG 0.

) , - 1 < < 1 ^ 3. -
-3

- + 3<1;

X > 2; X > 4 . G [4, ^).


) - 1 > 0 5 - > 0 .
, >1 < 5. XG (1,5).
)
: s i n x > 0 lgsinx>0.
2
: < X < :,
2 <<{\ + 2), z , |sin | < 1,
sin = 1,

X = + 2:. ,
= (1 + 4:), z.
3.6.
: ) j = 2sin(3x-2);
. 1 2 3 6-1

, ) j ; = sin , -
9
>; = 2 sin 3 X .
2 3
= 2; = 3; = .
www.kodges.ru
236 6

1. (. 6.3.).
i

^ r/=2sinA:

1
\*-* ,yf2n X
/ \ *- '' /
\ \ / "^ * .^ _^ X /
y-2sm3x

. 6.3

2. ^ = 2 sin jc.
3.
j ; = 2 sin 3JC.
2
4. ;; = 2 sin
, .
) = [ .
4 = - 2 ; = - 3 ; b = 1.
1. = [ - (. 6.4.).

=-24+3

. 6.4
www.kodges.ru
237

2. ,
= 24.
3. = -2/
= 2[ .
4. = -2/ 3

7 = -2/7 .
5. ; = -2/ 1
.
)
1
>; = -(jc'-2jc + l ) - 2 = - ( j c - i r - 2 .

j ; = jc^.

^ = 2 , ^ = 1 , 6 = -2.
1. ^^ (. 6.5).

. 6.5
2.
j ; = ^.
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238 6

3. 1 -
1 \ 2
=:^ JV' = (^ - 1 ) .
2 ^
4. 2
.
10
) j = 3 - = 3-
2JC + 3
+ -
2
j = : , ,
X XX
_^1 5_ 5_
' '^ 3-
JC + - +-
2 2

(. 6.6): ;
; ,
\ ;
3

3 .

. 6.6
www.kodges.ru
MA 239

4-9 9+2v
3.7. , = =
.
. -
4-9
, ( ( / (^)) = = ,

/ (( (j;)) = ^ = .

6.4. .

1. b f{x) > ,
> 5 > , | / ( ) - | <
| | < 5 .
l i m / ( x ) = Z>.
->

/(), ,
X lim f{x).
,
^^^^/{^).
2. .
1. .
2. ( + v) = lim + lim v.
3. lim(w v) = lim lim v,
,, limu
4. lim= , limi; 9^0.
V limu www.kodges.ru
240 6

. ,
1 - - ,. sin :
1. lim = 1.
2.

lim(l + V = l i m ( l + a ) = e = 2,718....

4. :
log,(l + a ) "-1 .
lim ^ = log _ \ lim = In ;

lim fi-^ = //; lim^i^%^


k
= limjcMog,Jc = 0, ( > 1 > 0 ) .

5. , ,
,
, .

6.

.
7. (-) (-)

.

8. ( )
.
9. [) j8(x)
, lim- = 1. -

.
,
. -
www.kodges.ru
MA 241^


() - j8 () X > 5

sina(x)~a(x), arctga(x)~a(x), "^''^-1~()1,

tga(x)~(), 1-COSQ:(X) ^(), '^''^-1 ~ ( ) ,

arcsina(x)~a(x), ln(l+a(x))~a(x), \^{)-\ ^ .

^ 4 . ^ + 5 + 4
4.1. : ) ; ) - -;

,,. x^-xV2x^~5x + 3 ..^sinx-cosx


) lini :; ; ) f v 1 '
^ --i 4 ' - 7 + 2 ^--7 tgx-1
, )

^-^2 j c 4 6 x ~ 1 6 ^-^2 ( j c - 2 ) ( x + 8 )

x+2 4
x - 2, lim = = 0,4.
^-^2jc + 8 10
)

^->-1 (2-1)( + 1) ^-^-1 2 - 1 3


) X = 1
, ,
( - 1). ,
( - 1)
^. ( - - 1 ) ( 2 - 3 ) ^
lim ; ~ = = 0.
-^1(-1)(5-2) 4
www.kodges.ru
242 6

) ,

,. sinx-cosx ,. (sin :-cos ) cos X ^. V2


lim
jc^l tgX-1
= Iim
x-^-
-
^^ sin X-COS X
= lim
x-^
cos x = ,
4 ^ 4

A^ - ^v V 4 - x - V 4 + x
4.2. : a) lim
^^0 3X

Vx + 1 - 1 V^-1 Jl + tgx~Jl-tgx
6) lim ^ -; ) bm-y=; r) lim^^^ ^ ^ ^-.

, a)
,
(/4--/4 + )(/4- + /4 + ) _2
lim^^
jc-^O
, , . ^ = lim- -
( / 4 ^ +/4+) "^^ ( / 4 ^ + V 4 + ^ )

= lim-7= 7== = .
3 ^->^4- + /4 + 6
)

( A / X 4 1 - I ) ( V X 4 1 + I ) ( V X 4 2 + V2)

jc->0
(/' +2 -/2)(/:1 + I ) ( V J C ' +2 + V2)

^(/?2+72) 7 ? 2 + /2 /;
= lim ^ -^ = lim. = /2.
^-^^ x ^ ( V 7 7 l + l ) ^-^^ /1+1

) t^ =, > 1 ^ > 1

hm-7= = lim-; = lim;Vr "^ = lim = .


^-^'Vx-l ^ - ^ ' r - 1 ^^' (?-l)(? + l)
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^^' ^+1 2
MA 243

)

(^l + t g x - V l - t g x ) ( V l + tgx + Vl-tgjc)
lim^^ T~F== =
'-^^ sin 2 + tg X + 71-tgjc j

x->0
sin2x(^/l + tgx + ^/l-tgx) ^^cos^Jc(^lH-tgjcH->/l-tgx) 2

sin- 2tg
/I 9
4.3. : a) lim
x-^O X
;
'
6)' """^^
lim-;
X^

. ,. 1-COS2JC .. X' . . sin^(x-2)


) hm ; hm r)
; ) ^^^i;; r.
->o xtgjc "^"gsin^- -^^ X -4x-\-\
4
,. sin3x + sin4x ,. cosx-cos3x ^ xsinSx
e) hm ; ) bm ^ ; 3) ^^^ , 2 . *.

, a) 4

. X . X
sm . sm .
lim ^ = lim = ,
-^ X 4 ^-> X 4
4 4
)

2sin sm 1 1
9 ^1- 9 1- 1
hm ^^ = 21im ^lim = .
x^o 2 2X x-^o / Y Y ^-^0 2X 2
X cos 4 COS
2 ^ 9 2
www.kodges.ru
244 6

)
.. 2sin^jc ,. 2sinjccosjc ^,. sinx,.
lim = lim = 21im limcosx = 2.
r) 4

4 4
lim = 8. = 8 lim
jc->0 :-0
8 sin sin
4 4
) x-l = t, ^ 2 -^

)
-. sin3x ,. sin4x . sin3jc 2.. sin4jc 7
lim +lim = lim + lim = .
^-^0 ^-^0 6JC 2^-^O 3JC ^^ 4X 6
)

cos X - cos 3JC = 2 sin 2x sin x = 4 sin^ x cos x,

-. COSJC-COS3JC ^,. sin^x


lim = 41imrcosx = 41imcosx = 4.
:->0 ;"^ x-^0 ;'^ jc^O

) ,

,. x^sin3x ,. (5xfcos^5x,. 3sin3x 3


lim; = lim-^^-; lim = .
^-^ng^Sx-x ^^0 25sin^5x ^-^o ; 25
3x'-4x4l
4.4. : a) lim
2 + 5x - 2x'4 '

www.kodges.ru
MA 245

) lim ; ) lim ;
^-^^ 6JC - +1 ^-^^ 4 +
1 + 2 + 3 + ... + /2 1_-2" 10"-!
) ^^^ / . i ) lim -\ ) lim --

, ) ^

.. ^-^. >
JC JC X
.
) "
1 5 1
2 + 1 + - . , 1
1- X X 1- 2 x + l
lim
X->oo 1
-^
1
-^ = lim
^ g
= .
6 +
) ^,
v^ ^ v^ "^ V

... 4- ^
'
)
. ,

1+ 1 ,
, 2 + 1 t
l i m - - 7 = ^ = = lim. = lim: = .
''-^^ V4A2' + 3 '^^^ 2/4' +3 "^^ 2 /4 + ^
www.kodges.ru
246 6

) 2"*'

lim-^
>> 1 + 1 1

) -^- 10" 10"^^



,. 10"-1 0-1
lim 7 = = -1
" ^ - 1 + 10"^^ 1 + 0
^ 1 2 ^
4.5. : ) lim
"^ibc - 1 ^ - 1

2 smx
6) ( / ^ + - / ^ ^ + - 1 1 ; ) Km tg X
2V cos X
, a)
. l-2(jc + l)
lim ^. - 22 - 1 X -^ 1
.
-^1 J C ^ - 1

, ,
.
)

^ + X - ^ - X + 1 1
lim -= lim = 0.
/^+ + /^+-1 "-""^Vx^+x + Vx^-fx-l
)
. sin^x-sinx ,. sinx(sinx-l) ,. sinx
im
lim = hni
lim ^^ '- - lim
cos X n^--^ 1-sin
' -- X- n->^l + sinx
TTX . _
4.6. : a) H m ( l - x ) t g ; 6) J|^3"tg3 ".
www.kodges.ru
MA 247

, ) : = 1 - , ~> 1 -^

acosa
limatg(1 - ) = limactg = lim
sm:
2

1 ,~2^ 2
= lim^^ limcos =.
^ . ^ 2 :
sm
2
1
) 3" - ,

5:
-^ + 4 (^1^'''
4.7. : ) lini ; )
^\ J

-2:
5 -1
) lim ; ) lim
jc42 2
, )
20

( 41
lim 1 + - = lim 1+-
V ^) V ^)

= 4, -^ ^ >
20
20
20
lim 1+- = lim =

6)

www.kodges.ru
248 6

lim 1+- = lim


/
JC + 1 x+1
x-^X-t. x > ^ _>

lim 1 + -
/ I
=lim
i-^ I
1+ -
/I
lim
/->oo
i4 = e\
. V Lv V.
..
.
)
^2+3^'^'^ /
lim = lim 1 + -
V
2 / \ '+2
^ + 2 = 3/. -^ ^ >

9/-4
lim
V '
= lim lim
-'
)
\-1 -2: / - -2:
/
lim = lim lim
X

1
= ^.
X
JC > ^ -^

lim (1+0 -+ lim - = ^ lim =<


->~ 2' 8
,. , 2 1(1 + )
4.8. : ) lim(l
jc->0 + 5x)^ ; ) lim^^
jc->0

www.kodges.ru
MA 249

) lim ; ) lim ; )(1 + 21 ;

2 sin2j: ^sinx
) lim(sin2xy^ ""; ) ; ) linix(lnx-ln(x + 2)).
4

, ) 5 = / : > -^

10 10
lim(l + / ) ' =lim (1+0'
/-0 ^ ' /^0

)
\2
lim ^ ^^^ =21im-J-ln(l + x) = 21imln(l + jcV =

=:21nlim(l + xV =21ne = 2.

B) """ - 1 = , -~> / -> .

"" = , = In
^+1 /+1
,
lim = -\\ j- = = -1.
-1(? + 1)- '-1(/ + 1)7 lnlim(r + l)7

) ^"" - 1 = , , ^ / -> .

^"" =t + \\ 1 = 1( + 1); = ^^^ -.

lim; - = 31 = 31.
-'Ht^^) limln(^ + lV
/^0
www.kodges.ru
^ ^
250 6

. ''-\ 3JC _ I

lim = lim3 = 31(3.

) tg^ jc = ^. : -> ^ -^

lim(l + 2/V=Iim (1 + 2^)2/ = \


/->0 /->0

) sin 2 = 1 + ^. : > ^ -^ . -
4

tg^ 2 = sin' 2 (1 + 0' (1 + 0 '


l-sin'2x \-{\ + tf t{2 + t)

1
lim (1+0'
/->0

)
in2jc _ sinjc ^sinx / sin2jc-sinx _ j \

lim- = lim

^sin. J^sin2.x-sin. ^ 1 j ( s i n 2 X - s i n X)

= lim
;->0 jc(sin2x-sinjc)

,. sin2x--sinx ,. sin2x ,. sinx ,


= lim = lim lim = 1.
jc->0 X ^~^^ X ^^^ X

) ,

( X ^ x+2
lim x(]nx-ln(x + 2)) = lim In = lim In
www.kodges.ru
yx + 2) *^
MA 251

/
= In lim 1 + - = In lim 1 + - = lne-'=~2.

4.9. : a) lim :"'"''; 6) lim (In x)


x-^O

, a) 0^.
j^ ,
sinx ,
In >/ = sm In JC = X In X.
X

, 4,

lim In j^ = lim lim x In x = 0,

, limx"'""" = 1 .

6) oo^.

j^ , In j ; = In In .
X
4
,. , ,. In In X In X ^
Iim In ;; = lim = 0,

, lim (Inx)^ =1.

(^'"'-l)sin3x
4.10. : a) lim; -r-: r;
--^4n(l-3x')(l-cos2x)
(Vl + sinx ~ 1 j arctg 3x
6) lim

www.kodges.ru
252 6

, ) --> , 2^ > , > ,



- -> , 2 ~> , -.
,
ie^"" -ljsin3x 2^ -
lim7 7^" == l i ^ ' = "~1
- o i n ( l - 3 x ^ ) ( l - c o s 2 x ) ^-'__^^ li^2x)'

) > --.

(VH-sinx~l)arctg3x -sinx-3x 3 3
lim-^--^ = lim^^ = limcosx =.
x^o (e^sx-ljarcsin2x ^-^^ tgx-2x ^^M 4

6.5.

1.
= 2 -Xj,
/ ( + ) = 7 + .
= / ( + ) - / ( ) , . .
(
) .

, .
2. :
1. = / ( ) = ,

, . .
lim f(x)= lim f(x) = f ().

www.kodges.ru
MA 253

2. y-f{x) = ,


, . . lim Ay = .
->0
,
.
3. [,\

, < f{x) < jce {a,b].
, [,]
,
= , .

.
4^. ,
, .
.
^> ^,
X >flf ^2 :, =?^ :2,
, X - .
\^ - ^ | = .
X =
^.
= ^, ,
; ^, ,
.
A:i = /^2 ^ ^3' ^^ ,
.
'-^ ,
, liJTi/(x) = ^,
, X = .
www.kodges.ru
254 6

5.1. = 2^ -3JC + 1,
: ^ = 1 ^2 = 2.
.
Ax = X2-Xj = 2 - 1 = 1.
j;(x,) = 2-1^-3-1 + 1 = 0.
XJCJ+AX) = X 1 + 1) = 2 - 2 ' - 3 - 2 + 1 = 11.
= {^ + ) - {^) = 11.
5.2. = ^ - 2 + 4
X = 2 = -0,1.
. +
j;(x + Ax) = 3(x + ) - 2 ( + ) + 4 .
= j^(x + Ax)->'(x) =
= 3( + )^-2( + ) + 4 - ^ - 2 - 4 = ( + 6 - 2 ) .
=2 = -0,1 ; = (-0,3+12-2)(-) = 0,97.
5.3. ,
= ^ - 2 .
.
= (+)^-2(+)-(^-2) = ( + ^ - 2 ) .
> ,
^ _^ 5
.

5.4. = = 3.
-1
.
= 3 = 3 +
1 1 ^ 1 1^2-2-_ -
^"' + -1 3 - 1 ^ 2 + 2 " 2 ( 2 + ) " 2 ( 2 + )'
>
www.kodges.ru
MA 255

lim Ay = - lim = 0.

->
, - .
5.5. ^ + 2^ - - 1 = 0.
.
-'-\ 2^ - X - 1 = , , = 0.
,
. = , = - 1 , < 0. = 1,
= 3 + 2 - 1 - 1 = 3, > 0 . : =
= 1 ( ).
[0,1], . .
=0,5.
; = 3 0 , 5 2 0 , 5 ^ - 0 , 5 - 1 = -0,625; ; ; < 0 .
= 0,5 = 1.
, .

. X = . j ; = 3
,
11 . , .
2'4

.^--, ;^ = 3 -

1^
2'8
9
, ^ - - -
16
,
.
www.kodges.ru
256 6

5.6. : ) = ^^
-1
X \2 ^2
= 1; ) = 1\ = 0 ; ) ^\
\\ [1 = 2\
1
) ^"" ( > 1); ) = arctg ~

, ) = 1 :
1 1
lim lim +^. , = 1 -
(. 6.7)

, 6.7

) : < lim = - 1 = /:^.. > -


-^1-0 \\

lim - = 1 = ^2- , =

- ^ 2 | = - 1 | = 2(.6.8).
www.kodges.ru
MA 257

' ,

X
0

-1

. 6.8
) ,
, : = 2
.
= 2:
lim 2 = 4, lim 2 = 4, (2) = 1, t=L:AL.
, = 2
(. 6.9).

. 6.9
) :

;(+0)= lima^ =-, >'(-0)= lima^ =0.


www.kodges.ru
JC-4+0 jr->-0
258 6

X = ,
(. 6.10).

"^~~--^^ /

X
0

. 6.10
) :

> ' H ) = J i ^ ^ ^ t g - = f' >^(-0) = ]imarctg-- = - | .


JC = (. 6.11).


"2

. 6,11

1
5.7. =
jCj = - 5 , ^2 = , = 1. ,
?
.
www.kodges.ru
MA 259

.
X = -5:

lim = - 1 , lim
x-^-s-dx^ -- ' ^-^-^^^^ --5
, = - 5
(. 6.12).


'1

. 6.12
X = :
1 1
lim = - 1 , lim 1 , >;(0)=:-1,
^-^-^+4--5 ' ^-*-^^+4-5
, .
= 1

lim - ^ 1 .. -
lim 1
^-*- + 4 - 5 ^1+0;^+4~5
, = 1
(. 6.12). = 1 = -5
.
5.8. , ,
:
www.kodges.ru
260 6

jc^, jc<l;

) = 1, l<jc<3; ) >^=]jcH -i<jc<a,


-+5, x>3; Icosjc, jc>0.

3, jc = 0 w jc = 3; 2x-l, x<0;
) y = 9 - x \ 0<|x|<3; T) y^
^ x>0.
9, IJCI > 3, -

, a) ,

,
.
= 1 = 3
j;(l)= l i m x ' = l ; v(3) = l; lim (~ + 5) = 2 = :.
, = 1 ,
= 3 (. 6.13.) ,
|j^(3)-A:| = |l~2| = l.

)
. = -1 = 0:

v(-l) = - , lim ( + 1) = 0: v(0) = l; limcosx = l.


www.kodges.ru
MA 261

, jc = -1
, = (. 6.14).

Fuc. 6.14
) ,
. - - 3 ,
: = , X = 3:
3;(-3) = 3, lim (9-^) = 0; j ( - 3 - 0 ) = 9;

>'(0) = 3, lim(9-xM = 9; \{<)-^\ = %

>;(3) = 3, lim(9-jc') = 0; ;;(3 + 0) = 9.


, = -3 = 3
, = (. 6.15).

-5 i 3 ^

. 6.15
www.kodges.ru
262 6

)
X = 1. = = 1:
1 .. 1
lim(2x-l) = - l , >'(0) = -1, lim lim
, = ,
= 1 (. 6.16).

. 6,16.
5.9.
2 + 1
: ) / () = ; ) / ( ) = ^
'--2
, ) ,

. 2|x-fl| 2U+1I
2|x + l|
/ ^ - - 2 ( + 1)(-2)
= -1 = 2 ,
, .
= - 1 :
1. - ^ - 1 - 0 + 1<0 ,,|+1| = ~(+1).

www.kodges.ru
MA 263

/ ( - 1 - 0 ) = lim f e i ^ = ~2 lim - ^ = - .
^ V / ^-^-i-o(jc + l)(jc~2) x->-i-ojc~2 3
2. - > - 1 + 0 jc + l>,|+1| = +1

/ ( - l + 0 ) = l i m - i i ^ l ^ = 2 lim 1
^-^-i+o(jc-f-l)(jc-2) ^->-1+:-2 3
, = -1
. (.
6.17) 5 = / ( - 1 + 0 ) - / ( - 1 - 0 ) = - | - | = - ^
-2 :+1>0, ,
|+1| = +1

/ ( 2 - 0 ) = lim ^(^ + 0 2 lim J - = -oo,


V f -^2-(: + 1 ) ( : _ 2 ) ^2-:_2

/ ( 2 + 0)= lim I f c l l l = 2 lim - i - = oo.


*-*2+0(x + l ) ( x - 2 ) x-*2+0x-2
, -2 .

. 6.17
www.kodges.ru
264 6

)
X = -1 : = 1 , , .
, , > 1,
! ^ - t ->=- ' > / -^ ^.
1. = -1 j c ^ - l - O , ^ - 1 > 0 , <0
X
^-\
^ ^ - / ~ 0 ) = lim 3^-^=0.
->~1 + 0, ' - 1 < 0 , - > 0 ^ ^ = 0 0 .
^-1 ^-1
, / ( - 1 + 0)= lim 3^'"^ =+.
jc-)-l+0

, = -1 .
2. = 1.

/ ( 1 - 0 ) = lim 3^'-^ =0, / ( 1 + 0)= lim 3^ "^ =+.


= 1 .
-^ ^

/ ( - ) = lim 3^'-^ =1, /(>)= lim 3^'-^ =1.


. 6.18.

. 6,18.

www.kodges.ru
7

7*1*
1. = f(x) XQ

^-> ^-^^
,
XQ .
'^, f\x),
dy
-7~. -

.
X = f\ci)
\ .
(^) j = / ( )
k = X,ga = y \XQ)
www.kodges.ru
^ (. 7.1).
266 7

, 7,1

/ . U o ) = 1^^ ^ /+(^)= l i ^ -

= f[x) JCQ .
/ ( ) XQ ,

: /_' {^) = / / (^).
( ) lim / ( ) = /,
JCQ ().
^ , -
1- (^)
lim
(^)
lim ,

^.^, , (, 7.2.),
.

lim ^
-^
, .
www.kodges.ru
267

(
).
^2
,
(
(. 7.2)).

XS /> x^l X

, 7,2
2. :

3. {uv) =u'v + v'u; 4. uv-uv

u,v x, a .
3. :
1. ("") =^"-'1 2. = ,' = 0;

3. (sinjc)* = cosx; 4. (cosjc)* = ~sinjc;

^ /"tirrV- ^ /1 {nicr V 1
5. \) - , 6. vcigxj - . 2 '
cos JC Sin JC

7. (')'=; a>0; 8. (e')'=e^;

9. (log,x)'=; a ^ l ; a > 0 ; 10. (1)'=-;


www.kodges.ru
jclna :
268 7

. (arcsinjc) = . ; 12. (arccosjc) = -

13. (arctgx) = - -\ 14. (arcctgx) = -


1 + x^' ^- ^ ^ ^ l + jc^'
15. (shjc)' = chjc; 16. (chA:)* = shx;

17. ( t h x / = - ^ ; 18. ( c t h x / = - - ^
ch jc ' sh X
4^. , ,

. e''-''' , e''+''' , shx , chx
shjc = ; : = ; thjc = ; cthjc =
2 2 chx shx
:
1. ch^x-sh^jc = l; 2. ch^x + sh^x = ch2x;
3. sh2jc = 2shjcchx; 4. shO = 0; chO = l.
5^. j;=/(w), = w (),


, . .

1. ,
:
) =:^- + 5; 6) = 4\ ) >^ = tg2x.
, )
Ay = ^(x + Ax)-;; = (jcH-Ax)^-3(x + Ax) + 5-jc^+3x-5 =

= X^+2XAX + A X ^ - 3 J C ~ 3 A A : 4 - 5 - X ^ + 3 J C - 5 = 2JCAX + AX^-3AX.


= lim = lim > = lim(2x--34-Ax) = 2 x - 3 .


www.kodges.ru
269

) : = VJC + AX - /.
:

= lim - ^ = lim =
^-> ->
(/:+-/)(/+ + /)
= lim j-===L-= =
^-^^ Ax(Vx+Ax + Vx)
__ +- _ 1 _ 1
^-^(/ + + >/^) ^-^^(/ + + /]^) 2/^'
)
A>; = tg(2x + 2Ax)-tg2x =

sin (2+2) cos 2 - sin 2 cos (2+2) sin (2)


cos (2+2) cos 2 cos (2+2) cos 2

, ,. sin (2 )
= lim ^
-* Axcos (2 + 2 ) cos 2
2 2
= lim
^-^ cos (2 + 2Ax)cos2 cos^ 2
1.2. : ) >^= ||, (^^);
) >;=|2-3|; ) j^ = e'W ) ; = + 1| + - 1 | .
, )

{ X, X > 0;

-X, < 0 ,

,^1, >0;
^ www.kodges.ru
1-1, <0.
270 7

, - \\

, /^)"^ ^^^ ~. ='""^' a / / ( 0 ) = li^^ ^ = 1-


)
2-3, >;
2
^
-2: + 3, jc<,
2

2, ^>-;
=
-2, <|.
)
\^\ >0;
["^% x<0.

\le^\ >0;
3^ =
[-2"'% <0.
)
\2, >\\
= 2, -l<x<l;
-2, X < -1,

2, :>1;
= , - 1 < < 1 ;
-2, <-1.
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271

13. _ {^), ^ {^) :

f X, X < 1;
) = \ 2^0 ^1 ''"^'

, )
,^|1, <1;
[-2 + 2, >1.
^=\:
'_{1)=\ = \, X ( l ) = U m ( - 2 x + 2 ) = 0.
jc->l+0

)
X

N.
" V I - "
^ = :

/(0)=lim- = -1, (0)=. = 1.

JCQ = . 7.3.
J

. 7.3
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272 7

)
-2, ]-,-2];
^\ 4, ]-2,2];
2, ]2,[

[-2, ]-,-2];
= |, ]-2,2];
2' ]2,[.

X 3 ^
1.4. : ) = '-1 j-+4Vx - 5;
-
) >' = A:^COSJC; ) = -
'+\ )' f{x)
-^ '= 3 jt^ + 1,
/'(),/0)'/(-!)
, ) ,
.
,
1 1

2 2 ' ^
) ,

= (^) cosx + x^(cosx) =3x^cosx-Jc^sinx


) ,

^Jx'^j(x'+l)-(x')(x'+l'j ^2'+2-2' ^ 2
2*
^ (x'+\f (x'+lf (' + \)
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273

) f'{x) = x^ 2
jc = , = 1, = - 1 , . .
:
/(0) = 0,/'(1) = - 1 , / ' ( - 1 ) = 3.
x^-4x+4
1.5. : ) = \-
^++'
+\
) >' = In , ; ) = logj Vtg" 2; v) = In^ cos J
Vx^-jc + l 3
, a)
(-2^ _. -2
y = \r\ = 21n-
yX + lj +2
2
= 2\, , = , -
+2

+ 2{-2)'{ + 2)-{-2){ + 2)' _ 8
/ = 2(1 "=2
-2 (x+2f '-4

) = \, = . ,
yJx^-x+1
- /^- + 1-(+1) ,
/ /, ' / Vx - x + l 2Vx^-x + l _
V =(1) , = ; ^^ =

1- 3 1-
2 ( x + l ) ( x ' - x + l) 2 ( + 1)'"
)
- 2
' = log2
logj
tg^ 2 =log2 tg2x.

www.kodges.ru
274 7

1 1 8 1
-2 =
3 tg2jcln2cos^2jc 3sin4xln2
)
1 ( \\
y = 31n^cos -sin- - = - t g In COS.
3 cosV
^
3

1.6. : ) z = jce" + ";

\\-Y
6)>' = e-''(sin3x+cos3x); ) z = l n J - - ; ) j ; = e^'"'^ + 5 4

, a)
1 ( \\ /
. . - - - .
V ^7
)
/ = e'^"" (-3) (sin 3JC + cos 3JC) + e'^"" (cos 3 + ( - sin 3x) ) =

= -ee"^"" sin 3JC.

1 1-2'^
) = In J.

, 1 1 + 22(1 + 2^)+(1-2^)2'12 22
="
2 1-2^ (1 + 2^)^ 2^'-1

4i 1 -i
/ = e""'^-3sin'xcosx+5^4n5--x ' =

= ''"'* sin' Xcos: + 5^"'x'^ In5.


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275

1-
1.7. : ) >' = arctgj- ;

) w=arcsinVl-4r; ) r = arccos "" ^ ; ) y = ztge \


4
, )
1

I lfl-x\2-{l + x)-{\-x)_ 1
=
1-: 2 1+: (1 + ^) 2/^
1+
1 + :
)
= 1 1 (-4) _
^1-(1-4) 2 V T ^ 7^(1-4)'
)
1 f 1 \ ^I 3
= 4) \ 4 + 4(-3<'
r2-3<pY
1-
)

'' = 3
-0)
2 _2
1 + ' 1+ /^
1 2 -^ 1-2 "^
1.8. : ) >^ = sn ^+ --;
) >' = thx + cthx.
, )
y = 2shch H-2chsh = shx.
2 2 2 2 2 2
6)
,
,_ 1 1 _sh^x-ch"jc_ 4
ch^x sh^jc sh^xch^jc sh^2:^
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276 7

1.9. :

^, <0; ", |jc|<0;


) = < ) =^< 1
ln(l + x^), :>0, |jc| > 0,

2-;, -l<jc<2;
>' = ^ jc^ - 5JC + 6, 2 < jc < 3;
)
jc~3, 3<jc<4,
.
, )
,
[2JC, JC < 0;
=\ 2
jc>0.
1 + 2 '
)
["^(1-), |jc|<0;

[, |jc| > 0.
)
-1, -l<jc<2;
= <2-5, 2<:<3;
[1, 3 < X < 4.
(. 7.4).

, 7.4
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277

1.10. : ) >^ = |sinjc|; ) >^ = |arctgx|.


, ) = |sinjc| . 7.5.
: (,{ + \)),
y = sm{^x-Kk). = cos(-/).
= , y_{7tk)= lim cos{x'-7ik)=-l,
x-^k+\)-0
^[)= \im cos{x-7tk)=l.
--^

/ /)

. 7.5
) ' = |1:| . 7.6

[arctgx, ;>0;
=-
arctgAT, jc<0.

2
. 7.6

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278 7

' ^^0'

jc<0.
1 + ^'

>^'(0)=lim j^ = - 1 ;

1.11. , :
) >; = sh jc; ) j ; = ch ; ) = th ; ) ;; = cth .
, )

(Arsh;;) = - 7 = = . =^= .
:^^ chx Vl + sh'jc V / + 1
, ,

(Arshx/=-p==.
Vl + x
)

(Archj;/= = - = : ,

(Archjc) = . (^*

(Arthj^/=-V = ch'^ = L _ = _ L - ,
^ -^^ J : 1-tg^x 1 - /

(Arthx) =- 2", ( '


www.kodges.ru
279

)
1
(Arcthj;) =-7 = -sh^jc = "-

(Arcthx) =^, (|A:|>1).

1.12. ,
2
: ) j ; = Arch In ; ) = Arctn ^--.
, )

. ^ 1 1_ 1

) ,
1 2(X'+1)-2X-2JC 2(JC'+1)

(1-
7.2. ,

1. j ; /(,) = ,
, .
j^
X ,
X,
j^', , , oTxiAy
=({,
2.
X '
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280 7

X
TO j^ : j;^ = ^ , >^: -^^ - ~7
^
3^. . ^,
/ V-\ f V '

=vu + V ,
. . -
: ,
,
.
4. log^
:,

j ; = log,w=-;, M = w(x), v = v{x).

2.1. '^'-^) = cos (: + jv);


) ^ +4xy-j^ =1; [:) -1=^\;
) ^^-4\ = 21.
, ) , '
,
/ = -sm(x+)(1-\- /) = -sin{x+)- /sm(x+).
y ( l + sin(x + 7)) = -sin(x+j^)
sin(x + >;)
=":
l + sin^x + y)
) ,
+4(>; + /)-2 = 0.
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281

>^',
, 2{^2)
- -
'+4
) ,
, ;;
X ' 1my-h . ^

( 1
Injc + j;jc' =0.

',
X
1--
X =
\-

2^ - 2^ = 2'.
^
2 2
X
f_y -.{-)
^
X

2.2. '^:
_cos2/.
) ) \ =
= cos'^^
3/ /; | j ; = lnsinr;

^:

jc = arctgv/;
) )
= y = ln COS (
l+t
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282 7

. ) = cos^fsin/
dt 2
dy 3 . .
- = -sm/2 f cos ?.
at 2
3 . ,
y>^ V = ->/etg^-
cos^^/sin/
2
6) = -2e''^' sin 2/ ~=^ = ^ ^ = ctg /.
dt dt sin^
/ = ' -
)
1
dy _2t{\ + t)-t' _e+2t ^ dx^24t ^ 1
dt~ {\+tf ~(l+0' ^* 1 + ^ 2^t{\ + t)

d!x:^ (1 + 0^ ^ 1+f
2Vf(l+r)f(f + 2) 2f^(r + 2)
^
dy 1 ^'" 9 1 fi) ; 1 1
) = =tg = .
d9 2^os^ 2 b d<p 2^^^
2 2
2 2
^y = - 2cos^^tg^ '^"P
2 ^2
2.3. : a) jy = :* ; ) y = sin2x.
x:
{x-lf'4I+2 ^ : . . ^
) y = - 3 ; ) y = x e smixmx.
(x-3)
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283

, )
In j ; = jc^ In JC.
X, j ; ,
1
X
/ = (21njc-bl)x^'^V
) ,
In ' = sin 2x In JC.

^ ^1 sin2x , sin2x ^ ^ ^ , sin2jc


= 2cos2xlnjc + , / = '*"^^ 2cos2xlnjc +
X
) ,

1>; = 21(:-1)+-1(; + 2)-31(:-3).

/ 2 1
^^ = 1;
-\ 3(+2) -

, {x-Xi4xVi 1
=
{-)' \ 3(x+2)
)
ln>^ = 21nx + jc^ +lnsin3x+lnthx.

-^^^3COS3JC
sin3x
1

thxch X
1

X

f2 2
= "" sinSxthjc -4-3x^3ctg3jc+

www.kodges.ru
X sh2jc
284 7

2.4. : ) >Hcg^^ ) j;=log^sinA;


) >' = log^3x\
, ) = -
Injc
/ = -.
jcln X
) ,
In cos X
cosx- sinx, .
IncosxH-
1 1 1 \j\JZi . 1In sin
11 O X , 1
l l l , . X 1

/ ^ sinx cosx ^ctgxlncosx + tgxlnsmx


In^cosx In^cosx
xlnx X
) ~~^~? -
, 1
V = .
3

7.3.
1. ;^ = / W >^',
.

d-y
v"/" (),


/() j;'"/"' (),

dx^ *
,
, j;^"^ - .
d'y
2. -

j ; ' = ^ (, j;) ,
, .
www.kodges.ru
285

3. ,
,

= ( ) ; ^= ^ = X^ .

.
{'
^^ = ^ ^t"^f^ . .
4^. -

^ ^ 1! 2!

*= ^ , =u, u' =v.


" k\{n-k)\
5".

1. ^"; ^"^ ={-1)...{- + \)"~". = - 1 ,

n t > (-1)"! ^
I 1 _v ''
1 1 1"
= , '
^ (-1)"(2-1)!!
' -^ ^
"*' 2 A/^J (2JC)"VI
v^
2. y = (^a+bx) (^a,b-const);
/'^=a{a-l)...{a-n + l)b''{a+bx)'"\
(r 1 fj-lfjiW"
t^ _(-!)"
a) bx)"
\n+l '

www.kodges.ru
286 7

\(''
1 Y - (-l)''(2n-l)!!6''
) ^la+bx j 2"{a+bx)"y/a+bx'

7
5. >' = sinx; j;^ ^ =sin x +
2

6. >' = cosx; ^ =cos x + n


2

1 in) (-1)"'^!
+1
X -a 2a jc-a) [x + a)

8. >; = e"^sinZ>x; y''^=(a4fe')2e"^sin(6x + <p),

a
sin<i[>=: , ; cosip= . - -.

1 /^ 1^

. 1 7C
arctg~- = y,
X 2
3.1.

: ) = , / ? , 6) = arctg, / " ' ? ; ) s = sin^, s^"^^?;


X
) = Injc, ^"; ) = ""sinx, j;^^^?

www.kodges.ru
, )
287

1 2
47^\
' ^-l'
j ' ' :

1'-1-'

)
1 1_

1+
' jc,
-lax
=

(^+''\ -Ixia'+x^^lx 2(:'-


/ " = -2^ = -^ ^.
['+')" {'+')'
)
(
/ = 2 sin ( cos ( = sin 2(\ s'' = 2 cos 2;
s'' = -4 sin 2; 5^^^ = -8 cos 2^.
) -
,

/ = 1 = -^ / ' = -1.~^ / " = 2-^ ')=-2.3-^ ..


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288 7

") =(-1)""' {-\)\-\ (. 3. 5).


)
W = ^""^; V- sin :,

/ ) =(wt;f^ =w(% + 4u"V + 6uV44uV"+//t;('^ (4),

j;^"^^ = """ sin X - 4^"'' cos jc - """ sin + "'' cos JC + """ sin .
3.2. : ) ^ -=^ ' ?;

) >^=x+arctg|; / ? ; ) y=jc^-f.3jcv; / ' ? ; ) cos(x);) = x'; '?;


) ; / = 1 ; / " ? ; e ) x = tg(jc4-;;); / " ?
, )
^'+ + ' = 0,

= ;; .
- +

_ \^^)-{'^\)

',
=

^'

['+) (^+)
) :
www.kodges.ru
289

/=1+ ^
-^
'
,_JA7

V4+7-1'

_2^l4 + y ^ [ 2^4 + / ^
= 3

(74^-l)' (^/4^-l)
)

^ ^^-\-{-\)^ X ^^ .
^-^

_(2j.-x-)(;c'+>.)-(/-j:)(2x4l)

',

X =

_2(' + )'-2{/-){-+)-2{/-)'
('^)'
)

sm[xy)[xy + x) = 2xx, = .
2x + ysin[xy)
www.kodges.ru
290 7


" ( - ( ( x ' s i n (^>^)+ Jccos {y^y^ip^'y + :))(2+ >^sin (-^^))

-x'^m{xy^{lx -%{^^ |.
)

X
3 x ^ + 3 / / = , / = -

+ ^

^ ' / ;^^
j;'"
,_ , ( / ++4^) - 5 ( +^'^)// _

/ /
)
jc4l
^ = J7 ^'
cos (x-fj;)
1 cos^(x + 3;) _ 1
JC =
cos^ ^ + ^) cos^ (x + j ; ) - ! sin^ (^ + >^)

.^^cos(x + >^)(x4l)__ ^cos'(x + j;)
sin {-) sin^(x + >^)'
>^,
x"' = -2(-3cos'(x + j;)sin^(x + > ; ) ( x 4 l ) - c o s ' ( x + j;)-
www.kodges.ru
291

5sin^(x4-j;)cos(jc + ;;)(x4l))/(sin'^(jc + ;;)) =

(sin^ [-) + 5cos^ (jc + j^))cos"^ {^^)

= -2((3 + 2cos^(jc + >^))cos'^(x + >^))/sin^(x + >^).


3.3. :
rx = 2cos/-cos2/,
^ 7
) ) dx"-

x=cos (fx. = 2f - i
2
) 2< dy'' ) d/
>'=sin

[x = arcsin/,
),._ .?)
dx d/-
, )

dx \ In / +1

21^
dx^ \ 1/ + 1 (ln/ + l)
)
dy _\ _ 2 cos 2t cos 2/
dx x\ - 2 s i n r + 2sin2/ sin 2 / - s i n ^

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292 7

d^y _ -' _

_^ -4 sin It (-2 sin / + 2 sin It)- (-2 cos ^ + 4 cos 2/) 2 cos It _
(-2sin/ + 2sin2/)^

_ 2sin/sin2/ + cos^cos2/-2
2 (sin 2^-sin/)
)
, 1
' -2cossm-^^
d^ ^ \ ^ 2 2 2 ^ ^
dy
-^ ^^ 2sin cos 1-

2 2 2

_(^^)^ _
= 0.
dy^ i
^ ^^ 2sincos -
2 2 2
)
d:x^2^-^ln2^2^in2
^~ 1.2/ "" ^
4

, 2^-22
d'yJy'X ^ t' ^ 2-12(/12-1)
dx' : t_
2
)
dy yl acoscp
dx X -a sm cp
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293


1
d^y ^{ ^ s i n > ^ 1


-3sin^^cos^
d tp _ asin^q) 3cos^
dx^ x(p -asin^ a^ ^" (p
e)
1
dx ^ y/l^t^ ^ t_
dy 1 VlT
t

4^- t ' -2'


24)^
d'xiK)! \-e
d/ y. 1 {x.t'f

d/ . 1 (1_,

3.4. :
) = cosx; / - ) ? ) = {'-'+\)\ /"^

) =^2_\^_^^ /"^? r ) ; ; = e^^sin4x, / " ^ ?

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294 7

2+3
)>; = 1(2 + 1), -)? )=^^^, ^.
, ) -^, ; = cosx. w' = 2x,
:.

, ,
,
/
^ l+x^cos j c + 5 0.:
/ ) =i50-49cos( j c + 4 8 - | + 5 0 ' 2 8 + 4 9.: ~ 1=

= ( l 225 - jc^) cos jc - 1 OOJC sin X.

6) M = e'', t; = x ^ ~ x ^ + l . i;' = 3x^-2x5


t;" = 6 x - 2 , u*" = 6, t;^'^=u(^>=... = 0, w^''^ =e".
, , .
,

/ ^ ) = ^ - ( ^ - 1 ) + 30^(^-2) + ^ ^ ^ ^ ( 6 - 2 ) +

^30-29-28^,^^^,^^3^gg^2^2550x + 2348l).
3!
)
1 \( 1 1
- (-3)(+1) 4
- 3 x+l

/ ) (-!)"! ( 1 _ (-!)"!
+1
-) (-3) U + lJ ^-'

// .20 20 ^ , /
(20) 1 ( - I f 20! (-1^20! 20!
[ (x-3f " (x+lf J 4 \{- (x+lf
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295

) (8) -, = 4,
10
^(lu; = (3^ + 4 ^ 2 ^^ sin(4x +10(), sin =
/4^'
/ . 4^
/^>=5^V^^sin 4jc + 10arcsin
V
) ' = .
+1
, {~1)
(2,; 5)
( 2 f-'^_{-iy~\n-l)\r
1 + 2 {\ + 2
,
\39^^,^39 \39

(1 + 2) 1 + 2

) {){^- + 6) = 2 + 3 ,
, .
>2

/"\'-- + 6) + /"-'\2-1) + ^^^^^^

= 0

6/"^ (0) - /''-'^ (0) + ( - \)/"-^^ (0) =

i")rn\ ^ (-/ '^(^"^) (n-2)/^4


6
,
' = 0 (>2). (0) ;;' (0)

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296 7

~2X^-6JC + 15
0)=| /(0) =
(jc^-x + ) 36*
ijc=0

- 2,3,4,..., -
.
_1_
/'(0) = /(0)-i-i>;(0) = - ' ' ' '
36 36'

/"()=|/'()-^()=^''
J_ 215
.11
36 36 11

1. ^_^ ^
y\i

, ,
, - - >; = >; + ,

-> -> , . .
.
j;'Ax
. -
, ..


. j;'Ax
dy.
, .. dx^tSx,
, = f(x) / \)
X,
fXx) , . .
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297

dy = f\x)dx. (1)
2. :
1. d{Cu) = Cdu\ 2, d{uv) = dudv;
( \_ vdu-udv
3. d(uv) = udv + vdu; 4. d
V
3. .

^
XQ + (. 1.1).

XQ ^+ X

. 7.7
4. .
,
.
^; = /(:), x = (p{t),TO
dy=f:dx=f:(p:dt. (2)
5. = f{x)


d^y = d(dy) = y''dx\ (3)

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298 7

d'y = d(d'y) = /V;

dy = d{d'-'y) = /''^dx\ (4)


6. ;; = f(x), = (0 ,
d^y = d(f^dx)

d'y = f:dx'+f:dx, (5)


dx = x'dt.

d'y = r\dx)\3fUxd'x + fci'x, (6)
. . .
7^ j;=:/(x)
- dy
f{x + Ax)=^f{x)+f{x)Ax. (7)
.
8.
- ^

= \^-\.


= -..

5 = -. 100%.
|
,
Ay-dy .
www.kodges.ru
299

A = |Ay-t/v|,

5 = ' '

4.1. : ) = ^--\-[,
^-\

, )
1
' = ^-\ +
2\}
(
dy = y'dx = -1 +
2/
)

tgx COS X sin2x


dy ,
sin2jc
)

=
(.41)' (.41)

6'
dy (ir.
(.41)'
) t ' = sin^ / cos t.
dx = sin^ ^ cos tdt.
4.2.
sin2^
: ) >; = 3^"^^^ dy?; ) = , ^V?
) ; = (^~ + 1 ) \ rfV? ) ^^^^='^\ d'yl
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300 7

, ) 1-
1 'ibtgj:
1
dy^T'^'\^Z- -<ir = 21n3 dx.
tgjc cos X sin2x
,

21n3- -2-3^"^"COS2JC
72,._oi^'i
rfV = 21n3 sin2jc -t&' =
sin 2JC
^4j^3 3,.,,ln3-cos2x^,
sin 2x
) ,
cos 2( (l - <+ sin 2^
dp^l ^7 b ^^

J V = 2((-sin 2^ 2 (l -<p-)-cos 2^ 2(p + sin 2^ + 2(j9cos2^ Vl -<p^) +


+2(cos 2^(1 - ^^) + ^ sin 2(jf))(l - <p^)" =
= 2(sin 2^(5^^ -\-2(p*) + 2(p cos 2^(1 - q)^))d(p^.
) ,

; = 3(;^-x+l)^ (2x-l)d!x:,

rfV = (2(' -x + \){2x-lf+{x^ -x + lf 2]dx^ =

= 6(jc' -x+l)(5x^ -5x + 2)dx\


d'y = 6[{2x-l)(5x^ -5x+2)+(x^ -x+\){lOx-5))dx^ =

= 6{2x-l)(lQx^ -\Ox + l)dx\


r) .
/;
=- , dy = - (ic.

www.kodges.ru
V' V^y
^


{] " ''

y-\\jax

4.3.
: ) y = yjx^ -,
x = t^+l;6) z = \ny, y = tgx, x = 2t^+t;B) = \ x = tg^
d^y : l)xudx,2)tH dt.
, a)
, _ 2-3 ,_
dy = y[x[dt. - / ^ ? ^t - ^^- -
lyjx -
[,
(2,'-1)

)
dz = z\y\x\dt.

Zy =, ^ , jc' = 4r + l -
COS X
,

dz = (4/ + 1) = )^^.
j;cos'x' sin (2(2/4/))
)
dy - y\dx = e^dx. xndx
d^y - y^dx^ = e'^dx^.
t dt.
dy = y'^x'^dt = "" dt = ^^^ .
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cos / cos /
302 7

^^^ cos^^ + e*^'2sin/cosr i . ^


d'y^^^ll dt'=e^^-^-^^dt\
COS t COS t

(5), / / = "", /^' = "",

(ix cos ^t,


2 r M
dt \
cos t COS^ t J cos t
4.4. : a) arctg 1,05; 6) lg9; ) 5^0,98.

, a) / ( x ) = arctgx, / ' ( x ) = ^.

no (7) arctg (x -f ) = arctg x + ^ Ax.


X = 1, = 0,05.

arctg(l + 0,05) = arctgl + ^-0,05 = - + 0,025.

) / ( x ) = lgx, / ' ( ) = .

(7) Ig (+) = Ig + .
xlnlO
X =10, = - 1 Ig(l0~l) = lgl0+ "" .
^^ ^ ^ lOlnlO
Ig9 = 1 - - ^ = 0,956.
InlO
1 - 1 1
) / ( ) = /, f'(x) = x ^ ==^.
^ ^ ^ ^ 5 5^7
/ + =/+-

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303

: = 1, = 0,02 ^1-0,02 = V l + - - ; -
5 Vi^
V W =1-0,004 = 0,996.
4.5. j ; = ^ + +1

X -2 -2,\.
.
,
dy = (2JC + )(.
= 2 tu:=Ax:=2,l-2=0,l ^=(2-2+3)0,1 = 0,7.

= / ( + ) ~ / ( ) =

= (2,1'+3-2,1 + 1 ) - ( 2 ' + 3 - 2 + 1) = 11,71-11=0,71.


,
0,7, 0,71. = ' + ,
= 0,71-0,7 = 0,01.
4.6. = ^ -Ix
= 2 = 0,1.
.
. : dy = {^ -2^dx,

Aj;=((x+A^f -2(x+At))-(jc^ ~2) =(3JC^ +3xAr+At' -2) Ar.

x = 2 Ax = 0,l : = (3-2^-2)0,1 = 1;
Aj; = ( 3 - 2 4 3 ' 2 0 , 1 + 0,1'-2)0,1 = 1,061.

= |-'| = 0,061,

5 = -, 100% = 100% = 6% .
1,061
4.7. 4,
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-
304 7

0,01.
.
. = ^ = 64 ^.
| |= 0,01.
I FIIJF1= = 3 4^ 0,01 = 0,48.
dV
^ ^ 1 0 0 % = 0,75%.
V 64

7.5.

1. .
f\x) = ^

= / ( ) X = XQ .
,
= / ( ) (. 7.8 )
M(Xo,jVo)
, . . : = t g a = /XXQ) . ,
, ,
,

MixQ.y^) ,

.

,
'~
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305

-'^'- (X-XQ), {),


)
= ^^, BN^y^iga ,
, , AM
.

. 7.8
2^. y = f^{x) y-fii^) ^
^{^,)
^.

tg9 = /2^)^^)

3. , ,
.
= {() (. 7.9), ,
= ,

tga = - ^ .

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306 7

. 7,9
MN

, ,

: = TIVP^+(P) -
I
W
' ' 2
; MN = Jp^+ {p'f ; = ~-
\\
; ON =\ '\ .
4.
At AS
. At,
.
t ,
-> , . .
,. AS dS
v= lim = .
^^^0 / dt
-
(
t ,
At
^ , . .
,. dcp
lim -^ = ^ .
^-^ At dt
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307

,
( .
w, , -
dv
w = -
d'S *
S w = ^ .
at

)
=
,dt
d^cp
=j-.
dt
Aq
5.
/ > , ,
At, . .

^^ ^ cit
,

.
6. . Q(t) -
,
/. C'[tQ)= lim
t^.
5.1.
1 1
-~ (1,).
^ XX , 2

. = ^ j
= 1: \) = .
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308 7

(1,)

-- = 1{-\) 4:-2;-3 = 0.

5.2.
2 2
+ ^ ^ = 1 ( - , 4 ) .
9 25 5
2 2' / 25
.
9 25 9 -

/9 2591 5 ^
= =
1^5 j 9 54 4 ^^
-4 = --(--) 5jc + 4 y - 2 5 = 0.
4 5
4 9^

-
'-4 =
5j
X

20JC-25>; + 6 4 = 0 .
5.3. = ^ - 4 +1 ,
= 1.
. M(JCO, j^^).

= \^) = 6^-4.
,
6JCQ - 4 = 2, Jc^ = 1.

, > ^ Q = 3 1 ^ - 4 1 4 - 1 = 0 .
, (1,0).
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309

5.4. = ^ -2-^5,
+ 6j^ - 1 = ,
. .
. {^,^).
^) = 2^ - 2 .
^: = .

/^ = , ^
,
1 1
, JCQ = 2.
= 2jCn~2
^=1- 2^ + 5 = 5.
j ; ~ 5 = 2(jc--2) 2- + 1 = 0.
,
j ; = jc^ - 2 + 5 = ( -1)^ + 4, . .
(.
7.10). ,
, .

\ ^
1 /2-=0

/ +6-1=
/ X

. 7.10
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310 7

5.5. ,
j ; ^ = ^ JCQ = 1 .
.
.
JCQ = 1, ^-\, (.
7.11). ^^; BN.

. 7.11
\
_
2< = 3'; ' = -, \\) =
1 ' ^ ^' '
(1,1)
1 2 3
:, = = . \ ={ \)\
>'-1 = - | ( - 1 ) .
A^^B,

, j ; = ^ - , L

5 ,0 . \AN\^\ = ;

|^|==--1==-.|^\/|== II i + (1-0)^ = /.

| \ = ^ 1 V(.-o)==-^"
2 )
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311

5.6. = ^
>^ = cosx, [ 0 , : ] ?
. (. 7. 12),
: sin - cos = , tg JC = 1,
XQ= . y = cosx
= -sin JC .
(. .
/ /

^0= j ) : '{) = , /2'() = . (4)


3.4 :
.:/2_V2
tg<p = - '^ 2_ = -2/2, ( = - arctg 2 /2.
V2 /2
1-
2 2

y=cosx y=smx

1 2
^. 7.72

5.7. = \ \ - 1 j :?
. .
-^, : 1(/:-11 = 0, v 3 x - l = l,
_ 2 _2/ , /
x-F=-
S Sx-\
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312 7

2N/3
^ =

/U) = 41 = V3.
^/32^-l
3
, -
_^
(4) 3.4: tg ^ = v3 . , ^ ~ "
5.8. ,
, ,

=( ( = 2 .
. (.7.13).
' = ,

= / 4 : ' ' =2:/1+4:' ;


\\=-^1^+(
\\ ^
| MN \=^^ + (^p'f = ^J{2a +^ =
^^ ^ ^^ ^ 2
= avl + 4^ ; uK=-rj- = =
ON = \'\ = .

.7.13
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3^

, MKVL
, ^ 2 ^
, t g a = - ^ = = 2:,
a = arctg2:.
5.9. ^ = 2/^ - 3^ + 4 .
^ = .
.
ds
v = = 6 / ^ - 3 . t-
dt
t;(r = 3) = 6-3'~3 = 51c-^

W = = 12/. t = 3 w(t = 3) = 12 3 = 36 ""^.
dt
5.10.
< = ^ + 2/ + 4.
/ = 4 .
.
) = ^ = 2 + 2, -
dt
: = j- = 2.
dt .
= 4 = 2-4 + 2 = 10, -

, , ^ .

5.11.
VQ . -

.
? (
).
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. ,
,
314 7

X= VQt-
gt'

X t, g
.

v^v-gt ,, w = -g.
,
, . . 0=;-g^, t= .
g

,

.. V
X = Un
g 2g
U
7.12.

{ x = acoskt,
y=bsmkt.
71
/ =
4^
.
. t = tQ
bkcoskt b_
- sin kt


/ =

( = arctg = -arctg
J V
7.13. ,
, = ,
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315

q = 3t^ -2. .
.
/ = = 6t. t -2
/(/ = 2) = 6-2 = 12.
5.14. q ,
, t
= (\ """ ).
.
.
dq
q-^a{A-q),
~dt

7.6.
1. . f{x)
[,\,
f{ci) = f {b) = ,
avib ^ ] , Z? [, / ' ( ^ ) = .
:
= /(jc) ,
, (. 7.14).
, f{a) = f[b)^0.

. 7.14
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316 7

2. . f{x)
[, ]
,
(^],[, / ( 6 ) - / ( a ) = (fe-a)/'(^).
.
: (.
7.15) ,
.


i

'^'^ / \
/ !
\
:
1
0 ^ X

, 7,15

3. , ({) ^{)
[, ]
.
vL(p{a)^(p {b), avib -

qe\a,bL j-{ 7~^'~7^ ^^^^


, ^ ,, )-({) ({^)
( [)^0 [, ],
6.1.
: ) = ^ -2-3 [-1,3]; ) >^ = 1 - V^
[-1,1].
, ) ,
.
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(-1) = ^^() =
317

= 2JC - 2
,
. ^ = , 2JC - 2 = ,
. . ^ = 1 .
) [-1,1]
^^(--l) = ^(l) = .
, 2 1
= ""-^ : = G [-1,1]
. ,
.
6.2. -
:) f{x) = -x'-x + \ [0,1];) / ( ) = \ / ? - 1 [-1,1].

, ^ .
, ) [0,1]
f\x) = :^ - 1 . ,
. ^
/ ( 1 ) - / ( 0 ) = (1-0)/<^),

1 = ^^ - 1 , ^,2 -- ^ =

[0,1], ^ = .
) [-1,1] -
2 1
f {) = 7=-. jc = G [-1,1]
3 yjx
,
.
6.3. = ^ +2
, (-2,0) (1,3) ?

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.
318 7

. (. 7.16)

^ 3-0 = 1. -
^2 -^1
1+2
/ ( 1 ) - / ( - 2 ) = (1 + 2 ) , 3 = 3(2(^+2), ^ = - ^ .

=
2j 2

. 7.16

1
, , -
12 4
. ^
6.4. (jc) = sin X ^ () = cos -
71
[ ,] t,.
. (p\x) = cosx\
1/' () = - sin X. -

(j9 () ^ ^ (^7); sin ?^ sin ,


.

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319

COS COS
2 _-sing t^ 1 ;: ^
. 7t . ""^^' t g . ^ = l , < ^ = - .
Sin smO ^ ^
2
6.5. , "" - --1 = ,
X = , .
.
^, = ^
^ , / ((^) = .
/ ( ) = ' ' ~ - 1
fXx) -"" -\. , "" = 1, = .
,
t,, / (^) = ,
.
6.6. / ( ) = "^ - ^ 4- ^ - =
X = 1. , , -
dx
[0,1].
. ^ = 4^ ~ 3 ^ + 2 - 1 .
/ ( ) [0,1]
,
4^ ~ ^ + 2 - 1 = . ,
, , , .
/7 -f
[0,1]
dx
d f 2
, = 12 - + 2 -
df ^'
,

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.
320 7

7.

X -> ({) \lf{x)
,
, . .

, ('{) ^\)
.

^
,
.
-^ ~,
, -
0
-- , -
0
.

1~,00^,0^
^
-- ,
.
g 1 2 cos 2
7.1. : ) lim^^ ; ) lim ;
^-^0 sin ^-^01 - cos
. ., - -\ Insinx
) lim;; ) lim .
^-^0 sin 2 x^Q I n x

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, ) jc -^ .

321

^-* sin 3JC


^-*<> 3 cos 3

) X > . -


,. l-cos2x ,. 2sin2x
lim = Iim .
^-^01 _ cos 3x ^-^0 3 sin 3JC
0
X > 0 --.

,. 2sin2x ,. 4cos2x 4
hm = lim = .
^-^0 3 sin 3x ^-^0 9 cos 3x 9
0
) X -^ --.

,. "" ~^~1 ,, Ixe"" - 2 ,. "" -
hm -. = lim = hm .
^-^0 sin 2 ^-^0 4 sin 2 cos 2 -2 ^-* 4 sin 2 cos 2


hm ^ = lun = hm- =
^^0 8 sin 2 sin 2 cos 2 ^-^ 8 sin^ 2 cos 2 8 ^-^ sin 2
1,. 2"' I
=hm = .
8^-^o2sin2xcos2x-2 32

) X > . -


,. hisinx ,. COSXX ,.
hm = hm = hmcosx = 1.
^-^0 inx ^-^0 sinx
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^-^0
322 7

7.2. : a) lim ,n.. I; ) lim


jcsinjc
^-^Mlnjc jc-1
X ( \ \
) lim(x-^)tg-~; r) lim xsin .
x-^n^ ^ 2 ^-^'"l X)
, a) x -> 1


,. x ~ l - x l n x In :
lim = - lim x-\
^-^ (x~l)lnx ^->J lnx +
jclnx lnjc + 1
-lim- = -lim-
^^1 xlnx + jc-1 ^-^1 lnx + 1 + 1 2
6) X -> 0 ().

--.

1 1 ,. sinjc-jc ,.
lim
jc-^O jcsinjc
1 = lim = lim-
COSJC-1

^^0 x"^ sin X ^-^0 2x sin jc + jc cos x


-sinx
= lim
^-^0 2sinx + 4xcosx-x^sinx
cosx
= ~lim-
^-^o2cosx + 4 ( c o s x - x s i n x ) - 2 x s i n x - x ^ c o s x 6
) -^
( >).

--
lim ( x - ; r ) t g = lim = lim : = -2.
-^ ^ 2 ^-^^ . X '^*
ctg
2

sin
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323

) X -^ . -
0
-

.1 1 1
. sin ^cos .
limxsin~ = lim-^ = lim=^^-=^ = limcos= 1.
>oo - X-> 1 JC>oo 1 JC>oo -

X X^

7.3. : a) limftgxV^^''; 6) lim(lnxV ; ) "";


^_,
x-> ^-^- ->
4

r) lim(x + 2^V; ) lim(l + sin2xV


-400 N / v__i.n ^ ^

, a) x -^ 1~.
>' = (tgx)^ "";

In V = tg 2x In tg X, lim lny = lim tg 2x In tg x, . e.


X> JC>
4 4
. .
-
0
-~

,. , ,. Intgx ,. sin^2x
Iim In >^ = lim f = - Iim = -1.
4
4 1- 4
x-^- sin2x
tg2x
1 t 2x 1
limln>^ = -l,TO lim>^ = e~* = lim(tgx)^ ""=.
4 4 4
6) .
1 1
jv = (In )^; In = In In X
"^ In In X
: liming = lim
-^

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324 7

,. Inlnx 1- X
lim = lim^^=^ = 0.
X ^-^** I n X

1>^ = 0, \\ = \ lim(lnx)^=l.

) 0^.

^^ \ In >^ = JC In X :

1 - ^^ Injc
i ^~^ 1 . lim = -^" = .
_ -) 1 ->0 1
^ XX
lim In j ; = lim y = l> "" = 1.
jc-^O JC^O ^

) ^. = ( + 2''

: In =ln(jc + 2""). -
X
,
1( + 2'') 1 + 2''12
limln>; = lim5^ X ^ = ^^~
JC>>
l i m ' ^X ^+ l""
"^^ -
,. 2 ' 2 ,. 2'2 , ^
= lim = lim z = In 2,
-^-1 + 22 -^~2^1n'2
lim;; = 2.

) .
y = {l + sm2xf'
lim In = lim ctg 5jcln (1 + sin 2x)
x-^O Jc->0 ^ ^

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325

ln(lH-sin2x)
lim In 3^ = lim cos 5 jc ^^ .
^^0 ^-^0 sin 5JC

,

2 cos 2JC
ln(l + sin2x) 1 +sin 2 2.. 1 2
limln>; = lim^ ^ = i^j^i-hsmzx := ju^ = -.
^_ J:-O sin 5x ^->o 5 cos 5JC 5 ^-^^ i + sin 2x 5
, lim (1 + sin IxT^ "" =e^.

7.8.
= f{x)

,
, . .
^2 > ,.

/ (-^2) ^ / (^i) ? -
, / (-^2) ^ / (-^i)' ^^
.

: ' > ,
, ^''^ < ,
.

. -
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326 7

, ,
. ,
,
,

.
8.1. :
) ^^-\\ ) ;; = l o g ^ x - l ) ; <\ \ ) ^\
) = ( + 1 ) - 3 ) ; ) ;; = j c ' | x | .
, ) , . .
("-<^,^).
= ^. , >^, ,
(. 7.17).

. 7.17
) > 1, . . -
1
(1,^). = - . -
(jc 1) In
< 1 , \<0 ' > 1 .
, (1,>)
(. 7.18).
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327

. 7.18
) -\,

. =
, (-2)
^ ^
\-~ Z)
Y - : , = , ^2 = .
\ i)
= 1,
(. 7.19)
. ,
(-00,0) (2,>) (0,1) (1,2). . 7.20
.

1 2

. 7.19

. 7.20
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328 7

) .
/ = 3(x + l)^(jc~3) + (jc + l)^=4(jc + l ) ^ ( x - 2 ) .
( + 1)^(-2) = 0
Xj 2 = - 1 3 = 2 .
]->^-1]; ]~l5 2] ]2,<[. ,
^^ = ""^
. < -1 - 1 < < 2 : ^' < , ,
. > 2 j ; ' > ,
.
) }^ .

, ^ > 0 ;
-{
[-^ X < 0.
, < ,
J ' < , > , *>0.
. 7.21.


. 7.21

8.2. : ) tg > +
3
X

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0 < < ;)> 1(1 + ) > 0;) X-~<sinx<
> 0.
329

JC^
, ) j = tgx
: = ^ -l = tg - .
cos X
tg^x-x^ >0, tg^x>x^, tgx>x,Toj^'>
' '
, t g x - - - > 0 tg > + .
) >^ = -1(1 + ):
,_ 1 X
-1 . X = ,
X > , *>0 . ,
X - 1(1 + ) > , > 1(1 + ).
)
'
X <sinx,
3
sin X < X.
'
f{x) = sin , ^() = sin -
/ ' ( ) = 1 - ^ - cos , (\) = cos - 1 .
^ ^ f\^) < , 1 -^ < cosx, (\) <
= 2 (/: = 0,1,2,...), c o s x < l .
^ .
, ---sin x<U
^' < smx<
s i n x - x < , .

7.9.
1. ^ = : / ( ) ^ JW^^K:-
{), (
)
^.
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330 7


. ,
,
.
,
f\x) , ,
f\x) = . , ,
, ,
. . , .
^
, XQ ;
, ^ ;
, XQ .

.
,
, /'XXQ) > , XQ ; /'\^) < ,
XQ ; f'XxQ) = 0,
.
2. F(x,y) = 0, -
, F^x.y) ^
^= = 0,
Fyi^.y)
F/(x, >^) = . F^ F^, Fnoxuy,
, ,
. F{x,y) = 0 F^{x,) = ,
.

^ = -. -
J^!^ < , ; ^^>0 ,
.
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331

X X
9.1. : ) J^ = ---2\
6) = {-2)\
: ) -^ -x-l-
jc^ - - 2 = . Xj = - 1 ;
JC2 = 2 .

= ( + 1)( - 2) ,
(. 7.22 ).

. 7,22
, = - 1
, = 2 .
, Xj = - 1 , 2 = 2
.
7
: / ( - 1 ) =
; / ( 2 ) = .
. 7.23.

. 7.23
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332 7

) = 2( - 2)^ (2 -1)
(jc - 2)^ (2 -1) = . Xj = 2,
1
JC2 = .
Xj = 2
, ,
^2 = . ,

^2 = .
,
27
/ ^1^= .
v2y
. 7.24.

, 7,24

9.2. : ) = -- 2 + 1 ;

6) = '' ;) = 4-5^' .
, ) ^ = ^ -4
(^ - 4 ) = . :
Xj =0, 2 = 3, 3 = - 2 .
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333

' = ^ - 4
: ^^''() <
; \2) > ;
\-2) > .
: / ( 0 ) = 1 ;
/ ( 2 ) = - 3 ; / ( - 2 ) = - 3
. . 7.25.

. 7,25
) = ^ - jc^
jc^(3-x) = 0. :
Xj = , ^2 = 3 .
= 3(2-)
.
^2 = 3 ') <
. Xj = 0 (0) = 0,
, .
.
=0 , Xj =
.
^2 = 3
27
f(^) =
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334 7

. 7.26.

. 7.26

) .

' = 4-4 -j= = -j=rlyjx - 1 j . -


! X yj X

(^/ -1) = ^ = 1.
jc, = 1 '
, , Xj = 1
j;(l) = ~ l .
,
\1 =0. 2 = ,
. ,
-0 j ; ' > , + j ; ' < 0.
, 2 = {0) =
(. 7.27).
9.3. :
) ^-^ = 2';) / - 4 = 0.
/ 2

, ) . F^ = Ixy
F/=2X>'-X^
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335

. 7.27
j ; = , F^ = , . . j ; - 2 = .

{ ^ -^ = 2^,
/ - 2 = 0,
= , =^2.
1
]^ .
2-^
^^~ '^>0, > , '^<0, <0.

, j ; > , <0
.
) F^ =4 4, Fy =4 -4
F / = 0 , ^- = 0'

['^+-4 = 0,
['- = 0
= 0, = 0; = ^1, = /1

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336 7

^ =
"^ 'X
. jc = 0 , j = 0
Fy = ,
, (0,0)
.
X = /3 ^ = ^=j= = < ,

. . X = / , = ^^7 .
8/^ - 3^9 3^3^^
X = - /3 ^ = =^ = > ,

. . , ^^ =z-^jTJ.

7.10

= / ( )
[,] ,
.

(),
()
( ).

[,]
j ^ ' = ,
[,].
[,], . . f(a) f{b).

.
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337

10.1.
X 7
: ) = - j - , [-2;2];) j^ = x + cos2x, [0;--];
) :^ = ' - 9 + 20, [-6,2].
, )
1+ -2JC' 1-JC^
= - 1 = 0.
(\ + {1 +
jc = 1, = - 1 .
,
: (1) = , {-1) = . -
2 2
[-2; 2]: (-2) = , (2) = .

. ,
{^) ~ , yi^^) = ~".
[-2;2] . 7.28.

. 7.28
) ' = \-2sm2x,
1 - 2 sin 2JC = ,
[ 0;
].
=
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338 7



71 / 6/ + 71 2-3
12 2
. 0) = 1, \^
12
,
+/
,
12 12
71 27-3

7
v3y
[0;] . 7.29.

01 iL
72
Pwc. 7.29

) = ^ + 6 - 9 ,
,
jc^ + 2 - 3 = 0, jCj =1, 2 =~3.
[- 6,2],
{1) = \5, (-3) = 41.
^^(-) = -34, (2) = 22.

, ,
jc = - >^(-3) = 47,
jc = - {-6) = -34 (. 7.30).
www.kodges.ru
339

. 7.30
10.2. :
fl I
) f(x) = e 2 ;) (pix) = sm^x + cos^x;B) f(x) = ^x^-l.
) ,
- ,
] - , [.

f\x) = - ^ ,
, = 0.
+ - ,
, X = / ( 0 ) = 1. ^^
, (. 7.31).

) .
,
X G ] - ^ [ .
www.kodges.ru
340 7

(\) = 4sin^ xcosx-4cos^ jcsin jc


2sin jccosjc(sin^ x-cos^ ^) = ,
nn
sin2xcos2x = 0, sin2x = 0, COS2JC = 0, ^i-
' 4 2
,
= (w = , 1, 2, ...) -

, = (1 + 2) ( = , 1, 2, ...) -
4
1
.
) .
]-^[.

f\x) = X = .
3 ^
= - 1 . -^ -
.
,
/ ( 0 ) = - 1 , (. 7.32).

7.11.

,
www.kodges.ru
341^

.

, . .
.
.
11.1. V. ,
.
.
. S = S^^^+Sg^^ = 2KR^+2KRH = 2K{R^-\-RH) ,
, R .

V = ^, = - . -

, S = 2
KR

R\ 5 ' = 2; 27?
V ^ ^
2R = , ,
KRT
\V
R - ?/-.
V 2%
[
, R = }1
V 27
\ 2 ^
5' = 2: 2 + = 12:>0.


.
11.2. .
. , (. 7.33),
V = 7^, ,
.
www.kodges.ru
342 7

. 7.33

i? , ' :
(OBf ={00 +(0')\ R' ={-Rf +\ r^=2HR-H^.
V = n{2H^R - / / ^ ) . ,
,
: ; = ~ ( 4 - ' ) , 4HR-3H^ =0, = 0, H = ^R.
= 0 , ,
4
. = R F^
, . . . ,
, ,
4 Iw
= R, R = II.
3 \4:

11.3. + = 1 ^ f v 3 , - 2 j

. ,
ABC .
.
X, ,
www.kodges.ru
343

^ = -\[,{2-)-^^2{-\)^^{\^2)'\\

5 = -(/3(1-;;)-2/3(: + 2) + (-2-1)) = - ( / 3 - 3 7 3 - 4 ^

, ,

,
, \ S' =(-/ -'),
' 2 '
f \
-3^ + 9
15 5 ' ' X ' ' 2 +V15-3/
\

//15- - ^^ = , = J - , X = J .

J .

-\1~^ ^~\1~ S^ .

, | ,
V2"V2
ABC . V

11.4. 64 ,
.
. j^, ^ = 64. -
2 2 2 64'
z = x -hy , z = x +-.
X
64'
: 2'=2;-2--, '^-64'=0, ('-8')('+64)=0.
X

= 8 (. 7.34), . . ,
, X = S, = S .
www.kodges.ru
344 7

. 7.34
11.5.
, ,
(. 7.35),
.
?

'2

1
X ^<

. 7.35
.
X, - 2x,
jc. V {-2)^,

JCG[0, ] . :
' = {-1){-\{-2){-6) = {).

= (. 7.36). -
6
, -

.

www.kodges.ru
345


6 2
. 7.36
11.6. w,
,
(. 7.37). (
, ,
// = 0,6 ?

i \
FX
f ^<^



, 7.3 7
. ^
: Fcoscp Fsin<p. Fcosq)
. ,
mg - F sin (jO , g
.
, ,
ii^g
. . F cos = Liimg - F sin (). F = : .
cos^ + jUsmcp

= cos ( +/J, sin .
' ,
www.kodges.ru
346 7

71
~sin9 + ^cos()[) = , igcp^fi, (p = 3TCtgiJ. ([0,].
'' = - cos (jO - /X sin < = arctg ,
j , ,
, . . (
. (
( = arctg 0,6 .
11.7.

.
,
d,
?
. , b
(. 7. 38).

. 7.38

y = bh^.
^ =d^ -^ , = b{d^ -b^). -
/^
: y' = d^-3b^, d^- =0, 6 = .
7
' = - 66, b = d, '' = -2v3fif < . -
/
''<0, = d
3
, h = Jd.
www.kodges.ru
347

11.8. 5 = 2 + 3^ - / ^ .
.

. v = ,
dt
: v = 2l-{-6t-3t^,
: v' = 6-6t, t= 1
v' = 0. v'' = --6 /, t ~ 1 v
, . . v^^ = 24 ..
11.9. ,
v^
X = VQ COS t.
gt'
y= VQsma't-^,

t , g ,
.
, ,
,
,
(. 7.39).
ii

0
^ X

. 7.39
.
,
, . , -
www.kodges.ru
348 7

, -
pHHj; = x t g a - ^ ^ .
2VQ COS
(.
7.39) y^xigp ,

x\gP=xiga-fz jc = - ^ ( s i n 2 a - 2 c o s ^ a t g 6 ) .
2uocos^a g^ ^^

dx V
= 2-^(cos2a + sin2atgj8)
da g^
cos2a + sin2atg)8 = 0 ,

ctg2a = -tg)8, 2 =+j8 = - | + j8 .
d^x v^ 1 /
-J =4(-sin2a+cos2atg)8). =- 2
d^x
< , ,
.
11.10.
25. , ,
, , 27:8.
. ,
. ,

(. 7.40), = 25 - .
/, - / .


. 7.40
www.kodges.ru
349



, , ,
,

' 225-

=-27+ -
' 27 ( 2 5 - )
8 2
, (25 -)^ ^ =0 25 - : = :.
,
^4 X = 15.

'' = 6 + 7. , '' >


' 21{25- ^'
X = 15, , .
11.11.
.
, , ,
?
. (. 7.41). ,


c o s
, : = , = const. -
X +R , COS = - 7 =
/777
= ^^.
(.^)
www.kodges.ru
350 7

. 7.41

' - j -
('+')2
^/2
^ - 2JC = , = ,
,
rV2 W, ,^3(2^-3^) .' ^ ^
X = \ t - Zj, <0
\ 7
, -
^/2
x = .
11.12. ,
, , .

, \\ ,
,
?
.
1 .,
www.kodges.ru
351

2 . b 5
(. 7.42). ACD AD=^ .
sin
DB = b-actga ,.
z
2
z = hmib-actga).
sin

. 7.42

dz ma(l-2cosa)
= ^^
sin
1
1 - 2 cos = , cos = , = . -
= :

j2^ 2 (l - cos + cos^ ) ^^


>0.
da sin
, ,
,
= .
11.13.
V /, , 60
,
, .
www.kodges.ru
352 7

, 7.43
. , ,
, = (. 7.43). t
, : ^ = vt, ^ = vt.
^ = - ^ =a-vt.
^jSj=5,
S = {{vty-b{a-vty--2vt{a-vt)cos\20y S = (vY-Ivt + a^^.

2v^t av
S =
2(vV-avt + a^y
: 2vt-av = 0,t = .
2v
2v\vY-avt^-a')--{2vh-avf
S= 3 ^ = ,
2{v^t^-avt + a^y
, .

^ = -
2v

www.kodges.ru
353

/
5 = t; - - a v - \ - = ^.

11.14.
.
1 , 20 /
40 . ,
270 . ?
. q,
q = kv^,
40 = -20\ = 0,005 .

Q = a-\-q = a + kv^, = 270.
. 1
/ 2
u{v) = ^^ = '\'av .
V V

1
=+2
V

2kv^-a = 0, ,

t; = 30 /.
2 540
"=^+2^=^^^+01=>0,
I? 27000
, v = 30 /
1
= ^ + 0 , 0 0 5 - 3 0 " =13,5 .

www.kodges.ru
354 7

7.12. .


, ,
,
.
- f(x) , f'{x) <
, f'{x) > . /"(^) = XQ ,
f'\x)
jc^, ^
. f'Xx) , .
= / ( )
,
/'()=0. ,

.
.
12.1.
: ) j ; = "^ - 8JC^ + 6^ -9;;6) = ^- + 1-
, ) .
: =12^ -24JC^ -12; / ' = 36JC^ ~48JC + 1 2
f =0.
(JC-1) J C

1 ^ ^^
jCj = 1 ^2 =
.
(. 7.44 ) /'' .
'' ,
X = =1 .
www.kodges.ru
355

]-^, [ ]1,[ , ] ,1 [
.

L 1
3
. 7.44
) :
i/' = 4 x ' ~ l ; ^" = 12'; 12'=0; = 0.
X = ' = Q.
: = 0
,
.
12.2.
5 2
: ) = \^- {- ; ) = ^ \) >^ = 1-1 ^ - 1 1 .
, 5 , ,,| 10
, ) : ='z\^'~^) , = ,/ .
3 9/-3
= 3
. = 3
, ,
(3,1) . ]-^[
j ^ " < , . G ] 3,[
j ^ " > , , .
2 ~
) : = jc^,

// 2 ~ 2
=""~ -^ ^ ~77=7 " -
9 9^'
www.kodges.ru
356 7

. = .
= :
/ ~ ) > 0 , / ' ( 0 + )>0, > . ]-,[ / ' < 0 ,
, .
) , j " = :
= 3^, ' = 6,
]-[ (<0), ]1,[ (>0).
X = j ; " = , = 1
,
. j ^ " = = 1
. 7.45. ;;" = = 1

1 ^
. 75
, = = 1 .
]-,0] < 0 ,
X]0,1] > , ]1, ] / ' <
.
y{Qj) = , (\) = 1, (. 7.46).

, 7,46
www.kodges.ru
357

7.13.
1. -
= f{x) jc > , lim {f{x) - ( + Z?)] = ,
JC-^oo

. .
. IA b
/()
= lim = lim {f{x) - ).
, .
lim / ( ) = 6, = f{x) -
j^ = b.
lim f{x) = , = f{x)
, ,
= . =
. , .
2. x==(p[t), y=\i/[t),
, t,
(p{t), y^{t)
.
y = kx-^b,

A: = l i m ^ ^ fc = lim(VA(-:(0), (p{t,)=\i/{t,)=00.
'^'0 (pit ] '~^'
V^(/o) = ^5 (^) = ,
X = . ((1^) = , {{/(t^) = ,
= .
3^. = {()
, ,
= pcos(p = p{(p)cos(p,
j^ = sin ^ = (^)sin ,
.
www.kodges.ru
358 7

4^. F{x,y) = (. .
),

.

^ 1^^^ "^ ^ -> ^^ -


:/;(0<:<; 0<1<),
= +
,
, .

.


j ; .
1^ 1 U " ^+ +
13.1. : ) = ;
JC-1
sin X
) >^ = - ; ) =
X - 1 X
, ) jc = 1 ,

,. X^+3JC + 6 ,. ^+ + 6
lim = -, =

= 1 .

+6 , . ,. (^+ + 6 ^
= lim = 1; Z? = Km X =4

,
= + 4. .
7.47.
www.kodges.ru
359

. 7.47

) lim = , : = 1 - - 1

jc > lim f{x) - lim = , -


j^ = .
X
= lim = Z? = ,
^-^-(^ - 1 )
. . 7.48.

. 7.48
www.kodges.ru
360 7

) ,
,
.
:

, j ; = .

J = ,
= (: = 1,2,...)
(. 7.49).

-2

, 7.49

13.2. : )/(:) = '';

, )

lim/(jc) = lime'' = 1, lim /(jc) = lim e'^ = 1,


JC-*oo JC->oo

, = \.
:

lim f{x) = lim e"" = oo, lim /(JC) = lim e"" =0,
www.kodges.ru
jc->+0 x->+0 x--0 jr--0
361

, jc = (. 7.50).

0\ ^
. 7,50
) jc G ] - ^ 0] ]1, +[. -

lim f{x) = lim J = ^ = 1

. lim
^-^^ V Jc-1
lim , .
-1
:

1) : = l i m - ^ ^ ^ ^ = lim ^ ^ ^ =.1,

/ 7~ x(yfx-yjx-l)
= lim X \= ^ , ^:
V
jc(x-jc + l) 1
= lim / = Imi __j_
/;^(/ + >/;^) "^"2
""'4 i+ji
/

, + .
www.kodges.ru
362 7

2) = lim ^-1 b = lim +


x-l
V
: x = -t, jc -> -, t -^, :

A: = lim^^^^ = - l i m j = - l i m 1-1-= ~ 1 ,

Z? = l i m = lim ^ 7=^ ^ lini ^ ^ :


+\
1 1
= -lim-
1+J1+
7
, --.
. 7.51.

. 7.51
www.kodges.ru
363

1 t
13.3. : ) --^ -;

)-=7' ^=717' '^ ^
, ) /_^0:>; yz=. = ,
, y = Q. t -^ 1
X -> 1; >^ -~> ^, ,
X = 1 .
) / > 1 .
:

te' J \ e4t-\)
h = lim = lim = -lim-
'-^1 ( l - / ) ( l + r) ^^4 + / 2'
v'-'' '-'%
.r
Z?^ = l i m
^ fe'
= lim
.4^-fi) e-' 1
/^-1 ^^-i(l-/)(l + r) 2 2^'
v'-'' '-'%
, 7 - ^ ^ : 7 ,

^--
2
)
asmcp
: = - = - , (
( (
. ^ - ^ 0 >, = , . . lim ^ = . -
, =
(. 7.52).
www.kodges.ru
364 7

. 7.52

13.4. : ) ^=6^+'',
x'-i
X
, )
(. . ^) 1, .

j ; = + 6,
'^ -^^+^ +' -6' - ' = .

X (. . ^ ^),
I '-1 = 0;
\^-6 = 0.
/: = 1, = 2 . ,
= -\-2.
) ,
X = , =
. :

= lim
->
I ^-1
= 0, b= lim
Jx'-l
X
-Ox
\
=1

6= lim -Ox

www.kodges.ru
365

: = -^, -^ -, / -^ ,

= U m i ^ = -l.
t^oo _^

3JC'~2
\) =
(.^-1),

, ^ - - \ / ? '^^

(. 7.53).

, 7.53

7.14.


:
1. .

.
www.kodges.ru
366 7

2. , ,
, . .
.
3.
.
4.
.
, .
5.
.
.
6. .
7. ,
.
,
, .
,
, .

,
.
14.1. :
^ 2
) J^ = J C ' - 8 J C ' " 9 ; ) = - ^ ; ) = \ - ; ) j^ = jcV^

) = .

, )
. , ,
.
: = ,
= -9.
www.kodges.ru
367

= {^ + 1)(^ - 9 ) , ,
{^ + l)(jc^ - 9 ) = ,
JC = db3.
- ^ -16
4JC^ - 1 6JC = . {^ - 4) =
Xj = , ^2 = 2, =- 2.
/' = 12^ - 1 6 . \2) > , Xj = 2
= -2 , \0) < ,
X = .
: j;(0) = -9; j^(2) = - 2 5 .
, -
2
: ' = 0; 12^ -16 = 0, = -7=-. /' -
/
,
.
161
:
^ 9

lim (* -Sx^ 9) = .
. 7.54.

. 7.54

www.kodges.ru
368 7

) , = v3 .
X = V 3 JC = -/3
.

lim - ^ = ; lim
;-^/--:^ ' ^>/+-^
' v3
lim - = ;
^->-N/3-0 3 - X ^ '
lim
;,_,_7+0 3 - ^
, ,
. = ;; = ,
, .
^ , ^(3~)(3 + )
;; = ^^ -^^- -
\ )
(3-)(3 + ) = 0 .
j^'
(. 7.55 ). , = - 3
(-3)=4,5, = 3
j^(3) = - 4,5. =
, , = .

-3 0 3
. 7,55

6(9 + ')
= ~^. -
(3-^)^
' - =
, , =
.
www.kodges.ru
369

:
f x' 3x
A: = lim ^ = -1; fe = lim +x lim- = 0,
3-' 3-'
, = -.
. 7.56.

. 7.56
) .
> 0 , . . J C G ] - - O O , - 1 [ XE]2,OO[
+1
(. 7.57).

-/ 2 ^
. 7.57


jc-2
lim In = -. , = - 1 = 2 -
-42+0 JC + 1
.
www.kodges.ru
370 7

=
( + 1)(~2)
,
.
. 3(1-2)
= ^^-2 ^ -
( + 1) (~2)
1 - 2 = , = , =
2 2
. < - 1 /' >0
; > 2 " <0
.
X>
~2
lim In = , , j ; = -
. . 7.58.

'1

. 7.58
)
. X = . ^ > e""" > ,
3^ > X.
www.kodges.ru
371

' = '"" (2 - jc)


'"" (2 - ) = .
, ^=0
^2 = 2.
(. 7.59), jc = 0 , -
4
, = 2 , (2) - ,

0 2 ^
. 7.59

" = e'"" (2 - 4 + jc^)


'"''(2-4 + ^) = 0, jCj2 = 2 v 2 .

(. 7.60), jc,2 = 2 v 2
X < 2 - /2 , ]2 - /2,2 + /2 [
, ]2 + /2,[ .

2-42 2+42 ^

. 7.60
:
^ 2 2
lim ^ ""=>, ^ "" =lim = lim = lim= 0,
. . = 0 .
. 7.61.
www.kodges.ru
372 7

2-42 2 2+42 X

. 7.61

) , = 1.
X = 1 . =
. ^ j ; > , . . .
2
= -
(^-1)
// 2(2+1)
X = . = -- -
(-1)
= . \0) > , =
, ;;(0) = .
" = =
, ,
= ,

X
lim = , . . = 1
--1 (-1)'
X
. > lim = 1, . .
^"^-*(-1)^
www.kodges.ru
373

= 1 .
. 7.62.

. 7.62
14.2. :
) x = acos^^ y = a^w^t, [0,2:[; ) x = a{t-smt) ,

y = ail-costl te[0;2K];B) x = j ^ , ^^l + t''
, a) t.
X , ,
, . .
.
jc = , , cos ^ = t = , .
/ = ^fsin^ t ,
= .
= 0, , sin/ = / = 0;:.
/ = cos^ t , = .
,
((2,0); {0,); (-,0); (, -).
'^ = - cos^ t sin , ' = sin^ t cos /,
1

r X 3a COS tsmt
www.kodges.ru
374 7

;;' . ^ = , = :

, ^ = , ^ = .
, /


,2:
2
7'"
^6 0,- j;^ < , >^^ > , . .
/
.

^ \\ j^^ > j;![^ > , . .

.
( \ j ' < >^!^ < , . .

%
. 16 ,1% >,
j ; ^ < , . .
. , ,

, , 1^\ ,

t - {, :} j^^ = , j ; =
X, . . (,0) (-,0) -
^
. = ; ^ ,
: = , (0,), (0,-flf)
. ,
(. 7.63).
,
,
.
www.kodges.ru
375

. 7.63
) t
^ G [0,2;].
. jc = , sin ^ =/, / = .;; = 0, cos/ = l , / = 0,
t = 27t' , ^ =
, t-ln = 2
' = (1-8/), y[ = as\nt,
sin cos/(l--cosO-sin^^ 1

=-1-cos^' "^ ^ a(\-cost)^ a(l-cosO^
[ , sin ^ =
/ = {0;;; 2;}.
l-cos^ = 0, . .
^ = {0; 27}.
= {0;2}, ..
( - , + ), (27 ~ , 2: + ) , |^| > , [
. ,
= {; 2\ , t = n
'^<0,,. x = 7ia
= 2. , '^ <0 ,
^ G [; 2;], .
www.kodges.ru
376 7

; ^ > ,
, . t ,2
'^ < , , .
(. 7.64).


.

. 7.64
) , = - 1 .
/ = = , j = t -><^
X, J -> , . .
.
.
^3at'l + t'^
A: = l i m ^ = l i m =-1.
^^- x{t) ^-^-1 1 + r 3at

'3at' 3at
b = lim {y{t) - kx{t)) = lim
JC->-l x-^-l
\+r \+r
3at
= lim = -a
^-'-n-t + r
x + y + a = 0.
t - - 1 , {,)
, -
, , , . .
www.kodges.ru
377

, .
/ -1 {,)
, jc
, . , . . ,
. /
- ,
, ,, .

^ = ,
X

F(jc, ) = ^ +^ -- = .
F: X ay -
/: = 3{'-),: = 3(/-),
=Fy -
^=0
F(x,y) = 0, = 0, = 0
= /2, = /4- '^ = /2
F'' 6
1 - = 2 ^^ ^^^ ^ >^^ < ,
Fy -)
^^ = /4; = ay/l.
(0,0) F/ = F' = 0, ,
.
, (. 7.65).
.

www.kodges.ru
. 7.65
378 7

1 5.
1. f{x) +1
^ = ,
w-
R^ ( )

/ ( ) = / ( ) + ^ ( - ) + ^ ( - ) ... ^i-^ix-aJ^K, (1)


1! 2! \

R^^- ^-^ ; = + 0 ( ~ ) ; <0<1 -


(w + 1)!
.
(- )
/ ( ) -
7?
, .
2. = (1)
/=/()./../^. ... .!^.:, (2,
1! 2! \
,
.
^ = - .

R^ = (9(( - )"),
( ).
R^ = 0('').
15.1. ) " \ ) sinx; ) cosx; ) (1 + )'";
) 1(1 + ), -
.
www.kodges.ru
379

, ) /(jc) = e'', /^"^(jc) = e''


w= 1,2,3, ...
/ ( 0 ) = 1, /^"^(0) = 1, (2)

^-=1 + ^ + ^ 1 + ... + + .
1! 2! \ "

/^
^"7 -^" .
( + 1)!
"" 3
I ^ 1"^ / . 14, ^"^^' '^' , = 1, | /?(1) |< ;
(w + 1)! (/1 + 1)!
10 2"'^*
X = 2, I i? (2) |< . . >
( + 1)!
,
. : = 1

, 1 1 1 1
- 1 + + + + ... +
1! 2! 3!
) f{x) = sin X, / ( 0 ) = ;

f\x) = cosx = sin ^ - | \ 0 ) = 1;

^
f'\x) = - sin X = sin I + 2 ^ | , ( 0 ) = 0;

r V ) = COSX = s i n f x + 3 | \ / ' = -l;

/''^=sin x-\-n , /<">(0) = s i n | .


www.kodges.ru
380 7

2-\
' '
smx = x-+- ... +(-1)"-'^^: +R
3! 5! ( 2 w - l ) ! "

^2m+l 2m+\

R = sm(ex+(2m + \)-)<^
" (2m + l)! ^ ^ '2' (2m + l)!'
T. K. |sina| < 1 >
.
) / ( x ) = cosx,TO / ( 0 ) = 1

f\x) = -sinjc = cos fx + | \ /'(0) = 0;

f'\x) = - c o s X = COS fx+2|\ /"(0) = - l ;

f''\x) = sin X = cosfx + 3 | \ /"'(0) = 0;

/*"4^) = cos ( ^^
/^"40) = cos
x+n ,

2m
cosjc = l - + ~ ... ++R
2! 4! (2m)! "

2m+2
i? = - cos(0jc + (2m + 2))<
" (2m + 2)! ^ ^ '2' (2m + 2)!'
T. K. |cosa| < 1 n-^oo
.
) (1 + )'",
.
www.kodges.ru
381

(1 + )"' , . .
=0
/ ( ) = (1+, /(1) = 1;
/'(x) = m(l + x r - ' , / ( l ) = m;
f\x) = { -1)(1 + jc)-^, /"(1) = { -1);

/'*>(x) = m(w-l) ... (- + 1)(1 + -\

f'\\) = m(m-l) ... (m-k + l).


^ ^ 1! 2! !

/ = " ^ ( " ^ - ^ > - ^ " ^ - " > - ( 1 + - " - ' , (<0<1).


(w + l)!
/? > X G ] ~ 1 , 1 [ , . .

.
) =

) = - ^ , /'(0) = 1;
1 + JC

/)=^, /"(0)=-1

f"(x) =- ^ , /"'(0) = 1-2.


(1 + )'

/':) = - - | ^ , / ^ 4 ) = -1-2-3;
\1- X)

www.kodges.ru
382 7

,
^ ^ ^ "
1(1+^) = - ^ + ^ - ^ + ... + ( - 1 ' ^ + ,
2 3 4

+ 1[1+)
i? >
]-1,1],. . .
15.2. '* 2^ + ^ + 5
+ 2.
. / () = '' 2^ + ^ + 5
:
/'() = 4^-62 + 3, /"(x) = 12x'-12x + 2, /"'(:) = 24-12,
/^'':) = 24,/^"^=0 >5. = -2 :
/(-2) = 25, /'(-2) = -57, (-2) = 74, /'"(-2) =36, ( - 2 ) = 24.
" - 2 x 4 - 5 = 25 - 57( + 2) + 37( + 2f -
-10( + 2)( + 2)\
15.3. ,
/() = (^ + 2 -1)^ .
. =
fix) = 2(' + 2 - 1)(3' + 2), /'(0) = - 4;
/"() = 2((3' + 2 ) 4 " +12^ - 6), /"(0) = 8;
/'"() = 12(2(3' +2) + 44-1), /'"(0) = -12;
/ ' ^ ) = 12(30x48), /'>(0)=96;
/^^) = 720, /^0) = 0;
/ ' ^ ) = 720, / ' 0 ) = 720.
www.kodges.ru
383

/ ( 0 ) = 1
: = ,
( X 4 2 J C - 1 ) ' = 1 - 4 X + 4JC'-2JC44JC4JC'.

15.4. vx
-\.
.
(2=1:

f{x) = x^; /(1) = 1; f\x) = \x~'; f\\) = r,


4 4

44 44
1 1 7 -- 117
4 44 444

^'''W = -777T^'^'
4444 /'''(!) =-777T-
4444
(1)
\2 -J / , - 1\3
<G = ui(.-l)-ii<izl)l^>-3.7(.-l)'
4^ ' 44 2! 4' 3!
--!)"
+/.
4!

=^^^(:-1)'; = \-{-\); <0<1.


15.5. : ) "^" *;
) In cos : X*.
, ) (15.1 ,)
cos : ,
www.kodges.ru
384 7

,, , cos^x cos^jt: cos''x


e""'^ = l + cosx + + + + 0(cos''x).
24
x^ x"
(15.1,) cosx = l + + 0 ( ) ,

( 2 4 2 \ .4
1^ ' ^
=1+ , X X *1+ 1 - + 1 - ^
1 + 2V 2, 2 24
2 24 V )
/ .2 / .2 V -4 ^
1/ ..2\
1/ ..2\
X
+- 1-- 1-- + 1 - ^ +4 1 - ^ hHO(x') =
6 24 24 V 2, 2 24
V V

61 ^
65-32x4" -0(.
24 V 6
) In cos = In (l + (cos : -1))
(15.1 ,), cos - 1

lncosjc = c o s x - l ( c o s j c - l ) ^ + - ( c o s - 1 ) ^ + 0 ( ^ ) .

R^ = (^),
X sin : , , 1 - cos jc = 2 sin^
2
: .

cosx
2 24 720

2 1 4 1
lncosx = X + X -
2 24 720^ 2 4 24

www.kodges.ru
385

1
+ - 1^ 8 J ^ ^ 2 12 45 ^ ^
3
15.6. 0,001
: ) sin 20; ) cos 65 .
, ) sin
: (15.1,),

= 20 =
180 9
. -- --3 .5 2-\

sin ^ + - ... + ( - 1 ^ ^^
9 9 3!9' 5!9' (2-1)!9'"-^ "*

,
,
3 5

I |<
^<0,006, IR, | < - ^ < 0 , 0 0 0 0 3 .
3!9 5!9
17?21< 10"^,
,
7?2

s i n - = - ^ = 0,3491-0,0071 = 0,342
9 9 3!9'
: - 3,14159
, . .
10"^.
) cosx
/ \- ( ^K\{x df
cosjc = cosa + cos +C0S + 2 \- -
2 1! 2 2!
www.kodges.ru
386 7

I {-
+ ... +COS -
2
+.
{-)"
R - cos + {-)-{ + \) (<0<1).
( + !)

I COS |< 1, -
( + 1)!
,
.
,
.

= 60 = 60,

- = (65-60) - ,
180 36
^^^ \ S 71 1 : ' / :'
cos65 = ;-+ -+ + /?.
2 2 1!36 2 2!36' 2 3!36^
I /?^ |< 10^,
,
cos65= 0,4221.

www.kodges.ru
8

8.1.
.
1.
(, j^,Z, ... ,t) -
w,
x,y,z, ... ,/, -
', w = / ( x , y , z , ... , / ) .
x,y,z, ... ,/
, .

^{^,^,2^, ... .t^)


, -
.
2. z = / ( , )
. ,
www.kodges.ru
388 8

, ,
,
, , .
= /(JC, , z)

. ,
- f{x,y,z, ... ,t)
- .
- / ( , )
,
, / ( , ) = ,
.
= f{x,y,z)
,
, f{x,y,z) = C .

.

1.1. / ( , ) = Y ) -
X +
(1,1); ^(3,~4); ) / ( - 1 , + 1), / (\, 1^
/
, )
/ ( , ) N,
.
/(1,1) = - ^ j - = , '^

(-4)' 25
) ,
x,j^ - 1 , + 1 , -
www.kodges.ru
389

1 1 ^ ^
, , .
X
(-\)(+1) '-\
f(x-l,x + l) =
{x-iy+ix + \y 2(jc'+l)'
11
xy
/
y'x lY ^ +/

1.2. f{x,y^, a) / 'y ^


=x -y
-,x-y
6) f{^x'^y,lx-y) = xy. yX J

, a) =, v = x-y.
X
V UV
,, = , = .
1 1

V _v'(\-u') _v\l + u)
f(",v) =
(\- (l-uf (l-uf 1-
u,v ,,

,) = \ ^ /
\--
) = 2 + , v = 2x-y.
^ 1/


f{u,v) = l(u'-v').

u,v ,,
1
f{x,y) = - ( Ux'-y').
8
www.kodges.ru
390 8

1.3. :

) z = l n ( x 4 / - l ) ; 6 ) ^== / =\'&) z = arcsin-;


I X X

) 1=^^-\- + ,]-;) 2 = \;) /(,() = (.


, ) , ^ +^ -1>0
^ +^ >l,T.Q,

.
) Z -
2 2 2 2

1 >0 + < 1 , . . -
4 3 4 3
.
.

) , ^ - 1 < <1
X

-JC< <.
, y x^^
= -X ,
0(0,0).
) , x-fj;>0 - ^ - ^ ^ . .

, ,
.
) , >^ > , . .
,
, .
)
sin ( > , . . < 9> ^ :, .
.
www.kodges.ru
391^

1.4. :

) = arcsin .
2
, )
z x^ -^ > , 2>^ -^,
. .
, ,
.
)
2 2 2

1 ~ -> 7 - ?

- + - ^ + -:;-< 1, . .
b ^
,
, .
) ,
' ++ '
. /:" "
z ^ O -1<-^^^ =<1, 0 < j c ^ + / < z ^
Z
1.5. :
) 2 = : ^ - ; ) w = x ^ + / + z ^
, )
^ - j ; ^ = , . . .
> , <
,
)
^ + j ; ^ + ^^ = , . .
.
www.kodges.ru
392 8

8.2.
.
1. / ( )
^MQ, >
5 > , , ^
I^ \< 5 ,
\f{M)-A\<e.
f{M) = 4 .

/(jc,)^^
X-^XQ

2. . f^{M) /)
-^ MQ ,
) Jim (;() + /()) = Jim ;() + Jim / , ( ) ;

) Jim (;()/,()) = Jim y;(M)Jim /,();

) lim ^^-^^^- = ^ ; lim fJM)^0.


M-.M, f (M) lim /2 (M) -^/ -^ 2 ^
3. / ( ) ^,
:
) f{M) ^;

) lim f(M);

) l i m / ( M ) = / ( M o ) .
^ ,
.
, . . -
www.kodges.ru
393

f{M) G,
.
,

.
^. Jjcy + l - l
2.1. : ) lim-
^-^0 +

) lim^HW; ) l i m V ^ ; ) lim(l + ;c4;;^)"^^V .

, )

'
= , lim . = .
"-^4(l + A:)(Vfcc'+l+l)
)
sina sin XV ,. sinxv ^ , ^
lim = 1. hm ^ = limx :i-=:21 = 2.

B) j ; =fcc,. e. : j
.

',::;^'+/ ;^^4i+t^) i+*'


,
, . . .
)

lim(l+B)P = .
www.kodges.ru
394 8

1 _
lim(l + jc^ + yM ^'V =lim (H-x4/)^'-^x 2 = e-'=i

2.2. : ) 2 = 1(:^ -^'^);


1
)" = -^-
, ) z = 1(^ + }^^)
X = , j ; = .
, 0(0,0) .
) ,
, . . ^ + j ; ^ - z^ = . ,
^ -^ - z^ .

8.3.
1. (XQ, j^Q)
z = z(x, ).
,
z-z{x^y) (^o^J^o) ^^ jc:
Az
Az = z(Xo + Ax, >^o) - Z(XQ , J/Q ). lim -
1- z
X (,>^) ~ - zj^x^y).


Z >^: = Z (, ^. z = z(x, )
, , j , -
.
z = z(x,,X2,...,^) , -
www.kodges.ru
395

, -
.
( jc^) .
2. Z = Z (Xj, ^2,..., jc^)
,
9^

z(Ax,,Ax2, ... ,AxJ = A'"z(xj,X2, ... , x j .


.
Z = Z (jCp JC2,..., JC^)
X.,
mz{x,,x^, ... , x J = XiZ;(Xj,jC2.-.-^J +
' - ^ 2 ^ X 2 V"^l 9 "^2 ' 9 -^ / ' " " ' - ^ n ^JC V-^1 ? - ^ 2 9 9 -^/1 /

3.1. : a) z = ^ .;
X -^y

6) z = xysin(2x + 3>^); ) z = ^cos(2x-j;) ; r) z = 2 X

) z = In tg ;)2 = ^ ^ ' - ^ ) z =
3 4 arctg

, a) j^ ,
:
dz __ (^+^)-2 _ (^ -^)
~ (^+ ""(/)'-
X , >^:
dz _ (^ +^)-2 _ (^ -^)
^~ {x'+/f "(/)^-
) ,
www.kodges.ru
396 8

= >'(sin(2j: + 3;;) + 2xcos(2x + )). -

dz
, = x(sin(2x + 3;^) + 3;^ cos(2x + )).

dz 1 -f 2
) = - c o s ^(2x-j;)-2 =
^ 3 3^cos'(2x->;)
^ = -cos'^(2x-;;)(-l) = , ^
3 3^cos'(2x-j)
X

) = 2" 2
^41 '
\n2-V
[ X )
dz --- f /
X

= 2" "! 12-2-''


V
- )
1 1 1
)

'' ")
2\ X \ 3 ~ .
cos 3sin
3 4 3 2
3z_ 1 1 n 1
_Z 2x
tg ^-Ziv V 2 sin
3 4 cos 3 4

e) ^ = ;^(e'"^-^ + xe'"^-^ (-1)) = ^ - ^ (1 - X),


dx
= xie""'-" + ye'''-") 10 = xe'"'-" (1 +1 Oy)

1 1 1
)
V / V 7
arctg- 1+ (/) arctg-
v^y V )
1 X
2
;; /'' /
arctg- 1+ (/) arctg
3^ \yj 3^
www.kodges.ru
397

2
3.2. : ) = +;
) I/ = yJt-X^'-y^-Z^ .
, ) , z , -

: = 3 ,

, z ,

Z*
_
X, J , ^ ^
dz Z

^tl 1 , ^
) - = 1 2 2 2^"^^) = - ^ - / - :?'
OJC 2^Jt-x^-y^-z^ ^/^
7
:(-2>') = -
/^ 7'
1 Z
(-2z) = -
2-'-'-2' -x'-y^-z''

_ 1

3.3. : ) //(1;2),/,'(1;2), / ( , ) = ^-^ +\;


):(1;0;2), ;(1;0;2), :(1;0;2), M = l n ( x ' + / + z ' ) .
, )
(1 ;2)
/: = 3'-\ /; = '-3\ /;(1;2) = - 2 , /'(1;2) = - 1 1 .
)
(1;0;2)
www.kodges.ru
398 8

,_ 2 ,_ 2 ,_ 2z
" ^ - 7 7 7 ^ ' "^"x4/+z^' ""^"^'

3.4. , : ) ---^ =0,



, . . ^^ dz dz , V
z = + arcsin(xy); ) X-+ >^- = ^, z = jcln .
X
, )
2
, dz __ 2

,
X 2 X 2 2 2

) = 1 1, - = .
X
,
^
-x + j^= 1 = z
X '
3.5. :

) Z = ^ - x v ' + ^; ) Z = a r c t g - .

, )
xz[^-yz'^=mz.

= ' -^, = -2 + ^. ,

(3' - / ) + -2 + 3 / ) =3(' - / + / ) =3z.
www.kodges.ru
399

) = ,
X -
dz X ^ ^ r^
= J 7 , ; ; - = ,
X - JC + / X +/
m = 0.
8.4.

1^. z = / ( , ^
, , .
A^z = /(jc + Ax,j^)-/(jc,j^)
X, z
,
. z

, . .
dz ,
d.z = -dx. (1)

d.^ = Yy^y- (2)


w = /(^, ... ,),

d,u = ~^ dx,, d u = ^-dx^, ..., d u = ^-dx^ (3)


dXj 0X2 ox^

2.
, , z = / ( , )

www.kodges.ru
400 8


,
,.
z
. .

dz = dx +dy. (4)

w = / (,,^2, ... ,)

, 3w , 3i/ , ,
du=-dx^+dx^-^ ... +-dx^, (5)
dXi 0X2 ox^
3.
,
Au^du.

(, >^,..., z),
^(^,^, ... , ZQ)

{)^ u(M^) + u[{M^)dx + u^{M^)dy-^,..W^{M^)dz, (6)

-=^, y-yQ=dy, .., , z-z^^dz.

4.1. : ) z = ^x^+y;
6)w=ln(x4/~2z').
, )
3z _ 2 3z _ 1

www.kodges.ru
401

, Ixdx - dy

) .

2 2 4z
x 4 / ~ 2 z ' ' j c 4 / - 2 z ' ' dz x4/-2z'*
,
2xdx , 2ydy , 4zdz
du = 2 , 2 '-i 2 '
(i,.w:
v*^ 2 , 2 n 2 ' dM
'^ 2 , 2 2
X - -Iz X - -2z X ^- -2z
4.2. :

) z = arctg^^-^; ) ^''.
\-
, )
dz _ 1 \ + -'{-) _ 1+
^-^' (1 + )' 1 + '- + / '
1+
1 + jcy

az
(1 + )^ l + jc^-xy + /
1+
l + xy
(4)
(1 + / ) ^ ^ - ( 1 + ');
dz
1 + x^-jcy + y
)
. ^_1 .,-, 2,
= fx'"-\ ^= x^ In X'zy =:jc^ Injcy ln>;

dy ' www.kodges.ru dz
402 8

,
du = ^^ ~^dx + ^~ y^'^z In xdy + ^ ^ In In ydz =

dx zlnx
= fx-'- + dy + \nx\nydz
X
4.3.
: ) l n ( V W + V W - 1 ) ; ) (1,02)' (0,98)' (2,03)'.

, ) z = lnl^Jx+ ^-l).
(0,97;1,04).
^ (1; 1).

Jjc = x-Xo=0,97"l = - 0 , 0 3 , J); = J;-J;Q =1,04-1 = 0,04
(6)
1

z(M)=^z{M,) + 4b' dx-{-


3^7 dy
V^+VJ^-1 ^+^-1

ln(^^+',llM-l) = \n(fl + fl-l)+ "^f (-0,03) +


1
+ 3 ^ 0 , 0 4 = - = ,32
VT+Vi-i 4 3 ' -
6) = x^y^z^
(1,02; 0,98; 2,03). ^ (I ;1 ;2)
. t/x = jc-Xo =0,02;
(iy = >^->^ = -0,02; t/z = 2 - ZQ = 0,03

www.kodges.ru
(6)
403


{)-{^)- dx-\- dy + dz
Mr,

= 1'1'2' + 4 1'1'2' 0,02 + 3 1'1'2' (-0,02) + 2 l'l'2 0,03 =

= 4 + 0,16-0,24 + 0,12 = 4,04.


4.4. :
= 2 , b = 3 , = 6 .
,
3 , b 1, 2 .
.
+ + = 7 .

2ada 2bdb 2cdc


Al-dl= ,
^'+^+ = + -
^a^+b'+c^ ^Ja^+b^+c^

= , ^ ^{ada+bdb+cdc)= ^ =(20,3+30,l+6(-2)) =

= | ( - 0 , 3 ) = -0,0857,

T. e. 0,857.
4.5. z = 4xy + 5x-2y ^4(1;3),
5(1,04;2,97). :
) ;
)
,
.
, ) (6)
z{B) = z(^) + z; {A)dx + z; (A)dy .
: z(l;3) = 4 b 3 + 5 1 - 2 - 3 = ll; z^ =4>^+5, z;(l;3) = 17.
www.kodges.ru
404 8

z\=4x-2, z;(l;3) = 2, t/x = x~Xo = 1,04-1 = 0,04, dy = y-y^ =


= 2,97-3 = -0,03.

z{B) - 1 1 + 17- 0,04 + 2(^0,03) = 11,62.
)
z(5) = 41,04-2,97 + 51,04-2-2,97=: 11,6152.
"",

S 8 = -

111,61-11,62
, 5 = = 0,00086.
11,62
11,62 100 %, ,
0,007%.

8.5.

1^.
= / ( , j , . . . , 0
.


'

( '
= w,.
\
" J

,
, ,
, . .
www.kodges.ru
405

\ \
*


( :^2..
'

///
2 "~ ^ '
v^-%

.
2^.
- f{x,y)

d{du)^d^u\
, 2 .^ , J
-z-rdx -2-(1 + - (1)


d{d\) = d'u\




Y
d^'u dx-\ dy (3)
)

, " .
www.kodges.ru
406 8

= /(XpXj,..., jc^)

d"u (4)

5.1.
) z = \n(x^ -^^); ) u=xy + yz + zx.
, )
dz _ 2 3z __ 2
^ -^' ^ + ^

a'z_2(jc4/)-2jc-2x_ /-jc'
' (/)' (jc'+/)''

'2^2(/)^4/^2('-/)
/ (/)' (^/)^'
3'z _ 4 3^2 _ 4>;
(' + / ) ' ' (' + / ) ' '
,

.
)

= y + z; = x + z; = +
^ 3z

^^^_. ^^"-. ^^"_- ^^" - 1 - ^^" - 1 - ^^" -1


' ' ^ ' dz^ ' >^ ' dxdz dydz

www.kodges.ru
407

5.2. : ) ^-
^ ^ ,, z =
= cos(xy);
cos(jcy); ) - _:^ :^:::^-,
) ::;^
dxayoz
= (xyzf.
, )
,
,
dz / 9^z ^ /
- = -xsin(xy); = - cos(xy);

d^z
- = - (2 JC cos(jcy) - ^ sin(xy)) = ^ sin(xy) ~ 2 cos(xy)

) .

= 3 (xyz^ = 3x^y^z^
dz

= 9x'y'z\ ^ i ^ i _ = 27xVV,
dydz ' dxdydz
5.3. : a) z'^XO;l); 6) <;(0;1), z = ^ ^
, a)
(0,1).
z'y = ^"" ^,
z;; = 2''' + x^e'^'^lxy = 2(1 + ')'''',
= 4x^(1 + ')''' + (2 + 6')'''.
z;;;^^(0,l) = 2 .
) z^'^,
z'^y = Ix^e""^^' + 2{\ + ^)^'''^.
^rw(0;l) = 0.
www.kodges.ru
408 8

5.4. , :

) w = ^sinAxcosaA/, w = ^-^^^("'^">, ^^-^\ ) z = e"^



J^ 2 Z 2 Z

, )

~ = -AcL^ sin sin aXt, -- = -AiaXf sin cos aXt,


/ /'


- = AX
4 cos
COS
cos
COSaXt^
^ -- = -}} sin cos aXt.

,
-^}} sin cos aXt = Aci^}^ sin cos aXt >
.

^ = sin(a^ + xK^^^^'"^\
^
~ = (' cos(at + ) + ' sin' (at + ))^-^^^^'''"^^,
dt
= sin(fl/ + xK^^^^^'"^\

^ = (cos(fl/ + x) + sin' (at + x))e-^^^"'^"^.

,
^ (cosiat + ) + sin' (at + ))^-'"^^^'^"^ =
= ' (cos(a^ + ) + sin' (at + ))^-''^^"'^"^.
.
)
www.kodges.ru
409

3z , ^Z 2 XV ^2 X ^2
= jcV.
'' ' ^ "^ ' ' ^
,
^^^^' -^^'^' = , .

z = .

dz 1 fy"^ ty\ ^^
2
2 ^ yXj yX J '~4 J

dz__l
~ 2 ^f (
d'z _3 1

3/" 1 3 ^ 3 ^
^- ^4-/ 4 i =0 1^-^=
(
.

5.5. : ) d z, z = xln ; ) J w, = ^;
X

) (i^z , Z = '' siny.


, )
(1).

d'z_ 1 d'z 1
^ = ln^-l;
X ^ X
dz X d^z
' ^
www.kodges.ru
410 8

^ ^ ,2 dx^xdy^ Idxdy
, J z = h
-.
X
) .
(4),

d^u=-dx +-dy +-J z +


' / az'

+2 dxay-\-2 axdz + z ayaz ^


dxdz dydz

^, ^,, ^,
= yze^ , = xze^ , = '
dz '

' '' ' ' ' ' ' ' '


' , . ,. '
= (z + xyz')e^\ ^ = (y + xy'z)e''-^
:
'
{x^xyz)e^
dydz

d'u = "^' {{yzdxf + {xzdyf + {xydzf +
+(z + xyz' )dxdy + (jK + xy'z)dxdz 4- (x + x'yz)dydz).
) (2).

dz ^ . dz ^ d'z ^ .
= sin;;, = cosj;, - = smy
'
d'z . -z _ ' Z
^ cosjv, 1 ~ ~ ^ sinj;, j = e sinj^^

www.kodges.ru
411

d'z . a'z . . '




d^z = "" sin ydx^ + "" cos ydx^dy - "" sin ydxdy^ -
-e"" cos j^tfy^ = e"" (sin j^fltc^ + 3 cos ydx^dy - 3 sin ydxdy^ - cos >^(i>^^).

8.6.
1. z = /(w,t;,...,w)
,, ... , ^
: =u(x,y,...,t),
v = v(x,y,.,t), ... , w=w(x,y,...,t).




dz _ dz dz dv dz dw
dv dw
dz _ dz dz dv dz dw
dy du dy dv dy dw dy

dz __ dz du dz dv dz dw
dt du dt dv dt '" dw dt '


= {), v = v(x), w = w{x),
z

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412 8

dz _ dz du dz dv dz dw
dx du dx dv dx dw dx
z z = /(x,w,t;,...,w), u,v, ,,w
X,

dz _ dz dz du dz dv dz dw
dx dx du dx dv dx dw dx
2. z = f{u,v,...,w) ,
(
)

. dz . dz . dz .
dz = -du +dv-\- ... +-aw, (4)
du dv dw
2-

d d d
d'z = du +dv+ ... + d w z +
ydu dv dw J

dz ,2 dz ,2 ^z ,2
+ - - ^ w + d \ ... +d^w, (5)
du dv dw
6.1. :

) z = yju^+v^, w = cosx, 2; = sinjc; ) z=j^\ny, x=2u+3v, y = ;


V
) u=xyz, x = lnt, y = l-\-t^, z = smt; r) z=xlnwsmu, w = cosx,
v = x^ -\.
, a) u,v
,
(2)
www.kodges.ru
41^

dz . V . .
= 1 sin X + . c o s JC = - c o s JC s i n X + s i n X COS X = 0

6) x,y
u.v.B (1)

dz _ dz dz
'
dz __ dz dz
dv dv dv '

= ^\-2 + = 6(2 + \- + -
V V '
dz ^ 21 ^ XV ^ -. / - . . -
= 9{2u-h3vyin- ^
dv V "% V V

) ,

, (2)

= yz- + xz2t + xycost = sin/ + 2/ln^sin / + (1 + / jln^cosi


dt t t
r) x
, (3)
dz . . -^ / , ^
= In W sin +sin v(- sm x)-\-xmu cos v-2x =
dx
= In cos jc sin(jc^ -1) - sin(x^ ~ 1) + 2x^ In cos x cos(x^ -1).
X
6.2. dz ^^2, z = f{u,v\ M=sin(xy), u = ln.
. 1 -
(4),
www.kodges.ru
414 8

du= dx-\ dy = cos(xy)dx + x cos(xy)dy;


dx dy
, dv . dv , dx dy
dv- rfx+dy =
dx X '

,( dx dy I
dz = fXy co^{xy)dx + X cos{xy)dy) + / 1

2-
(5) d^u d^v '

' ' '


d^u = -r-dx^+1- dxdy-^^dy =

= -^ s\n{xy)dx^ - 2 %\n{xy)dxdy - ^ s\n{xy)dy^

d'v d'v d'v dx" dy^


d^v = -rdx^ +2- dxdy + jdy = 2
r-+
2
^ '' ^ x
,
^^^ = f'uuiy cos(xy) Jx + X co%{xy)dyf + 2f"^{y zo%{xy)dx +

dx dy dx dy
+xcos(xy)(3(y) +
X X )

-f^sm(xy)iydx+xdyf +/;!

^dx__dy^
ful cos' (xy){ydx + xdyf + 2f"^ ZQb{xy){ydx+xdy)
X

^dy^_dx^^
+ f" - fu^HxyXydx + xdyf + / ;
J Vb [x
www.kodges.ru
415^

8.

1.
,, ... ,t z,
F(x,j^, ... , ^, z) = , Z.
. z,
F(x,>', ... , t,z) = Q,TjxtF
{,, ... ,t ,z),

dF_ ^

3F' ;; ^' * ' / 3F ^'^


dz dz dz

, - ^ .
dz
.
F{x,y, ... , ^,z) =
dF ^ dF ^ dF ^ dF ^ ^
dx +dy + ,.. +dt +dz = 0,
dt dz
dz
dz , dz , dz ,
dz = d x +dy + , + dt
dx dy dt '
.
2. F(x, ) = 0,
F j^,

dy (2)
dy
www.kodges.ru
416 8


(2).
3. =u(x,y,z) v = v{x,y,z)

\F^{u,v,x,y,z) = 0;
\F^(u,v,x,y,z)=:0,
.
\ dFA
\ dv
^0,
D{u,v) \dF, ^2
dv
dv
- -

/^ dv
= 0;
dv
, dv (3)
- + - + ^ 0.
dv
dv du dv
, -,- -
^' ;; dz dz
.
. ,
,
. du,dv

du , du , du ,
du =dx-i dy'\ dz;
dx dy dz
dv , dv , dv J
dv = dx + dy-\ dz,
dx dy
www.kodges.ru
dz
417

.
4. Z ,

X = jc(w, v)^ = y{u^v)^ z - z(u, v).
dz
.



. , .
= -\ av;
dv
dy = du + dv;
dv
J 3z , 3z ,
dz = awH dv.
dv


dv
^0,
D{u,v) \ ^
dv
du,dv
,

dz =dx +dy, -

dz dz
.
dx dy
. -
du dv
X , , -- zr-. -

, ,
du dv
, - -. , -

www.kodges.ru
418 8

JC >^ -
dz dz
u,v ,, - - .

7.1. : ) ^ -\-^ -\-z^ -t^ =0',

) z^ -xyz^la^.
, ) z .
F(jc,y,zj) = x^ +^ +z^-t^, (1)

^^2' = 2' = 2z- = ~2


dz dt

dz _ X 3z _ dz _ t
z z dt z
, ,
2xdx + 2ydy + 2zJz - 2tdt = .
dz, . .

tdt-xdx-ydy t , X, ,
Jz = -LJL^^dt dx- dy,
z z z z

, 3z , dz J dz J
dz = ox + dy + ~~dt,
dx dy dt

dz _ X 3z _ ^ dz _t
dx z' z' dt z
6) F(x,y,z)=z^-xyz-2a^=0,

dF dF dF ^ 2
= -yz, = xz, = 3z -xy .
dx dy
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dz
419

(1)
3z _ ^ 3z _ xz
3z^-jcy' 3z -xy
.
Zz^dz - yzdx xzdy - xydz .

yzdx - xzdy yz xz
az - 3z^ - xy "~ 3z^ - xy dx-- 3z^ - xy-dy.

,
dz _ ^ 3z _ xz
3z^xy 3z^xy*
dy d^y d'y
7.2. V = X + In , "; ~'>~ dy.
dx dx dx
. F{x, )^ -\ = 0.
, aF , 1 -\ . (2)
= 1; = 1

-1
=


X, , ^ jc
d^y _ d y\y-\)-yy
dx^ dx y-\) (7-ir
,
d'y d(d'y\ \-\)-' y{\ + 2y)
dx dx V dx^ {y-^^Y (>'-!)'
www.kodges.ru
420 8

dy = y^dx = --^dx .
-\
^" 3 z 2 Z 2 2 2 2
7.3. - , --:' ^ ' X +>' +Z = .

. z
. F ( x , y , z ) = x^ +^-{-z^-^ =0,

(1) :

^F _ ^^ - 9 ^^ - 9 3z _ X dz _
' ' dz ' z' Z

d^z
-:^

, , z
'
2 I / \ / Z-\ 2 , 2 2 2
2_ d I X\ z-xz^ _ 2__ Z - _
^ dx Z z' z' z' z'

-

>^, , z

a'z d ( ^ -""^ ^ ,
dy\ z z' z'

d'z^d( \ Z^yz'^^ ^+7 " ^ ^2^^^2_^2


d/ dy{ z) z" z^ z' z'
x^ y^ z'
7.4. d!z d^z, ~ + 7 + " ~ ^ -
a
www.kodges.ru

421

. z
dz = dx-\--dy. , -

(1),

b
dF 2 dF 1 dF Iz
dz
^ X '
'" Z
2 2
X
, dz = -dxdy.
z b z

i2 ^ ^ 2
1 .
r> ^ ^ ^ 1 1 ^^^
C ^ ^ 1i 2

d z = jdx +2 dxdy + -dy



a'z _ d f 2 X \ c' c^ a^z^+c^x^ b'-/
^ dx a^ z a' z' a a z 2f 2

a'z _ d
dy
'---1 c^xz\,
2

a z
1
aV
xy
z' '

- z-yz^ 2 L 2 _ 2 , ^2_2
d'z _ d c' a'-x'
1- ^ 2i2 3
dy^~ dy b' z' b' b'z' a'b
,

d'z = - -[{b^ -y^)dx^ +2xydxdy + (a^ -x^)dy^).


aVz'
7.5.
www.kodges.ru
422 8

i w + u + x + j ; + z = 0,

, .
z dz
. F^(u,v,x,y,z) = u-\'V + x-\-y + z
F^{u,v,x,y,z) = u^ +^ + x V / 4-z^ - / ^ -
- - , (3),
dz az
^ + ^ + - = 0,
OZ dz dv dz
^2 dF, du . dF, dv
-+ = 0.
dz du dz dv dz

du dv
dz dz
r^ du ^ dv ^
2u + 2v + 2z = 0.
dz dz
,
du _V'-z dv __z-u
dz u-v' dz u-v
.

{ du-vdv + dx + dy-^dz = Q,
udu + vdv + xdx -h ydy + zdz = 0.
du, dv
v-x , v-y , v-z J
du dx + dy + dz,
u-v u-v u-v
xu , yu
dy-\ az.
dv = dx + -
u-v u-v www.kodges.ru
u-v
423

,

_^v-z dv _ Z-U
dz u-v' dz u-v '
, du, dv ,
_v x dv _- _v-y dv ^-
u-v' u-v' u-v' u-v '
7.6. W i;
d\ d^v
: ^ -\-v^ : ' , w^ + 2 3 J C ' = 1.
dx^ dx^
. .
F,(w,t^,Jc) = w^^-t;^-:^ F^{u,v,x) = u^ +2v^ -{-^ -\,
(3)
^ du ^ dv ^
2 + 2t; 2 = 0,
dx dx
^ du . dv ^ ^
2 + 4v + 6 = 0.
dx dx
du 5 dv 4
:
dx dx V

,
du
^^^'-5'
= 5-
dx dx \ u
dv
d^v _d i 4x v-x- dx _ v^+4x^
= -4- = -4
dx ' ~ \
dx\ ) V v^
in. w, V x
w + + = , uvx = 1. : d^u, d^v .
www.kodges.ru
424 8

. , ,

{ du-\-dv-\-dx-^,
XV du + uxdv + uvdx 0.
du.dv,

u{v-x) , , v{x-u) ,
du = - ~ dx, dv = -^^ dx
x{u-v) x{u-v)

2 _ {du{v -x) + u{dv - dx))dx{u - v)x - u{v - x)dx{dx{u - v)
x\u-vf
x(du-dv)) _ (u(v-x)^ +u(v{x-u)-x{u-v)))x(u-v) ,2
X {u-vy X {u-vy
-u{v-x){x{u-vY +x{u{v-x)-v{x-u))) 2
dx' =
x^wvf
_ ia{{v^ +x^ -uv-xu){u-v)'-{v-x){u^ +v^ -ux-xv)) ^2
dx' =
"^ x^u-uf

~ I CIX

x\u-vf
2 __{dv{x-u)+v{l-'du))x{u-v)dx--v{x-u)dx{{u-v)dx+x{du-dv)) _
^" ^^{u-vf "
_ {v{x - u f + v{x{u -v)-u{v- x)))x{u - y) , 2
"" x\u-vf
-v{x-u){x{u-vy +x{u{v-x)-v{x-u))) 2
.3/. ..\3
dx'==
x\u-vy
\2
vx{{{x-u) +{xu-xv-vu + ia))x{u-v) 2
CLX i

x\u-vf
www.kodges.ru
425

-( - t/)((w - vf ^-{uv-ux'-vx- uv)))


+ dx^ =
x\u-vf
vx{(x^ +u^ +v^)(u-v)-(x-u)(u^ +u^ +x^)) 2
dx' =
x\u-vf
3(u^+v^+x^) ,2
, dx'=-d'u
x\u-vf
7.8. uHV x
: xu-\-yv = 0, u + v + x + = \.

\ \ ' d'v d'v d'v


-, , -, -, , -.

. .
F^{u,v,X,) = + yv F2(UyV,x,) = + V + X + -I,'
dv
(3)
'
dv
- + -- + = 0,

dv

, :
dv _- _
- - '

dv
x-\'y- + v = 0,

dv
dy dy
www.kodges.ru
426 8

y-v dv v-x
: - = , -= .
- -
, u,v
,, :
(-)-{-)
- _ 2(-)
^ -) (- (x-yf


\{-) + {-)
' x-y+v-u
- {x-yf (x-yf

1- ix-y) + {y-v)
y-v 2{x-v)
' - (x-yf ix-yf

-1 \(x-y)-(u-x) ^, s.
^^/ u-x ^' ' ^2{y-u)
' [x-y) {- ^x-yf
dv
-1 Vx-y)-{v-x)
' ^^ v-x yx+uv
{x-y {- (-

{x-y) + {v-x)
v-x 2{v-x)
^y
/ ~ x-y {- (-

7.9. u,v x,y


: u + v = x, uv = y, d\, d^v .
. dundv.

www.kodges.ru
427

{ du + dv = dx,
vdu + udv = dy.
du dv,
udx-dy , dy-vdx
du = , dv = .
u-v u-v

2 _ dudx(u -v)- (udx - dy)(du - dv) _
"~ {u-vf ~
_ {udx - dy)dx(u -v)- (udx - dy - dy + vdx)(udx - dy) __

_ (udx vdx - udx + 2dy vdx)(udx dy) _ 2(dy vdx)(udx dy) _


" (u-vf " (u-vf "

_ 2(udxdy - (dyf - uv(dxf + vdxdy _ 2(uv(dx)^ - (w+v)dxdy+(dyf )


(u-vf (u-vf
-2 -dvdx(u -v)- (dy - vdx)(du - dv)
d V= :; =
(u-vf
_ -(dyvdx){u - v)dx - (dy - vdx)(udx - Idy + vdx) _
~ (u-vf ~
_ (-udx+vdx - udx+2dy - vdx)(dy - vdx) _ 2(dy - udx)(dy - vdx) _
~ (u-vf ~ (u-vf ~

2 ((dyf - udxdy - vdxdy + uv(dxf )


~ (u-vf ~

_ 2(uv(dxf - ( + v)dxdy + (dyf ) _ 2


~ (u-vf "
www.kodges.ru
428 8

7.10. , , X = MI;, J = W + U, Z^U-V.



. . ,
,

\dx-vdu-^udv',
<dy = du + dv;
[dz = du'dv.
du dv
dx-udy , dx vdy
du= ; dv = ,
v-u u-v

dz,
dx-udy dx-vdy 2 ^ u+v
dz = dx + dy-
v-u u-v -V u-v
2 dz w + v
U-V dy u-v '
7.11. dz, x = e" sin a, j / = e" cos v, z = uv -
. .
, ,

dx = e" sin vdu + " cos vdv,
dy = " cos vdu - * sin vdv,
dz = vdu + udv.
duKdv:
smvdx-\-co^vdy cos vdx-sin vdy
du dv =
www.kodges.ru
429

du, dv ,

dz = (sin vdx + cos vdy) + (cos vdx - sin vdy) =


e" e"
= e~" ((v sinv + u cos v)dx + (v cos v-usin v)dy)

8.8.



.
.
8.1.
/1 2 ^ V dy ^
( 1 - ^ )-7""-^~ + >'==^'10 x = sin^
dx dx
. j
j t\
dy^ dy^
dy ^dt ^ dt
dx dx^ cos^?
dt
dy\ d^y dy . ^
f cosr + -^sm^
d^y _ d dy^ dt dx _ dt^
dx^ dx dx ] dx^ cos^/cos^
dt
_ 1 d^y sint dy
cos^ t dt^ cos^ t dt
51
sin t,
www.kodges.ru
430 8

1 d sin/ (fy sin/ dy


(l-sin'O + >' = 0.
cos / dt cos t dt cost dt

-\- = 0.
dt'
dy d \ 'd'y'^'
8.2. = 3 ,
dx dx^ y<^ ,
, a JC .
. j ; :
X j ;
{ \

___1_ d^y _ d d_ dy_


dx dx^' dx^ dx dx dx dx
dy () dy
d'x
dy' 1 d^^x
r^\'dx - ^
( dx\
ydy^ dy

d'x d X dx ' d X^
-3
d'y _ d d dy' dy _ dy dy dy' 1
3
dx* dx dx' dy\ (dx' dx ^dx"^ dx
V )
[dy] ^dy^ 'dy

d^x dx
3
'dy^'dy dy' dy' d^x dx
=3 = 0.
dx

www.kodges.ru
431

^ , -
dy
d'x _
- = .
dy
8.3.
dy _ +
dx -'
.
: = cos(jO, j ; = sin^ .
( , dx.dy :
dx = cos(pd -sin(pdcp , dy = sincpd-h cos(pd(p ,
dp
s\n(p-^ + pcoscp
dy _ smcpdp + pcoscpdcp _ dcp
dx ~ coscpdp-psmcpdcp ~ c o s ( p ^ - p s i n ( p "
d(p
, , -^^, -
dx
, ( ,
dp
sm(p^+ pcoscp
d(p _ pcoscp -f p sin(p
^..cr^^P ^c.\^.^ t^
coscp^psinep pcoscp-psincp
^ r ^ ,
dcp
dp cos^cp + sin^cp _ sin^cp + cosV
dcp coscp-sincp cos^-sin^

, ^ = p .
dcp
8.4. x \-y = 0,


u,v, = , v = .
www.kodges.ru
X
432 8

. z , ^lepes
z ,v.

dv ' ^ ^ dv '
_ ^ ^ dv dv \
- - = 1, - = 0, ^= - ^ , - = - ,
X
dz _ dz dz _\ dz
^ dv' X dv

, u,v,
dz dz dz ^ ^^
V +V 2 = 0 -z = 0.
du dv dv
d'z , d'z d'z ,
8.5. ~ 2 f- -j - ^, -

=^ + , = -~ , -
X

W = .
X
. z ,
; w,t;.
:
xdy-ydx , xdz zdx
du = dx-^-dy, dv = -r^, dw = z .
x x
dw
, 3w , dw J
u,v dw = d u -\-dv .
du dv

dw , dw , dz z ,
d u +dv = -dx
du dv www.kodges.ru
XX
433

(dx + dy) + ' -^ -^ \dx = dx


X X

dz
(fdw dw z , dw I dw\
dz = x dy
x^ dv ''^ du X dv
,
dz dw dw dz _ dw dw
= X V hW,
dy du dv '
dx du dv
d^u d^u d^u
8.6. = 0, -
dx" dy^ dz'
.
.
X = sin 0 cos (, j = sin 0 sin ^, z = cos .
, -
x = rcos^, j ; = ''sin^ ( z ),
z = COS0, = sin0 ( ( ).
d^u d'u
-
dx' dy'

du _ du dx du dy du _ du dx du dy
dr dx dr dy dr d(p dx d(p dy d(p '

du du du du du du
^ = cos^ hsm^ = -rsm(p-z + rcos(pz
d(p dx dy
dr dx dy '
du du

dx' dy ,
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434 8

sin . cosfl)
= cos(p . = sm(p + . (*)
(

' _( sincp
= cos(p
' ydXj (
sincp ^ sincp ^ 2 ^ 2 sin (2) cos ^
coscp = COS (-- ^-+
( ' (

sin^ ( ' 2 sin ( cos ( sin^
' ' ( '
' (^ cos(p
= sm(p
+
smcp h
' [By)

coscp ^ coscp ^ . 2 ' 2 sin cos '
s m ^ +
( sm (--
' + ^
^ +

cos^ ' 2 sin cos cos^


' (
^ ' ' ' ' ' 1 ' 1
1 1 = 1 1 1 .
' / dz' dz' ' ''
, z = cos = sin 0 ,

' ^_^ _Li!^ 1 ^


dz''^dr'~dp'^ ''^ '
-, (*),

_ . cos
'
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435

,
^ ^ ^ _ ^ 1 ^ 1 ^ 2 ctg0

8.9.
1.
. z = f{x,y)
^(^,^) (),
()
{,), ^, . .
/ ( M Q ) > / ( ) ( / ( M Q ) < f{M)), ,
I MQM \< , >0 .
.
Z = f(x, ) ^ (XQ , ^Q ),

^/(^^) ^Q. ^^^) ^Q (1)


'
, (1),
,
.
. MQix^.y^)
z = /(jc, ),

MQ .

^^^^'/(^). g^^'fj^o^yo), ^^^VOwO. (2)


^ ' ' ^
/) = ^-5'.:
www.kodges.ru
436 8

1) Z) > , z = f{x, ) ^ {^, ^)


: ^ < ( < 0) ^ >
();
2) Z) < , ^ ;
3) Z) = , .
2.
z = z{x.) (/ = 1,2, ... ,) () (
), ()
{^),
MQ , . . /{MQ) > f(M) (/(^) < f(M)),
, ^ <, >0
.
.
Z = z{x-) ^ {^),

^^ 0 = 1,2, ...,). (3)


^
, ,
,
.
. M Q ( X )
z = z(jc^),

^. :
1) J^z(Mo,A JC^)<0
(z = 1,2,...,), ^ ,
d/^z(Mo,A x j > 0 , . =^-)';^0
(/ = 1,2,..., ) ;
2) (i^z(Mo, -) ,
., . . -
www.kodges.ru
437

., ^
;
3) ^f^z(Mo, X.) - ^ ^Q {i-1,2,... ,)
,
.
^^, (-^?-^!' "^
= (2-^ (/, : = 1,2, ... , w),
-

... ,^. ^^^^^^


1^=1
, . .

, . *\

*1\ 4,22 *1
>, (4)

^ ^2 ^

(jc, ,..., ) ;
, .
,
(xl'jX^,... ,^) .

.
9.1. : ) -^-^-
+ 9x-6j^ + 20; ) Z = 3JCJ;-4JC-8>;; ) z = / - 6 + 27>^;
) 2 = 1 + (-1)'(;; + 1)';) z = l ~ x ^ - j ; ^ .
3z
, ) - = 2 - j^ + 9;

= 2j; - : - 6. -


www.kodges.ru
438 8

2->; + 9 =0,
[-2;-6 =0.
^ = - 4 , J;^ = 1.

. : ^"=2, - =-1, = =2
^
D- -^ = 4 - 1 = 3 > 0 . 4> , (-4,1)
.
z^=16 + 4 - f l - 3 6 " 6 + 20 = ~ l .
) :

---\ - = - 8. , -

,
: 3>^-4 = 0, - 8 = 0, ,
_8 _4

: ^~^' ^~ ^^'
^2
Z
= = . Z) = - JB^ = - 9 < ,

8 4
=~, ^=-.
dz
) : = 3 x ^ - 6 ,

= 'iy^ + / j^ , -

: Mj(V2,0) 2(-/2,0).
: -> < JC < 4-00, 0 < j ; < + ^
, ,
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439

Mj ^
, j^ = ,
.
, ,
, , . .
.
3z
) - = 2(x-l)(j; + l) ,

-\ _ _
= 4( -1) (>' + !) . = 0 = 0 -
qy
M Q ( 1 , - 1 ) .

= Y = ^(>' + U ->

^ = - 7 - = 8(-1)(;; + 1)\ = ^ = 12(-1)'(;; + 1)'

D = -^ ^(1;-\), D = 0,
.
Az = z(M) - Z(MQ)
MQ . ^ < - 1 , Az = ( -1)^ (>^ +1)"^ > ,
j;^^ > - 1 , Az > . ^ < 1, Az > ; ^ > 1,
Az > . , ^ Az >
(1;-1) z^^ = 1 .
dz 2 1
) : ~ ~ ~ ^ '
3 ijx
dz _ 2 \
V" - ~ 7^
, ^ (0;0).
, MQ
MQ ,
.
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440 8


^.
2 2

Az = z{M) -Z{MQ) = -^ ^
,.
, ^ z^^ = 1.
9.2. : ) = xyz{4 -x-y-z);
) 5 x 4 5 / + 5 z ^ - 2 x y - 2 x z - 2 > ^ z ~ 7 2 = 0 .
, ) .
:

= yz{4-x-y''z)-xyz, = xz(4-x-y-z)'-xyz

= xy{4-x-y-z)-xyz,
az
,
;0;0) ^;!;!).

: j = -2yz^

-^=-2xz = -2JCV = z(4-2x-2v-z)
^' ' az' ^ ' ^ ^ ^'
-
= X ( 4 - X - 2 > ; - 2 Z ) - ^ = J;(4-2JC-J-2Z).
2: dxdz
, , .

Mj(0;0;0), ..
Aw = w(M) - {^) = xyz{4 -x-y-z)
,
^ (0; 0; 0), ,
, ^ .

2 (1,1,1). (4)
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441

-2 -1 -1
-1 -2 -1 :^<0.
-1 -1 -2
,
;!;!) ^^^ -1.
) Z ,
. .
F{x,,z) = ^ -^ -^ -1-Ixz-2yz-12 = 0,

3F
\0x-2y2z _ _ \0y-2x-2z
aF \0z-2x-2y' ^~~^~~ \0z-2x-2y
dz dz

: 10x-2j^-2z = 0
10>'-2x-2z = , = , z = 5 x - j = 4x. j
Z 1 5 16 ^ - 2^ - 8^ - 8^ - 72 = ,
= = \.

a'z (10-2z;)(10z-2x-27)-(10x-2;;-2z)(10z; - 2 )
=
' (10z-2x-2>')'

d'z ^ (-2 - 2z' )(1 Oz - 2 - 2) - (1 - 2>^ - 2z)(l Oz'^ - 2)



(10z-2x-2>;)'

^z (10-2z;)(10z-2x-27)-(10j;-2x-2z)(10z^-2)
=
/ (10z-2x-2j^)'

D = -^ = = \.

: = , = , = ,

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18 18 18
442 8

25 \_
D = -^ j- = ^;;^>0. ^ < 0 , ; = >^==1 -
18' 18' 27
.
D = = -\. -
5 1 5 2
: = , 5 = , = , ^ = > .
18 18 18 ^/
v4 > , = = -\
.
9.3.
,
.
. , , z
. V = xyz.
S =/ xy
V + 2(x
V^ + y)z . z,
S = 4-2 +
^ ^
S(x,y) .

\^ = 2V,
[y^x = 2V,

XQ=yQ=0 = = y/lV
,
1
V = xyz, z = ~ v 2 F

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443

8.10.

Z = / ( )
D,
()
, Z),
. ()
.
,
Z), ,
,
Z), ()
.
D ,
z = / ( )
, .
()

.
10.1. :
) z = x^-j;^-jc + jv; = 0, JC = 2, >^ = 0, -\\
) z = x ^ + 3 / + x - > ; ; = 1, j ; = l, x + j ; = l;
) z = sinjc + sinj;-sin(x + 3;); jc = 0, >^ = 0, --1.
, ) .
z, [
. :
z^ =2:-1 = 0, z\, =:-2j + l = 0. ^,- .

,
2
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444 8

z(M) = .
.

.
= z = -^ + jv, . .

< ;; < 1. z^ - -2 +1;
1 . . . 1
> - . z"^ = - 2 < , =
2
/ 1
z
4 1
4
z(0,0) = 0; z(0,1) = .
j ; = z = x^ - .
0<<2.
z[=2x-l; ^ = ; ^ ^ = 2 > 0 . ^^IZ


; z^j^ ;0 .
z(0,0) = 0 z(2,0) = 2.

= I z = ^ . z,
^= --^.
1

z(0,1) = z(2,1) = 2 .
J^ 4

= 2 z = 2-y^ + .
< jv' < 1.

z'^ = - 2 ; ; +1, = i,
, /'z^^ ==--22<<00. .
>>^^== -
2 '' 2
/
, z^ 2; =2.
z(2,0) = 2, z(2,l) = 2.
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445

z
, , -

z^\ ( 2; 9
=.
2)

z^j = .
;
,
) (. 8.1).
: z'^ = 2 +1, z[=6y-\, ^= ,
1
- . -
6
,
.
.

. 8.1

X = 1 z = 2 + ^ - .
< >^ < 1.

z ^ = 6 j ; - l , = - , z ^ = 6 > 0 . = -
6
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446 8

( \ \ 2
; ^-^^ ; =
V 6 J 12
2(1,0) = 2, 2(1,1) = 4.
;; = 1 2 = ^ + : + 2.
< JC < 1.
2^ = 2 +1, X = . =
2 2
,
: 2(0,1) = 2 2(1,1) = 4 .

X + JF = 1 z = ^ -4 + 2.

0 < j ; < l . ^-^"^-, >^~;


_1
2 = 8 > . -'Z 2 = 1.
. 2 2'2
2(0,1) = 2, 2(1,0) = 2 .
-

, z^^^\ ^ = 1
2 2

) (. 8.2).

, .

www.kodges.ru
447

^^ / 3^ / /
= cos X - cos(x + ;;) = , = cos j; - cos(jc + ) =
ox
: cos x - c o s j^ = 0 ,
. - . -
sin sin = 0, = -{- 2 .
< < 2:, j = .
- z = 2sinjc-sin2x .
z[=2 cos jc - 2 cos 2x, cos x - cos 2x = 0, 2x = x + 2 .
x 2kn
.
2
, = - - 1
2 2
XQ = , ^ = . {^.^) -
z = ,
, . . = , j ; = , -^- = 2
2 = 0. {^,^) ,
.
10.2. {,),
:
= 0, JF = 0, -+ 1 = 0 .
.
.
{,)
.
= , j^ =
^ ^ ,3. -+ 1 = 0
^ . \ + + \ ^x-y + l"^"
= . ,
^

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448 8

^^ -^ -\-{x-y-\-Xf.
:

= 3x--j^ + l = 0, = - + 3>'--1 = 0.

M(jc, ^ - , - ^

= '^' ^- -~^' ^~"^ ^



D = AC-'B^ = 8 > 0 >0 ( > 0), \,-
.
10.3. 2
, .
. x,y,z;
S = ^( - )( - ){ - z) ,
, + '^ = 2,
S= ^Jp(p-x)(p-y)ix-^y-p).
,

t^ = ip-'x){p-y){x + y-p).

= -(-)( + -) + (-){-) = 0,

= -{-)( + -) + (-)(-) = 0^

x = y = z = ^.
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449

, ^ 2 _ ^ _ /? ^ _ ^ _ 2/7
: = - = , ^ ~ 1 ~ ^ ~ ~ ;~
^ 3 3 ' 3

i ) = ^ - 5 = ^^ > ^ < ( < 0),


.
2/7
= y-z =
.

, ,
, .
10.4.
,
.
.
S = x-\-y-hz + t , xyzt = . -

t t = ,
xyz
S = + y + z-i- , . . ,
xyz
> 0 , >0, 2 > 0 . .

dS _ ayz ^^ -} ^^^ _ ^'^ - 1 ^^ -


(xyz) (xyz) (xyz)
, ,
= = Z = t = / , . . . ,
.
, -
= 0, = 0, z = 0
, S . -
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450 8

, ,
S .

8.11. .

1. z = f{x,y)
MQ(XQ,JVO) ,
, ,
((,) = 0, . . /(^) > / ( )
f{M,)<f(M) ((,) = 0 ,,

u{x,y,X) = f{x,y) + l(p{x,y\ (1)


(
).

: ;

(2)

((,,) = 0
XQ , >', .

0 <',) <;{)
D= -
(3)

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451

) < , z = /(jc, ) ^ (JCQ , ^)


, D > .
2. z = z{x.)
(/ = 1,2,... ,) MQ(X*') ,
^ ^,
^ (JC.) = 0, (: = 1,2, ..., m; w < /i),
f(MQ)>f(M)vf{MQ)<f{M);

=\
\( = 1,2,... , ) ,
.

+
1^ =0 (/ = 1,2,...,);
.

[(,{) = 0 (/: = 1,2,...,).


, ^
^, .
:
1) d^u{x^, ^ ,dx.)<0,
, dx-

, = 0 {k = l,2,...,m) (5)

\dxf^O , z = z(x.) ^{^) -


;
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452 8

2) d^u{x^,X^,dx.) > , (5),


Mo(jcf) .
11.1. : ) z^x-^Sy
^+^=10; ) u = x-2y + 2z '^ +y^ + z^ =9;
) u = xyz x + y-\-z = 5, xy-^yz + xz = S,
, )
, z
z-- jc^ + >^^ = 10.
w(x,j,A) =
--'\-{^ -^ -\Qi) :

= 1 + 2\ = 3 + 2. -

(2)
1 + 2 = 0,
3 + 2>; = 0,
jc'+/=10,

: jc^ = 1, j;^ = 3, , = , jc^ = - 1 , ^2 = - 3 ,

^ 2
^:;;- = 2, ^ ^ =0, 7-7 = 2,
^ ' ' ^
d^u = 2(^^ +dy^), = ; J^w < , ,

^(1,3) z^^ = 10.

=; d^u>0, ,
2
2(-1,-3) z^j = - 1 0 .
,
(3).
www.kodges.ru
453

, : ^(x,;;) = j c ^ + / - 1 0 , ^;[(,) = 2 , ^(/,) = 6,


1/;(,) = - 1 , < ( , ) = 0, 1/;(,) = -1
|0 2 |
D. 2 -1 = -40<0,
| -l|
. . /, .
, ^
I - 2 -61
D = - -2 1 I = 40>0,
-6 1

. . ^ .
) .

W = A : - 2 7 + 2Z + A ( J C ^ + / + Z ^ - 9 )

^ = l + 2Ax, ^ = - 2 + 2, ^ = 2 + 2Az.
dz

|1 + 2 = 0, \- = 0,

>Li=-. ^1=-1. J^i=2, z,=-2,

^=--, 2=1, 3^2 = - 2 , Z2=2.


www.kodges.ru
454 8

..
a'w 2, ^ .,2, '
a'vv ^ 2,

d'w d'w ''


dxdz dydz

d^w\ -1,2,-2, = 1 > .


,
^^ = - 9 .

9 1
J w(l,-2, 2,) = -1 < , ,
^^ = 9 .
) .

W = xyz + X^(x + y + z-5) + X2 ( + yz + xz-S).



- = yz + X^+A^y + A^z = 0,

= xz + A^+ A^z + ^ = ,

= -\-^+ ^ + )^ = ,
z
JC + _ + Z = 5, + yz-bxz = S.


www.kodges.ru
455

: ,(2,2,1), ^ - , - , - U 3 ( 2 , 1 , 2 ) , M J - , - , -

/ 7 4 4^
5(1,2,2),,
''

d'w d'w '-
= 0,
' ' dz'
^W 'W d'w
= z + X = X + l2, = y + l2
''' dydz ^' dxdz

. , d^w(2,2,1, Aj = -1) = 4 >
= 4. .
^ 4 4 7_ . _ 7^ - 4 < -
'''^"
/
^^ 4 .
.
^,^ ^-^ = 4 ,
4
/4, Mg ^^ = 4
27
11.2.
.
.

V - xyz, . .
. ,
,

^' / z' ,
= xyz + - + ^ + - - 1

www.kodges.ru
456 8

2
.
= yZ + A
-^ = ^'^^-2'

('"
^ 2 . 2z
^2 ^Iz
- = xz + A-, -= +
^
= xz + A ^ , = + -, -
b dz

yz + X-^ = 0, xz + X-^ = 0^
b
. 2z ^ ^ ^ z^ ,

/ /
, = , = ,

Z = . ,

/ ^
= , =^, z = c . ,

2/ ^ 2/ 2^3
= , = , z=c .

www.kodges.ru
9

9*1*
1.
. 7. .5.
F(x,y) =
((,,)
:(,)(-,) + ;(,)(-,) = 0. (1)

Fy(x, )( - ) - F;(X, )( -) = 0

' ' (2)


X

2. = (p{tX y=\l/{t)

t g a = - 7 ,
^t

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458 9

--^^^) 7 - - - (3)
^0 -^0

(3) , ^' = ,
j ; ' 9^ , . . ,
. , ' = 0 ' = 0 ,
(3) .
3. = {(), ,
= cos (, = psincp,

/^ p^sincp + pcosip
tg = - r = - 7 : (4)
X coscp-psmq) ^ ^

. 9.1


- (. 9.1 ),

tge=-^^. (5)
.
1.1.
2^ - x V - + ;; + 7 = (1,~2).
. .
(1).

www.kodges.ru
^ 459

= 6JC^-2^-3; = -5.

- - = -2>' + 1; - =5


, ~5(-1) + 5( + 2) = --3 = 0.
(2):
5(-1) + 5{ + 2) = 0 + ;; + 1 = 0.
1.2. -

X = ^ - sin /; 3^ = 1" cos t , / = -
. :
. ^ , .
= sin = 1,
= l - c o s = 1
' 2 2 2 -^^ 2
^ dy sin t ..
= -
dx 1 cos^
:

sm
/=-
1-COS

-\ = \\X + 1 - h 2 = . , -

, j^ - 1 = - X + 1 + = 0.
2 2
1.3.
^ = 2^ cos 2(.
. (5).
, < pp^=-2a^sin2^.
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460 9

tg0 = - ^ = --ctg2(jf), =-2(.

= 0 + (=:- + 3(; ^=-,

, j8 = 3<, . .
.

9.2.

.
,
,
.
,
.
F(x, y,z) = 0,
^(^,^,2^)

OZ

3FO ^ dpQ
-^, ^, ^
OZ
; x,y,z .

www.kodges.ru
461

^ - ^ 0 _-<, _^-2
^ ^ ^ (2)
3z

^^"^-?-^jTf -
[ ^; J
. ,
dF ^ ^ . .
= = = , -
: ;; dz
, .

z = f{x,y),

z-z,^^{x-x,) + ^{y-y,), (3)



^/ / , ,
^, ^^^ MQ .

^ ^ -1 (4)



. - -q 1
cosA = . :r; cos/l=. =; cosv =
(5)

p = -:r- = 7, -^-- 7 -
F, >^ ^
.
2.

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462 9

x = (p{u,v), y = \{/iu,v), z = x{u,v),


TO
(xo,3;o,Zo)

|^-^ - 2-^0
/ / / = 0.
\ 2 (6)
/ / /
"^ V



cosA = cos ji
1^+^+^' ^""^ 1'+^+&

cosv = (7)
+ / ' + 5 ' + ' '

^ ; = / ; = / /
\ ^0 2 ^ ^ >'|

3.
,
, .
^ -

Of =
.
2.1. -
: ) z = arctg

{

Mr, -1;1;~1; ) ^ + / + z ^ - j c : V ^ - 1 0 = 0
(~1;2;1); ) x = psin(p, >^ = 8, z = ptga
^(');) rlucosv, us'mv, ^la^- r^^ixo^y^.z^}.
www.kodges.ru
463

, ) .
(3),(4).

^^ ]_

X' + ^ 2

dz X :
X + . " 2

71, .. 1, .. ^ ;
Z = (jC-f 1) + ( - 1 ) X-Vy LZ ,
^ 1 1 2
^ + 1 -\ ^-^/^
j- = -j- = ^-^
x^^y-AJ_^ /2 /2
1 / 1 / -1
1 1 -2 '
) .
F{x, , z) = x^ +^ +z^ - xyz - 1 0 ,

dF 2 ^^0 1
= 3 -yz, ^ = 1,

= 3 -JCZ, ^ = 13
^ '

dF 2 ^^0
~ = 3z -, -^^ = 5.
dz OZ
(1),(2),
jc + l + 13(>'-2) + 5(z-l) = 0 x + 137H-5z-30 = 0
jcH-1 --2 Z 1
= = .
) .
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464 9

{pQ,%)
(6). ^,

Z-Z,
sm% COSCPQ tga = 0.
Pocoscpo -PoSiiKPo 0

XQ = P o s i n % , = Pocos(p^, z^ = p^ t g a -

xpo sin (p^iga- PI sin^ %^% + yp^ cos (Potga-

-pl c o s ' < t g a - zpo + Po t g a = 0

X sin %-\-y cos - z ctg a = 0.


(2) ^
. ,
x-ppSincpo ^y-p^cos% ^ z-potgg
sin<pQ cos^o ~-ctgao
r)
= cos v, y^usmv, z- 4^ - w' .
{x^^y^-^z^
(6).
u,v (XQ, J^O,ZQ) ,

^-^0 -^ z-z^
cos ^0 sin v^ = 0.

-UQ s m VQ UQ COS VQ 0

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465

(z-ZoKCOS v^+{y-y^) J " -f

/ 2 / t/oCOSt^o _

+(z-Zo)WoSin ^ , + ( x - X o ) - f = = f = 0

, JC,J;,Z


XXQ + j^>^o + ZZQ = XQ + >^ + ZQ
,
^ + ^ -\-zzQ=a^.
2.2.
^ + ^ = z^ (4;3;5).
?
. .
F(x, , z) = ^ + j^^ - z^,

= 2, = 2^ = 2z,
dz

^ = 8, ^ = 6, ^ = -10.
dz

x-4__j^-3_z-5 x-4_y-3__z-5

^\dF dF Fl
<,' ~ ^^^^ -
[ dz ]
. (0;0;0)
www.kodges.ru
466 9

dF dF dF ^ , . .
- = -= = ,
OZ
.
2.3.
^ +^ -xz-yz = 0 (0,2,2).
. .
(5).

2_ dF^ Ix-z
=-\\
dF^ + '
dz _2y-z
q = l.
3F/ +

, cos = - ^ , coSjU = 1=, cosv=-j=r.


2.4. ,
^ + 2^ + 2 ^ = 4 ) x-2y + z = 0;
^ x +l v - l z +1
) = = .
2 2 - 1
, ) .
F{x, , z) = ^ + 2^ - z^ - 4 -
^ . dF . dF ^
- = 2, -- = 4, = 2z.
dz


aF 3F aF
_^__^__2_ 2 _ 4>; _ 2z
~ " ^ 1 " - 2 ""

^+ 2;;^ H-z^ = 4 ,
1,-1)2,1,-1).
www.kodges.ru
^ 467

, :
2 ( x - l ) ~ 4 ( j ; + l) + 2 ( z - l ) = 0 x - 2 j ; + z-~4 = 0;
-2(jc + l) + 4(>;-l)-2(z + l) = 0 jc-2;; + z + 4 = 0.
)

^F aF
dx_ = ^^3z_ ^,= 22^=2z
I 1 1 - 1

^ \-2^ +z^ = ,
4 2 2 ^ -^
, /,
V7' /7'/7 Vv'Vv' V?
, :

^ . 14 ^ , ^ 14 ^
2JC + 2 V - Z + - = 0, 2x + 2 y - z - = 0.
V7 /7
2.5. jc^ - j ; ^ - 3 z =
, /, (0,0,-1),
^ ^ = Z
1 2'
. F(x,, z) = x^ -^ -3z -
) )/^ )
= 2, = - 2 j , = - 3 . -
dz

dF dF
/ + m + -2 = 0 2-7""3 = 0. -
OZ
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468 9

,
^
2{^ -)- 2(^ -^)- 3(zj - z) =
2 J C V 2 - 2 / - 3 Z - 3 = 0,
,
2 -3 = 0,
x'-r-3z = 0,
[2x'-2/~3z-3 = 0.
,
= 2, = 1, z = l. ,

4 ( x - 2 ) - 2 ( > ; - l ) ~ 3 ( z - l ) = 0 4x-2>;"-3z = 3 .
2.6. , ,
,
2 2 2 2
^ +^ +z^ =^, ^.

. F\pc^y^z) =

3 3 dz 3
(1)
(^'^'^)

x/\x-x^)+y/'(y-y^)+z~/'(z-z^)=0
,
X Z _ %
v/3 / ^/

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^0 ^0
? 469

-'^\^^ -^^^ z-a'^z^^


.
2.7. , ^ -^ -!^ ^
jc^ + ^ + z^ = .
.

.

,

.
F,(x,;;,z) = x ^ + + z ^ -
^2 (, ^ z) = x^ +^ +z^ -

/, =^ = 2 - , 1^=^ = 2, =^ = 2, ^=^ = 2-4,


n,=^ = 2z, 2=^ = 2z.


az az

1^2 + ^^ - 1^2 =
= 4,
2(2 -) + 2(2 - 46) + 2z 2z = ,
4x^-2ax + 4 / - 8 6 y + 4 z ^ = 0 , 4 - 2 - 2 = 0,
. . ,
.
www.kodges.ru
470 9

93.
(. 9.2 )
s MN,

N^> ,.^. = lim.

.^duL

. 9.2
- / ( )


\ I
=- /2 (1)

jc = jc(/), = y(t),

\xy-yx'
= /2 (2)

F(x, ) = 0,

IF" F" \\

F;

4
|
2
(^; '+F: (3)
www.kodges.ru
? 471^


= (<),

^1:;^^- (4)

, ,

R = . -
k
,
.
.

.

. 9.3

R,
, ,
(. 9.3 ). ((^,7])
(,)

^= =- ;
5^-
1+/ ' ^-' .
^ = . + 77- = ^ ... ...^' (5)

www.kodges.ru
-
472 9


. ,
. (5)
.
,
F(^,r7) = 0.
3.1. : ) = ^-4 (2,-4);
2 2
X
) + - = 1 ; ) ^ = ^ cos 2( -
b
;) x = a{t-sint), y = a{\-cost) t = n .
, ) : = 2 - 4 ; = 2
2) = 0, ''-2.
(1),

) . :
,^2 ^-^2 '^^^ F" = ^ , F " = 0
^ ^2 ' XX 2 ' I 2 ' I 2 '

(,0): F ; = ~ , i^;' = , F; = 0, = ^
F^ = 0, (3),
?.|| I '^'
2
\\ \\
?
0 0
"
?
0 0
^ = 1 '^ 8

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473

(0,6) :
// 2 , 2 2
^/ = 0, F^ = -j, Fy=-. ^^^^ /^/^'= 0.

1^
'0
\~2 0

7. ?,
0
\
?
0 0

=

, {-, 0) = ? ^ ^

(0,-6) : = - .

2

) 2pp' = -2a^sin2<p, ' = sin2(j!>,


(^' 2^ ^ 2 2(3^
=^sin2^ cos2<p = i-sin 2( cos2^ -
' '
(4),
/^4 2
p^+2^-sin~2(p + p ysin 2( + 2cos 2(
=
( ' Y''
^ cos 2^ + 2 -sin^ 2^
I )
_ " + 2* sin^ 2+a*sin^2(p+2a^p^ cos 2 _
'((^ cos' 2( + * sin' 2()1 p^f^ ~
^cos'2^ + "*sin'2( + 2''sin'2( + 2*cos'2<; _* _

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474 9

) :
i = a(l--cos/), >' = sin^, x-asint, = cost
t-: = 2, = 0, = , j ; = - l .

(2), = ^ = - .
{2) 4
3.2. -
2 2 2

: ) = ^; ) ^+^=^; ) x = acos^ t, y = asin^ t;


) p = a(p,
, a) ' = ^, '' = 6

R =

(1 + / ' ) ^ _ ( 1 + 9JC')^
R=
1 |6|

+ ^^
) F{x, ) = ^^ -^^ = .

2 -X
3
:


(. V / I ?\2
3

R= \{^:'+ . ) !
\\ F:\

\: 4|
\\F: 2 -- 2 --

1 ^ 1

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^ 475

( 2 \

3 (>.)3 {xyf
( _2 _4 4 2
= 3\.
V ( l 1
X ^ ^ - ^ ^ ^ -'^
- -
3 3

) : = -3acos^ ^sin^,
= 3asin^ ^cos^ ,x=--3(2(-2cos^sin^ ^+cos^ ^) =3(2Cos/(2sin^ ^-cos^ t),
= 3a(2 sin t cos^ t - sin^ /) = 3a sin ^(2 cos^ t - sin^ 0 .

\ \

{9^ cos^ t sin^ t+9(2^ sin"^ / cos^ /)


-9a^ cos^ ^sin^ ^f2cos^ r-sin^ t)-9a^ sin^ /cos^ /(2sin^ /-cos^

3(2sin^rcos^^ 3^|sin2/|
|sin'r cos'r (-2 + 1)1 2

r) : p' = a, p'' = 0 no

/^ - .\T. r. R = -^ .
2''-' p'-^2a'
2

3.3. = .
. ' = , '' = ^-

(1), = ^ . -
(i+xY^
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476 9

, ,
. . X = . , /: = 1.
3.4. : ) [ + [=^1;

. )
(,) = [ + -^-/-0. :
1 -- 1 -- 1 -- 1 --
FZ = - -X 2 F " = - - v 2 F " = 0 -
^ 2 ' ^ 2^ '

4
0 -
1
0 1 -1 1 -I
-4^
1 4 11 11
X ^
- 0
X yYi + j^X
=\2 3
+ 1{ + )
'^'
, = (Va - 4xY,

^(^)=
2( + ([^-[^ '
:
1 ,
+ (/^-/^)')2(1-2(>/^-/]^)7=
'=- 21
2-ix + (yf^-yf^ff
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All

x+{y[a-4xf=0, +-2/^+ = 0, 4 ' = 0

; \-2{yJa-yjx)7=^ = 0, yjx-yja+\fx=0, 2v^=J,


2] VA:
^^ ^

\
, -
4 4)
, . . jc =
4
, .
) : p ' = asin^cos,
,, . ((^ ,( . .(\
= sin 2 COS" sin' (4)

2 2
sm^ ^ + 1^ sin cos sm
2cos -sm
3 3 3 3 3
=
^ 2 2 - 4 2(^
sin -ha sin cos
V

^ . 4 ^ . 4 2 4 2 4
a 3 sm + 2 sm cos - sin cos + sm
3 3 3 3 3 3
3a'sin^^

1 . /
= sin 4 +cos
3a 3V
,
:
1 ( ^ 2 . ( . \
cos 4 + C0S sincossin
3 3 3 3 3 3
V
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478 9

= COS 5 - 3 s i n 5-sin'^^O,
9 3^ 3^
:
.. s i n ^ < J - , c o s ^ = 0, ^

( < =
, . . . -
, ( = =
4
.
3.5. =
(1;1).
/ 1 // 2
. : = -, = - ^
X X
: = - 1 , ''= 2

(. 9.4). , '
.
, O'N.
, MN = N0' -1

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479

, (2;2).
, ( - 2)^ + (j; - 2)^ = 2.
3.6.
: ) ^'"" (0;1);
) JC = a{t - sin t), ^{\- cos t) {, 2).
, ) : ' = -""", '' = """,
: = - 1 , = 1

(5)(^= ^ 7 = 2 , 77 = j ; + - ^ = 3.
, ( - 2)^ +(>-- 3)^ = 8.
) : x = a(l-cost), y = asint,
x = asmt, y = acost. t :
2 = {\ cos /), cos ^ = - 1 , t = K . ^ = -1
: = 2, = 0, = 0, y = -a.Uo (5)
^ =,1 = -2.

\-\ \2{-)\
,
:
{x-Kaf ^{y + 6af =\6^.
. -
3 2/ 2/ 2/
: ) ^^', ) ^^ -^^ = ^^;
) X = cos ^ >^ = 2 sin ; ) = '''^.
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480 9

, ) (5)
. 3jc(l-f9jc') ^ 3 1+9JC' 1 9 2
<;= X = -: ,7=7+~~^'^~^^
.

= -3/.
,
1
9 9fti
3 2 . ,
V
(. 9.5).

. 9.5
) . .
1 1
^ 1 ^ ' ^ . -
: =
J ^
(5),
\
1+
^ = + - \-+^\ 1 = + 3^\
' ^ )
v^'^/
,
:
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481

((^ -])^ = ^ - j ; ^ , ((^ +7])^ + (^ - 7 ] ) ^ = 2 ( ^ + ^') = 2^\


45
^ ^+7] ^-77
gj = , 7] J = - j ^
,
^^/^ +7]j^ = (2)^ ,
(. 9.6)
, 45
.

. 9.6
) .
: : = - sin ^, 7 = 2 cos /, Jc = - cos /, j^ = - 2 sin t.
(5),
, sin^/ + 4cos^r ^
, =cos^ r-2cos/ =
2sin / + 2cos t
= cos / - (1 - cos^ t + 4 cos^ t) cos ^ = - 3 cos^ t.
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482 9

ri = 2smt :; ^sm t
2sin^^ + 2cos^/
1 3 . 3
= 2 sin / - sin^ + 2 - 2 s i n ^ sin/= sin t.
/ 2
/,
^ + (2])^ = 3 ^

(. 9.7)

. 9.7
) , ,
. ' = ,
^2
'' = ^ . R = ~- ^ :,-
'+2''-'
R = ^1 + ^ .
,
Q - (.

9.8). t g 0 = - ^ = const, -

-
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483

. : = ctg0 ,

R , /S.ONM , -
sin0
NM. /^
, Pp<Pi

(.. 9.8) ^= pctgd = ,(pi -( + ~.

. 9.8
,
^ , -

pj = ^ ,

,

.

9.4.
1. {^,) F(X,JH) = 0
,

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484 9


A^F'^{x^,y^\ B^F^ix^.y^), C = F;^(x,,y,l
D = -^,
Z) > , MQ (. 9.9).

. 9.9 . 9.10

JD < , MQ , . . (. 9.10).
D-0, MQ (.
9.11) (. 9.12)
(. 9.13), .

. 9.11 . 9.12


.
^ + 2 + ^4 = .
;
;
.
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485

, 9.13
2.
x = (p{t\y = \f/{t) ^ = ^ x'^=(p\t^)^Q 1^\1/^)^0^
.
^ ,
^ , ^>0,
. ^^- ^'^'- 9^ , MQ
; ^^- ^^'= , ^
.

: , . .
4.1. ^ = ^ + ^ -
. F(x,y) = ^ -h ^ -jc^
F^ = -2, F^, = lay + ^.

-2JC = 0,

2;;+ 3 / = ,
0(0,0).


F: = -2- = -2,
F" = 0; 5 = 0,
F';^2a + 6y; = 2.
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486 9

D = -^ = -4 . > , D <
(. 9.14).
i\

1
\ / " " .

. 9.14

2^ - 2 = 0 :^ = , . .

-1<^ - j=. < , Z> >
/
(. 9.15 ) . (2 = , Z) = 0.
^ = ^ = ^jy^ ,
J > , . . ,
. ,
(. 9.16).
1i

=0

. 9.15 . 9.16
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487

4.2. , jc = acos^r,
^ sin^ t .
. ^''^- cos^ sin ,
[ = 3<2sin^ ^cos^. , -
^ -
^, =0, ^2 -~-> h -^
= {2 cos / sin^ ^ - cos^ t),
= (2 sin / cos^ t - sin^ t).
'/ ''
, .
x''' = 3a(7sin^cos^^-2sin^0. y=3a(2cos^^-7sin^^cos0.
M.{i = 1,2,3,4)
^\' ^~ 9^^ (7 sin t cos^ t-2 sin^ t){2 sin t cos^ t - sin^ t)\ -
-9a^ (2 cos t sin^ t - cos^ /)(2 cos^ t -1 sin^ ^ cos 0| ^ 0,
TO . ,
(. 9.17),
,
(t/,0),(0,a),(-a,0),(0,-a).

www.kodges.ru
. 9.17
488 9

9.5.
1. - f{x) y-g{x)
^(^' >^)
, ^ .
^

^ / ( ) g(x)
(w + 1) -
/() = g(Xo), /'() = gVoX
/ V o ) = gX^ol - . /^"^) = ^"^)' ,
MQ . >2
= ) j ; = g(x) ^
, .
= f{x) y = g(x)
^(^) , . . /(XQ) = g(Xo),
/(XQ) ^ g(Xo), ,
MQ .
2.
,
.
,
, F(x, >^,) = ,

F(x,;;,a) = 0; F;(x,j;,a) = 0. (1)


(1) ,

D{x,y)^0, (2)
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489

. -

,
.
3. .
y = f{x)
G{x,y,a,b,... ,/) = 0. , ,
,
^(^,^)
, . .
= f{x) MQ .
{,,,... J) = G{x,f(x),a,b,... ,/)

(,,6, ... ,/) = 0, '^(^,,, ... ,/) = 0, ... ,

[::!\,,^^^.1)=. (3)
(3)
,, ...,/.
, -1-

5.1. = (^^ + "'')

= ^-\-\ ^ = .
1 - 1 9
. f(x) = (e''+e "") g(jc) = JC +1

) = ^('--'), g\x) = x,

() = ^('+-^), g'Xx) = h

) = ^('--'), g"Xx) =www.kodges.ru


0,...
490 9

XQ =

/ ( 0 ) = 1, g(0) = l, 0 ) = 0, gXO) = 0,
( 0 ) - 1 , g"(0) = l, ^(0) = 0, g\0) = Q.
/ ' ^ ( 0 ) = 1, g(^>(0) = 0, . . ^\0) g^'\0).
- .
5.2. , = 2-^
^'^ ^ =
?
. / ( x ) = 2x + Z? g(x) = e'".
=0 :
/(0) = g(0), / ( 0 ) = gXO). , 2 0 + /7 = " 0 ;
2 = "'' . = 2, 6 = 1.
5.3.
( - ) / = .
2
.
. , (1)

{-) + =,

2 = .

. 9.18
www.kodges.ru
491^

, = ,
,
(. 9.18).
5.4. , /,
.
. ,
,

cos
,
xcosa jHsina
2 -+ 2-. = 0
FiJijri . 3 ~ 3
sm cos sin cos
,,
X cos^a , , .3
\ jc = /, jc = /sin ;
sin sin
sin^a . , 3
:y-v-^ = /, j ; = /cos ,
cos cos
. . (. 9.17).
5.5.
-{- of
.

--{-^,
0--3(~)'.
,
j^ = ,
(. 9.19).
www.kodges.ru
492 9

. 9.19
5.6.
{x-af -{-{y-bf =^R^-
.
a,b,R, .
= f(x),
(, = {-+(--\
'^{,)=^2{-) + 2(-)\
':,{, = 2 + 2/'+2(-)\
, \ '',
X = XQ, ,, .
a,b,R (3)
(x,-af+iy,-^bf=R\
-1 + {^-)^=0,
^^?+(-):=.


/2
^1 + ? 1+Zo
^ = - ~ = +

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493

R = -^ .
\\
a,b,R
.

9.6. -
1. d(t) -, /
. 5(/)
/, ,
,
a{t).
- -
^~>0 -

t^
da ,. (^+^)-(/) ,.
= lim ^^ ^"^ = lim .
dt ^-^ ^ /-^ /

d(t) = a^(t)i+ay(t)j+ a^(t)k, -

dd da^ - da _. da^
dt dt dt ' dt ^^
d no
t. d{t)
, ,
R=\d\
. d{t) ,
, .
.
www.kodges.ru
494 9

2. -
:
14 ^ -.\ da db
1) {ab)^ \
dt dt dt
dc
2) = 0, ;
dt
d da
3) {ma) = m-^ m ;
dt dt
d da ^djl
4) {lia) = fi + a-^YjiQ ii = ii{t)
t;
d .-. . da ^ db
5) ia'b) = b +a ;
^ dt dt dt'
^^ d .^ r. da r ^ db
6) (axb) = x b + a x
^ dt dt dt'
^ d ^. ^ .. da do
7) a{(p{t)) = , (p = (p{t) -
dt dcp dt
/.
3.
x = x{t), y = y(t), z = z{t)
= x{t)i + y{t)j + z{t)k , -

dr dx-T dy -, dz -
^i +-^j+k. (2)
dt dt dt dt


ds = ^x^+y^+z^dt. (3)
4. d{t) -
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/, ,
495

- r{t),
.
f{t) (
7{t) ), {

. ^. ds
\^\=-. =^w ,
dt
( ^1
d^r dr d'x dy d'z
dt" dt Yt de' dt^' de
,
r{t) = r^{t)i + ^( + K{t)k .
: v^= , v^,=r^Xtl v^=r^(t).

^='^f. 2 , 2 , 2

,
t

z = r^{ty
6.1. -
(/) = cost-i +sint' j + , te R.
.
x = cos^ j^ = sin^, z = l. ,
^ +^ =1; Z = 1. , -
(/) .
6.2. - =dt^ -\-bt,
b , .
www.kodges.ru
496 9

. ,
b , jc = /^, y = t.
, -^'
, -
.
6.3. -
= sin^ / + sin t cos t] + costk , te [0,2].
. (1)

= 2 sin ^ cos ti + (cos^ t - sin^ i)j - cos tk =


dt
= sin^ ti + cos^ tj - cos tk -
6.4. -:
) = c o s / / + e 7 + (^^+l)^ (1;1;1);
) =^' + (1)7 + /'-4^ / = 2.
, )
x = cos/, = \ z = / ^ + l ,
, t^^O. -

= -sin^z + / + 3t = /.
dt -^ "^ dt '
) = 4t i + 2tj + . , -
dt 2//'-4
^!:^221 + 4] + .
" - - - *-
6.5. , = / + sin/ + cos/:
.
dp -^ -
. = cos tj - sin tk. -
dt

www.kodges.ru
. 1 +sin / cos / - cos / sin / =
.
^ 497

6.6. -: a-l + t]-^t^k

^ = / + '7 + ^'^-:) (5-6):) ().


dt dt
, ) (5) ,
{db) = (ti +1^] + t^k){] + 2tk) + (i+t] + t^k)(i + 2t] + 3t^k) =
dt
= t^ -\-2t^ + l + 2t^ +3t^ =l + 3t^ +5t\
6) (6) 2 ,

(^) = (7 + 2/^)(^7+^^7 + ^^^) + (^+^7+^^^)><(^ + 2/7 + 3^^^) =


dt
= t4 + 2t^j-tic-2t4 + 3t4 + 2tk + t^j -tk-2t4-3t^j = 0.
da n^ - , -*
6.7. , a = u i -Vu j -\-uk , w=cons/.
dt
. (7) 2 :
= 3w^(--sinr)z +2w(-sinr)7-sin^^ = sin^(3w^/ +2uj-\'k).
dt
6.8. -:
) r ( 0 = cos3^r + sin/7 + N/2/^; ) (0 = (/'^-3) + (/4)7 + 1/^;

. )
= - 3 sin 3ti + cos tj + . -
dt
^ d^r ^ . -,
j - = -9cos3^i - s m r ^ .
dt
) ,
dr \ - d^r 1 -
= 4/ + 3^^7 + - ^ ; -= 12^^?+ 6^7 :. L = l -
dt t dt^ *" r^ ^ ' "^
^ = 12 -] - .
dt
www.kodges.ru
498 9

6.9. r{t) = 3 cos + 3 sin tj + 2tk .


,
. -

/ = ^ = .
.
= 3 cos t, j^ = 3 sin ^, z = 2^
.
V w
^ dr . - - -
v = = - 3 sin ti + 3 cos tj + 2k ;
-. a r . r ^ . -:
w = j-=-3cos^z - J s i n O .
dt
V = ^J{-3sinty + (3cosO^ + 2^ = / ,
w = yj(-3 cos tY + (-3 sin ty = 3 t. t = 0
_ -. _ :
v^ = 2j + 2k , w^ = - 3 / ; t =
^^ = ~ + 2^ , w^ = -37
-
= / = . 9.20.

www.kodges.ru
. 9.20.
499

6.10. r ( 0 = cosr/ -\-smtj-\- t^k .


w w^
w^ / t = 0.
.
-. dr . - -: - d^7 . -Z
V = = -sin/z +cos^y -htk; w = r- = -cos^z -sin^y -\-k
dt dt

; = V sin^ t - cos^ t-^-t^ =yj\ + t^ .
dv
>^~~7" ^
dt
^ = I , w^ =-yJw^ - ,
yl-\-t
H; = ^ ^ + W ^ + W ^ ^ , vv;=Jcos^^+sin^^+ 1 --J j-.
, / = VHJ. = , w = /2 .
6.11. ,
,
v^,

r{t) = (vQt cos ) i + v^tsma \j . -


2

.'
.
dr . . .-:
v = - = VQCOsai -i-{vQsma-gt)j .
dt
IV 1= 7(^0 cos )^ + {VQ sin - gtf = yjv^^ -Iv^gt sin a + g^t^

[ = 1^0/cos ,
gt'
y^v^tsma---
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500 9

= x t g a ^ . . -
Ivl cos
.
6.12.
X = cos t, y-a%\Vit^z-a\vL cos t.
. i = - sin ^, - cos t,
sin/
z = -a . (3)
cos/
^ sin/^^^ * ^ adt
ds = M-a^\xit) +(flfcos/) + dt =
cos/ cos/

9.
.


. ,
,
^{^^^,2) .
-
= ?(/), (. 9.21)
:
) ^^^ -
dr d^r
-yj-; ) ^^^ -
dt dr
dr .
; )
dt
MQM^M^ .
:
www.kodges.ru
501

. 9,21.

) MQA/J ,

= ;
dt
) MQM^ ,
dr d"r
=

) MQM^ ,
N = [B,f]. :
-^ f ^ ^ N
= =:-, = =-, V = :-
|| ^ \\ \N\
df
^ dr ~ 3 -,
ds df (1)
ds
s .
2.
X = x(t), = y(tX z = z(t) MQ (XQ , J^Q ' ^ )

dx di di
(2)
'dt dt dt
www.kodges.ru
502 9

(3)
, T.
x,y,z ; -
XO,J^Q,ZQ /^;
dx dy dz
7;=, = - ^ , =
" dt ' dt ' dt
^

dx dy_ d^
(-) -) + (2-Zo) 0 (4)
dt dt

{x-x,)T^+{y-y,)T^+{z-z,)T^^Q. (5)
:

^ - ^ 0 _- _^-^o
(6)
N^ N^ N^
()

(7)

(8)
. .. .

{x-x,)B^^{y-y,)B^+{z-z,)B^=Q. (9)
3.
F{x,y,z) = G{x,y,z) = ,
dr d^r ^
Y ar\dx,dy,dz]
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503

d^r ^i^x,d^y,d^zY x,y,z



.
7.1. jc = ^, y=^t^, z = ^^.6 /^ (2,4,8)
: ) f, v, j8 ; )
, ; )
, .
, ) -
f -ti -t^] - V'k
dr ^ -: ^ 2 d^7 rs- ^
= /+2//+:, T- = 2j+6tk,
dt dr
^ /^ = 2 ,

^ dr ^ ^
T = = i-]-4j + l2k,
dt

2-
i J
5 = dt ' dt^ 1 4 12 = 24-127 + 2:,
0 2 12

i J k
N = {B,T] = 24 -12 2 = -152-287 + 108:.
1 4 12
,
_ /+4/+12: ^ _ 24r-12j + 2it _ 12-7 + ^
= == V724 /181
Vi6i
www.kodges.ru
504 9

^ _ - 1 5 2 - 2 8 7 + 108^_-7-1437 + 54^
/116564 ~ /29141
) ^ ^ = 2, >^ = 4, z^ = 8
^ dx ^ dy ^ dz ^^
1^=2 = 1, - ^ = 4, = 12, -
dt dt dt
(2)
-2_ j;-4_z-8
"''~"'~12~'
(6)
-2 -4 Z-8 -2 z-8-4
= = =
-152 -286 108 -76 143 54
(8)
x-2_3;-4_z-8 -2_ j;-4_z-8
~24'~~^~'Y~ ^ ~12~~~^~~~'
) (7)
-152(x-2)-286(>;-4)+108(z-8) = 0 76x+143>;-54z = 292.
(5)
( x - 2 ) + 4(j;-4) + 12(z-8) = 0 jc + 4:^ + 12z = 114.
(9)
24(x-2)-12(j;-4) + 2(z-8) = 0 12x-6>; + z = 8.
7.2. f, \7,
= ^, Z = 2 ^=2.
.
= ^ z = 2.
, ,
dy = 2xdx dz = 2dx, d^y = 2dx^ ^ d^z^O-
XQ=2 dr {dx,4dx,2dx}
rf'r{0,2Jjc',0} ^{1,4,2} rf'r{0,l,0}.
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505

, :
, _ _1-\-] + 2

\i J \
^- -2i+k
B = [dr,d'r] = 1 4 2 = -2i+k, =^ = .
1 0 1^1 /5

i j
N = [B,T] = -2 1 = -Ai+5j-U, V = ^ ^ = -
-4i+5j-Sk
1 4 2
7.3.
: ) x = t, y = t^, z-t^, tQ=\;
) r ( 0 = sin^/r + sinfcos/7 + cos^/^, f = ; ) 2 x ^ + 3 / + z ^ = 9 ,
4
3 x 4 / - z ' = 0 (1,-1,2).
, ) : = \, y = 2t, z = 3/^
^ = I: (1) = 1, ^(l) = 2, z(l) = 3.
^ = 1, =1,
ZQ = 1 . , (2)

(4): z i = Z z l = z l , (^-1) + (;;-1)2 + (-1)3 = 0


1 2 3
x + y + z-6 = 0.
) x = s'm t,

y = sint cos t, z = cos^ / - /^ = , -


1 1
Mf,: ^= , - - ^, ^, ^0 = - --
: = 2 sin t cos t = sin 2t,
y = cos^t-sm^t = cos2t, z = -2costsmt = -sm2t
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506 9

^^
: = = 0, Z = -1.
4 v4.

(2),
:
1 1
JC V Z
2_ 2_ 2
1 -1
(3) 7^ = ,
, .
(5), ,
\ 1
~ 0 + Z = 0 jc + z - l = 0.
2
) :
(p{x,y,z) = 0 \i/{x,y,z) = 0, , , , x = x{t)
, = y{t),
Z = z{t) ( ,
).
x = t, :

2^43/+z'=9,

1 1
: = v9-5r% z = v7^^+9.
2 2
^ t,
.
: I =5 /
7 /
2V9-57
Z =
^: (1) = 1, (1) = -
2 V? + 9
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^ 507

^(1) = . , -

^ :
=^ ^ =^-, ( x - l ) + - ( y + l) + - ( z - 2 ) = 0

4 8

-^^^2-2^ 8^ + 10j; + 7z-12 = 0.


8 8 8
7.4.
= cos t, y = asmt^ z = bt t = 7i.
,
^ -^ = .
. x--a^\Vit, y = acost,
z = b.
x-acost y-asint z bt + z-
\ = = ^ , / = : - - = ^ ^ = - ,
-asmt cost b - b
. . t = 7r ,
X = .
^ +^ =^ ^ Oz,
,
Oz:
cos 7 = Z b b
yjz^+y^+z^ yJa^sm^t-\-b^cos^t + b^ 1^+^

Oz ,
.
7.5.
: ^ + + z ^ =9, ^ - =3 (2,1,2).
www.kodges.ru
508 9

.
. ,
X ,
xdx + ydy + zdz - , xdx - ydy -

, ^ =2, ^-1, z^ = 2, dy - Idx,


dz = -2dx, d^y = -3dx\ d^z = -3dx^.
,
{dx, 2dx,-2dx} |0,-3^:^,-3^!^} {1,2,-2}
{0,-3,3}.
,

\ ] \
= 1 2 "2 = -12 + 3 7 - 3 ^ .
10 -3 - 3

-12(x-2) + 3 ( j ; - l ) - 3 ( z - 2 ) = 0 4x-y + z-9 = 0.

9.8.

1.
.
= r(s), s ,

R ds' (1)

R .
= r(t),

www.kodges.ru
509

R 3 (2)
dr
dt
2.

1 ..
= = lim, (3)
-^

As*,
.
= r(s),
dr d^r d^r
\dp\ ^ds_dsl_di_
P ds (4)
ds'
,

- ; -
ds
.
= r(t), . .
,
dr d^r d^r
^^}_^Js_di_dl_
2: (5)
^ d^
dt ' dt^
3.
dr V dv _ f P dl V

ds ~R' ~ds~~J p^' s p


www.kodges.ru
510 9

8.1.
x = ^cos^, j^^^sin/, z = bt ( > 0) .
. -
F = cos ^ + J sin t + kbt -
(2) (5).

dr _ _ -*
= 4asmt+ facost + kb
dt
d^r ^
-
dt' = -la cos t- ja sin t.
d'r -,
lasmt-jacost.
de

i j
dr d^r
-a sin t a cos t b : iab sin t - jab cos / + ka^
dt' dt^
-a cos t -a sin t 0

2,-: I3-:
-asmt a cost b
dr d'r d'r
-a cos t -a sin t 0 = a'b.
dt dt^ dt^
a sin t -a cos t 0

\_
[a'b' sin't + aV cos' ^ + a' )2 a (/?' + a ' )
^ =
[a" sin' ^ + a' cos' / + Z?' )2 [a" + Z>' )^
a'+b'

a'b b
G =
a^b^ sin't + a'Z?' cos' / + a"^ a^+b^'
,
.
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511

8.2. : jc^-3;^+z^ =1,


j ; ^ - 2 x + z = 0 (1,1,1).
.
. ,
X
xdx - ydy + zdz = , 2ydy - 2dx -^dz = 0

dx^ -dy^ -yd^y + dz^ + zd^z = 0, 2dy^ + 2yd" + d^z = 0.


x^ = 1, =1, 2:^ = 1,

dy = dx, dz = 0, d^y = dx^, d'^z^dx'^,


3 3

dr[dx;dx;0} d^r lO;dx^;dx^>


^{1;1;0} t/'r{0;-l;~l}.
(2).

i j
[dr,d^r] =1 1 = +]-.
-1 -1
,

\[dr,d'r]\ / 3
8.3. : ^ = 2, ^ = 6a^z
M(jc, j , z ) .
. ,
X
^ ' .2.,_.2.^ .__ X _^
xdx = ady, dy = d!x, x dx = 2a dz, dz =
a 2a'
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512 9

d'y = , d'y = 0, d'z = ^dx\ d'z = '^


a a

dx^ X
dr\dxAdx,-^dx\, d'r\0,Adx'\, d'rloA^''
a 2a' \ \ a a^ \ a
(2),(4),
.

I J
^ X ^ X -: -
[dr,d'r] = jij+k,
2 2
X
1

'\
1 ^
2'\
X
drd rd = 0 1 -1.

0 0 1

,
1
^' ' ^"
+
4' ' + 1
= +
' ' / ^^
1 +^
- +4*
V

1
<7 =
, ' ' +
' 4'
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10

10.1
*
*


1. f{x),
F ( x ) , f{x),
F\x) = fix).
1, F(^x)
f{x) [;],
F'(x) = / ().
f{x) -
,
, , F{x)
/(:), F(x)-\-C
/ (), (F{x) + ) * = F ) = f(x).
.
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514 10

2. ^cnvi^ynK\xvL^ F[^x)
/ ( ) , F{x) + C
/ ( )
\f{x)dx.
,
\f{x)dx = F{x) + C,
F'(x) = / ( x ) .
/ ( ) ,,
f(x)dx :;
.
/ ()
/ ( ) . ,
.
,
, . . ,
.
.
2. .
1.
, , F\x) = f (),

(lfix)dx)=iFix) + Cy = nx).
2.

d[jf{x)dx) = f(x)dx,
3.


J j F ( x ) = F(x) + C JF\x)dx = F{x)-\-C,
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515

4.

\ (/i (^) + (^) - / ^^))dx = \f, {x)dx + j /2 {x)dx - j /3 (x)dx.
5.
, , const,
\af(x)dx = \ f{x)dx,
3. .

:
f "^'
1. jc"Jjc = +; ai^-l.
^ +1
2. J=:1||+;
3. J sinxd[r = COSJC + C;
4. J cosx(ix = sinx + C;

j cos^x tgx + C;
<fc
6. \^Y-=-^S^+^''
sin^x
J cin V

7 f^-^ = J[l_+C;
' In a
8. \e'dx = e' + C;
r dx 1 x ^
9. \ ^ = -flfrc^g-+C;
dx
10. J 77^
= arcsin + C;
a
dx x a+ C
11. 1^^ T = ^^^
^ X -a 2a x + a
www.kodges.ru
516 10

1 ,In + +
12. J-1 1 -
-X = 2
dx
. 3 . 1 4^ - = 1 + 1^ + \ + ;
dx
14. J sin : In tg: + ;
d[r
15 Jcosx
In + C;

16. jshjc^ = chx + C;

17. Jchx<ic = shAf + C;

18. Jch^ thx + C;

19. 1 = -cthx + C.

,
.

.

.
,
,

.
4. ,

.
.

www.kodges.ru
517

1 \{) sin axdx = sin ax| -cosax -+.. c.


a a a a
P(x) .
P P' \ jy p"" \
2. J {) cos axdx = sin ax - - + +cosax -T- -+- +C;
P P' P" ^ ^
3. JP(x)e'"^ = e'^

4 fx"ln"xd:x = - ^ x " ^ 4 n " x \x''\n''-'xdx


^ m+\ m+n
n -\\ -\, 2,3,...
5 f "^ cos bxdx =Z?sin6x
^ ^^" ^^,+ 'acosZ?x
^ ^^ ^^ g"^ + C;
*' (2^+Z?^
f ^ . , , (3sinZ?x-Z?cosZ?x ^ ^
6 e'^sinZ?X(ix = ; e^ + C;

7. J Vx^ + adx = I/^ + a + < In (x + Vx^ + (2 |) + C;

8 I V(2^ ~x^rfx = xv^^-x^+(3^arcsin WC;


J 21^ aj
f ?
9. / = 1^ 5-7 .),
( = 1,2, 3,...)
1 2n-l 1 ,
/..1 =
2'(')" 2 a'
1
10. sm xax = c o s x s m x + w-1 ssm
. -2 xax;
,
' -^ w w -^
11. [cos" X(ic = sinxcos""* x + [cos""^ xdx;

csmlnx ^sin(2A:-l)x 10 .
12. ^x = 2> ^ ^ + C , (w = l,2,...);
^ sm X t^ 2A:-1
fsin(2A2 + l)x , ^v^ sin 2Ax ^ , 1 -1
2A:
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13. J^^T sm X ^ ^ = ^ + 2 X ^ + C
^=1 ( = 1,2,...);
518 10

dx 1 ^ dx
^'^-
smx
Kos''''x~2kcos''x V
1- I
2k COS X
dx 1 cos X 1 dx
15. J sin''^4
- 2ksin^'x\ \kPsm''-'x'
2k
J CI

16. jx'e~'dx = ~ x V + njx"~'e~'dx;

- a be-ad
17. ^x = x + - ln|cjc + <i| + C;
'^ cx + d
dx 1 ,
18 = li^

1.1. : a) \{x^ -\r2x-\-)dx\

6, J m; ) Jctg'jcabc; r) j - jdx; ) j \
yb ^4x\
dx
sin^xcos^x
, a)

'dx "^ ^ X
fx^d!x+ f2x(ix+ f = 4-2+ln|x|+C = -x'^+x^+ln|x|+C;

:: {-'-' -flnlxl + C I = x 4 2 x + ~ , T. e.
.
)

\e'dx-\^ = e' -\x-'dx = e' - -^' +-\^C,


X- " -2
)
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519

fcos X , r il-sin^x
-sm X , ax , ^
:= dx= Jx = ~ c t g x - x + C.
' sin jc ' sin X ' sin X '
r)
^^-1
1
J 1 + ' J + " 1 + '

<ix ^3 ^
= j(x'-l)^jc + j : = x + arctgx + C.
1 + ' 3
)

\x~~^dx- \~ = -^ -4^ + C = - V J C ' - 4 V x + C.


^ ^ 2 2
) ,
1 = sin^ + cos^ ,
sin^x + cos^x dx dx
I sin^xcos^xJ cos^
. X J' sin^ X
= tgx~ctgx + C.

dx
ax r ax dx
1.2. : a) ^-; 6) i
'x - 9 -^ ^ 2 5 -

^^^ih' ^^^'''^-'^4i^2-
, a) 9 3^
(11), = 3
dx _ I -3
In -3 + = -1 + .
' - ' ~2-3 + 3 6 + 3

)
(10)
7i^
dx ^ ^
J 4^ = arcsm+ .
www.kodges.ru
520 10

) (12)
dx +/jc^-l
= 1 +
)
(7)
{ley . ^ Ve'
J \{1) In 2 + 1
)
^ dx 1 ^ ^
/5 arctg-7=
"V5 + C.
(/2)^

10.2.
,

dx^d(ax-^h)\ """^dx = dx"\ cosjc^fr = ^f(sinjc);



dx dx
sin xdx = - J (cos jc); = (i(ln jc); r = d{ig x)\
X cos X
dx ,, ^ dx w .
= -t/(ctg x); - = t/(arctg x);
Sin X 1+x

= (i(arcsin x); e'^Jx = d{e''),


t,
.
dx
2.1. : ) ^-^; ) J
cos
www.kodges.ru
521^

) J(2-3.)'dx; ) \-^; ) 1 ^ ; ) \ ^ ^ .
, ) (-2)
(-2),

\e-^'dx = --\-^{-1) = ---'" + .

)
dx I f fif(4x) _ 1
^ - \ ^ =-tg4x + C.
' cos^ 4 4"' cos'' Ay
J r>rc 4 4
) -
,

ji2-3xydx = --ji2-3xfd(2-3x) =
3
1(2-)\^ 1
+ = (2-3jcf+C.
3 6 18
)

j^j=^ = li6-5xydx^~li6-5xyd(6-5x)=-^(6-5xy+C.

)
, ,

h-6x -" 1- 6 ' ,'


/
)
_ i __ i
2
J3-2e'^"2J3~2e'""""~4J 3^^2

= -lf'<^-^f>=-lln|3-2>Uc.
4J 3-2'^ 4 ' '
www.kodges.ru
522 10

COSX f dx
2.2, : ) -."^; ) J . . . , ?
^ ^ 'l + 4sinjc ^ -^ x(l + lnx)

, )

cos X ^ c/sinx _ 1 f flf(4sinx) __
'l + 4sinjc 'l + 4sinx 4-'l + 4 s i n x
1 f J(l + 4sinx) 1. ,, . . , ^
= - ^ ^ = ~-ln l + 4smjc +C.
4-' l + 4sin X 4 ' '
) ,

= = \ ^ = ln 1 + lnjc+C.
Jx(l + lnx) J l + lnx J 1 + lnx ' '
) 4x

:2^+.

) ,

J 3J 3
)
rsinxiix J cos X -5 , 1 4 ^
=- = - cos cos X = cos + .
^ cos X -^ cos X ^ 4
) ^

x^dx \ dx" 1 ^^ ^
'9 + ' ^'+')' 9 3
www.kodges.ru
523

^ ^ ^ dx ^^ xdx
2.3. : ) , ; ) ,
'(arcsinjc)Wl-Jc' W l + Jc'

Jx42x +3 W l + cos'x '

e) J - 7 = = ; ) f i - i ^ ^ ; 3)J-7=f--^.

, a)

dx _ (iarcsinx _
' (arcsin )' V l - x ' ^ (arcsin )'

f -3 1
= (arcsin ) d arcsin x = + .
^ 2(arcsin x)*"
6) X

xdx If dx^ 1 , I 2
- ^ ^ = = - - 7 _ ^ = -1'+/1 + (') + .

) ,
+1 , If 2 + 2 ,
; dx = Z dx =
'^+2 + 3 2Jx^+2x + 3
1 fflf(x'+2x + 3) 1, I 2 n ^1 ^
= - ^ = - l n X +2x + 3 +C.
2J x42xH-3 2 ' I
r) sin 2x
Sin2xdtc /COS^X ^, 2 -1/2 7/1 2
1 . =-1 . _ = - | ( l + cos^x) ^^^^f(l + cos^x) =
Vl + cos^x vl + cos^x
= ~2(l + cos'xy'' + C.^
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524 10

) sin 2

je^^"'^ sin 2xd^ = je^^"'" J sin'X = ^^"'^ + .

) x"

f x'dx 1 f dbc' 1 . 4 ^
- 7 = = - 7 = ^ = = = arcsinx +C.

)
f 1-tgx , f cosx-sinx , f rf(cosx+sinx) , 1 1 ^^
^--dx- dx^ \-^ \ ^ = ln cosx + smx+C.
'l + tgx 'cosx + sinx ' cosx + sinx
)

'Vx(l + x) J 1+x M + cVx)'

= 2 J arctg Vxrf arctg vx = (arctg v x ) ' + C.

10.3.

1. \f{x)dx ,
f{x) .

= (), (p{t) ,

X = = . dx = (p\t)dt.
dx (p(t)

lnx)dx = lf((pitWit)dt.
www.kodges.ru
525


t ,
X, .
,
.
2. .
1. ^^ ~jc^ ,
x = asin^vx = acos/; yja^--x^ =acostvasmt-

2. /:^ -^ ,

= - ; / ' - ' =atgt
cost
3. /jc^ +^ ,

V?~^ ^
x = atgt; /JC + =
COSX
3^. :
1. R
,

=t, : = In /, dx = .
t
dx
2. R{\n ), R -
' X
, -
- 1 dx J
In = , = dt,
X

dx
3. / -
^ x'^^iax^+by
1 ^ dt
= - , dx = ^ .

www.kodges.ru
526 10

3.1. : ) \{2 + )^(1; ) f ;

dx.
* sm2x J Vx + 1 * x\nx 'Vx + 1
t-
, a) 2: + 3 = /, =

<^-~dt,

/ = Jx(2x + 3)'d:x = -J(?-3)/^J^ = - J ( / ' - 3 r ' ) J / =

/
+C= V +c.
11 10 4 10
,

/ = -(2+3)"' r2^c + 3 _ J _ Y ^ ^ _ l _ ,0 27/10) + .


4 11 10 44

) = /, = - , J'x = ^,-
t

dx ^f dt
^- -I /^
,'

^ ^(^'^ =4=arccos(V20 + C.
S^-^f V2
:,

/ = p^arccos + .

)
www.kodges.ru
527

Intgx
sin2x
-dx-
2^ sinxcosx -b
-' sinx 2
9 J Sll
'dx

cosx COS X

dx
igx = t. , / = dt^
cos^x 2J /
lnt = z, = dz,

/ = \zdz = z^+C.
2^ 4
/ = - l n ' ^ + C = - l n ' t g x + C.
4 4
) + 1 = /^, dx = 2tdt,

/ = [sinVx + l , = 2\sint = 2Isintdt = - c o s / + .


J V^c + 1 ' t '
, / = - 2 cos
dx
) In x=t, -"^,

Vl-ln: /
' jclnj: ' t

l-t-z^, t = \-z^, dt = -Izdz,

, rlz^dz ^rz'-l+l^ ^ 1 (
1, z - 1
\dz = l z + - l n + C.
2 z+1

1 >^-1
/ =2 +c =
2 N/P7+I
V
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528 10

In x + 2Vl--ln x-2
2/1 - In X + In +c.
In X

e) = 1^, dx = 2tdt,

/ = -7=etc = 2 rJ? = 2 e+t


dt.
"Vx + l ' f + 1 J ^+
,

= t^-t + 2 ,
^+1 t+l

/ 2 ^
/ = 2j t'-t +2 \dt = 2 -^ + 2f-21n? + l + C.
\
t+l V )
,
/ V

/ =2 - X . / -, \ 7 +.
h 2 V JC - 2 In /JC + 1
x^dx dx
3.2. ^>1: ) / , > ) i ;
Wl-x' '/x'+l

, ) jc = sinr, dx^costdt
Vl-x^ =cosr. ,

^ , fSin^^COS/ , . 2 I 1 f/1 -1_1
. ^tx:= = sin^/Jr = - (l-cos2/Wr =
'Vl^ J cos^ J
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2J
529

If 1 . ^!+C = -(/-sin/cosO + C =
- / S i n 2/ 2
21 2
-(t- sin W1 - sin^ 0 + = (arcsin x - JCV 1 - jc^) +

^4 ^ J dt
6)
x = t g / , ax =
1 cos^
VJcVT -
cos/

dx
COS tdt
cos 1 _ dt
"f _ , tg: + C = ln sm / + C:
Wx^+1 'tg/cos'/ 'sin/ l + cos/

= ln + C = ln + C.
1 + Vl + x' i+VT+v
^ a
, asm/ ,
) x= , ax = dt
cos/ cos /
x^ -a^ = aXgt -
'yjx^-ci
fV^ - , f flftg/cos/asin t , f 2 , fl~cos / ,
\- dx= \^ dt = a\tg^tdt = a\ dt =
' jc ' acos t ^ ' cos /
= a\ f { d t \=a{tgt-t) +C=a
y^^ cos" / ' J

= ^Jx^-a -arccos + C.

^3;c

3.3. : a) J dx; 6) J 3JC\2


dx;
(l + e^^)
www.kodges.ru
530 10

dx f dx . f
"^1^^^^^-'/:
rit
, ) "" =t, dx =
t

= - U-'i ^-3arctg^ = - l n ( r + l ) - 3 a r c t g ^ + C =
2^ r + l 2
= -ln(e'"+l)-3arctge" + C.

6) e^"" =/, / =

J(l + e'^)' 3J(l + 0 ' ? 3J^ ' ^ '

3(1 + 0 3(1+ e'^)

B) x = - , (ic = ;-,

2 2:

) : = - , dx = ;-,
t

www.kodges.ru

531^

f f" 3/2 =-['^^=-+'{+)=

b yja + bt^ b yJax^-\-b

) e"" =t, dx = ,
t

e'^dx
e ax _ p dt
at __ rr dt
at _ f " d(t-3)
2 , o2
(/-+4 '(/-+2

= arctg + C = arctg + C.
2 2 2 2

10.4. no
1.

\udv-uv-\vdu. (1)


w (it;. w ,
, dv
, dx,
V.
udv
vdu,
, vdu
2. , :

[ jc" In xdx, I x'^e'^dx, J x" sin bxdx,

J x" cos bxdx, J x" arcsin bxdx, \ x" arctg bxdx.


www.kodges.ru
532 10

J "^ sin hxdx^ J e"^ cos bxdx


T. .,
.

,
.

^ , , Z)sin6x + acos6x ^ ^
\ cosbxax = -\-;

1 , asinbx-bcosbx ^ ^
"^ sin bxdx = "^ + . (2)
3. , "
"

[sin" xdx = cosxsin''"^ JC + [sin"~^ xdx,


^ n n ^
I cos" xJjc = sinxcos""* JC + [cos""^ xdx. (3)

4.1. : a) {xe^dx; 6) \xaictgxdx; B)\\nxdx;


xdx
r) \x^ sin xdx; ) - r i ; e) [ arcsinjcrfx.
sin^x
X

, a) x = u ^ e^dx = dv, du = dx
X

V = 2e^. no

JC XX XX X

jxe^dx = 2'- -l^e'dx = 2^ -^+ = le^ix-l) + .

) arctgx = w, xdx = dv, du= -,


2 1+

www.kodges.ru
X
v = , (1) :
533

f , ^^ I f x^dx ^ 1 f ^ + 1 " \dx


xarctgxax = a r c t g x \z = a r c t g x ; =

x^ \ , \ dx \/ 2 \ ^
= arctgx\dx-\-\ -~[x arctgx-x-arctgxl + C.
dx
) In x = w, dx = dv, du=, v = x.
(1)
J In xdx = j c l n x - j x = x(ln jc -1) +

) x^ = t/, sin xdx = dv, du = 2xdx, t; = -cos x.


(1)
J x^ sin xdx = -jc^ cos x + 2 J x cos xdx.
,
X = t/ cos xdx = dv ,
J ^ sin xdx = -^ cos + 2( sin - 1 sin xdx) =

= (2 - ^) cos X + 2 sin X + .
dx
) X = W, = /, du=dx, v = -ctg .
sin X
(1)
I- = - x c t g x + ctgxJx = -xctgx + In|sinx| + C.
^ sin X ^
dx
) arcsin = w, dx = dv, du = , , t; = .
(1)
f . , . ^
arcsm (2 = arcsin - - = arcsin +
J J 1-'
+ - J ( l - x ' ) 2 J ( l - x ' ) = xarcsinx + V l - x ' + C .

www.kodges.ru
534 10

4.2. : ) \4^ ^rkdx\ ) J cos(lnx)(ir;


) Je^^'cosSxc/x.
, ) 1^-\-=, dx = dv,
xdx
du , v = x. (1)

I /^ +kdx = x^Jx^ + - \ , ^ +- dx
~xsjx^ + - \,

= xyjx^ +- /^ + kdx + \ .
'/77
= X'sJx^ + -{-klnlx + x^lx^ +: - J /^ +kdx.

2jvx^ + kdx = \1 ^ + +kln\x + \Jx^ -

j V x ^ + ^ x = ~(xVx^+A:+A:ln ; + /:^+^+

sin(lnx)
) cos(lnx) = w, dx = dv, du=- dx,
X
v^x. (1)

I cos(ln x)dx = X cos(ln ) 4- J sin(ln x)dx.

sin(ln x) == w, dx = dv du = dx,
X
v = x. (1),
J cos(ln x)<ix = X cos(ln x) + X sin(ln ^) - J cos(ln x)dx.

www.kodges.ru
535


2J cos(ln x)dx = jc(cos In x + sin In x)

X
J cos In xdx = (cos In X + sin In x) +

) cos = w, e^'^dx = dv, du = - 3 sin 3xdx,

^ = - ^ . (1)
1 '^
J e^"" cos 3xdx = e^"" cos 3x + j e^"" sin 3xdx.

sin3x = w, e dx = dv,

du=3 cos 3xdx, v = e^''. (1)


1 '^ Q
I ^"" cos 3xdx = e^"" cos 3x + e^"" sin 3x \e^'' cos 3xdx.
J 2 4 4-'

13
-le^^''cos3xdx = e^^''\ cos3x +sin3x L
4J 2 t 2 J

2 2 '2 1 3 ^
e ""' cos3x +sin3x + C.
e ''cos3xJx = 13
2
,
(2).
7^ J X
arctgx
dx;
4.3. : ) je ; ) J- '
. rarcsinvx -
^ :
www.kodges.ru
536 10

, ) = ^^, dx = 2tdt,

{e'^dx = 2\te'dt.
t = u, edt = dv, du = dt, v = e^.
(1)
jte'dt = te'-je'dt = e\t-'\) + C.
,
Je^^ = 2e^(V^-l) + C.
dx
) arctgx = /, = cit ^ = tg^t.
1 + '

'^ arctgx

/ = , tg^tdt = dv, du=dt, v^tgt-t.Uo


(1)
2

jttg'tdt = t(tgt-t)-\(tgt-t)dt = t{tgt-t) + ln\cost\ + + C.

,
^ a r c t g x , ^ , 1 1 ^i 2 1 / 2 ^
J or = arctgx(x-arctgx)ln(l + x )-f(arctgx) + C =

1 9 1 2
= xarctgxln(l + x )(arctgx) +
) a r c s i n v x = / , vx=sinr,
dx __
I 2 sm tat.
Vl-:
rarcsinvx - ^f . ,
. dx = 2\tsmtdt.

www.kodges.ru
537

: t = u, sintdt = dv
du =dt, V- -cost.
J/sin^ dt = -tcost+\QOStdt = -tcost+ smt +C.

f arcsin VJC , . n ^
; dx = -arcsinyjX'yJl-x + ^lx + C.
' Vl-x
4.4. : a) j cos^ xdx; 6) J sin^" xdx .
, a) (3)
I cos^ xJx = sinxcos^ JC + [ cos^xd!x = sinxcos^x +
J 7 7J 7
4 4 3 ^ ^

7 V* -smxcos x + cos xdx


; 5J J
6^ 1 . 4 4 . 2 2.
=sin xcos^xH -sin jccos xH -sin xcos x-\sin X +C=
7 7 5 5 3 3
1 . 6 6/
=sin : cos JC + cos" X +(cos^ X + 2) + C.
7
6) (3)

|sin"'ji:<ix = cosxsin'x + \sin^ xdx = cosjcsin'x +


J 10
in 10-
inJ 10
in
9( 1
+ cosxsin cosxsin'xH-
10 8 gJ J 10
9 1 . 7 7^ 1
+ cosxsin xH cosxsin^ xH [sin'* xc/x
10 V 6 J
8 8
1 . 9 9 1 . 7 1 1 5
= cosxsin x 4 cosxsin xH cosxsin x +
8 8
10 10 V
www.kodges.ru 6
538 10

5( 1 3 3 ^^^
c o s x s m jc + [sin^xrix:
:+ -
V
1 . ^ 7r 1
cos jc sin x + cosxsin/x-f -cosxsin x +
10 10 V 8 8V

1 . 3 3^ 1 .
+- cosxsin x + cosxsmx + + C.
4 4V 2 2^ J

10.5. ,

Ax-vB f ,
1 . ;; .
' " + /? +
-
2 ^
^-c-t, + = z
2
(2,9,11)

1 _ dz
-;: 14 -
+Z7X + C 2 ^ / 1 z'k'

2 ( b
'= .
yia]


1 . + dx\ \yjax^ ^-bx-^-cdx.
yjax^+bx + c
^ n XX f -
2. J = ^ a x

www.kodges.ru
{mx-^nfyjax^ +bx-\-c
539


1
t
3.

J IZ3~T~i~rZ
sax^ --\-

yjax^ -\-bx + c

= ' " - ... +^_,)1'+ + ^\ ""


^^ --
.(/ = 0,1,... , )


.

[{^^'+^'^'^- ... + ^)]^ + + cdx =

= (,-^'+,-+ ... +A^,,)^Jax'+bx + c + A^,,j


f^ .
yjax - +


,
(Mx + N)dx
4. / = ^^ ^ ^ , -
{^ + + ] ^ + +
x^+px-i-q ,
= t + l .
www.kodges.ru
540 10

, , ^ . ( 0 .
\At'' + Bt + ^. + B,t + ,
5, ,
B = la^ + p{a + fi)-\-2q = Q\ B^=2aap+bia + |i) + 2c = 0
.

:

1{Af^-\-Cy.jA,t^+C,

t /it
J , 7 . ; (^ = 0,1,2,...),
\At^ + Cy^A,t' + C,
, ,
A^t^ + Q=u^ A^+Q'^-^v^,
p = b = 0,TO

xdx _ dx
(^ -hqyyjax^+c *' (^ +1^+ '
, , ^ + = i/^
+ ~^ = v^.
r(5x-3)Jx f xflfx
5.1. : ) J ^ n ^ ^ T i ' ) ] 4 ; + 5'

J:C& . +3 ^ , -. f 2'dx
4-2"+2'
, )
{5x-3)dx _ (5x-3)d:r
K--6x +9-16
9-l6~^'(-3)'-16
www.kodges.ru
541

--t, dx = dt, x = t + 3,

r5^+12,
^r+iz , 5rd(t^-\6)
( -10) ,_f dt
at J, \ . 12 , ^-4
i^ +C--
^-\6 V t^-ie '^'-4' 2 I ' 2-4 t+A\
x-1
= Inbc^ - 6 : - 7 + In + C.
2 I I 2 - + 1
6)

1f
3J 2
2xH
xdx
A 4
h
5 -w 1f
34 2X 11
x+- +
xdx

39 9 3 3 9
2 2
x + = t, dx = dt, x = t ,

dt
3J 2 11
9
-* 2
9
9''

^^^
V

11 2 3 3t ^
r+- rarctg-F=+C =
6 9Vn 'ViT
=i, :2+x
4 15
+
2 3JC + 2
arctgf=r-+C.
^
6 3 9 3>/n " Vn
B)

1
xdx
^-^ 2
=1- xdx
1 ^"
-+2-+ '!
- +
4 2 2
1 J J 1
x + = t, dx = dt, x = t,
2 2
www.kodges.ru
542 10

t \dt
dt

I-'
tdt

t'
r'
ir'
1 . 2t
arcsm-7=- = - 5t "!arcsin
1 . 2-7=
? +=
2 VS \ J 2 V5

:->/r: 7 1 . 2x + l ^
x - x arcsin7=hC
2 VS
r)
f (^ + 3) ^^,_ f ( +
' V x 4 2 x + 1-1 'V(x + 1)'-1
+1 = /, dx = dt, x = t-\,

4^
+21nL + V/^-l + = /^+2; + 21 + 1 + /^+2 + .
)
" -^lx + \-'dx = \^{x^\f -Zdx
+1 = /, dx = dt, J v/^ ~ 3 J / .

(7.. 10.1).

\4t'-3dt = -(//?'-3-31(^
-'^'^' + //'-)) +=

= - ( ( + 1)/:'+2-2-31( + 1 + / 2 - 2 ) ) + .

) 2' = /, 2" In 2dx = rf/,


www.kodges.ru
543

^ [ dt _ 1 f dt 1 d{t-2)
(/-2)

-2-V2 2"-2-/2
In +C= In + C.
2^2 In 2 t-2 + y/2 2/212 2 " - 2 + /2

etc
5.2. : a)
( + 1)/^ + 2 + 2 '
dx . f ,^ ,f
6) I
, a) x + l = - , d!x = j - ,


dx
J {x + l)^ix + \f +
1 + /?+2 + 2
:-ln i + ! + C = - l n + C.
x+1

1 J ^^
6) x = -, ax = ^ ,

f ^ _ f ^^^ - ( dt _
1 +C

1 1 J
) x-l=-, dx = ^^
^ ,
2 '(2^-1)^ 2 ^
www.kodges.ru
^ ^ l^x J
544 10

dx t^dt tdt
I (x-l)V(x-2)^-1 - \ - -J yl\-2t'
t\\\\-\y\
\-2t = z', t= , dt = -zdz,

ij(izV^aj_..),4 f z 1 z 3^+ C^
2- z V /
3
1 1 /
^jl-2t--{l-lty +C= + C.
3 3 ^

r) x = - , d^ = ;-,
t r
rrf^ tdt rc/r
-J . ^v^ ^ 2 4
f = z, ? = z +, dt = dz,

f z + -Jz , '
fl 2J 1 2 7 V _ , . 2 7, 1 fife

.2.7 1
= -.z'+-In z + . z"+- C = -^t^-t + 2-
V 4 2 V 4

^ Vl-x+2x^ 1, Vl-x+2x4l 1
-ii ?+/^^7+2 +C=
2 In +C.
2 X
www.kodges.ru
2
545

5.3. : ) / ^ ==(ix\

(lx + \)dx
6) J
(3JC^ + 4X + 4)/:^+6-1
, a) (1),

f ^ + 4 , , , ^. , tic
Vx^ + 2x + 2 yJx^+2x + 2

^+4 , 12 ( + ,)( + \) .,
+ 2 + 2 /:^ + 2 + 2


^+4 = ^ (^ + 2 + 2) + (^ + )(: +1) + .


X 1 = ^ "1" )?

" 0 = 24^+4+^^2-

, 4) = ~ ^' ~ "'
7
- ~- ,

, dx = -{x + 5Ux^ + 2x+2 , ' =


'Vx42x + 2 2 2^(; + 1)'+1

= -( + 5)^^ +2 + 2lnx + l + Vx^ + 2jc + 2+ .


2 2 I
www.kodges.ru
546 10

) = (^^ +dx-
^ v - .,dt.
^Zl
t+\

(2 + \)dx
- \
(^ + 4: + 4)/^ + 6JC - 1

{7at+2p+t+\\a-p)dt
-\


t , , fi
6ai8 + 4 ( a + j8)+8 = 0,
2a^8 + 6 ( a + j 3 ) - 2 = 0,
= - 1 , j8 = 2.

{t-S)dt 1 tdt dt
' - \
(?8)/15-6/' -^,\-.
>/3-'(/8)/5-2/' 41;
/-'(^8)/5-2^'"

1_
5-2t^=u^, t^ =(5-^), tdt = udu, .
2
tdt
^\t'+S)yl5-2t'
du
S^2\-u' -In
+>/21
6/7 -/2
+=

( + N/21)'
(/:;-1+(:+1)/7)
In +=- In + =
6/7 -21 6/7 /4(:4;+4)'

VX46JC-1+(JC+1)>/7
In + .
'^ 72(3x44x+4)
www.kodges.ru
547


-2 2
,
t 5 v'+2

Ar Jr
=:^1,
1 t;42 .Ju_= - _ ^ f/y
au _
4\45^ /-* 8 ^ 4 2 1 8/ 8/

1 5 /8 ^
8N/3 48VI4 V21

/-1 5 /8('+6-1) ^
8(2-x) 48/14 (2-x)yFJ

, /-1 5 /8('+6-1)
8(2-) 48Vl4 (2-x)V7

|VX' + 6 X - 1 + (X + 1)N/7
In + C.
/7 ^2(^+4 + 4)

10*6.
1.

. . > ,
aw

.
,
.
www.kodges.ru
548 10

(jc)
2. -^-,
aw
<
. :
1. Q^ ()
, :
) ;
)
;
) ;
) .

Q^{x) = a^{x-aY' ... {x-bfix^-^px + qf- ... (jc'+CJC +t/V,
m,,A:,/ = l,2,3, ... ; ^,,,,,,1 ,
p^-4q<0, c^-4d<0.
2.

() , ^ ,
-Jnl^ = L_4- 1-+ ... + ^ + L_+ ... + +
QSx) - (jc-a)' {x-af x^-b (x-b)"
, M,x + N, ^^^^ ^ M,x + N, ^ C,x + D, ^^^^^ +
x^+px + q '" (x^+px-^-qY x^+cx + d '" (x^+cx + dy'
A^^A^, ... , ^ ^ - . ^ . ^ - ^^k^ ^ P - ' ^k^C^^ - ' Q'
, ..., .
Q^ (jc)
, (,,,1).

, ,
.
www.kodges.ru
549

3. ,
Q^ {).
4. ,
(
).
.
5.
, 5j, TVp , ...
.
,
X
Q^ix) .


.
3. . Q^ (jc)
,

'Qs^) Qw 'aw
Q (x) Q^ (JC)
Q[{x)\ 6 2 W
Qni^) I Q\i^)'^ \{^\ ^W
, ,
, Q(jc) Qjix).
,

aw Q^{x) aw

www.kodges.ru
550 10

^{), Pjix)
.
xdx
6.1. : ) -^ Tdx\ ) -
'+' ' J ( x - l ) ( x - 2 ) 2-
f ^dx . . f 2x+l^dx . f,
^- , f fl^^
; ax\) \,- .
(x-l)(x4l) Jx'-x'-6
, a) -
4 4
X 1 2 1
^ J-X - -^ 7>
^-^- '^-"
\^ -dx^ \\ ^-^ +. \dx= \x^dx- \a^dx + a^ \z f=
\ J

= a x + a arctg + C.
3 a
6) ,

X A B C
( x - l ) ( x - 2 ) ' -\ - + -2 + - {x-2f'
,

jc = ^ x - 2 ) 4 5 ( j c - l ) ( x - 2 ) + C(x~l)

= ^ - + + ^ - + 2^--,
,

^ 0 = ^,
X ^-- + ,
' 0 = 4 + 2-,
www.kodges.ru
551

: -\\ = - 1 ; = 2.

f xdx _ { dx dx f dx _
'(x-l)(jc-~2)' " ~ J ] ^ " J x ^ ^ ^x-lf
x-1
= lnU-l - l n U - 2 -- -+C=:In -fC.
x-2 jc-2 jc-2

) (x + a ) - ( x + Z?) =flf-Z>,
1 _ 1 (xH-a)-(x + fe)_ 1 f 1 1
{-){^) a-b {x^d){x-\-b) a-byx + b x+a

r Jx _ ^ ({ ^ f ^-^ 1 _

-
(ln|jc + Z?|-lnU + ^ | ) + C = In + C.
x-\-a
r)
, ,

1 Cx + D
2. 2 . . = - + - J + - 2
(^+4) X X X +4

l = Ax^-\-4Ax-^Bx^-\-4B-\-Cx^+Dx^,

' 0 = + ,
^ 0=5 +
X 0 = 4,
' 1 = 45.

www.kodges.ru
552 10

: ^ = 0, 5 = , = 0, D = .
4 4

rfx 1 f(ix \ dx
J X44JC' " 4 J ] ? " 4 J x' +4 ~
M 1 x^
= arctg~ + C = -+--arctg- + C.
4x 8 2 4 X 2 2
) ,
,

2 +1 +
(-1)('+1) -1 '+1
2'^1 = ^ + + ^---.
,
^ 0 = + ,
X 2 = -,
' \ = -,
3 3 1
: ^ = ~? = -^ ^ ~ ' ^ * ^^"

JCx-lXx' + l) 2^ -\ l^x' +X

3 , I ,, Zd{x'+\) \ dx 3 , I ,1 3 , , 2
-lnX-1 -+ ; =-lnx-l

1 ^ ^ 3 , (x-1)' 1
+-arctgjc
-arctgjc + C = - l n ^ ^- \^ +-arctgx
+- + C.
2 4 x4l 2
e)

www.kodges.ru
553

^- Cx + D
'-'-6 {'-3)('+2) '- + -' + 2'

\=^ +2+^ +2+^-3Cx+Dx^ -3D.



^ 0 = + ,
^ 0 = B + D,
0 = 2-,
l = 2B-3D.
: = 0, = - , = 0, D = --.
5 5

^ ^ -^ -6~1^ ^ -3~1J ^ + 2~

In
xS + =
21 + /


- - a r c t g ^ + .
6 +S
V )
4'-4+7
6.2. : ) f-^; ) - dx.
' +1 '(+-1)(2-3)(2+5)
, )
" +1 = (' +2^ + 1 ) - 2 ' = (' +1)' - ( x V 2 ) ' =

= ('+/2 + 1)('-/2 + 1)

-^ Cx+D
+ 1 / 2 + 1 x^-xV2 + l"
www.kodges.ru
554 10


1 = (^ + 5)(jc'- /2 +1) + (CJC + D)(x'+ ^ +1).

^ 0 = ^ + ,
^ 0 = -/2 + + 12 + ,

X 0 = A-yf2B + C + y!2D,
" l = B + D.

= - = - L , B=D=-1
2V2 2
,
dx _ 1 + /2 1 x-v2 . _
'x4l~2V2-'x4x>/2 + l 2/2-''-/2 + 1

1 [ 2+/2 1 [- yl2dx
~4N/2-'X4XN/2+1 4/2-'/
V^
V^
2-/2
J
4N/2-'X'-XV2 + 1
ctc + -
J7
4V2 /2 V V
X -
^

' + [2+\
In + =1(/2+1) + 7=arctg(x^/2-l) + C.
4N/2 ^-/2 + 1 2^^ 2%/2
)
4^-4+7 ^-+7/4
= +-
(x+lX2x-3X2x+5) (+1:-3/2+5/2) +1 -3/2 +5/2

' - + 7 / 4 = -3/2:+5/2)+5(+1+5/2)+(+1-3/2).
www.kodges.ru
555



= -~1, 3/2, - 5 / 2 , = -1,

^ ~'7' *- -~-> .. .
,
4;'-4: + 7 dx \ dx 1 dx
dx = -\ +- +-
J(x+ 1)(2X-3)(2JC+5)I J x + l 4-'x-3/2 4-'x+5/2
1 7
= -ln|jc + l| + - l n | x - 3 / 2 | + - l n | x + 5/2| + C:
(2JC+5)(2X-3)'
+ C.
4 256(X + 1)'

2-3x + x^
6.3. : a) f -etc;
' (x+iyix'+x+iy
(x+
6) T -dx; ) ; rdx; r) z; r-.

, a)

2- + ^ ^+ + Dx^ + Ex + F
( + 1('+ + 1 ^+2^ + 2 + 1 ^+2^ + 2 +

2- + ^=(2+)(^ + 2^ + 2+1) -
-(^ ++)(3' + 4 + 2) + ()^ ++F)(x' + 2 x 4 2 +1).

, ,

' 0=
' Q = 2A-3A + 2D + E,
^ 0 = 4A + B-4A-3B + 2D + 2E + F,
www.kodges.ru
556 10

" l = 4A + 2B-2A-4B-3C + D + 2E + 2F,


X -3 = 2A + 2B-4C-2B + E + 2F,
2 = B-2C + F.
:
= -9, = -20, C = -7,D = 0, = -9, F = - 2 .

, 2-3JC+X^ , 9:20:+7 9x+2
/= ;; = :; ; .
J {+1)\^ +x+lf (x+l)(x' ++1) J (x+lXx^ +x+\)
,

9 + 2 +
+
(; + 1)( +jc + l) : + 1 + + \
9x + 2 = {^ ++\) + { + ){ +1),
" 0 = + ,
X 9 = + + ,
" 2 = + .
= - 7 , = 7, = 9.
,
VX+ /
9JC420x4-7 ^

dx f lx + 9 ,
/ = - +7 \ dx =
(x + i)(x^ ++
x+ l)
+ 1) ^ + 1 ^ + + 1
9jc420x-t-7
yjc + / U X + / .
_ , I, ,, ff
,1 7x+9
-l-71nbc + l - - flbc.
( x + l ) ( x 4 x + l) ' ' V '^ 3
x+ -
2 +-
4
x + = t, dx = dt,
1
x = t-,
www.kodges.ru
557

7+9 f '7^+^ 7 ^ 2 3 2 2f ^
' IT 3 >
+- +- + [ 2
2 4 V
7,^2 , 11 2 + 1 ^
= -1( + x + l ) + - ^ a r c t g 7 = - + .
2 / /3

920+7 ^,1 , , 7 , ^ 2 , 11 2+1
/= 7, +71+11(^++1)r^arctg - +.
(+1)(+1) ' ' 2 / /

)
( AX''+BX^+CX^+DX+E\ FX' + GX'+HX^+IX+J
4'-1
(+1 X + + 1 + X + + 1
V
4' - 1 = (4^' + ^ +2 + D)(x' + +1) - (' + ' +
+' +Dx + )(5' +1) + (Fx' + Gx' + ' + / + J)(x' + +1),
' 0 = F,
^ 0 = 4A-5A + G,
' 0 = -5 + ,
' 0 = 2-5 + 1,
^ 4 = D-5D + J + F,
X* 0 = 4A + 5E-A + F + G,
^ 0 = 4A + 3B-B + G + H,
- 0 = + 2- + + 1,
X 0 = 2C + D-D + I + J,
-l = D-E + J.
^ = 0, 5 = 0, = 0, D = -\, = 0,
F = 0, G = 0,H = 0, 1 = 0, J = 0.
www.kodges.ru
558 10

-dx = + .
J (jC^+JC + 1)^ JC^+JC + 1
)

ix'-\f Ax^ + Bx^ + Cx + D Fx + G


{ + \){-+\ + + 1 +- ^ + 1

' - 2 ' +1 = ( 4 2 5 + ) ( ; ' + + 1 ) - 4 ( ^ 4 X 4 5 X 4 +

+D)(x^ +)+:(* -'' +3^ +l)+(Fx+G)(x^ +^ +2' +2^ ++1).



,
' Q = E + F,
' Q = -A + F + G,
X* l = -A-2B + 3E + 2F + G,
' 0 = 3A-2B-4C + 2F + 2G,
X -2 = 3A + 2B-4C-4D + 3E + F + 2G,
X 0 = 2B + C-4D + F + G,
\ = C + E + G.
: A = -, = , C = , ) = 0,

: , F = , G = .

1 3_1 2 2
~" . 1 7

-dx = 3 2 3^^1 ^-^


J(x + l)(x4l)' (x' + l)' 3x'+l
x^ x^ + 2x
- + arctg X + C.
(x^+1)^

www.kodges.ru
559

)
1 _ 1
{x-\f{x'-\f~{x-\f{x + Xf

1 Ax^+Bx*-\-Cx^+Dx^ + Ex + F G
+ +
(-1)'(+1)' [ {x-\)\x + \f jc-l x + l
,

1 = ( 5 ^ 4 ^ + ' + IDx+){^ -1) - (.4x4 5 x 4 " + Dx" +
+ + F)(6x+2) + G(x' - " + ' - 1)( -1) + (' - ' +
+-1)('-2'+1).
^ 0 = + ,
^ 0 = 5A = 6A-G-3H,
' 0^4B-2A-6B-3G-2H + 3H,
' 0 = -5A + 3C-2B-6C + 3G + 6H-H,
^ 0 = -4B + 3D-6D-2C + 3G + H-6H,
^ 0 = -3C + E-2D-6E-3G + H,
X 0 = -2D-2E-6F-G + 3H,
" l = -E-2F + G-H.
, 1 _ 1
: ^ - ~ > ~~~7- = --
5
^ = , = - , F = - , G = , =-. ,
36 18 36 6

23 1 11
dx
'.'-1
_
5 3
-X + X X
J (x-ir-(^'-l)' 9
(x-l)\x + lf
36 18 36

www.kodges.ru
560 10

\ f dx \ f dx _ ' -6: -20JC423X' -2X-1 1


{x-\)\x + \f
1 6x-l
+-ln + C.
6 x+ \

10.7*

.
,
.

1. i?(jc,jc"', JC"' , ... )dx, R


; ^^^.^.^ ,

= ' dx = kt^'^dt,
.
2^.

\^
+ f ax + b
1^ ,\ cx + d cx + d
\dx

-
k ax + b k , ^ ^
ax + b = t , = t , / :
cx + d
,j8, ....
3.
jx'"{a-}-bx"ydx , , , ,, ,

www.kodges.ru
x = z " [z'^^a + bzY dz.
^

q = 1 -

:
1. , z = /"', -
^ = ^.

2. , 1 -

171
+ " =a + bz = t"', = ^.
3. \- , p + q = 1+

fa + bzY
\z^{a + bzY dz = z^^^ dz.

+ = = t \ ^ -
Z
= ^.

4''. R(x,yjax^+-\-)'
.
1. > , /^+ + =t-yjax ,

=
- I2; yfat^ + + /
- , +bjc + c = 7= ,
2yjat + b 2yjat + b
, ^yfat^-hbt + cyja .
dx - 2 = dt,
{24at^bf
2. > , ^ -^ + =xt + yjc ,

2y[at-b I2] yfct^-bt + yfc


JC = :;, / +bx + C= ; ,
a-r
www.kodges.ru
a-r
562 10

ax 2 r; at.
{a-ef
3. ax^+bx + c
,. . ^+6X + C = ( 2 ( X - A ) ( J C - / I ) ,
11^ -hbx + c = t{x - ),

t^-a - '

. > , > , . .
, ,
yjax^ -i-bx + c =^ + vax , vox^ +bx + c = - vc .
yjax^ + -=1{-11)- ,

, .
5. \R{x, yJAx^ + ^ + ^ + Dx + E)dx,
R , ,
, -
R
. , -
1
, + = ^
X
1
X = t.
X

7.1. : ) | i^dx; ) xv3-xJx;


' + / -^

^) \ I 7 ^ ^ ^) \~\~^^^'^ ) \'. ="*


^ / + 1+/ + 1 ^ X VX-1
www.kodges.ru
-^ 1 + / + /1 +
563

, )
, x t^, dx = At^dt.

\ +t
j=dx =\--rdt = A\-dt = A 1 + ^ dt =

+C=

= 4 V x + - l n ( V x + l ) - a r c t g ^ + C.

6) , 3-x = t^,
x-3-t^, dx = -Itdt,
J :/^! = - 2 J (3 - / ' V ' J f =

= -2\(bt^-t^)dt = -2 t'-^t' + C = {b-xf\x + 2) + C.


) ,
x + \ = t^; dx = 6t^dt.
1
r-t+i \dt^
/+i

=6 +r-ln ? + l + C = 6 -y[x + l / + \ +
, 3 2 ' / 3 2
V
+ /+-1/ + 1+1 + C.
/
) ,
+1 Atdt
t ; - ; dx-- J,
(,'-i)
www.kodges.ru
564 10

-J dx = -4\- -dt = -4\ r




r=At-A + Bt+B;
('+!)(/'-1) /41 t^-l

{l = A + B, 0 = - + }^^ =; =,

1, t-l
= -2 arctg/ +In +C=
t+l

x-l
; - V x ' - l \+C.
2arctgJ hln
Vx + l
) ^Jl + x - (1 + [),

[ - 1 ^ - ^ - ^ ^^ [^^^'^-^^ dx = - \ x \ x + -\dx-
h + x-(l + ^f J -2/1 2J 2J

IJ dx = 4x+x [J dx.
X 2 in X
r1+x
dx = I .
1+ X 2 Itdt
, Jx
X
=r, jc
e-\ ('=-')
J n,c tt4tat
^ ~ "^J 717

At-^B Ct^D
2
(^ - i r {t-\y (r + 1)
www.kodges.ru
565


t" = {At + ){ + 2/ +1) + ( + D)(/' - 2/ +1)
t
t^ Q = A + C,
t^ l = 2A + B-2C + D,
t 0 = A + 2B + C-2D,
/" 0 = B + D.
, : =, = 0,
1 4
= , ) = 0.
4

\ tdt \ tdt \(( dt , ,._2,
1= Z-+- 7= + (^-1) ^ +

1
+ Jff
+ l
- [ ( ? + ! ) - ' f / H = - ( - l n | / - l | + - ! - + l n If+ l| + + C =
J J 2 ' ' /-1 ' ' f+1
2

+ ^ + = lnl/x + yjl + x\ + yj x(l + x) +


2
,
f r= i=== = -ix + 2yJ^-\n\^fx + yJl'\'x\--Jx(\ + x)] + C.
+ [ + + 2V I I ^ /
dx
7.2. : ^)1
/;(1 + ^ ) ' '
6) J r; B) j -

, a)
. = 2 ,
; = ", dx = 4t^dt.
www.kodges.ru
566 10

t+\-\
dt =
(1+0^ 4t+\y

ink+il+ + c =
f+1

l+c.

6) -
1 1 1 +\ ^
= , -, -, -2-
3 2 4

, x = z*, dx = z^dz,
z
I = f:!l^dx^A\^z4z = ^\z{\^z)y^z.
m+1 -1/+1
-1 = - - 1 = 1 ,

1 - z = /^ z = /^ - 1 , dz = 3t^dt -

/ = 1 2 j ( / ' - l ) f V / = 1 2 j ( / ' - ^ ' ) ^ = 12 1+ =


7 4

=H(z-|)(i.z).c=f(</:?-i)(i.</jf.c.
) -
^ ^ 1 /w + l
m = -2, = 3, /? = , +/? = - z
3 2
!/ 1 -
, x = z^^, dx =z^^dz,H

www.kodges.ru

567

dx - % ^ - \ \ A'-^Yd..
- \ >


1+Z 1 _3dt_
= t\ z = , dz
t'-\ (,'-if
'4i'4r'-^4^^-lf-l^'=
1 / 1+z
= --t + C = +C=
2t^ 2 1+z V
^ , 3 ^

l + jc'

dx
7.3. : a) I
jcMjc + V x ^ f l J
dx . f 3JC~-5X
6) J ; ) J , =dx.

, a)
: + l = r - x .
, = , dx = ^ dt.
,

dx (^4lVf ^41
'=1 JC^(X+VJ?+1)
=1- /,2_1' / . 2 - 1 2+, 11 \
=2 [ ^
f(r-ir
^^
2^^
2/ 2/ 2/
.

www.kodges.ru
568 10

_LL At + B Dt + E
t{r-\f t
++
e-\
,

f" 0 = +
t^ 0 = - + ,
i" \= -lB-lC-D,
t 0= --,
f \ = .
: = 0, = -\, = \, D = -\, = 0.

/ =2 + \- =2 In , +C.

x,
/ \
x + Vx^hl
In + C.
2 2JC :(jc + Vx^+lJ
V
6)
2^ + 1
V ^ ^ - ^ + l = / ^ + 1. , - 2 '
1~
^ ^+ +1 , 7 r +r+1
dx-L T-rdt, sx ~jc + l = 1-;.
,
+/ +1
dx -dt.
'x + Vx^-x + l J ( ^ ' - l ) ( / ' + 3 f + 2)
:
www.kodges.ru
569

r+f+i D
{t'-\)it'+2>t + 2) t-\ t+\ {t + \y t+2
f 4 f + l = ^ r + 2 ) ( ^ 4 2 / + l) + 5(? + 2 ) ( r ' - l ) +
+C{t - \){t + 2) + D{t +1)(/' -1),

t^ 0 = A + B + D,
t^ \ = AA + 2B + C-\-D,
t l = 5A-B + C-D,
f" l= 2A-2B-2C-D.
1 3 5
A = ,B = , C = -l, D = . :
6 2 3
/=_if^_f-^+2f-A_-l^f^=
3J/-1 Jt+l Ht + ^) 3-'/+2

=ln|f-l|-31nlf + l| +lni/ + 2| + C.
3 ' ' ' ' f+1 3 ' '
x,

/ = InNx^ -x + l-l-x\|-31n yjx^ -x + l-l + x\


3 I
2x
+101n yJx'^-x + \-l + 2x\ + C.
yjx^ -x + \ - l + jc
)
,
\J3-2x-x =(3 + x)t, = ^ , , = -

l + t' (\+ty
3x'-5x 1+ 4/'-2'
^ =-2-'
1- .dx = 4l' (f'+l)'
dt.


www.kodges.ru
570 10

H-4r'-2k' At^ + Bt^ + Ct + D Et + F


(+1
1 + 4/^-21t' = {3At^ + IBt + C)(?' +1) - AtiAt" + Bt^ + C/ +
+D)-^{Et + F){t^ +
0 = E,
-2l = 3A-4A + F,
0^2B-4B + 2E,
4 = 3A + C-4C + 2F,
0 = 2B-4D + E,
\ = C + F.
: A = 14, B = 0, C = S, D = 0, E = 0, F = -1.
.

1=4
\4t'+St
+ '6t r dt
dt 2t{7t^+4)
-7arctg/
r+1)
2 1"^
, t = 3 + JC , , -

I = -{\9-x)^J-2x-x^ -28arctg J ^ - ^ + C.

. rx^+l dx
7.4. : a) . ;

(jc'-l)^
-& WXV3JC^+1
1
, a) x-\- = t,
Tdx = dt.

www.kodges.ru
571

:'+1
t.
2 . X
x'+\ = {t^-l)x\ 1
,

r ^
x ++i1 dx
_r tdt
tat

t^ -2 = z^, tdt = zdz


U-V2I
In +c.
z'-2 z + 4i
2^
t, ,

1 (V?^-V^) 1 1'+\-/2
I=-^\xi^ ^ - ^ + = Win + .
2/2 -4 2/2 '-\

1 x' + l
) = t, dx = dt
'-\
=t.

1
/:'* + ^ +1 = xvr^ + 5, = /^ + 2 . -
X

{^-\)dx ^?/
WJCVSJC' + I ' /?+2[?~+5'
t +2 = z , tdt = zdz,

dz
'=i yfT^ = ln z + Vz^+S +c.

www.kodges.ru
572 10

, jc,

'+1 + /'+1
/=:1 + = 1 + .

10.8.

1. sinx, cosx

2 1 1 \
sin = (l~cos2x), cos = (l + cos2x). (1)
2. sin , cos

.
3*^. J sin'" cos" xdx
(1), ,
(2), ( ) . -\' = -Ik,
. . ,
dt
tgx = t ctgx = r, dx = ^ ^-^^

^ - ~. 2 ,
, ,
.
4. tgx
ctg X, tg = / ctg = / .
5. fi?(sinx,cosx)c?x, sinx,
cosx , -
www.kodges.ru
573

tgx = /, ax = -, sm x cos x -
1+ r
. 2 ^' 2 1
tgjc sin x = j cos x = j,
6. : {sin cosbxdx;
J sin ax sin bxdx; J cos ax cos bxdx,
:

sin cos bx = (sin{a - b)x + sin(a + b)x),

sin ax sin bx = (cos(a - b)x - cos(a + b)x),

cos ax cos bx = (cos(a - b)x + cos((2 + 6)x). (2)

7^.
R{sinx,cosx)dx t g ~ - /
, . . sin , cos
dx t
2t 1 - /2
sinx = -, cosx = 2
l+r 1+^
2dt
dx = ^, (3)
l+r

/?(sinx,cosjc),
.
8.

www.kodges.ru
574 10

J COS ax cos bx cos cxdx =

1 sm(a+fe+c)x sin(6+c-a)jc sin(+c-Z?)x sm(a+fe-c)x


Vc,
V
a+Z7+c b+c-a a+c-b a+b-c
J cos ax sin bx sin cx(ix =

_ irsin(a+Z7-c)jc sin(a+c-6)x sin(a+6+c)x sin(6+c-a)x


4(^ -- a-\-c-b a+b+c b+c-a
I sin ax cos Z)x cos cxdx =
_ 1 [^cos(a+Z?H-c)x cos(Z7+c-(2)x cos(a-\-b-c)x cos(a+c-Z?)x
4(^ +- 6+c-a - a+c-b
Vc,
J sin ax sin bx sin cx^ix =
_ l(^cos(a+6+c)x cos(a-Z)+c)x cos(Z?+c-a)x cosiia+b-c)x\^
41 a+6+c a-b+c b+ca a+b-c )

8.1. : a) jsin'^xJx; 6) Jcos^xJx;

) I cos^xsin'^xJx; r) [ sinxcos^xJx; ) | Tdx\ e) |tg^5x(ix.


J J J cos X ^
, a)

J sin^ X(ix = j(sin^ )^ = J (l-cos2x)^<ix =

= (l-2cos2x + cos 2 x ) ^ = (x-sin2x)4- cos 2xdx =


4J 4 4J

=(x-sin2x)+-J(l + cos4x)fitc = (x-sin2x)+-(x+sin 4x) + C.

6)

www.kodges.ru
575

jcos^ dx = J cos^ xcosxdx = J (1 -sin^ x)dsm x = sin xsin^ jc + C.

J cos^ X sin"* xdx = J (1 + cos 2JC)(1 - cos Ix)^ dx =

1 J 1 2 1
= - J ( l - c o s 2x)(l"-cos2x)d!x: = --(l-cos2jc-cos 2jc + cos 2x)dx =

= -(xsin2x) \(l + cos4x)dx + | (1-sin^ 2jc)^fsin 2x =


8 2 16J \6^
= (xsin2x) (: +sin4x)4- (sin2xsin^ 2x) + C.
8 2 ' 16 4 16 3
r)

sin X cos^ xdx = -J cos^ xd cos x = cos^ x +

fsin^x , fl-cos^x , fJcosx fJcosx


J 5 - ^ = -J 4 ^cosx = -J ^ +J =
' c o s X ' COS X ' c o s X ' COS X

= -1 cos"^ xd COS X + I cos"^ xd cosx = ~cos^ x +


' ' 3 cosx

) tg5x = t, x = arctgr

~ sn-i-/^^

\tg^ 5xdx-- \ .

, ,
www.kodges.ru
576 10


''+1 10 loJ 1

\_
=(' - 1(' +1) + =(tg' 5 JC ~ ln(tg' 5 +1)) + .
10 10
fssin^ xt/x
i n f
8.2. : ) 1; ) cos3xcos7xJx;
^ cos X '
f / dx
) ; ^ ; ) ; ) cos2xsin3jcsin4xfii!x:;
^ 2cosx4"3smji(: + 2 -^ cos J
dx
- ; ) dx.
sin^ X - 8 sin X cos x - cos^X
J CI
sin X cos X
J sir

, a) ,
dt
tg = ^; dx = ^,

fSin^xJx fsin^x dx j.^ i^i dt , 2 4


J ^= J-2 =\t\^^ty^=\{t'+t')dt =
^ cos X 'cos xcos X -^ 1 + / '
= - ^ 4 ~ ^ 4 C = - t g ' x + - t g ' x + C.
3 5 3 ^ 5 ^
) no (2),

J cos 3x cos Ixdx =J (cos 4x + cos 1 Ox)d!x = - J cos 4xJ(4x) H-

+ |cosl0xt/(10x) = -sin4x +sinlOx + C.


20J 8 20
)

tg = ^, (3)

www.kodges.ru
577

dt
dx dt
12cosx4-3sin;inx+2 = 2f^ ILJL
A-t
:
2^L
=i\
2 "'2-2/46^+2+2?'
1+/' l+t^
dt 1
: f - ^ = -ln|3? + 2|+C = - I n |3<gf^2 +c.
J 3^ + 2 3 ' ' 3

r)
(13)
dx sinx 3 dx sinx 3^ sinx 1f ^ ^
-= -+-\
COSi X 4cos X 4''COS X 4cos x 4\^2cos x +7J
2*'cosx

sin X 3f sin X 1
1T +ln|tgx
1 + secx| +C^
-+-
4cos X 4\^2cos X 2
) (8"^),
I cos 2 sin sin 4xdx = (sin(2 + 3 - 4)x -hsin(2 + 4 - 3)x -
J 4 3

sin(2 + 3 + 4)xsin(3 + 4-2)x) + C = - ( s i n x + - s i n 3 x -


9 5 4 3

sin 9xsin 5x) +


9 5
e) cos~ ,

f ^tgx f J(tgx-4) ^ 1 ^ tgx-4-^/7


J tg^ x - 8 t g x ~ l J (tgx-4)^ -17 2/17 t g x - 4 + Vl7
:) cos ,

r''^dx= \^digx= \tgKdtgx = 24^ + C.


^ sinxcos X ^ tgx -^
www.kodges.ru
578 10

10.9.

.
.
sh , ch
:
ch^x-sh^x = l; sh2x = 2shjcchx; ch^jc = (ch2x + l);

sh^x = (ch2x-l); sch^x = l--th^x; csch^x = l-cth^x.

sh , ch
, sin , cos .
2.

^R\x,yjx^ -a^^dx x = achr;

J / [X, yjx^ -^a^\dx x = sh x;

J 7?(x,/ -X \dx x = athx-

^ , 1 + /^+^
: x = asht, ^ = In ,

. + /^-^
x = achx, t = m .

9.1. : a)jsh^2xt/x; ) jsh^'ch^x^x;

) Ith'^xdx; ) [-; -; ) [-;; ) {x^shxdx;


J ^ chx-fl -^ shx '

) I /chx-ltic; ) | ; ) f sinxshxJx.

www.kodges.ru
' 'chx + shx ^
579

, ) ,

Jsh^2xtic = -|(ch4jc-l)d[x:=- --|ch4jc<i4jc~x = - -sh4x~x + C

) ch x ,

J sh^ X ch^ xdx = J sh^ X ch^ jc<i sh x = J sh^ x(l + sh^ x^d sh x =

= I sh^ XJ sh X + sh"^ xt/ sh X = sh^ X + - sh^ X + C.


J 3 5
>-. t dx . dt
) th x = ^; ^ = dt\ dx = --,
\-t'

|*=0=-|; t+\ + it = -
'e 1, /-1
l+C =
v3 2 /+1

thx-1
-th^x+thx+In + C.
3 2 thx + 1
r)

dx
Jchx+l ' 2 c h ^X- 2

2
)

fi?X
ch Jx Jth-
f = J 2 sh ch = J - = 1 th
2- = In t h - + C.

2 2 2 2
e) ,
^ = , sh xdx = dv, Ixdx = du, v = ch x.
jc^ sh xdx = :^ ch jc 2j X ch xdx.

www.kodges.ru
580 10

= , ch xdx = dv, dx = du, = sh x.


J x^ sh xdx = x^ ch x - 2(x sh x - ch x) - .

) J V c h x ~ l ^ = J j 2 s h ' - d ^ = 2 V 2 J s h - J - = 2 V 2 c h - + C .
V ^ z z ^ z
3) sh x = ("" - e"""), ch x = {e"" + e""") ^

f - ^ ^ ^ ^ = 2f '^ = f!x = x+C.
'chx + shx ^ e"" +e'' +e^ -e"" '
)
(6)
Jsinxshxd!x = Je''sinx^&fJ e'^'sin xdx = (sinx-cosx)e''+

+(sin X + cos x^e'"" + = (sin x ch x - cos xsh x) +


4 2
f /~^ f ^ :
9.2. : a) |Vx"+4fitc; 6) J r^;
dx
.)j V2x-x^
, a) x = 2 sh ^; d!x = 2 ch xdt,

JVjc44Jx = 4JVsh'/ + lch/Jr=:4Jch'/J/ = 2J(ch2/ + l)^f^ =

=sh2/+2/+C = 2sh^Vl+sh'^+2/ + C = - > / 4 + x ' + 2 k i ^ ^ ^ ^'^ + C.


2 2

6) x = a ch tdt, dx = a^h tdt,

^ 4 7 ^ J sh^ J 2 J'
www.kodges.ru
581

= (sh2/H-0 + C = a^(ch^Vch^/~l+0 + C =

^xslx - + In -.
(2
) \-x-t, dx = -dt,

[ dx _ dx _ { dt

dz
t = thz, at- ^ ,
Z

dt dz cchzdz dshz ,2 ^
h-t^ Jchz J ch'z M + sh'z
th'z ^ /' ^ (1-)' ^
= -arctg r+ C = -arctg r- + C = -arctg-^ ^ + C.

10.10 !

,
= F{x)
= F(x) + -

/(jc), ,
tga = /(JC) .

, ,
, {^,^),
, . .
.
www.kodges.ru
582 10


,
D = (jc), S
5 = 1 f{t)dt, . .
.
dt
,
.
. ,
(1,2),
.
.
/ ( ) = . (1) =,
X ^

= \ + .

, ,
2 = 11 + = 2. : = \-2.
10.2. v = 3/^ /.
5, ^ = 2, S = 20.
. : S ={vdt = 3 [t^dt = ^^ +
: 20 = 2^ + , -\1. ,
5 = /^ +12.

www.kodges.ru
11

11.1.
. .
-
1. [,]
= / ( ) . [,] .
AJC. = JC. Jc,_i ^,,

f{^.). ^ fi^i).
f{x) [,],
[,] ^.
.
f(x)
[,] ,

\f{x)dx= lim X /(^,)^,-


max ; >0 ^. ,

www.kodges.ru
' 1=1
584 11

6 , ,
, \,\
.
2. : 1.
/ ( ) ,
, . .

\f{x)dx=\mdt.

2.

b
j/(x)rfx = -J/(x)fifx.

3.


| / ( ) ^ = 0.

4.

\Af{x)dx = A\f{x)dx.

5.

b b b
J(y;w+/2W)^=Jy;w^fx+J/2(x)rfx+.
a a a

6.
b b
\f{x)dx = \f{x)dx^\f{x)dx.

www.kodges.ru
585


( < <). ( <<)-
3. -. F{x)
f{x),

\f{x)dx^F{x)l=F{b)-F{a).

-
, ,
, .
4.
,

[ f{x)dx = 2\f{x)dx, f{x)
-

, I f{x)dx = , f{x) .
-
5. ,
b +

lfix)dx= J fix)dx; ( = 0,1,+2, ...).


+

1.1. :

) j'(3x' + \)dx; ) llil + e~')dx; ) , ^ / = ^ ; ) sin|flfx;

, )

-
3 3 3

\(3x^+\)dx = 3Jx^dx + \ dx = x'[+x\l=(3'-\') + i3-\) = 2S,


1 1 1

) -
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586 11

= (4 + 4)-(0 + 4) = 4.
V
) -

1 -- 2
f , = - f(3^ + 4)"2 J(3/ + 4) = - ( 3 / + 4)
JVSM^ 3_V '

= -(/21 + 4 - / - 3 + 4) = - .
3 3
) -

Jsin(ix = -2cos - -2(cos cos 0) = 2.
2

^ dx
1.2. : ) J sin^xd!x; ) Jg ^ ;

3 - 2
sin^x + sin2x
"i g-'^ COS X
-t/x.

, a)
, . . ,

' 1 0 ^2 71
1 sin^ xdx = 2 jsin^ xdx = j(l -cos 2x)dx Xsinzx
2

6)


x^dx _
X''+4JC^ + 7

www.kodges.ru
-3
587

) ,
2.

In

sin^jc + sin2x - f sin^jc + sin2jc ,


I 5 dx^\ dx =
4 cos X 'jj. COS X
4

= ](tg' x+2tgx)dtgx = \-tg' x+tg" X = - / 3 + 3 - - - 1 = /+-.


3 3 3

11.2.

b
\f{x)dx, f(x) -

[,]. t
x = (p[t).
({) = ; ({) = , (p(t)
(p\i) [of, j8 ] / (^ (^))
[,],

lf(x)dx = lf(cp{t))(p\t)dt.

2.1. : ) ;
_
:; 1 +
1 . I
] dx f 1 + tg^x ( x^dx

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588 11

) \^^.; ) ]^^dx.
{ X - ^ 1 + COS X

, ) x = t ^
dx = Itdt. : = ,
^ = X = 3, ^ = / .

\- =2 -tdt = 2\ ^ dt = 2\ dt-2\ ^r
+1

= 2^|f-2arctg/|f =2(V3~arctgV3) = 2 f V 3 - | \

6) e"" = t, dx = .
: = In 2, / = 2 = In 3, ^ = 3 .

t-\ (
dx _ dt _ f ^ ^ _ l i
ln--ln-
le' -e-'~\{t-t-')r\j^\~2 t+\ 4 3 2 2

) f = tg, d!x; =
Idt \-e^
^ , cos x =

: : = , f =
f = 1.
X =,
dt
dx dt
J03- - +
2 C2COSX
OSX J^_^2^ 1 - r ' + 2 - 2
1 + /^
^f dt 2 X 2N/5 ^ /5
arctg.
5 5
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589

dt
) tgx = f, dx = .
IT?
: = , t = \
Jf - , ' - V3 .

} 1 + tg'jC , f 1 + /' dt f ,, ._2^^, ,


^^dx= , (1+0 ;-= (1 + 0 d{\ + t) =

V5
1 1 J__ /-1
\+t 1 + / 2 2(1 + /3) 2
) jc = 4sin t, = 4 cos tdt.
: = , / = =4,

t .
7t_

. ^16 = 8 (l-cos20^?/ = 8 tsm2^ 4:.


JVie^ { 4cos/ J/ ' 1^ 2 J
e)
.
^ - dx
. jc = tg/, dt =1 + ^
= 0, t = 0,3. = \, t = . ,
4
ln(jc + l)
^^^^ sin/ + cos/ dt
COS

= jln v2sin + / L//-jlncosrJ/ =


V \ J)

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590 11

= --ln2H-jlnsin + / p-jlncos/rf/.
^ V /
, . . -
^ ^
/ = -- . -
%
, dt - -dip, / = , < - , / = ,
^ 4 4
=

fln(x + l) , ^1 ^ f, . ^ V fi
J-^^ ^(ix = --ln2~Jlnsm ( /-18 =
-^ "^^ ^ 7 V
4
7 _

^ ^ ~i ^
= 12- ]ncos(pd(p- lncosrJ^ = 12.
^ i { 8
) = - / , , = ,
/ = ; X = :, ^ = .
^ xsinx , (:--/)8 , ^(7r~0sin^ ,
dx^-\- ^-dt= \- ^-dt =
M + COS X i 1 + COS^ i 1 + COS /

r sin/ , r /sin/
;Jl + cos / ;Jl + cos /

, ,
/ X ,
} xsinx , } sintdt
Tdx-\ - = arctgcos/l =
J l + cos'x 2 J 1 + COS'/ 2 '"
=---(arctg(-l)-arctg 1) = .

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591

11.3.
1.

b b
\udv = uv\^'-\vdu, (1)

2.

b ^

J la
a

+(--iy'']u^"'%dx. (2)


, :
-
1. /^ = J 2 sin'" xdx, /^ = J ^ cos'" xdx

/^ = /^_2

(-1)!!:
- ,
!! 2
{'^sm'"xdx={^cos"'xdx-
Jo Jo (w-l)!!
- .
mV.
2. ,

i(m-l)!!(-l)!!;r
, -;
( + 2
I; sin'"xcos"xcfcc = <
(m-l)!!(n-l)!!
.
(-^.\
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592 11

3. ^ ^ = i ^'^ In'" xdx -


' JO

/ , , = -/^_j
-\-\
\
h,m=i-W
4. ,

\{\-xyx'"dx= .
Jo ( + w + l)!

5. /^ = Tocos'" xsmmxdx -
Jo

/^ = - +/_,
21
1 2 -
/ fn = \-\-\ -+++...+
1 2 3

6. /^ = p c o s ' " cos mxdx /^w om+l '

7. :

) [ 2 cos'" X cos(m + 2)xdx = 0;

) J ^ cos'" X sin(m + 2)xdx =


m+1
:
^ sin
) [^sin'"xcos(m + 2)jc<ix =
'0 m+1
nrn
_ cos-
r) J ^ sin'" jc sin(m + 2)xdx = -
m+l
www.kodges.ru
593

3.1. : ) 1 sin xdx\ ) I ( + 7) ""dx.

, ) -\ sin xdx - dv, du = dx;


V = -cosX. (1)

I xsinxd!x: = - x c o s x r + | cosxdx =

= -{K cos + COS ;r) + sin xT = 2,

6) = x + 2; e^'^rfx = dv, t/w = rfx; ; = -e^"".


(1)

\\^2)' = -{ + 2) --\'' =

5 25 ' 25

3.2. : ) ^ cos^ xJjc;


Jo

) J^^sin^xcos'^xt/x; ) ^^x^Wxdx\ ) j^sin^jccosTx^tc.


, a) 1. m = 9,
. . ,

f^cos9xd^ = = ^=0,406.
Jo 9!! 3-5-7-9-
) (2), m = 5; w = 4,
f- . 43 2-4-3
|^sin^xcos"xd!x = - ^ ^ ^ = .0,0254.
Jo Off ^.S.7.0

) 3, AZ = 4, m = 3,
3!_
\\'\n'xdx = {-Xf^ = - ^ = -0,0096.
(4 + 1)
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594 11

) ) 7
5 ^ 1 \ , 5 1
Jo 6 2 6

11.4.

1. / ( ) > [,\
b

j/(x)Jx>0.

2^. f{x) ()
b
{a,b], < f{x) < ({), \f{x)dx < \(p{x)dx.

3^. / ( ) [,],
< ,
\ I b
\jfix)dx\<j\fix)\dx.
\ I

4. .
[,],
<,
< f{x) < ,

m(b-a)<jf(x)dx< M{b-a\
f(x)
[,].
5.
. f{x) [,],
([)>0 [,],
www.kodges.ru
595

b b b
m^(p{x)dx <\ f{x)q>{x)dx < M\q>{x)dx.
a a a

6. . / ( )
{,\, (, ),

\f{x)dx = {b-a)f{c).

1 *
f(c) = \f(x)dx -

/ ( ) [,/?].
7. . / ( ) ({)
[,], ({)
^() > (({) < 0)
< / ( ) < , (, ),

b b
jf(x)(p{x)dx = f{c)j(p(x)dx,
a a

8^. -.
/ ^ ( ) (^ ( ) [,],
\ \ f^ ^
\jf{x)(p{x)dx\<\ jf\x)dxj(p\x)dx
\ \

4 . 1 . , : ) 1_ dx;

) J xe^'dx; ) ^ In xdx.
2
, )
[-2,-1] [-1,1]. .
www.kodges.ru
596 11

[-1,1] . [-2,-1]
, ,
.
) [-1,1]
, .

) ^> ,
, ,
.
4.2. , ,
: ) x^dx ^^xdx. ) ^^x^cos^xdx
I xsm^ xdx,
Jo
, ) [0,1]
vl + j?>jc, I yj\ + x^dx> I xdx,
' J o Jo
) [0,1]
jc^cos^jc<xsin^x, I ^^^ xdx< \ ^^ xdx.
' Jo Jo
2:
2 dx
4.3. . 2 cos X
J^ /:
. 0<jc<27r l < 3 + 2cosx<5 , . .

= -=, = 1. 6 - = 2:, 4

2 ^: dx
I / ^2:.
/5 J^ ./+^
J0 / 7 _|_ /-
COSJC

4.4. | ^Jx(l + x^)dx, : ) -


JO

; ) -
.
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597

, ) () = VJC , / ( ) = v 1 + ^ .
/ ( ) [0,1]: = 1, = \/2

5 j ylxdx<\ /(1 + ^)6</2| yjxdx,

-- < 4x{U^dx < .


) /^() = 1 + ^ ^() =
[0,1], -

4
X
^/^)^^^ = +-

4.5. -
.
: ) /(jc) = x^ 0 < < 1 ; ) cos , 0 < <
, ) , = \.
(6) [0,1]

/ ( ) = ~^- I If{x)dx
f{x)dx=
= I I
"^== -.

2 ? . , 2 ?.. . . . . . 2^ 1 . 3
f{c)= \^cos^xdx= {^(l-sin^ x)dsmx= sinxsm X
: ' : ' 3

11.5.

/ ( ) [a,Z?],
[,], [,].
b ,
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598 11

0(x) = J/(rW^
.
,
/.
V. t - , \, \,
^{^)

'() = \fit)dt = /W.


V"
2. (p{x)\i\^{x)
X, \,\ f{t)
(p{a)<t<^{\)),To

\ mdt 1/())/\)-(())().

5.1. :

) (;)= r^dt; ) ()= sinV/^/


' ^ Jyjx

, ) (1),
f J \
\)=\ '
'

) (2) , ^(jc) = vjc,
1
l/(x) = :^ (\) = -, V^'W = 2,
2^
9 1 I
1 .
0'(x) = sinvjc ^-sm^J^^x - =yfx
2-sin - s i n v^
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599

5.2.

()=J/, (>0).
Jo I

. () -
^,, ^ sin JC . ^ ,
() = ; sm = , -^
(/:=0,2,...).
5.3. :

, ) (1),
d
["^ dtdi __1
dx ' In ^ In X
)
,
d ^ . , d f

11.6.

.
*
1. J f(x)dx,

f{x) [, [

\f{x)dx = \\m\f{x)dx. (1)

www.kodges.ru
600 11

,
.
, .


b b
\ f{x)dx= lim \f{x)dx\ (2)
oo a

j f{x)dx = J f(x)dx + J f(x)dx, ^2)


f(x)dx ,
Ja

f(x) > , = , = .

, = f(x),
= .
2. f(x)
= , [,]
, f(x)


b - b
\ f(x)dx = lim f f(x)dx + lim f f(x)dx, (4)

.
(4)
, = f(x),
= , JC = 6, =
.
= = b
www.kodges.ru
601

b -
I/(x)d!x = lim \ f{x)dx\ \f{x)dx^\\xs\ \ f{x)dx\
a a+e a a

3.
.
1. << +00 f(x) < <(),

| (p(x)dx
Ja

| f(x)dx, [ f(x)dx, -

I (p(x)dx
Jo
2. <<-{-

lim = (< : <+), | f(x)dx \ (p{x)dx


(() '^ '^
.
3. X> / ( ) > 0

f(x) = -^ ( > 0 ) , > 1 (() << +


I f{x)dx , < 1 <p(jc) > .
Ja

4. J |/()| dx,

[ f(x)dx. -
Ja
, f(x)
[,+ [.
5. . f{x) ()
[, ), / ( )
, . . | f{x)dx , <()
www.kodges.ru
Ja
602 11

|(()|< L {L - const, [,<^)),

| f{x)(p{x)dx .
Ja
6. . f(x)
[,] >),
I ^ I
f{x)dx\<L (L const, a<b<^) -
, ({) -> ^

f f{x)(p{x)dx .
Ja
7.
.
/ ( )
f{x) = -^^ ( > 0), <1 (() <L< -
(c-xf
rb
{L const) f(x)dx {a<c<b), a > 1
Ja
(p(x) >L>0 .
6.1.
. ~ x^dx ^ 7 dx f^ "^ ,
: ) -; ) ) ^dx;
J> 1 + ' '+2 +2 J-
____
dx ^ roo rdx
dx

, a)
(1)
- x^dx1 ,. ^ dx^ 1 ,. ^ 1^
= - lim - = - lini arctg X =
Ji 1 + ' S^-^-Ji 1 + (-^ ) 3^^- 1^
1 7

www.kodges.ru
603

) =
,
dx _ ^(jc + l) _ fo J(x + 1) d{x-\-\)
J - x ' + 2 x + 2 ~ J - ( x + l ) ' + l " J - ( x + l)'+l^-'o (x + l ) 4 l ~

= lim ^^r-^^+ lim ^T-^^ lim arctgfx +1)1 +


^-.-co J^ ( ^ + 1 ) 2 + 1 / ^ - ^ - Jo (;c + 1 ) 2 + 1 /^^- '^

+ lim arctg(x + l)|f = lim (arctgl~arctg(/3^-l)) +

+ lim (arctg( j8 +1) - arctg 1) = + = :.

)

X

, = , ^dx = dv; dx = du,


X

0 --
xe ^dx = lim xe ^dx = lim Ixe 2+22 (e ^dx
V h

= -2 lim(x + 2)e 2 = -2 lim 2-(j8 + 2)e 2

.
) = /^; dx = 2tdt.
X = 1, / = 1, X = ^ / =

_ 2/(i/ __ *" ^^



www.kodges.ru
604 11

dt dt

( n
2 lim(arctg j8 - arctg 1) = 2
2"
)

I =lim| ln^jct/lnx = lim-


^9 x l n ' j C
^-^-'9 2 ^-^~ In" jc
/
1 1
= lim
2^->' l^ln'jS In'9 J 21n'9 81n'3'
6.2. :

, a) x = 1, -
, ,

(4)

- 7 = = = "(-1)"^^ + (;-1)'^^ =

=lim3V^r+lim3V^f =31im(^l-e-l~V^)+
e^O 1-1 e->0 ll+e ->0

+3 lim(Vl - ^1 + e - l ) = 3(^2 +1).

6) = 1,
. . [1,2]. ,

f2 dx ,. f2 Jinx
f =limf =limlnlnjd^ =lnln2-limlnln(l+e)=lnln2+oo=c
Jl xlnx
v l n V ^^'1+e In V =limlnlnjcl,
^OJl+ Inx ^-^ '^+^ =lnln2~ -

www.kodges.ru
-
605

) : =
, [0,1]
. ,
fJ dx .. fi1 dx dx ,. 1 1
. 7 = lim = lim \dx =
'o x^ - 3x^ ^-^0 ^' x^ (x - 3) ^^0
[ 9x 3x'- + -9(jc-3)

= 1lim lm
i
x H 1 1 h lnuc-3
111 v"^
= -1 + -l il n 2. -
^->n 9 3x 9 ' 3 9

-lim 1 1 1 , 111 . 1^ 1+-12+-(1+1)"-11=-


lne+-lne-3 = - 3 3^^ 3
3e 9 9 ' 'J 3^
. . .
) [0,2]
: = 1, .
,
f2 dx ,. fi-e dx ,. 2 dx
--Z = lim + lim -
x-3f-4

\\-
rl-e dx jc-5 1 +4
= limln = lim In -ln5
lim , x-1 4 -^0 I
s-^oJo (^-- 4^-^o

(. 11.1), >^, = X
- + > -
, : = 1,

dx jc-5 -4
lim I - -= limln
..XX. = lim ln3-ln
->0 Jl+e ( 4 4 ^-^0 x-1 4 e-^O

-
www.kodges.ru
606 11

(. 11.1), , = 2,
X = 1 = ^; <
X -6 + 5
.

. 11.1
-
,. . .

6.3. : ) -;
J 1 + ' + '
>2/(-1)^
) l^'^'dx; ) [ ^ d x (>0); )|^ dx;
3x4^^ +2
sin2x
^)p..sm zx^ (>0).
1
.) f(x) -
1 + '+'
, () = -.
X

I 7- , .

www.kodges.ru
607

-fl 1 -:^ - ^

I ^dx= \ ^dx+ \ ^dx.


Jo Jo Ji

-
, , ^ < '^ : > 1,
X

I ^dx = -2 lim == -2 lim ^ - ' = 2\


J\ ->

, .
) , / ( ) = sin ,
6 I , ,
^\^) = ^. sinxJx = cosa-cosZ? <2 (a<b<oo)\i
Jfl ' '
1
^, , -^ ^
poo jj^ ;
TO J >sinx
^ ^ ^ a > 0 .
)

/w= 27-1? 1
({) = .

1 1
2+.
,. 2x'+x^{x-\f .. x'" x'" 2
lim h= = lim
;c-~ i^i , 3/4
^+^/'+ 3'
Vx X
/oo ^2X
, -
'i X

www.kodges.ru
.
608 11

) , f{x) = i^"" sin 2,

( () = ^. - ^ -^ X -^ , . -

^ = sinx, | = 0, = 0; x = Z?, r = sinZ>|,

Jo
""'' sin lxdx\
psinb

Jo

,
\\ , I , isin

te'dtUl\eit-\\ <2.
. . / ( ) .
,
.

6.4. : ) | . ;

! dx dx Inx
) f - ^ ; ) [ . =\ ) f4nsinxd!x; ) r-^Jx.

, ) = 1
, . . .

1 1 1 1
/'-1 /(^~1)( + 1)(1) / ^ 7 ( ^ + 1)(1)
1 1 1
, X -^ 1
77^^27^'

2 dx _ - 2
=2
Ji 1 d-^\jp ^->i
(-\
www.kodges.ru
609

, .
) X = 1 .

(() =
JC-1
.. 1 ^
lim = 1.


( = 1),
JC-1
.
) = 0 .

^ -- X , _-JC
,. - ., + .
lim = lim = 2,
-^ X ^^0 1
1

X
2 . ^
= <\. , .
) X = .
. w = In sin jc,
cos X
dv = dx\ du = dx, v = x,
sinjc
f7i T = jclnsmjc2
Mlnsinxax: 1 I- - fT^x cosjc dx
, = -\^
c^^xdx .
Jo 10 Jo gjj^^ Jo t g X

X X
lim = 1 lim =0 , -
-^+ngx x-.|-otgx
. ,
. www.kodges.ru
610 11

~ 1 , 1 1 - - 1 ,
^= -] - .

x = - ,

"^ = Y
,

Inx _ fo
lnf-1
[/ j J / _ roln/<i/_ filn/flf^_ filnx(ix

Jo jc'+l ^ ~ Jl Y ?'~Ji / ' + 1 " J o ^ 4 l ~ Jox4r

www.kodges.ru
12

.

12.1



.


[,],
1. )
( = ^ < Xj < ^2 < ... < x_j <x^=b

)
^^ , ,^_^ <^^<,^,
f{^j^)
www.kodges.ru
612 12

Aw^

/(^,),+/(<^,),+ ... +/(^)=/(^*)^*.


=\

w, Isjc^.
) ,
, ,
^ -> , . .


.
2.
, .
)
Aw X,
{^\.
) du
du = f{x)dx, / ( )
X.
) du dx-^Qn
Aw
, du
= = Z?, . .
b

u = jfix)dx
www.kodges.ru
613

1.1. ,
= ^, = 7: )
;
) .
, ) [0,1]

,,, ..., ,1

, .
. Xj = , ^2 = , ... ,^_, = , Jc^ = 1.

1
^ =
2 ^

= ,
' ^nV
/(^.)= ,,) ,-,/ =
K"J K"J
AS^

^tV 1
AS,= 3
vy

^=1 =\


^ 2_'?( + 1)(2 + 1)
^=1 6

1 1 1
/..3
1
5 =
+ + - = 3- + + -
2 "
,3 2 6^
www.kodges.ru
614 12

/Sx^ -^ , .
. >
1 1 1
5 = lim - + + -
3 2 "
) ,
(. 12.1) S{x) = S^j^^
dx, . . dS = ydx.

= 0, = \,

S = \ dx = -
Jo

12.2.


, .
1. (. 12.2),

S={''nx)dx={'ydx. (1)

www.kodges.ru
Ja Ja
615

2. /)?(. 12.3),

S = \(p{y)dy = \xdy. (2)

'
d
-^5^ = <()

*^

. 12.3
3. ,
, ,
(. 12.4),

S=\\Ux)-f,{x))dx=\\y,-y,)dx. (3)
Ja Ja

2=!2()

y,=f,(x)

bx
. 12.4 . 12.5
www.kodges.ru
616 12

,
, ,
, (. 12.5),

S = \\(P2iy)''%(y))dy = [(, -x,)dy, (4)


4.

.
(. 12.6)

2 ''I

. 12.6
5. ,
, = (p{t); = \ff{t),
/ 6 [; /3] ^ () -; () = ,

S=\''ydx= [\it)((>\t)dt. (6)


Ja Ja
2.1. , :

); = + 2, / = 9 ; ) = 1, j ; = V^,jc = 4, = 0;)=^-\
= 1, = -3; ) = ^, ^=-';
www.kodges.ru
617

ji) y=j^,y=x',x=]:,) - ^ ;) =x(x--a)^.


, ) (. 12.7)
.
J ^-1\
|/=9.
(jc + Tf = 9 jc^ - 5 + 4 = .
5 ^ (25 . 5_^3 . ,
x , = J 4 = ; X. =4; 2=1.
(3),

= +2

. 12.7

3 ^2 \\
S=j\-j9x -{x+2)]dx=3fylxdx-j\x+2)dx= 3 - j c ^ - +2JC
3 2
V JJ

^ '- '
= 2-8-8-8-2 +- + 2 = - .
2^ 2
2 2
2
)
V (. 12.8)
,
; ^(1,1).
,
(1),
www.kodges.ru
618 12

^dx 2 \
S=\ 4xdx^\ + 1
Mil
=-+14-11
3
= -+212.
3
X 3

1
. 12.8
) ABCD (. 12.9)
(2)

5 = -\ = (1 + 27) = .

. 12.9
) (. 12.10) :
= ^, ^ =- (0,0),
(-1,1). (3),
' 1 '- '^ 2 1 1
S= j\yFx-x^)dx- -.(- -
3 3 3
www.kodges.ru
619

, 12.10
) (. 12.11).
.
/ 3 4
2,
5 = 1 ' (x'-x')Jjc = ' X X ^
3*

= ^

. 12.11
) , ,
.
V X
= -\-: /: = lim= ^ =0, 6 = limj; = lim = 0,

, = 0,. .
(. 12.12).
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620 12

. 12.12
,
7 ->

( '
5= ^ dx = - lim ^ d\
9 Jo B^ooJo

= lime ^ = -lim(e 2 -1) = 1, 5 = 2.


)3>>

) ;;,
, , ,
(. 12.13).

. 12.13
. ^^ = ,
X = , -, , .
(1)

\ ( I 1 3
'2 '
S= I yjx(x-a)dx= I jc^
^ -ax^ \dx = ~x^ -ax^ - a4a.
9 Jo Jo
V5 3 15
www.kodges.ru J
621^

, .
, , ,
4{ - ) <
X 6 [, ]. ,
. ,

5 = 4.
15
2.2. , : ) = cos t,
= 6 sin ^; ) x=^a{t- sin t\ j^ = (1 - cos /)
X] ) : = cos t, y = as\x\ t; )
= 2(^^-1), y = t(4-t^).
, )
(. 3.32). ,

1


, /. = , / = ,
= , t = 0.

( 1 Mi
S = -4Jja6sin^^J^ = 2aZ?j2(l-cos20^^ = 2aZ?( ^sin2r -,

) X = , ^ = 0; 7 = 0, -In (. 3.67).
(6)
2: ^ ^ - ^2
5 = 1 ""a^{{-Q.o^ifdt^a^\ "^(l-2cost + cos^ t)dt =

( 1
'
- ^ - 2 s i n r + -sin2r
U 4 www.kodges.ru
jL
622 12

)
(. 7.63). , -
-^,
. = , / = ; ^ = . (6)

S = ^ L 3a^sin^t cos^ tsintdt=-a^\^{\-cos2t- cos^ 2t+cos^ 2t)dt =

2 \ ^1
J 2 (1 - COS At)dt+- j ' (1 - sin' 2t)d sin It
2 o"2

r) .
X = , ^ = 1; j ; = , ^ = , t = 2.
: / = - 1 (, -3), t = \ (0,3);
^ = 0 (-2,0); ^ = 2 (6,0).
t G [-2,0], ;; < 0; G [0,2], > . (6,0)
. ,
(. 12.14).

. 12.14
,
;
(6)
www.kodges.ru
623

5 \
512
S-^2\\{A-t^)Atdt--%\\At^-t^)dt =%
V 3 5 15 '
2.3. , : )
= (; ) = a(\ + cos(p);
) (^+^ =2^(^-^); )
p=acos(p = /sin(; ) ^ +^ - = ().
. ) (. 3.58)

( 2:. (5)

5 = 1-1(
f27r 2 2 I
=^(\
^ 4 3 2
2 Jo
Jo ^ ^' 66 ' '^' 3
)
(. 3.61), ,
( :.
(5)

S = 2'-\ a^{\ + cos(pfd(p = a^\ (l + 2cos(p^- (l + cos2(p))d(p =


2 Jo

^3 1 3 2
a 2 '(p + 2sm(p' +sm
4 2(p
.
\' 2
)
(. 3.62).
= cos (, = sin <,

^ =2a^cos2(p.
-
71
. (5)
4

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624 12

1 /

) , -
/
/ \
(. 12.15) -
2 6
V
.

, 12.15

< ,
6

SocA = ^ \^ ' sin' (pd(p = -a^ J^** (1 - cos 2(p)d(p =

1 > 3 2 ( S]
= a (psin2^ =a
Jo 4 6 4
^ J
-

< , ,
6 2
1 2 2 _ ' fA,
SoBA = -^ 'cos' (pdcp = =- ' (1 + cos 2(p)d(p =
2Vb 4 ^
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625

( +sin2(p
3
V
4

,
5
^ - ^ + ^ -' -Si
) x = p c o s ^ ,
y = psin(p ,
sin cos ^
= ^. -
sin ( 4- cos (

(. 12.16),

^ 1 ^ 9a^sin^(Z)cos^(p ,
5 =- ^ , \ d(p.
2-^0 ( s i n > + cos>)^
cos^ (,

9 , t t g V t
=
g =
3^^f^(l + t g-
=
3 , 1 "
29 JJ(l 4- t g \^
+ to^ ^ 92 iJ(l
(^. t g \^
+ \^ ^ 92 l +tctg>
14-

. 12.16
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626 12

12.3.
1. .
S{x)
(. 12.17).
, dx

dx S{x) , . . dV = S{yi)dx .

V^^ S{x)dx, (1)


,

. 12.
2.
(. 12.18), ,
, ,
^.

V^n^ y'dx, (2)



b X

. 12.18
www.kodges.ru
627


(. 12.3),

^\\, (3)
? .

(. 12.2),
,
y^^dx^^
X.

V = 2K\ xydx. (4)


Ja
,
,
\ = /i (^) ^ - fi (^) ' ^-^ /j () < /2 (jc) , -,
= , .,

b b
V,^it\{yl-yl)dx V^=2n\x{y,-y,)dx. (5)

, ,
,
.
3.
= (() < = ;( = j3 ,

2 ^
V = 7i\
71] ^p''sm(pd(p.
sin (pd(p. (6)
3
2 2 2
X Z
3.1. - + " + " ^ ^
^ b^
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628 12

. ,
/,
(. 12.19).

. 12.19
/,
xz

( ^2^ +- = 1.
\j-^
v'-^^ V *%

, , \-
i"

1^
^\\-, (. 2.2, ) /
I ,.\
S{1) =

, (1)

V = nac I -,
-\ '^ J " -b -b
3
3.2.
. ,
.
www.kodges.ru
? 629

. . 12.20
. ,

, BCD.
= yjr^ - ^ .
S(y) = ^ -'^. , (1)


16
-=^
. 3
V )

. 12.20
3.3. ,
, " y = Oii 1.
. (. 12.21)
(2),

V=n]x'e"'dx.

-''"
2
-i: dx ^=;rf-xV^ -1^''-^]

www.kodges.ru
630 12

'--\- \
4

. 12.21
3.4. ,
, j ; ^ = 4 = 0
= 4.
. (. 12.22)
(3),

V = n \\xdx = 2:;^ = 32,


Jo 10

3.5. (),
^ + (;; -4)^ = 9 .
.
, R = 3 (. 12.23). -
www.kodges.ru
631

;;,
j^,2 = 4 v 9 - x ^ .
,
. ,

V^2\\^, -yl)dx--2K^\25-x'-%49^-

-25 + 8/9-' +x')dx = \6K^^y}9-x^dx.

. 12.23
: = 3 sin /, Jx = 3 cos tdt\ x = , / = 0;
X = 3, t- .

V = \6^9^' . + co^2t)dt =
tdt = 12KY\\

( \
= 12 / +sin2r = 36:'
2
3.6. ,
, ^ -\- ^ =\ (

X > ) ;; = .
. (. 12.24)
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632 12

2 3

: 2jc^ --2 = 0;
-3/9 + 16 -35 1
^-1,2 =

Pwc. 12.24
,
, , ,
(2),

J
= \ y^dx = nyxdx^'Ku{\-x^)dx =K + 7r X
10

1 , 1 1 \ \ 19
= \ +1 + = 48
.
^283
3.7. , 2 24j
,
.
. ,
'^ =2 OJC,
(. 12.25).

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? 633

=: 2(1 = =^

. 12.25
,
, V^ = ^. ^ =2 ,^oV^- 1^,
, V^ = 2F^,
.
3.8. , ,
: - cos ^ = - 1 \
: <<; .
. , ,
, . 12.26.

. 12.26

j ; = - l ,

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634 12

X - \ - -.

V^\ (1' = {y + \)dx = 7ir (cosx + \fdx =


J-n J- J-K

-i:(l + cos 2JC + 2 cos : \dx = Kx


2
'

3.9. ,
: ) = a(l-'COS(p); )
^ =a^cos2^.
, ) , ( ; (. 3.61).
(6)
2 ^ -1 -7 2 f^ -1
V = K\ (l-cos(pysin(pd(p = Ka \ (l-cos(p)d(l-cos(p) =

^ 3/1 F
4 8
3
= {l-cos(p)\ 1 =-7
3'

)
(. 3.62), (6)
I 22
-
-3 2. ./
-
-V
2 =-
3 "^a\cos2(py sm(pd(p = -na^ ^{2cos^ (p-iy smcpdcp.

^ 1 . , cos tdt
: cos (p =/2^ sin
^ , sm (pd(p =>y2sin^r
-7=7-;
= 0, ^ = ; = , ^ = ,
4 4 2
3 r% cos"^ tdt 4 3 \
F= , = = 2+sin^/ \dt =
/2 WA sin'/ 3V2' J

/ 1 . ^
-cigt-2t+- t sin2^ -'
2 2 6 2

www.kodges.ru
635

. , : )
x = a{t- sin ), = (\- cos t)
\ ) , = 3/^, y = 2\nt
, ; ) = cos /,
= sin^ t = .
, )
^ 2:, X 27 (. 3.67). ,

= :| y^dx.
,
^ 3
V = ' J'"" (1 - cos )' dt = " j ' ' 'l-3cosr + -(l-hcos20-
V
2:
/5 3 1 ^
-(1-sin^Ocos/ -%' ^-4sin 1sin2^Hsin^/ :57rV.
2 4 3
) ,
, . 12.27, ^]0,1].

V = KJ y^dx V = 24KJ tln^tdt.

. 12.27
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636 12

/ = 0 .
: \n^t = u,
1 t^
2 ~In tdt = du; tdt = dv^ v = ,
/

= 24: f tin tdt :24:


^^0 \p jfi /3->o 2
\
J8^
f 1 ^

+ lim \nt+ 2 - hm-t-+hm-^In + -


, 2 4 ^->o 4 /3^0 2 4
J8^

= 24: lim-^ + = 6:.


^-o 1


(3). = -, / = 0; 7 = 0, / = 1,

^ ^dt 9 9
V = K\ X dy = 97r\ r = -7tt
J-^ -^ Jo ^ 4 = 7t.
4
) ,
(. 12.28).
= ,
(afi),
' = -, ' =

^V =n[{xyd/ = nllix-aydy.
,
= , -
www.kodges.ru
637

, /,

V = ' (1 (cos^ t -1)^ sin^ t cos tdt -y^ (cos^ t -1)^ sin^ t cos tdt) =

= 6^^^(r^(2-3sin^/ + 3sin^^-sin^0sin^^^sin/-2K^cos'^/sin^^fi?/--

-J ( 2 - 3 sin^ t + 3 sin'' t - sin^ 0 sin^ td sin t + l\ cos"* t sin^ tdt) =

2. . -i J . 5 J . 7 l . g
= 6 sin ? sin t-i sin / sin /
3 5 7 9
f'^ l + cos2^(H-cos40-(l-sin^20cos2r \dt-

(2 . , 3 . 5 3 . 7 1 . 9
- sm / s i n ^ +sin / sin r +
3 5 7 9

~A
1 2 ^
+ cos 2t(1 + cos 4t) - (1 - sin 2/) cos 2t \dt) =

3.1 2 3 3 1 2 3
= 6\\ + t = -n'a\
3 5 7 9 8 . 3 5 7 9 8

. 12.28
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638 12

12.4.
1.
= / ( ) = F{y),
jc = (p{t), j ; =i//(/), ^f/
(. 12.29) , ,

rf/ = ^1 + {yf dx = ^l + (xf dy = yjx" + y^ dt. (1)


,

b b d )3

L^\dl = \4^ + {yydx = \4\-^{xfdy--\yjx'+y''dt. (2)


2.
= p{q>) (. 12.30),
dl - yj^ + {p'Yd(p,

^
L = \4p'Hpydcp, (3)

. 12.30
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639

3. ,
= (/), = y{t), z = z{t)
t ,

L = j^x^+y^+z^dt. (4)

4.1. : ) >^ = lncosx jc = 0

^ = -; ) ^'^ +^^^ -^'^\ ) j ; ^ = 9 -
\ )
;^ = \ ^^ +^ =6.
, ) (1),


L=y'Jl+[ilncosxyfdx= l+iliLljx= 'Yi
f/\ f' dx
Jo ^ Jo V rn^^
cos XV Jo cosx
X P 7t
= lim In tg h = lim In tg + =oo.
2 4 ^-f 2 4
^-1
6)
(. 12.28),
. , =-{1)^'^.
(2)

=\14^1<=\1^;"'+/'= dx = X
2/3

3
Jo v^^^ 9 -.

L = 6a-
)
(. 12.31).
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640 12

, 12.31
: jc = , =^3.

. (1),

-4^ =, dy = dv;
, 4ydy
du - , , v = ,

dy
^L=:yyll + 4y'f '\'^-^4y'dy-hf-j=^
2

1 = j ; ^ l + 4 / +-1|2>; + /1 + 4 / | | =3/37+-1(6 + /7).


2 I 11 2
) (. 12.32)
.
'^ =^, ^ 6 + ^ =0-
2.

. (1)
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? 641

. 12.32

9 V /
i-r/ + 2
^ 4r2f^
9 Jo 4

v4
/
8 9 "t
1 + -; -1
27 4 27 V 2 y
V
V
/
, L = 11 1
27
V
4.2. : ) x = fl(cos/ + /sinO,
= a(sin t-t cos /) ^j = /j = 2:; )

x = a(t-smt), y = a(l-cost); ) =^ = ^7
6 4
.
, ) (
) (. 12.33).
x = at cos t, y = at sin /.
(2)
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642 12

. 12.33
iK

L= \ ""yla^t^cos^/ + aYsin^tdt = a\ ''tdt = ^lair


Jo Jo 2
6) t In (. 3.67).
i = (1 - cos , - sin t.
(2)

i = J "" ^^ (1 - cos tf 4- ?- sin^ tdt = a /2 f yjl - cos tdt =

2:
C^Tt t t\
= la sin dt = --4a cos = 8a.
Jo 27 2L
7
) : jc = , / = 0;
j ; = , ^ = /8 . x = t^, y = -t^
(2),

Jo Jo JO


= -(/"+1)2 11
6 3'
4.3. : )
= (; ) = 0(1 +cos);
www.kodges.ru
643

_ 3

) - sin ; ) = "^"^ ( > 0),


= .
. ) ( < ^ < 2:)
(. 3.58) (3)
Z = J '^^j{a(pf -{-a^d(p = ci\''y]l + (p^d(p.
1 + (-=, d(p = dv; (-'^->
(pdcp
I ,
Vi+(p'

L = a \( + (^\ -{^"^ ^ + (p^d(p + \nl(p + ^l + (p^\ \


I 1 ' \ /| I

L= -((pyjl+(p^ +ln(^+^l+(pMj =:^11+4^ +-1[2:+/1+4:.

)
(. 3.61) .
(3)

L = 2 -yja^ (14- cos (pf + ^ sin^ (pdcp = 2 V2a yJl-\-cos (pdcp =

= 4ci\ COSd(p = Sa :^<P


sin = 8a.
2 2|
) <p :, (. 12.34). -
, . 2
, = a s i n cos. (3)

L= \""Aa^sm^ + a^sm^cos^d(p=^a\ ""sin 1/ =


\ 3 3 3 J 3

_ ^ f ^^ 2(^ ( 3 . 2 ^ 3
1-C0S^ / = <j9sin^ = .
" " 2 Jo 3 j 2\^ 2 3 ^ 2
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644 12

. 12.34
) ^ =
, = .
, ( ~ 0.
= . 3.60.
' = "''^.
,
, (3)

L=f yJa'e'^+m'aV'^d(p = ayJ\+m^f e^d(p =

= ayjl + m^ Km f%'"^rf(m(p) = /l + m' lim e"4' =/l + m'.

4.4. : )
x = acos^ y = asint, z = ct;

6) y = -\nx, z = x=^\ 0 x = 2.
, a) 2
(. 4.20). x = -asmt, = cost,
z = c, (4)

Jo Jo

6) -
. x = t, y = mt, ^ =;
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^ 645

= 1, t = \\ = 2, = 2. i = 1,

j ; = , Z = (4).

2/44^1
^=f^R^^^=i It
..=j;
V 2^J
|2 1
= - ( / 1 [ = - ( 3 + 12).

12.5.

= f(x) (. 12.35),
, ,
I
Ja Ja (1)
(. 12.3)

S = 2nf xdl = 2: J^ xyjl + ixfdy, (2)

= x{t),
= y(t), < / < j8 ,

. 12,35
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646 12

S = lK\%{t)^{x{t)fHmfdt. (3)


= {(), <(<,

S = 271 f psm(p J ^ + (pyd(p. (4)

2, (5)
Ja

R
; dl ; , b
, . R (i/
.
5.1. , -
X
: ) y = ach = 0 = ;

' '
) + = ^ ; )
b
9^ = (-- ,
, ) ,
. 12.36.

y' = sh Jl + iy'^Y =ch.


(1)

S = 1K['ach^dx = na['\ c h + 1

2x ^
= \ sh+x - s h 2 + l
1^2 a
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647

. 12.36

) , >,
J = 1 - , =1--^-^-^ (1)

\
b \ 1 9 b r~f 7~
''- -
-"- ^sja - \

- = , = . -

,

5 = 2: yla^-^x^dx = 4n-r^la^-^x^dx.
J-a JO

: yja^ -^^ =w, dx = dv;


- xdx
= du, x = v,

X
S = 4n xyja - X H arcsin
2 2 a M

-1\4^-^^ H-a^ 8| = 2:/?(6 +arcsin).


a\ f
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648 12

, -
2 2 jy.
(2): = r-v , ' =

=^x'Hxx'f =f'-f^/+^/ =

=-J64 b' y=f>^+^/^


f'' /1.2 , c ' ..2
^ = 2^lLr-^77^^^-
6 J-*

no : Jb +-^ =u, dy = dv;



^
du _
= 6 ^ , v=y,
b'+Tl/

f \
,2 c' , b'
8 = 2%a , 2 ^ 2

2 V b^ Ic
\ V

2 / ^ 7 ^ 1 ^
^^^
2 T fL 2e ',+ ^2
c^-c

6 + = , = ,

b^ , + \ +
S^lKa +
In 2 + In
lea -
lea \-
)
(. 12.37).
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649

1 ' = ( - jc)' - 1{ - ),
/ = (3^ ^^ ^) 1

6
,
, (1)

. 12.37

(-(-

= (-)/ +2 + dx = ( +2- )dx =


' 2 , 2 -^ '^
= 37'
3^ -
3
5.2. ,
: ) = cos^ t, = sin^ t ; )
x = a{t- sin t), y = a(l- cos /)
.
, )
, ,
,
( < ^ < ). (3).

www.kodges.ru
650 12

S = 2' 2\ sin^ ^ ^ 0 ^ ^^^^ t sin tf + ( sin^ t cos 0^ ^^ =

9 f/^ 4 2 9 s iV 12 9
= 12: sin r cos^fi?^ = -a sin ;;^ = .
Jo 5 '' 5
6) y = Q, cos^ = 1, r = 0 r = 2:. t = 27i
= 2. , (.
7.64) { ,0).
(5): 7? = : a - a ( r - s i n r ) = a(:-^ + sin/)5

dl = ^J(xy+(yfdt = 7 ^ ' (1 - cos tf + a^ sin^ tdt = ay/l^ll-cos tdt =

= 2a sinrf^.
, . . t
:.
,
9 ^ t -) ^ t t ^ t
S = 4na \ (;r-r + sinOsinrf^ = 47ra [2: sinJ tsindt-^
Jo ^ 9 - Jo 9 9 Jo 9

'^ ^ t ^ . t 2 , ^t^
+4 sin^ -dsin-] = ^ -:cos+/COS2sin+sm
Jo 9 9
V 2 2 2 3 2^,

= 8:' :-2 + - = -:^(:-4).
3
5.3. ,
: ) ^ = 2^ cos2(p ; )
p = a(l + cos^)
(2,0).
, )

(. 12.13). (4)
www.kodges.ru
651

5 = 2 2:f-^/2 aJcoslcpsin<,lla^cos2( + 2'^HL?^<7):


Jo ^ ^ '^^ '^ cos2<p

= 87 8^?< = - 8 : ' 8 ( | ^ =S7ra^


2
V
) (4).
0<(< . 3.64.

8-2\ {\ + cos () sin (pyja^ (1 + cos ^f + a^ sin' ^^f^ =


JO

= 4 I (l + cos^)sin^cosJ(p = -16;r(2 J cos (icos=

32 2 5<P 32 2
= Tca .
= 5 : cos 5

12.6.

1.
/
J O T ^ = md .

Wp ^2,... ,^

^=^ m-d-, , -
/, .
y = f(x),
a<x<b,

www.kodges.ru
652 12

m^ = J 8{x)ydl = J S(x)yJl + () dx;

m^ = j'5(jc)jcJ/ = | ' 5 ( ) 7 7 ) ^ ^ , (1)

S{x) , dl .

,
= (),

^ = { ' psin(pJp^ + ^d(p,

^ = cos (pJp^ + p^d(p, (2)

.
,
= f{x), = , = ,

1 ^ . , , . .^ 1
w^ = - f 8(M)ydS = - f S(M)y^dx;

m^ =-f5{M)xdS = -fS{M)xydx; (3)

8(M) , dS = ydx
.

.
,

S(x) jc ,
, ,

dm = ^^(JC)^^^
www.kodges.ru
653

^^.= I xS{x)dx, (4)


,
,

-\ dx. (5)
= f{x)
ia<x<b) (. 12.38)
,
, ,
Inydl
I
^ = 2: xydl = 2: J + (y'^dx. (6)


= x(t), = y{t)
z (. 12.39)
Z = z{t)

'w,, = \^xzdl; m^=\jzdl; m^^=-\^z^dl, ()

dl = ^Jx^+y^dt; L
.
www.kodges.ru
654 12

z = z(t)

. 12.39
2.
/
J O T /^ = md^.

^, ^,.^- ,^ -

/^ = V m^d^ -
1=1


= f{x) (a<x<b)

Ja Ja

I = f 5(x)xV/= {''S{x)x^J\ + {yfdx, (8)


Ja Ja

5 (x) , dl .
,
= f(x), X = = b

/, = i 6(M)/dx; / , = SiM)x'ydx. (9)

(. 12.40), -
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655

jVi = yj (), 2 = /2 (),


b X

, 12.40

I,=[5{M)/{(pM-(p,{y))dy;

I^=[5(M)x'{f,(y)^My))dx; (10)
^ () = ,, ^ () = 2
, .
6.1.
: ) -"" ( < < 1); )
5 , 5 () = 1; )
^ +^ =^, ,

.
, )
(1),

^ Jo

^ = "", dt = e'^dx, ^ = \ ^ll + t^dt.


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656 12

: = /+^, dv = dt; du = / ^ ,
? = ,
rff
m.

w_^=j' /^^?=- (f Vi77+\{1+Vi+7))


e + yl\ + e^ I
/1 + ^-/2 + 1
I + V2
(8)

1 f
/ , = '" 1\ + ' = - (1 + '" )'^' d(\ + e^'') =

)
x = acos^t, y = asin^t.

(1),

dl = ^Jx^ + y^dt = Sflvcos"^ t sin^ t + sin"^ t cos^ tdt = 3a sin / cos tdt,

3a^
m, = \ ydl = 3a^ | sin^^sin/cos/flf^ =
sm4\
^ Jo -^ Jo 5<: I(" 5
(8)

/ = f ' ^ / j / = 3a' C'^hin'tsintcostdt =sm' tp =-


" Jo -^ Jo 8 ' 8
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657

, -
3 2 , , 3 3
^=^= 1^=1= ,
)
(1) (8).
dl - ^\-\- {' dx , /

X
2 + 2=0, =

dl = Jl-\'-Ydx = yJy + dx = dx.


\
,

^ = \ kxyydx-ka] xyja^-x^dx = | (^-x^y^^d(a^-^)


Jo - wo 2 '^

, 2 2 43/21" ^"
3 ' ' 0 3

/^ = kxy-ydx^kaX dx = ka\ x(a^-x'')dx


Jo - Jo Jo

2 X X ka'
= ka a
V 2 4^
/: .
6.2.
.
.
, ,
.
: = cos t, = sin t.
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658 12

dl = \1^ sin^ t + a^ cos^ tdt = adt.


(1) (8),

^ = j"" ydl = ^ sin tdt = 2a^ /^ = y^dl = "" sin^ tdt = -Ka\

6.3.
= 2 sin (.
. (2).
^^ + '2 ^^4'sin'( + 4^cos'(=2 (0<(p<7i) (. 12.41),

^=4^\ sm^(pd(p = 2a^{ {l-cos2(p)d(p = 2Ka^;

^ \ sin(pcos(pd(p = 0.
, ^, = ,
.
6.4.
.
. ,
. 12.42.
(3),(9),
. :
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659

" 2Jo-^ 2 Jo 2

" " 1 2

m^,= | 5=1 bxdx =ab,

I=lry^dx = -rb'dx^-ab\

/^, = 1 xydx=\ X bdx = a b.

Pwc. 72.42
6.5.
, = 0, = + = ; )
; ) ,
; ) ,
.
, )
(. 12.43)
(3) (9)
3
. = -ry'dx = -\\a-xfdx = -\ - +

/ =- ydx = -\ (-) dx =

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660 12

^3 ^

^ . .
'w^ = ^^^ = V^ = 7^ = .
6 12

Pt^c. 12.43
) , , /.
^ , ,
h . -
ci h
- ^ == =h. , -

" 2 ^

L^\\h4h=rh4h =h'
^ h Jo 4

) "
. / (. 12.44 ).
^, , /,
h . /
2 2
a^,=--a-h, = + .
' 3 ' 3
/ ,
.

www.kodges.ru
,
^ 661

2
\
3
-i ^\
i la^ ) / \
I
i 1

. 12.44
2

^2 h' h'^^ 3
, hdh =
3 2 3 27 3'

=lHh*'' hdh =
27 3'
,
/,
, , , = " ," =0.

/
2
2 h' h4 ^4
^'=f |'-**=
V3 3 4
3

813'

2 h' h4 ^11
+
'^ =
3 3 4 8112'
,
aV4
81 3 12 36'
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662 12

6.6. ,
= ^ = /
.
. ,
, . 12.45.

X ^2^)'"^\{) = ^^ ^ .

. 12.45
4
(2 .5/2
, = VJ^-/)^= 20'
(10)
5
Z//2_y_
h=iy\4y-y")dy = 2 5 35'
6.7. :
) ; ) ; )
; ) .
. )
, . 12.46.

MNB ,
- \
(5)
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^ 663

. 12.46

(
-2 1 \ =
V '
3 4 2 2
' ^ ^ JC" X '
= 7^
2 + 4 ' 12
V
) ,
. 12.47. OMN ^ =R^ ^.

(5)

. 12.47
f 2 4
nR'
^V2^'^\ ^ dx = Kl x(R -x)dx-K /?^-
2 4
/
)
(. 12.46), -
www.kodges.ru
664 12


(6)
\
R_Vdx =
/.^ = 2KJ" + y^dx = 27cj"xR\l- 1+

2KR
ylH'+R' ^
1 ^2
) (. 12.47)
(6)

/^ = 2 J xyyjl + '^ dx.

j ^ =/?^-Jc^: 1' = 2, =, -
yjR^-x
R
yjl + y'^ =./1 +
' ' ' '
,
rR iz R R^ ,
^=2\ x^R^ -x^ -r==clx = 2KR = KR\
6.8.
^ -^-^ =R^,
z = 0 z = ( > 0 ) .
.
. 12.48.
(7), ,

X
z = y, : ' + / = 7 ^ =-
VF^'
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665

Rdx
dl = yjl + y^dx =
ylR'-x''
f* Rdx
Rdx f
m, = \ xzdl=\ xy I ^ = R\ xdx = 0

m. i^'-t^'^-'t^^"^-

. 12. 48
,
Rf R dx
Aw_ =
4^]
R_
cyjR^-x-+R- arcsin - = -R'
2 R 2

1 r 1 f i?rfx
mv 2J-R 2-'-* ^-
,

^ 4
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666 12

jc' ''
6.9. + = 1 -

.
.
,
, ,
4. (10)
^V ~ ^ / - X X dx , = sin /,
'^
dx = acostdt

1= \ cos ta^ sin^ ta cos tdt = a^b sin^ 2tdt =


a Jo Jo

= (1 - cos 4t)dt = 71,


2 Jo 4

1=4\ ^Jb^-y^y^dy. y = bsint,


Jo If
dy = bcostdt
4 f^, ,2.2/ ^b^
I =\ b cos tb sm tb cos tdt = .
' 6 Jo 4
6.10. : a) ; )
, , R.
, )
(. 12.49).
V = InyHdy,
dy .
1|
dl^ = InHy^dy,
,

www.kodges.ru
667

1,=\1^=2\1 = ]-\

. 12.49
)
(. 12.50 ).
dV ^ 2 hdy , j dy
h. MNB ,

h = H 1-
R
V
(
dl = 2 _ /dy.
\ R

. 12.50
,

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668 12

pR /
\dy = 27tH' /
= KHR\
^ Jo "^ Jo 5R 10
6.11. : )
, , R,
; ) R .
, )
(. 12.51) R
SlnRdx.

. 12,51

dl^ = R^8lTcRdx.
,
,

/ = f"" dl = 2K5R^ \" dx = InSR'H = mR^,


^ Jo ^ Jo

m = 2K5RH .
)
, dx,
Oj;z (. 12.52).

, ,
SlKydl
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669

. 12.52

dl^ = y^Slnydl. ,

^ J-R ^ J-R

, ^ + >'^ = i?^, = yJR^ ~^, =-


\] -X
Rdx
dl = ^Jl + /^dx =

4 = InSR^" (R^ -x')dx = 2K5R R'x- = -n5R'=-mR\


3 3 3
m = AnSR^

12*
,
, .
1.

www.kodges.ru
670 12

\''5{M)xdl ^ \''5{M)ydl
^ _ ^ 1 X __ J a
-^ fb > ' 1)
^ \ 5{M)dl ^ \ 5{M)dl ^^
Ja Ja

\ ^,
,;;; 5{)
{, )\ dl .
L,
5 = 8((),

^=--\'pcoscpdL; J c = v f P^^^^P^L, (2)

dL = yJp + p d(p ; L={ dL -


.
.
2. ,
,
jfi \ 8{M)xydx 1 I 8{M)y^dx
^c (>b ^ f>b ' K^J
^ I S(M)ydx ^ 2f 5{M)ydx
Ja Ja

m ; m^,
,.
3. ^ =/(:);
= fi {^\ = ; = (. 12.4),

\''SiM)x{Ux)-f,ix))dx
= - .
l''d(M)(f,(x)-f,(x))dx '
Ja

\''S(M)(f,\x)-f,\x))dx
Ja
(4)
f 5(M)(/,(x)-y;(x))^
Ja
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671

5{) , . .
.
5{) ,
5
.

, .
,
= ((),

''=-:^\ P^oscpdcp; ,=\ 'smcpdcp, (5)

5 = I ' p^d^ .
4. ^

xS{x)dx
.=^. , (6)
S(x)dx
Ja
S(x)dx
; S(x)
.
, y = f(x)
(a<x<b) (. 12.18), ^
yOz

dx

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672 12

^
, jc,

_ ^^ _ I W^ + Z^^
^ - " ~ 7^ / , , (8)
^ I Wi+(/) ^
J

5^.
, (. 12.29),
z = z{t),

'= ''= '-^- <''


S ; ^^, ^^, ^
(12.6 (7))
.
6. .
1) ,
, ,
, ,
, .
2) ,
,
,
,
.
7.1. : )

y = ac\i ( 0 < < ) ; \ ) x = a{t-smt),



= {\-cos/),
; ) p = a(l4-cos^)
{0<(<).
, ) (1), ,
www.kodges.ru
.
? 673

dl = ^j\^-y^dx = ^\^^h^dx=c\i'-'dx,
\
X
L^\ dl=\ ch(ix^flfsh- : a sh 1.
Jo Jo /7
a a
:

m,, = I xc\idx\ m^=a\ ch^dx,


Jo a Jo ^

no : x = u, chdx = dv; dx = du,


a
v = ashxa,

m =axsh a\ shdx = {axsh a^ch) = a'(shl-chl + l).


/7 '0 /7 /7 /7

( a , 2x
m, = - 1 + c h \dx- + s h a ^ l + -1s h ^
2i:('
Jo a ] 2 2 a ~2 2
,

=-^ = ( s h l - s h l + l) = a 1 - t h -
" Z, shl 2

)
5() =

dl = ^Jx^+y^dt = sja^ (1 - cos tf + a^ sin^ tdt = lasin-dt


'2- ^ f 2: ^ /^ 2- t pin

J0 xdl = 2a Jo ^(t-smt)sm~dt = 2a \ tsm-dt-\ smtsmdt


"^ 9
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Jo 9 Jo
674 12

1
( ^ t t 4 . 3 ^
= 2' Itcosl-4sin sin = .
(^ 2 2 3 2

'In , , (1 - t
J X dl = 2 (t - sin t) sin -dt =
0 Jo ^ ^ 2
= 2a t Sina^-2 tsmtsmdt+l sm /sinrf/
Jo 9 Jo 9 Jo 9

, :

= 2 -2rcos- +4
9 Jo
2 t 8
tcos-dt/sin-'-H-
^ Jo
if" sin dt-
2' 3 2 - 2
V

-"('-^"^1 cos^rfcos 2

t t 8 . 3/ 16 /
= 2a' -2t cos+8/sin+ 16cos
V
3 2 3 cos
2
2 2
^ 8 t 8 /
cos - -cos COS
3 2 > U 2 5 2,
= 16a' -
\^ 3 15 15

^ = xydl = 2a J (/-sin/)(l-cos/)sin <i/ =

- ( 2; / 2; /
= 2 /sinJr- tcostsindt-
yjo 2 Jo 2
/
- [ sin/sin//+I sin/cos/sinJ/
Jo 9 Jo

www.kodges.ru
675

,
\2 /^ |2:
/'
t
^ =2flV ~2^cos + 4sin + 2^ cos
2 2 cos
22 Jo
-1 -
3 2
2;r
4 f2;r / rlK t , 4 . 3 ^
cos a^ + 2 cosatsin - +
3J0 2 Jo 2 3 2

^ f 2;r ^ ^ tf 2^ . 2
+2 Sin COS cos s m \dt) =
Jo 2 2|^ 2 2)
( 2;r
4 (%^ . t \ . t
= 2a' An +: - sin sin - 4 s i n
3 2 3 2 2
V V
2:
1 t 2 . \ / 32a'7i
+ 4 sin sin = 2a' AK +7t =
,3 2 5 2, 3 3
(1)
_^_2( . 16^ , 4
" = = -
3
15 ^
) :
.
JZ = { (1 -f- cos () + sin () d(p = 2 cosd(p,

: Z = 2 J cosJ^ = 4 a s i n ^ =4.

(2):

jc^ = J pcos^-2acos =J (l + cos^)cos^cos( =

= J cos^cos<i^ + | cos^^cosJ^ =

www.kodges.ru
676 12

= ^ ( 2 r f l - 2 s i n ^ ^ V s i n - + 2 r f l - 4 s i n ^ ^ cos 2 < ^7 9
2-'(^ 1) 1 ^^\ 2 asm=
2
. ( 2 . ^( . ( / 1.3^ ^^ 4
^ 59
= s i n s i n + s i n - 4
2 3 -sm sin
V 3 2 5 2

y^ = psm(p'2acosa(p = {\ + cos(p)sm(pcosd(p =

ctf r^ . (p J f^ J
= I sin<pcos<-1 cos^sinepcosa(p
^V 2 0 2 ^

- 4 r c o s ^ ^ J c o s ^ - 4 r f 2 c o s ^ ^ - l ' | bos (P <P


^Jcos
Jo 2 2 Jol^ 2 J

1 ,(p 2 4
= -2a| --cos^^+-cos^
cos ^ ^ ^. = (2.
^3 2 5 cos
5
2 3 2
7.2. , -

: ) = /^ - ^; )
= cos ^ = sin ^,
! ,
; )^ >^^ = = ;; )
^ -^ cos 2(j0.
, )
,
^ = .
^
(3). (3) 5 ( ) = 1
, , -
1
. /^ - ^ <ix =

www.kodges.ru
J
677

. __
= - / ^ = {a'-x')dx = ^ X

) , -

(3). w = dx,
JO

t -
,
= j fe^ sin^ t{ra sin /)t// = ab^ \ (1 - cos^ t)dt =
'^ ^/^

/ 1
^' COS/ COS t = -a6^
V 3 , 5<
:

/, = - f" y^dx = - \ ,' sin' t{-a sin 0^?^ = - f, - (1 - cos 20^ dt =

1
8 U( l - 2 c o s 2 / + - ( l + cos40 p =

ab' f \( 1
?-sin2/ + - f+sin4/ = Ttab ,
8 2 4 1
"/^

'^; = 1 xy^dx=\ acostb sin /(-asin/)rf/ = - a 6 I sin /Jsin/ =

,0 ^ ^
= a sm /
4 "/{ 4

x^ = ^ = , jn = ^ = ^ ^

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m 8 "" m 64
678 12

) (. 12.53).
, j^^ = .
: = / = sfax . (4)

. 12.53

\1.
'
2 | xyjaxdx 5
_ Jo
= .
2\ ^axdx 4 - 5
J0 \/

)
^
^=0. ^
(5).

\%
S = \\ d(p = XOS 2(pd(p = s i n 2(
2^- 2 J-^ ^ ^ 4 ~2


2 %
mil/
1
I fi

mJl/

^ =
, , ^ COS (Ddcp = y^, (cos 2(fif'^ cos q>d(p =

= www.kodges.ru
~fj^^(l-2sm'cpf"cos(pd(p.
679

sin^ = prsinf; cos (pd(p = -j=r cos tat


V2 V2
: '
t--,
^ 4 2 ^ 4

^ V L r-X ^^^4^^^^ V2a r/^fi + 2cos2/ + -!-(l + cos4/) V =


3 J-^ 12 J-^^^l^ 2 J

V2a / \M^^ ]2
^ + sin It + -sin4/
12 4 8
V
7.3.
: ) , ,
, ;
) , ; )
, )
JC = j ; ^ ,
(7)

j^ dx ^^^ X dx ^2'
=
2 ^ f^ ~ ^v^ 3
\ dx I xdx ^-^
, -
.
)
6.7, (. 12.46). -
1 ->
V ^TiRH ,

^ = - ^ - = = .
' V ' 4
www.kodges.ru
680 12


(7), .. .
)
6.7,6 (. 12.47). , -
2 ,
V = KR\

^ =-^ = - = -'.
' V 4 27' 8
(7).
7.4. .
.
6.4,6 (. 12.47).
, (8)

__^_ ^ ^ _1
2://'-' , ^ dx

7.5.
x ^ + j ^ = K ^ , z = 0
z =y {y>Q).
.
, Oj(pHC. 12.39),
(9).

5'JzJ/ = J_ z^+y^dx. z=y, ^+/=]^, -, ,

5 = ^R'-x^ -^ dx = Rxf = \

www.kodges.ru
681

, 6.8.
J^_7i_ _ R^ _
X, =0, =^:^ =^^ ^=1^^ =^'
7.6. ,
: ) =^ cos^ t, = sin^ /,
; ) .
, )
,
^=^.
,
, ,
, , . .
S = L-2ny^.

5.2 S = ^. 4.1,6
3 S 6 ^ 2 2
L = a, ^ = - = ~7~ - ^
2 2 5-2 5
) ,
, .

^=0.
,
4 1 2
V = KR . S = KR .
, V = S- 2^. -
_ AKR^'2 _AR
^^ ^'~3KR^'2n~ '
7.7. ,
{- +^ =^R^, 0<R<a
( ).
www.kodges.ru
682 12

.
.
,
S = = 2KR ' 1 - An^aR.
V - ^ 1 = 2 ,

12.8.

1.
(. 12.54)
S
= yxS

P = y\\dS = Y{^xydx, (1)


Ja Ja

= f(x) ,
; ,
;
.

b y = f(x)
X

. 12.54
2. f{s)
s = a s=b

www.kodges.ru
683

= \''Ks)ds (2)
Ja

/ ( ) ,

= \ Kx)dx. (3)
Ja
s=^s{t)
t,a<t<

,

A = \^f(s{t))sXt)dL (4)
Ja
3. v = f(t)
, t ,

S = fvdt = ff{t)dt, (5)
Ja Ja
a,b / .
4.
h
V = lJiyJ2gh , jU ,
, ( fi - 0,6), g
.
t
, , ,
/ ,
V = iiyJ2g{h-x).


/j,Syj2g(h-x)At - S(x)Ax, s , S(x)
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684 12

, ,

1 S{x)dx
=
^s^^' Jo jTrT-
4h^ (6)
5^. V
, . .
, -
pV = poVo = - const.
J^ ^2

IpdV (J)
-

iy. V F, ,
^ ^ .
, ;
,
dx
? (9)
.
,
,
, V
pV^ = poVo =- const,
, ( /: - 1 , 4 ) .

www.kodges.ru
685

dx PoVo^ 1 1 ^
"" s:^-^ Jo (H-yV ~ k-l
{H-hJ-' H
jrk-X ()

6. m,

V , = .

.
, /7 > >, ,
1 "
= lim V ^^

( = , -

= 1^, / = ^
,
. ,
, ,
.
8.1.
200 , 150 10.
.
. (. 12.55).

. (1) = 2\ xydx, = 1 /^.
.
F {,) -
ABC AEF,
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686 12


\
k"'
\
10
1

X
1

. 12.55
EF
--: =

EF 10-JC
1 , F = 25--jc; v = 75 + F = 1 0 0 .
25 10 2 2

10
I 5 ^ ' 5' ^'
\dx = 2 1 0 0 - - = 10328.
2 2 3,
8.2.
7 = 0,9 /^.
, 1.
. (. 12.56).
y = \Jl-x^ . (1)

. 12.56
www.kodges.ru
^ 687

P = Y\'^xydx = y\\^\-x'(h = -Y-\\\-x^yd{\-x') =

I = M = o,3T.
2 3
8.3.
,
h.
.

(. 12.57), dS = . -
sin
(1),

. 12.57
h+bs\na
h+bs'ma
-[ xdS = -fl-r'"%dx = -^^x^
sin ' 2 sin h

= ^(2hbsma-\-b^sin^a) = yab(h +bsma),


Isina 2
8.4. ,
R ,
,
.
. , ,
(. 12.58) /^ = Pcosa .
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688 12

. 12.58
.
, dS = Inydl,
dl = yjl + y'^dx . -

- 7 7 + " - ^
R

y = R 1 - , dl = dx

(1) 7 = 1

^H' + R'
= 2\ dx =
^0 { )

( 2 3
InR 1
4'+R' ' JC X
I =-7rHR^jH^+R'
2 J^ 3

R 1 ,
COS =
- , =-/'.
VF+F^' " 3
8.5. ,
b
{>
www.kodges.ru
? 689

.
(. 12.59),
dS = 2Kydl. ^+^=^

/ = -^iidl = yjl + y^dx = h + ^dx = -dx^ -

+ ,
(1) 7 = 1?
\
= 27 (b + x)y^dx = 2na +'- = 4 ,
J-a

. 12.59
8.6. ,
h.
. ,
^ , ,.
, F = , ,
X

X ,
. x = R -
F = mg, g ,
mg = '
_ ,
_ = gR'_ F_ = mgY
R^
R'
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690 12

(3),

( 1 \\
-\ mgT-dx--mg -mgr mgR
R+h R R+h
, . . -^ ,
h
= lim m^R = mgR.
h--- R+h
8.7. ,
,
R.
.
(. 12.60),
X. 2 =
dV = laydx la^JR^ x^dx.-

. 12.60
,
, dA = lyax^jR^ x^dx,
.

^ = j lyaxylR^ -x^dx = -a [R^ - X^ ) '-yaR\

www.kodges.ru
691

8.8. ,
, ,
.
.
(. 12.61),
. AMNB
,
MN -
2 = 1=- .

1 dx. , -
(
, dA = 1~- xdx.
V

,
,

3
\dx =

^'
=

www.kodges.ru
692 12

8.9. R
> R. ,
?
.
, -
4 4
P^=y7tR^ K R ^ ,
^
H-2R
A,=^nR\y--l)(H-2R).
, ,

, (. 12.62)
F = ^ (3R - jc), .
3 . .
,
4 1 ^
^ = yjiR -
:/?^KX^{bR-x^ -
(2) 3 327?,

, 12.62

A^=-\l\AR\y-\)^Rx^-x')dx =
IK
J\\
4R\y-\)x + Rx'-' = -7tR\2Y-\).

www.kodges.ru
693

,
= ,-^=-\-{-\)).
8.10. ,
S = 4000 ^, = 50 ,
. ,
: ) ? )
, 7 = 0,8 /^?
, ) ^ = ySH.
P^=Sh,
,
: 0,8-4000-50 = 4000/; = 40 .
, ,

,
= -^= ySH - S{h - ). ,

40
\
A = j S(yH-h-\-x)dx = S yHx-hx +
^ 2

402
= 4000 0,8-50-40-40' + = 32.
V
) 10 . ,
,
/^ = ( + x)S
^ = ySH . ,

= 40-^)3'-) =8 40JC+ :4000= 2.


Jo
2
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694 12

8.11. 2
0,5 4 .
.

, F = ,
S , /
, ( ^\20)^/^),
.
^ F (3),

S 12-10'* f2
=\ Exdx = n\6\ xdx = l,6Sn .
Jo / 500 Jo
8.12. ^ ,
, ^=0 ^=.
2= (>) ,
. ^

, F = -^-, . -
X

(3),
^ ^2
cbdx
rbdx _ (\ \\
Ja V
X J
8.13.
. 10 ,
1 1.
. F = ks, -
F
. s = 0,01, F = 1, = = 100.
S
(2)
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695

0,1

Jo
100- = 0,5.

8.14.
= 1^ -It ulc. 5 ?
. , , -
(5)
5 = j'(3r'-20t// = (/'-^')[=100M.

8.15. -
kt
mg ., .
; = (1- ""), g ,