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LTE Radio Network Design Training Manual

Contents

Contents

1 LTE Architecture

1-1

1.1 EPS Architecture

 

1-2

1.1.1 User Equipment

 

1-2

1.1.2 Evolved Node B

1-4

1.1.3 Mobility Management Entity

1-5

1.1.4 Serving Gateway

1-6

1.1.5 Packet Data Network - Gateway

1-7

1.2 E-UTRAN Architecture and Interfaces

1-8

1.2.1 Uu

Interface

1-8

1.2.2 X2

Interface

1-9

Interface

1.2.3 -

X2

X2 Application

Protocol

1-9

1.2.4 X2 Interface - Stream Control Transmission Protocol

1-9

1.2.5 X2 Interface - GPRS Tunneling Protocol - User

1-10

1.2.6 S1 Interface

 

1-10

1.2.7 S1 Interface - S1 Application Protocol

1-10

1.2.8 S1 Interface - SCTP and GTP-U

 

1-11

1.3 UE States and Areas

 

1-11

1.3.1 RRC State Interaction

 

1-12

1.3.2 Interaction with CDMA2000 States

1-13

1.3.3 Tracking Areas

 

1-14

2 LTE Air Interface

2-1

2.1

LTE Access Techniques

2-2

2.1.1 Principles of OFDM

2-2

2.1.2 Frequency Division Multiplexing

2-3

2.1.3 OFDM Subcarriers

2-3

2.1.4 Fast

Fourier Transforms

2-4

2.1.5 LTE FFT Sizes

2-4

2.1.6 OFDM Symbol Mapping

2-5

2.1.7 Time Domain Interference

2-6

2.1.8 General OFDMA Structure

2-8

2.1.9 Physical Resource Blocks and Resource Elements

2-9

2.1.10

SC-FDMA Signal Generation

2-10

Contents

LTE Radio Network Design Training Manual

2.2 Channel Coding in LTE

2-13

2.2.1 Channel Coding

2-13

2.2.2 Modulation and Coding Scheme

2-14

2.3 LTE Channel

Structure

2-17

2.3.1 Logical

Channels

2-17

2.3.2 Transport Channels

2-19

2.3.3 Physical Channels

2-19

2.3.4 Radio Channels

2-20

2.3.5 Channel Mapping

2-20

2.4 LTE Data Rates

2-22

2.4.1 Physical Data Rates

2-23

2.4.2 Downlink Overheads

2-25

2.4.3 Uplink Overhead

2-28

2.4.4 Total Physical Overhead

2-33

2.5 UE Categories

2-34

3 LTE Traffic

3-1

3.1 Traffic Types Carried by LTE Networks

3-2

3.2 Transport Layer Protocols

3-2

3.2.1 User Datagram Protocol

3-3

3.2.2 Transmission Control Protocol

3-3

3.3 Protocols used in Support of Various Traffic Types

3-5

3.3.1 Real

Time Services

3-5

3.3.2 Web

Browsing

3-7

3.3.3 File Transfer

3-7

3.4 Issues Surrounding Voice over LTE

3-9

3.4.1

PDCP

ROHC

3-9

4 Radio Planning Process

4-1

4.1 Radio Planning Process

4-2

4.1.1 Pre-Planning

4-2

4.1.2 Detailed Planning

4-3

4.1.3 Optimization

4-6

4.2 Frequency Deployment Options

4-6

4.2.1 LTE Bands

4-6

4.2.2 Spectrum Refarming

4-8

4.2.3 Advanced Wireless Services

4-8

4.2.4 700MHz Deployment

4-8

5 LTE Link Budget

5.1 and Range

Cell Coverage

5.2 Link Budget

5.2.1

5.2.2

Tx Parameters

Rx Parameters

5-1

5-2

5-2

5-2

5-3

LTE Radio Network Design Training Manual

Contents

5.2.3 Rx Sensitivity

5-4

5.2.4 Propagation Margins

5-4

5.2.5 Maximum Allowable Path Loss

5-4

6 Coverage and Capacity Planning

6-1

6.1 Coverage

Planning

6-2

6.1.1 Radio

Propagation

6-2

6.1.2 Radio

Channel

6-2

6.1.3 Propagation Models

6-4

6.1.4 Cell Range and Coverage

6-5

6.2 Capacity Planning

6-6

6.2.1

Cell/ Site Capacity

6-6

6.3 Optimization

6-7

6.3.1 Pre-Launch Optimization

6-7

6.3.2 Post-Launch Optimization

6-7

7 Huawei LTE Tools

7-1

7.1 Huawei

Tools

7-2

7.1.1 U-Net - Professional Radio Network Planning Tool

7-2

7.1.2 Probe & Assistant - Drive Testing & Data Analysis Tool

7-3

7.1.3 Nastar - Network Performance Analysis Tool

7-3

7.2 GENEX U-Net for LTE

7-4

7.2.1 Product Overview

7-4

7.2.2 U-Net LTE Planning Functions

7-4

 

7.2.3 Simulation

7-8

7.2.4 Neighbor Cell and PCI Planning

7-9

8

Glossary

8-1

Contents

LTE Radio Network Design Training Manual

LTE Radio Network Design Training Manual

Figures

Figures

Figure 1-1 LTE Reference Architecture

 

1-2

Figure 1-2 User Equipment Functional Elements

1-3

Figure 1-3 Evolved Node B Functional Elements

1-4

Figure

1-4

MME Functional Elements

1-6

Figure

1-5

S-GW Functional Elements

1-7

Figure

1-6

PDN-GW Functional

Elements

1-7

Figure 1-7 E-UTRAN Interfaces

1-8

Figure 1-8 Uu Interface Protocols

1-8

Figure 1-9 X2 Interface Protocols

1-9

Figure 1-10 S1 Interface Protocols

1-10

Figure

1-11

RRC States

1-12

Figure 1-12 E-UTRA RRC State Interaction

1-13

Figure 1-13 Mobility Procedures between E-UTRA and CDMA2000

1-13

Figure

1-14

Tracking

Areas

1-14

Figure

2-1

Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access

2-2

Figure 2-2 Use of OFDM in LTE

 

2-2

Figure 2-3 FDM Carriers

2-3

Figure 2-4 OFDM Subcarriers

2-3

Figure 2-5 Inverse Fast Fourier Transform

2-4

Figure

2-6

Fast Fourier

Transform

2-4

Figure 2-7 OFDM Symbol Mapping

 

2-5

Figure 2-8 OFDM PAPR (Peak to Average Power Ratio)

2-6

Figure

2-9

Delay

Spread

2-6

Figure

2-10

Inter

Symbol

Interference

2-7

Figure 2-11 Cyclic Prefix

 

2-8

Figure 2-12 OFDMA in LTE

2-9

Figures

LTE Radio Network Design Training Manual

Figure 2-13 Physical Resource Block and Resource Element

2-10

Figure

2-14

SC-FDMA

Subcarrier Mapping Concept

2-11

Figure

2-15

SC-FDMA

Signal Generation

2-12

Figure 2-16 SC-FDMA and the eNB

2-12

Figure 2-17 Summary of LTE Transport Channel Processing

2-13

Figure

2-18

Using the

TBS Size

2-15

Figure 2-19 Modulation and Coding Scheme Options

2-16

Figure

2-20

LTE Channels

2-17

Figure

2-21

Location of Channels

2-17

Figure 2-22 BCCH and PCCH Logical Channels

2-18

Figure 2-23 CCCH and DCCH Signaling

2-18

Figure

2-24

Dedicated Traffic Channel

2-18

Figure 2-25 LTE Release 8 Transport Channels

2-19

Figure 2-26 Radio Channel

2-20

Figure 2-27 Downlink Channel Mapping

2-21

Figure

2-28

Uplink Channel Mapping

2-22

Figure 2-29 PRB with Normal and Extended CP

2-25

Figure 2-30 Reference Signals for 2 Antenna ( Normal CP)

2-25

Figure 2-31 Synchronization Signal Overhead

2-26

Figure 2-32 PBCH Overhead

2-27

Figure 2-33 Control Region Overhead

2-27

Figure

2-34

DRS Overhead

2-29

Figure 2-35 PUCCH Control Regions

2-29

Figure 2-36 Example PRACH Configuration (Format 0)

2-30

Figure 2-37 PUSCH Control Signaling

2-32

Figure

2-38

SRS Overhead

2-32

Figure 2-39 Uplink and Downlink Physical Overheads

2-34

Figure

3-1

UDP Header

Format

3-3

Figure

3-2

TCP

Session

Establishment

3-4

Figure

3-3

TCP

Header

Format

3-4

Figure 3-4 RTP / RTCP Protocol Stack

3-5

Figure

3-5

RTP

Key Features

3-6

Figure

3-6

RTCP

3-7

LTE Radio Network Design Training Manual

Figures

Figure 3-7 Web Browsing Using HTTP

3-7

Figure

3-8

TCP

Connections Required for FTP

3-8

Figure 3-9 FTP Data Connection Establishment

3-9

Figure 3-10 Overheads Associated with a Voice Packet

3-9

Figure

3-11

ROHC Feedback

3-10

Figure 4-1 Radio Planning Process

4-2

Figure 4-2 Pre-Planning Dimensioning

4-3

Figure

4-3

Model Tuning

4-4

Figure 4-4 Site Selection

4-5

Figure 4-5 Cell and Site Coverage Planning

4-5

Figure 5-1 Path Loss and Cell Range

5-2

Figure 6-1 Radio Channel Propagation

6-2

Figure 6-2 Impact of Shadowing and Multipath

6-3

Figure 6-3 LTE Site Dimensioning

6-6

Figure

7-1

LTE

Tools

7-2

Figure

7-2

U-Net LTE Planning Procedure

7-4

Figure

7-3

RF Results

7-5

Figure 7-4 U-Net Traffic Parameters

7-6

Figure 7-5 Example U-Net Coverage Predictions

7-7

Figure 7-6 U-Net Monte Carlo Statistics

7-8

Figure

7-7

PCI Planning

7-10

Figures

LTE Radio Network Design Training Manual

LTE Radio Network Design Training Manual

Tables

Tables

Table 2-1 LTE Channel and FFT Sizes

2-5

Table

2-2

Downlink PRB Parameters

2-10

Table

2-3

Transport Channel Coding Options

2-14

Table 2-4 Control Information Coding Options

2-14

Table 2-5 Modulation and TBS index table for PDSCH

2-14

Table 2-6 LTE Channel and FFT Sizes

2-23

Table 2-7 LTE FDD Downlink Peak Rates (FDD using Normal CP)

2-23

Table 2-8 LTE FDD Uplink Peak Rates (FDD using Normal CP)

2-24

Table 2-9 PUCCH Overhead

2-30

Table

2-10

PRACH Configuration Index

2-31

Table

2-11

Downlink Physical Channel Overhead

2-33

Table

2-12

Uplink Physical Channel Overhead

2-33

Table

2-13

UE Categories

2-34

Table

3-1

3-2

Table

3-2

Port Allocations

3-3

Table

4-1

Business Model Inputs

4-3

Table 4-2 LTE Release 8 FDD Frequency Bands

4-7

Table 4-3 LTE Release 8TDD Frequency Bands

4-7

Table 5-1 LTE Downlink and Uplink Link Budget

5-3

Table 6-1 Example of Cost 231 Hata Cell Ranges

6-5

Tables

LTE Radio Network Design Training Manual

LTE Radio Network Design Training Manual

Tables

LTE Radio Network Design Training Manual

1 LTE Architecture

1 LTE Architecture

Objectives

On completion of this section the participants will be able to:

1.1 Describe the structure of the Evolved Packet System.

1.2 List the nodes and interfaces that make up the Evolved UTRAN.

1.3 Explain the LTE UE states and area concepts.

1 LTE Architecture

LTE Radio Network Design Training Manual

1.1 EPS Architecture

The term EPS (Evolved Packet System) relates to the Evolved 3GPP Packet Switched Domain. In contrast to the 2G and 3G networks defined by the 3GPP, LTE can be simply divided into a flat IP based bearer network and a service enabling network. The former can be further subdivided into the E-UTRAN (Evolved - Universal Terrestrial Radio Access Network) and the EPC (Evolved Packet Core) whereas support for service delivery lies in the IMS (IP Multimedia Subsystem). This reference architecture can be seen in Figure 1-1.

Figure 1-1 LTE Reference Architecture

seen in Figure 1-1. Figure 1-1 LTE Reference Architecture Whilst UMTS is based upon WCDMA technology,

Whilst UMTS is based upon WCDMA technology, the 3GPP developed new specifications for the LTE air interface based upon OFDMA (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access) in the downlink and SC-FDMA (Single Carrier - Frequency Division Multiple Access) in the uplink. This new air interface is termed the E-UTRA (Evolved - Universal Terrestrial Radio Access).

1.1.1 User Equipment

Like that of UMTS, the mobile device in LTE is termed the UE (User Equipment) and is comprised of two distinct elements; the USIM (Universal Subscriber Identity Module) and the ME (Mobile Equipment).

The ME supports a number of functional entities including:

RR (Radio Resource) - this supports both the Control Plane and User Plane and in so doing, is responsible for all low level protocols including RRC (Radio Resource Control), PDCP (Packet Data Convergence Protocol), RLC (Radio Link Control), MAC (Medium Access Control) and the PHY (Physical) Layer.

EMM (EPS Mobility Management) - is a Control Plane entity which manages the mobility management states the UE can exist in; LTE Idle, LTE Active and LTE Detached. Transactions within these states include procedures such as TAU (Tracking Area Update) and handovers.

LTE Radio Network Design Training Manual

1 LTE Architecture

ESM (EPS Session Management) - is a Control Plane activity which manages the activation, modification and deactivation of EPS bearer contexts. These can either be default EPS bearer contexts or dedicated EPS bearer contexts.

Figure 1-2 User Equipment Functional Elements

EPS Session Management Bearer Activation Bearer Modification Bearer Deactivation EPS Mobility & EPS Session
EPS Session Management
Bearer Activation
Bearer Modification
Bearer Deactivation
EPS Mobility & EPS
Session Management
UE
IP Adaptation
Radio Resource
Function

EPS Mobility Management Registration Tracking Area Update Handover

Control

Plane

Registration Tracking Area Update Handover Control Plane User Plane Radio Resource RRC, PDCP, RLC, MAC &

User

Plane

Radio Resource RRC, PDCP, RLC, MAC & PHY Layer Protocols

In terms of the Physical Layer, the capabilities of the UE may be defined in terms of the frequencies and data rates supported. Devices may also be capable of supporting adaptive modulation including QPSK (Quadrature Phase Shift Keying), 16QAM (16 Quadrature Amplitude Modulation) and 64QAM (Quadrature Amplitude Modulation).

UE Identities

An LTE capable UE will be allocated / utilize a number of identities during operation within the network. These include:

IMSI (International Mobile Subscriber Identity) - this complies with the standard 3GPP format and is comprised of the MCC (Mobile Country Code), MNC (Mobile Network Code) and the MSIN (Mobile Subscriber Identity Number). This uniquely identifies a subscriber from within the family of 3GPP technologies - GSM, GPRS, UMTS etc.

IMEI (International Mobile Equipment Identity) - is used to uniquely identify the ME. It can be further subdivided into a TAC (Type Approval Code), FAC (Final Assembly Code) and SNR (Serial Number).

GUTI (Globally Unique Temporary Identity) - is allocated to the UE by the MME (Mobility Management Entity) and identifies a device to a specific MME. The identity is comprised of a GUMMEI (Globally Unique MME Identity) and an M-TMSI (MME - Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identity).

S-TMSI (Serving - Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identity) - is used to protect a subscriber’s IMSI during NAS (Non Access Stratum) signaling between the UE and

1 LTE Architecture

LTE Radio Network Design Training Manual

MME as well as identifying the MME from within a MME pool. The S-TMSI is comprised of the MMEC (MME Code) and the M-TMSI.

IP Address - the UE requires a routable IP address from the PDN (Packet Data Network) from which it is receiving higher layer services. This may either be an IPv4 or IPv6 address.

1.1.2 Evolved Node B

In addition to the new air interface, a new base station has also been specified by the 3GPP and is referred to as an eNB (Evolved Node B). These, along with their associated interfaces form the E-UTRAN and in so doing, are responsible for:

RRM (Radio Resource Management) - this involves the allocation to the UE of the physical resources on the uplink and downlink, access control and mobility control.

Data Compression - is performed in both the eNB and the UE in order to maximize the amount of user data that can be transferred on the allocated resource. This process is undertaken by PDCP.

Data Protection - is performed at the eNB and the UE in order to encrypt and integrity protect RRC signaling and encrypt user data on the air interface.

Routing - this involves the forwarding of Control Plane signaling to the MME and User Plane traffic to the S-GW (Serving - Gateway).

Packet Classification - this involves the “marking” of uplink packets based upon subscription information or local service provider policy.

Figure 1-3 Evolved Node B Functional Elements

policy. Figure 1-3 Evolved Node B Functional Elements Security in LTE is not solely limited to

Security in LTE is not solely limited to encryption and integrity protection of information passing across the air interface but instead, NAS encryption and integrity protection between the UE and MME also takes place. In addition, IPSec may also be used to protect user data within both the E-UTRAN and EPC.

eNB Identities

In addition to the UE identities already discussed, there are a number of specific identities associated with the eNB. These include:

TAI (Tracking Area Identity) - is a logical group of neighboring cells defined by the service provider in which UEs in LTE Idle mode are able to move within, without

LTE Radio Network Design Training Manual

1 LTE Architecture

Femto Cells

needing to update the network. As such, it is similar to a RAI (Routing Area Identity) used in 2G and 3G packet switched networks.

ECGI (E-UTRAN Cell Global Identifier) - is comprised of the MCC, MNC and ECI (Evolved Cell Identity), the latter being coded by each service provider.

In order to improve both network coverage and capacity, the 3GPP have developed a new type of base station to operate within the home or small business environment. Termed the HeNB (Home Evolved Node B), this network element forms part of the E-UTRAN and in so doing supports the standard E-UTRAN interfaces. However, it must be stated that HeNBs do not support the X2 interface.

The architecture may include a HeNB-GW (Home Evolved Node B - Gateway) which resides between the HeNB in the E-UTRAN and the MME / S-GW in the EPC in order to scale and support large numbers of base station deployments.

1.1.3 Mobility Management Entity

The MME is the Control Plane entity within the EPC and as such is responsible for the following functions:

NAS Signaling and Security - this incorporates both EMM (EPS Mobility Management) and ESM (EPS Session Management) and thus includes procedures such as Tracking Area Updates and EPS Bearer Management. The MME is also responsible for NAS security.

S-GW and PDN-GW Selection - upon receipt of a request from the UE to allocate a bearer resource, the MME will select the most appropriate S-GW and PDN-GW. This selection criterion is based on the location of the UE in addition to current load conditions within the network.

Tracking Area List Management and Paging - whilst in the LTE Idle state, the UE is tracked by the MME to the granularity of a Tracking Area. Whilst UEs remain within the Tracking Areas provided to them in the form of a Tracking Area List, there is no requirement for them to notify the MME. The MME is also responsible for initiating the paging procedure.

Inter MME Mobility - if a handover involves changing the point of attachment within the EPC, it may be necessary to involve an inter MME handover. In this situation, the serving MME will select a target MME with which to conduct this process.

Authentication - this involves interworking with the subscriber’s HSS (Home Subscriber Server) in order to obtain AAA (Access Authorization and Accounting) information with which to authenticate the subscriber. Like that of other 3GPP systems, authentication is based on AKA (Authentication and Key Agreement).

1 LTE Architecture

LTE Radio Network Design Training Manual

Figure 1-4 MME Functional Elements

Design Training Manual Figure 1-4 MME Functional Elements 1.1.4 Serving Gateway The S-GW terminates the S1-U
Design Training Manual Figure 1-4 MME Functional Elements 1.1.4 Serving Gateway The S-GW terminates the S1-U

1.1.4 Serving Gateway

Figure 1-4 MME Functional Elements 1.1.4 Serving Gateway The S-GW terminates the S1-U Interface from the

The S-GW terminates the S1-U Interface from the E-UTRAN and in so doing, provides the following functions:

Mobility Anchor - for inter eNB handovers, the S-GW acts as an anchor point for the User Plane. Furthermore, it also acts as an anchor for inter 3GPP handovers to legacy networks - GPRS and UMTS.

Downlink Packet Buffering - when traffic arrives for a UE at the S-GW, it may need to be buffered in order to allow time for the MME to page the UE and for it to enter the LTE Active state.

Packet Routing and Forwarding - traffic must be routed to the correct eNB on the downlink and the specified PDN-GW on the uplink.

Lawful Interception - this incorporates the monitoring of VoIP (Voice over IP) and other packet services.

GTP/PMIP Support - if PMIP (Proxy Mobile IP) is used on the S5/S8 Interfaces, the S-GW must support MAG (Mobile Access Gateway) functionality. Furthermore, support for GTP/PMIP chaining may also be required.

LTE Radio Network Design Training Manual

1 LTE Architecture

Figure 1-5 S-GW Functional Elements

1 LTE Architecture Figure 1-5 S-GW Functional Elements 1.1.5 Packet Data Network - Gateway The PDN-GW

1.1.5 Packet Data Network - Gateway

The PDN-GW is the network element which terminates the SGi Interface towards the PDN (Packet Data Network). If a UE is accessing multiple PDNs, there may be a requirement for multiple PDN-GWs to be involved. Functions associated with the PDN-GW include:

Packet Filtering - this incorporates the deep packet inspection of IP datagrams arriving from the PDN in order to determine which TFT (Traffic Flow Template) they are to be associated with.

Lawful Interception - as with the S-GW, the PDN-GW may also monitor traffic as it passes across it.

IP Address Allocation - IP addresses may be allocated to the UE by the PDN-GW. This is included as part of the initial bearer establishment phase or when UEs roam between different access technologies.

Transport Level Packet Marking - this involves the marking of uplink and downlink packets with the appropriate tag e.g. DSCP (Differentiated Services Code Point) based on the QCI (QoS Class Identifier) of the associated EPS bearer.

Accounting - through interaction with a PCRF (Policy Rules and Charging Function), the PDN-GW will monitor traffic volumes and types.

Figure 1-6 PDN-GW Functional Elements

volumes and types. Figure 1-6 PDN-GW Functional Elements Issue 01 (2010-06-01) Huawei Proprietary and Confidential

1 LTE Architecture

LTE Radio Network Design Training Manual

1.2 E-UTRAN Architecture and Interfaces

As with all 3GPP technologies, it is the actual interfaces which are defined in terms of the protocols they support and the associated signaling messages and user traffic that traverse them. Figure 1-7 illustrates the main interfaces in the E-UTRAN.

Figure 1-7 E-UTRAN Interfaces

interfaces in the E-UTRAN. Figure 1-7 E-UTRAN Interfaces 1.2.1 Uu Interface The Uu Interface supports both

1.2.1 Uu Interface

The Uu Interface supports both a Control Plane and a User plane and spans the link between the UE and the eNB / HeNB. The principle Control Plane protocol is RRC in the Access Stratum and EMM (EPS Mobility Management)/ ESM (EPS Session Management) in the Non Access Stratum. In contrast, the User Plane is designed to carry IP datagrams. However, both Control and User Planes utilize the services of the lower layers, namely PDCP (Packet Data Convergence Protocol), RLC (Radio Link Control) and MAC (Medium Access Control), as well as the PHY (Physical Layer).

Figure 1-8 Uu Interface Protocols

the PHY (Physical Layer). Figure 1-8 Uu Interface Protocols 1-8 Huawei Proprietary and Confidential Copyright ©
the PHY (Physical Layer). Figure 1-8 Uu Interface Protocols 1-8 Huawei Proprietary and Confidential Copyright ©
the PHY (Physical Layer). Figure 1-8 Uu Interface Protocols 1-8 Huawei Proprietary and Confidential Copyright ©
the PHY (Physical Layer). Figure 1-8 Uu Interface Protocols 1-8 Huawei Proprietary and Confidential Copyright ©
the PHY (Physical Layer). Figure 1-8 Uu Interface Protocols 1-8 Huawei Proprietary and Confidential Copyright ©
the PHY (Physical Layer). Figure 1-8 Uu Interface Protocols 1-8 Huawei Proprietary and Confidential Copyright ©

LTE Radio Network Design Training Manual

1 LTE Architecture

1.2.2 X2 Interface

As previously mentioned, the X2 interface interconnects two eNBs and in so doing supports both a Control Plane and User Plane. The principle Control Plane protocol is X2AP (X2 Application Protocol). This resides on SCTP (Stream Control Transmission Protocol) whereas the User Plane IP is transferred using the services of GTP-U (GPRS Tunneling Protocol - User) and UDP (User Datagram Protocol).

Figure 1-9 illustrates the X2 User Plane and Control Plane protocols.

Figure 1-9 X2 Interface Protocols

Control Plane protocols. Figure 1-9 X2 Interface Protocols 1.2.3 X2 Interface - X2 Application Protocol The

1.2.3 X2 Interface - X2 Application Protocol

The X2AP is responsible for the following functions:

Mobility Management - this enables the serving eNB to move the responsibility of a specified UE to a target eNB. This includes Forwarding the User Plane, Status Transfer and UE Context Release functions.

Load Management - this function enables eNBs to communicate with each other in order to report resource status, overload indications and current traffic loading.

Error Reporting - this allows for the reporting of general error situations for which specific error reporting mechanisms have not been defined.

Setting / Resetting X2 - this provides a means by which the X2 interface can be setup / reset by exchanging the necessary information between the eNBs.

Configuration Update - this allows the updating of application level data which is needed for two eNBs to interoperate over the X2 interface.

1.2.4 X2 Interface - Stream Control Transmission Protocol

Defined by the IETF (Internet Engineering Task Force) rather than the 3GPP, SCTP was developed to overcome the shortfalls in TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) and UDP when transferring signaling information over an IP bearer. Functions provided by SCTP include:

Reliable Delivery of Higher Layer Payloads.

Sequential Delivery of Higher Layer Payloads.

1 LTE Architecture

LTE Radio Network Design Training Manual

Improved resilience through Multihoming.

Flow Control.

Improved Security.

Multihoming. Flow Control. Improved Security. SCTP is also found on the S1-MME Interface which links the

SCTP is also found on the S1-MME Interface which links the eNB to the MME.

1.2.5 X2 Interface - GPRS Tunneling Protocol - User

GTP-U tunnels are used to carry encapsulated PDU (Protocol Data Unit) and in-band signaling messages between endpoints. Numerous GTP-U tunnels may exist in order to differentiate between EPS bearer contexts and these are identified through a pair of TEID (Tunnel Endpoint Identifier).

through a pair of TEID (Tunnel Endpoint Identifier). GTP-U is also found on the S1-U Interface

GTP-U is also found on the S1-U Interface which links the eNB to the S-GW and may also be used on the S5 Interface linking the S-GW to the PDN-GW.

1.2.6 S1 Interface

The S1 interface can be subdivided into the S1-MME interface supporting Control Plane signaling between the eNB and the MME and the S1-U Interface supporting User Plane traffic between the eNB and the S-GW.

Figure 1-10 S1 Interface Protocols S1-MME eNB MME
Figure 1-10 S1 Interface Protocols
S1-MME
eNB
MME

Control Plane

S1-U eNB S-GW
S1-U
eNB
S-GW

User Plane

S1AP

GTP-U

SCTP

UDP

IP

IP

Layer 2

Layer 2

Layer 1

Layer 1

1.2.7 S1 Interface - S1 Application Protocol

The S1AP spans the S1-MME Interface and in so doing, supports the following functions:

E-RAB (E-UTRAN - Radio Access Bearer) Management - this incorporates the setting up, modifying and releasing of the E-RABs by the MME.

Initial Context Transfer - this is used to establish an S1UE context in the eNB, setup the default IP connectivity and transfer NAS related signaling.

UE Capability Information Indication - this is used to inform the MME of the UE Capability Information.

LTE Radio Network Design Training Manual

1 LTE Architecture

Mobility - this incorporates mobility features to support a change in eNB or change in RAT.

Paging.

S1 Interface Management - this incorporates a number of sub functions dealing with resets, load balancing and system setup etc.

NAS Signaling Transport - this is used for the transport of NAS related signaling over the S1-MME Interface.

UE Context Modification and Release - this allows for the modification and release of the established UE Context in the eNB and MME respectively.

Location Reporting - this enables the MME to be made aware of the UEs current location within the network.

1.2.8 S1 Interface - SCTP and GTP-U

The S1-MME and S1-U lower layer protocols are similar to the X2 interface. As such, they also utilize the services of SCTP (discussed in Section 1.2.4 ) and GTP-U (discussed in Section 1.2.5 ).

1.3 UE States and Areas

There are three LTE mobility states, namely: LTE Idle, LTE Active and LTE Detached. The initial EMM Attach procedure enables a UE to transition into the LTE Active State from the LTE Detached State.

In LTE, RRC has two main states, namely:

RRC Idle - this provides services to support DRX (Discontinuous Reception), broadcast of SI (System Information) to enable access, cell reselection and paging information.

RRC Connected - in this state the UE has state information stored in the eNB and has an RRC connection, i.e. SRB (Signaling Radio Bearer). The eNB can track the UE to the cell level and RRC provides services to support cell measurements in order to facilitate network controlled handovers.

Figure 1-11 illustrates the different LTE states, as well as some of the key functions performed by RRC in these states.

In addition to having a GUTI (Globally Unique Temporary Identity) and S-TMSI (Serving - Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identity), whilst in the RRC Connected mode, the UE is also allocated an E-UTRAN identifier(s). The most common is the C-RNTI (Cell - Radio Network Temporary Identity), however other forms of RNTI (Radio Network Temporary Identity) also exist.

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Figure 1-11 RRC States

Radio Network Design Training Manual Figure 1-11 RRC States PLMN Selection Broadcast of System Information Cell

PLMN Selection Broadcast of System Information Cell Selection

LTE Detached

LTE Active

RRC Connected

LTE Idle

RRC Idle

RRC Connection (SRB) RRC Context in eNB UE Known in a Cell Send and/or Receive Data to/from UE Network Controlled Mobility Measurement Control UE Monitors Scheduling Control Channel UE Reports Channel Quality UE can send Feedback Information DRX can be Configured

UE can send Feedback Information DRX can be Configured DRX configured by NAS Broadcast of System
UE can send Feedback Information DRX can be Configured DRX configured by NAS Broadcast of System

DRX configured by NAS Broadcast of System Information Paging Cell Reselection Mobility GUTI Allocated Located in Tracking Area(s) No RRC Context Stored in the eNB

1.3.1 RRC State Interaction

In addition to RRC Idle and RRC Connected there are various transitions to and from UTRA (Universal Terrestrial Radio Access) and GERAN (GSM/EDGE Radio Access Network) States. Figure 1-12 illustrates the main states and inter-RAT mobility procedures.

In contrast to the GERAN and UTRA states, the E-UTRA (Evolved - Universal Terrestrial Radio Access) state is simplified. This is mainly due to the fact that it is an optimized packet system.

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1 LTE Architecture

Figure 1-12 E-UTRA RRC State Interaction

1 LTE Architecture Figure 1-12 E-UTRA RRC State Interaction GSM Connected Handover GPRS Packet Transfer Mode
GSM Connected Handover GPRS Packet Transfer Mode Connection Establishment/ Release Reselection GSM Idle/GPRS
GSM Connected
Handover
GPRS Packet
Transfer Mode
Connection
Establishment/
Release
Reselection
GSM Idle/GPRS
Packet Idle

CCO, Reselection

Cell_DCH

Cell_FACH

Cell_PCH

URA_PCH

Connection

Establishment/

Release

Handover

E-UTRA

RRC Connected

Establishment/ Release Handover E-UTRA RRC Connected Connection CCO with NACC Establishment/ Release Reselection

Connection

Release Handover E-UTRA RRC Connected Connection CCO with NACC Establishment/ Release Reselection CCO,

CCO with NACC

Establishment/

Release

Reselection
Reselection

CCO, Reselection

NACC Establishment/ Release Reselection CCO, Reselection UTRA_Idle E-UTRA RRC Idle Reselection 1.3.2 Interaction

UTRA_Idle

E-UTRA

RRC Idle

ReselectionReselection CCO, Reselection UTRA_Idle E-UTRA RRC Idle 1.3.2 Interaction with CDMA2000 States In addition to

1.3.2 Interaction with CDMA2000 States

In addition to interworking with UMTS and GERAN, the LTE system is also able to interwork with CDMA2000 1xRTT CS (Circuit Switched) and HRPD (High Rate Packet Data) based systems. Figure 1-13 illustrates the main mobility transitions for CDMA2000 interworking.

Figure 1-13 Mobility Procedures between E-UTRA and CDMA2000

Figure 1-13 Mobility Procedures between E-UTRA and CDMA2000 Issue 01 (2010-06-01) Huawei Proprietary and Confidential

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1.3.3 Tracking Areas

Cells are divided into TA (Tracking Areas). These are similar in concept to the Location and Registration Areas used in GSM/GPRS and UMTS. The number of cells within a tracking area will be dependent on aspects such as traffic throughput, geographical restrictions etc. A cell can only be a member of one Tracking Area. In addition, it is worth noting that the eNB may have multiple cells which belong to different TAs. Figure 1-14 illustrates the basic concept of Tracking Areas. The UE performs TAU (Tracking Area Update) procedures based on crossing Tracking Area boundaries or on the expiry of the Tracking Area Periodic Timer, namely the T3412 timer. By default this is set to 54 minutes in the 3GPP specifications.

Figure 1-14 Tracking Areas

in the 3GPP specifications. Figure 1-14 Tracking Areas 1-14 Huawei Proprietary and Confidential Copyright ©

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2 LTE Air Interface

2 LTE Air Interface

Objectives

On completion of this section the participants will be able to:

2.1 Explain the principles of OFDMA and SC-FDMA.

2.2 Explain the coding and modulation adaptation used in LTE.

2.3 List the LTE logical, transport and physical channels.

2.4 Explain how the LTE downlink and uplink data rates are achieved.

2.5 List the LTE UE category capabilities.

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2.1 LTE Access Techniques

OFDMA (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access) is the latest addition to cellular systems. It provides a multiple access technique based on OFDM (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing). Figure 2-1 illustrates the basic view of OFDMA. It can be seen that the bandwidth is broken down to smaller units known as “subcarriers”. These are grouped together and allocated as a resource to a device. It can also be seen that a device can be allocated different resources in both the time and frequency domain.

Figure 2-1 Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access

Figure 2-1 Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access 2.1.1 Principles of OFDM The LTE air interface utilizes
Figure 2-1 Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access 2.1.1 Principles of OFDM The LTE air interface utilizes

2.1.1 Principles of OFDM

The LTE air interface utilizes two different multiple access techniques both based on OFDM (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing):

OFDMA (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access) used on the downlink.

SC-FDMA (Single Carrier - Frequency Division Multiple Access) used on the uplink.

Figure 2-2 Use of OFDM in LTE OFDM (OFDMA) eNB OFDM (SC-FDMA) UE
Figure 2-2 Use of OFDM in LTE
OFDM
(OFDMA)
eNB
OFDM
(SC-FDMA)
UE

The concept of OFDM is not new and is currently being used on various systems such as Wi-Fi and WiMAX. In addition, it was even considered for UMTS back in 1998. One of the main reasons why it was not chosen at the time was the handset’s limited processing power and poor battery capabilities.

LTE was able to choose OFDM based access due to the fact mobile handset processing capabilities and battery performance have both improved. In addition, there is continual pressure to produce more spectrally efficient systems.

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2.1.2 Frequency Division Multiplexing

OFDM is based on FDM (Frequency Division Multiplexing) and is a method whereby multiple frequencies are used to simultaneously transmit information. Figure 2-3 illustrates an example of FDM with four subcarriers. These can be used to carry different information and to ensure that each subcarrier does not interfere with the adjacent subcarrier, a guard band is utilized. In addition, each subcarrier has slightly different radio characteristics and this may be used to provide diversity.

Figure 2-3 FDM Carriers
Figure 2-3 FDM Carriers

FDM systems are not that spectrally efficient (when compared to other systems) since multiple subcarrier guard bands are required.

2.1.3 OFDM Subcarriers

OFDM follows the same concept as FDM but it drastically increases spectral efficiency by reducing the spacing between the subcarriers. Figure 2-4 illustrates how the subcarriers can overlap due to their orthogonality with the other subcarriers, i.e. the subcarriers are mathematically perpendicular to each other. As such, when a subcarrier is at its maximum the two adjacent subcarriers are passing through zero. In addition, OFDM systems still employ guard bands. These are located at the upper and lower parts of the channel and reduce adjacent channel interference.

Figure 2-4 OFDM Subcarriers

adjacent channel interference. Figure 2-4 OFDM Subcarriers Issue 01 (2010-06-01) Huawei Proprietary and Confidential
adjacent channel interference. Figure 2-4 OFDM Subcarriers Issue 01 (2010-06-01) Huawei Proprietary and Confidential
adjacent channel interference. Figure 2-4 OFDM Subcarriers Issue 01 (2010-06-01) Huawei Proprietary and Confidential
adjacent channel interference. Figure 2-4 OFDM Subcarriers Issue 01 (2010-06-01) Huawei Proprietary and Confidential
adjacent channel interference. Figure 2-4 OFDM Subcarriers Issue 01 (2010-06-01) Huawei Proprietary and Confidential
adjacent channel interference. Figure 2-4 OFDM Subcarriers Issue 01 (2010-06-01) Huawei Proprietary and Confidential
adjacent channel interference. Figure 2-4 OFDM Subcarriers Issue 01 (2010-06-01) Huawei Proprietary and Confidential
adjacent channel interference. Figure 2-4 OFDM Subcarriers Issue 01 (2010-06-01) Huawei Proprietary and Confidential

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The centre subcarrier, known as the DC (Direct Current) subcarrier, is not typically used in OFDM system due to its lack of orthogonality.

2.1.4 Fast Fourier Transforms

OFDM subcarriers are generated and decoded using mathematical functions called FFT (Fast Fourier Transform) and IFFT (Inverse Fast Fourier Transform). The IFFT is used in the transmitter to generate the waveform. Figure 2-5 illustrates how the coded data is first mapped to parallel streams before being modulated and processed by the IFFT.

Figure 2-5 Inverse Fast Fourier Transform

Subcarrier Modulation Inverse Fast Fourier Transform Serial Coded to IFFT RF Bits Parallel Complex Waveform
Subcarrier
Modulation
Inverse Fast
Fourier
Transform
Serial
Coded
to
IFFT
RF
Bits
Parallel
Complex
Waveform

At the receiver side, this signal is passed to the FFT which analyses the complex/combined waveform into the original streams. Figure 2-6 illustrates the FFT process.

Figure 2-6 Fast Fourier Transform

the FFT process. Figure 2-6 Fast Fourier Transform 2.1.5 LTE FFT Sizes Fast Fourier Transforms and

2.1.5 LTE FFT Sizes

Fast Fourier Transforms and Inverse Fast Fourier Transforms both have a defining size. For example, an FFT size of 512 indicates that there are 512 subcarriers. In reality, not all 512 subcarriers can be utilized due to the channel guard bands and the fact that a DC (Direct Current) subcarrier is also required.

Table 2-1 illustrates the LTE channel bandwidth options, as well as the FFT size and associated sampling rate. Using the sampling rate and the FFT size the subcarrier spacing can be calculated, e.g. 7.68MHz/15kHz = 512.

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2 LTE Air Interface

Table 2-1 LTE Channel and FFT Sizes

Channel

FFT Size

Subcarrier

Sampling Rate

Bandwidth

Bandwidth

1.4MHz

128

 

1.92MHz

3MHz

256

3.84MHz

5MHz

512

7.68MHz

10MHz

1024

15kHz

15.36MHz

15MHz

1536

23.04MHz

20MHz

2048

30.72MHz

15MHz 1536 23.04MHz 20MHz 2048 30.72MHz The subcarrier spacing of 15kHz is also used in the

The subcarrier spacing of 15kHz is also used in the calculation to identify the OFDM symbol duration.

2.1.6 OFDM Symbol Mapping

The mapping of OFDM symbols to subcarriers is dependent on the system design. Figure 2-7 illustrates an example of OFDM mapping. The first 12 modulated OFDM symbols are mapped to 12 subcarriers, i.e. they are transmitted at the same time but using different subcarriers. The next 12 subcarriers are mapped to the next OFDM symbol period. In addition, a CP (Cyclic Prefix) is added between the symbols.

Figure 2-7 OFDM Symbol Mapping

added between the symbols. Figure 2-7 OFDM Symbol Mapping LTE allocates resources in groups of 12

LTE allocates resources in groups of 12 subcarriers. This is known as a PRB (Physical Resource Block).

In the previous example 12 different modulated OFDM symbols are transmitted simultaneously. Figure 2-8 illustrates how the combined energy from this will result in either constructive peaks (when the symbols are the same) or destructive nulls (when the symbols are different). This means that OFDM systems have a high PAPR (Peak to Average Power Ratio).

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Figure 2-8 OFDM PAPR (Peak to Average Power Ratio)

Manual Figure 2-8 OFDM PAPR (Peak to Average Power Ratio) 2.1.7 Time Domain Interference The OFDM

2.1.7 Time Domain Interference

The OFDM signal provides some protection in the frequency domain due to the orthogonality of the subcarriers. The main issue is with delay spread, i.e. multipath interference.

Figure 2-9 illustrates two of the main multipath effects, namely delay and attenuation. The delayed signal can manifest itself as ISI (Inter Symbol Interference), whereby one symbol impacts the next. This is illustrated in Figure 2-10.

Figure 2-9 Delay Spread

This is illustrated in Figure 2-10. Figure 2-9 Delay Spread ISI (Inter Symbol Interference) is typically

ISI (Inter Symbol Interference) is typically reduced with “equalizers”. However, for the equalizer to be effective a known bit pattern or “training sequence” is required. However, this reduces the system capacity, as well as impacts processing on a device. Instead, OFDM systems employ a CP (Cyclic Prefix).

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2 LTE Air Interface

Figure 2-10 Inter Symbol Interference 1 st Received Signal Delayed Signal Interference Caused
Figure 2-10 Inter Symbol Interference
1 st Received
Signal
Delayed
Signal
Interference
Caused

Cyclic Prefix

A CP (Cyclic Prefix) is utilized in most OFDM systems to combat multipath delays. It effectively provides a guard period for each OFDM symbol. Figure 2-11 illustrates the Cyclic Prefix and its location in the OFDM Symbol. Notice that the Cyclic Prefix is effectively a copy taken from the back of the original symbol which is then placed in front of the symbol to make the OFDM symbol (Ts).

The size of the Cyclic Prefix relates to the maximum delay spread the system can tolerate. As such, systems designed for macro coverage, i.e. large cells, should have a large CP. This does however impact the system capacity since the number of symbols per second is reduced.

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Figure 2-11 Cyclic Prefix

Frequency

CP CP CP CP CP CP CP CP CP CP CP CP
CP
CP
CP
CP
CP
CP
CP
CP
CP
CP
CP
CP
Symbol Period T(s) Bit Period T(b) T(g) Symbol Period T(s)
Symbol Period T(s)
Bit Period T(b)
T(g)
Symbol Period T(s)

Time

Cyclic Prefix

Bit Period T(b) T(g) Symbol Period T(s) Time Cyclic Prefix LTE has two defined Cyclic Prefix

LTE has two defined Cyclic Prefix sizes, normal and extended. The extended Cyclic Prefix is designed for larger cells.

2.1.8 General OFDMA Structure

The E-UTRA downlink is based on OFDMA. As such, it enables multiple devices to receive information at the same time but on different parts of the radio channel. In most OFDMA systems this is referred to as a “Subchannel”, i.e. a collection of subcarriers. However, in E-UTRA, the term subchannel is replaced with the term PRB (Physical Resource Block).

Figure 2-12 illustrates the concept of OFDMA, whereby different users are allocated one or more resource blocks in the time and frequency domain, thus enabling efficient scheduling of the available resources.

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2 LTE Air Interface

Figure 2-12 OFDMA in LTE

Frequency

2 LTE Air Interface Figure 2-12 OFDMA in LTE Frequency Device is allocated one or more
2 LTE Air Interface Figure 2-12 OFDMA in LTE Frequency Device is allocated one or more
2 LTE Air Interface Figure 2-12 OFDMA in LTE Frequency Device is allocated one or more
2 LTE Air Interface Figure 2-12 OFDMA in LTE Frequency Device is allocated one or more
2 LTE Air Interface Figure 2-12 OFDMA in LTE Frequency Device is allocated one or more
2 LTE Air Interface Figure 2-12 OFDMA in LTE Frequency Device is allocated one or more

Device is allocated one or more PRB (Physical Resource Blocks)

is allocated one or more PRB (Physical Resource Blocks) Channel Bandwidth E.g. 3MHz OFDMA PRB consists
is allocated one or more PRB (Physical Resource Blocks) Channel Bandwidth E.g. 3MHz OFDMA PRB consists

Channel

Bandwidth

E.g. 3MHz

OFDMA

(Physical Resource Blocks) Channel Bandwidth E.g. 3MHz OFDMA PRB consists of 12 subcarriers for 0.5ms Time

PRB consists of 12 subcarriers for 0.5ms

E.g. 3MHz OFDMA PRB consists of 12 subcarriers for 0.5ms Time It is also worth noting
E.g. 3MHz OFDMA PRB consists of 12 subcarriers for 0.5ms Time It is also worth noting
E.g. 3MHz OFDMA PRB consists of 12 subcarriers for 0.5ms Time It is also worth noting
E.g. 3MHz OFDMA PRB consists of 12 subcarriers for 0.5ms Time It is also worth noting
E.g. 3MHz OFDMA PRB consists of 12 subcarriers for 0.5ms Time It is also worth noting

Time

3MHz OFDMA PRB consists of 12 subcarriers for 0.5ms Time It is also worth noting that

It is also worth noting that a device is typically allocated 1ms of time, i.e. a subframe, and not

an individual PRB.

2.1.9 Physical Resource Blocks and Resource Elements

A PRB (Physical Resource Block) consists of 12 consecutive subcarriers and lasts for one

slot, i.e. 0.5ms. Figure 2-13 illustrates the size of a PRB.

The N RB DL parameter is used to define the number of RB (Resource Blocks) used in the DL (Downlink). This is dependent on the channel bandwidth. In contrast, N RB UL is used to identify the number of resource blocks in the uplink. Each RB (Resource Block) consists of

N

SC RB subcarriers, which for standard operation is set to 12. In addition, another configuration

is

available when using MBSFN and a 7.5kHz subcarrier spacing.

The PRB is used to identify an allocation. It typically includes 6 or 7 symbols, depending on whether an extended or normal cyclic prefix is configured.

The term RE (Resource Element) is used to describe one subcarrier lasting one symbol. This can then be assigned to carry modulated information, reference information or nothing.

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Figure 2-13 Physical Resource Block and Resource Element

Radio Frame = 10ms

Resource Block and Resource Element Radio Frame = 10ms 0 1 2 3 4 5 6
Resource Block and Resource Element Radio Frame = 10ms 0 1 2 3 4 5 6
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Subframe Slot 8 Slot 9
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
Subframe
Slot 8
Slot 9
Physical Resource
Block
N RB DL
Resource
Element
NSymb DL
N SC RB Subcarriers = 12

The different configurations for the downlink E-UTRA PRB are illustrated in Table 2-2.

Table 2-2 Downlink PRB Parameters

Configuration

N

SC RB

N

Symb DL

Normal Cyclic Prefix

f = 15kHz

   

7

Extended Cyclic

f = 15kHz

 

12

 

6

Prefix

f = 7.5kHz

 

24

 

3

6 Prefix ∆ f = 7.5kHz   24   3 The uplink PRB configuration is similar;

The uplink PRB configuration is similar; however the 7.5kHz option is not available.

2.1.10 SC-FDMA Signal Generation

The uplink in LTE, as previously mentioned, is based on SC-FDMA (Single Carrier - Frequency Division Multiple Access). This was chosen for its low PAPR (Peak to Average Power Ratio) and flexibility which reduced complexity in the handset and improved power performance and battery life. SC-FDMA tries to combine the best characteristics of single carrier systems like low peak-to-average power ratio, with the advantages of multi carrier OFDM and as such, is well suited to the LTE uplink requirements.

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2 LTE Air Interface

The basic transmitter and receiver architecture is very similar (nearly identical) to OFDM, and it offers the same degree of multipath protection. Importantly, because the underlying waveform is essentially single carrier, the PAPR is lower. It is quite difficult to visually represent SC-FDMA in the time and frequency domain. This section aims to illustrate the concept. Figure 2-14 illustrates the basic structure of the SC-FDMA process.

Figure 2-14 SC-FDMA Subcarrier Mapping Concept

Time Domain Frequency Domain Time Domain 0 0 0 0 Subcarrier CP DFT IDFT Mapping
Time Domain
Frequency Domain
Time Domain
0
0
0
0
Subcarrier
CP
DFT
IDFT
Mapping
Insertion
Symbols
0
0
0

In Figure 2-14 the SC-FDMA signal generation process starts by creating a time domain waveform of the data symbols to be transmitted. This is then converted into the frequency domain, using a DFT (Discrete Fourier Transform). DFT length and sampling rate are chosen so that the signal is fully represented, as well as being spaced 15kHz apart. Each bin (subcarrier) will have its own fixed amplitude and phase for the duration of the SC-FDMA symbol. Next the signal is shifted to the desired place in the channel bandwidth using the zero insertion concept, i.e. subcarrier mapping. Finally, the signal is converted to a single carrier waveform using an IDFT (Inverse Discrete Fourier Transform) and other functions. Finally a cyclic prefix can be added. Note that additional functions such as S-P (Serial to Parallel) and P-S (Parallel to Serial) converters are also required as part of a detailed functional description.

Figure 2-15 illustrates the concept of the DFT, such that a group of N symbols map to N subcarriers. However depending on the combination of N symbols into the DFT the output will vary. As such, the actual amplitude and phase of the N subcarriers is like a “code word”. For example the first combination represents the first set of symbols. Since the second set of symbols is different the amplitude and phase of the N subcarriers would then be different.

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Figure 2-15 SC-FDMA Signal Generation

N symbols sequence produces N subcarriers First N Symbols DFT Modulated and Coded Symbols Second
N symbols sequence
produces N subcarriers
First N Symbols
DFT
Modulated and
Coded Symbols
Second N Symbols
DFT

Different input sequence produces different output

DFT Output
DFT Output
input sequence produces different output DFT Output The process at the eNB receiver takes the N

The process at the eNB receiver takes the N subcarriers and reverses the process. This is achieved using an IDFT (Inverse Discrete Fourier Transform) which effectively reproduces the original N symbols.

Figure 2-16 illustrates the basic view of how the subcarriers received at the eNB are converted back into the original signals.

Note that the SC-FDMA symbols have a constant amplitude and phase and like ODFMA, a CP (Cyclic Prefix) is still required.

Figure 2-16 SC-FDMA and the eNB

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2 LTE Air Interface

2.2 Channel Coding in LTE

The term “channel coding” can be used to describe the overall coding for the LTE channel. It can also be used to describe one of the individual stages.

LTE channel coding is typically focused on a TB (Transport Block). This is a block of information which is provided by the upper layer, i.e. MAC (Medium Access Control). Figure 2-17 summarizes the typical processes performed by the PHY (Physical Layer), these include:

CRC (Cyclic Redundancy Check) attachment for the Transport Block.

Code block segmentation and CRC attachment.

Channel Coding.

Rate Matching.

Code Block Concatenation.

Figure 2-17 Summary of LTE Transport Channel Processing

Transport Block

Summary of LTE Transport Channel Processing Transport Block MAC Layer PHY Layer Transport Block CRC Attachment

MAC Layer

PHY Layer

Transport Block CRC Attachment

Transport Block CRC Attachment

Block MAC Layer PHY Layer Transport Block CRC Attachment Code Block CRC Attachment and Segmentation Channel

Code Block CRC Attachment and Segmentation

Code Block CRC Attachment and Segmentation
CRC Attachment Code Block CRC Attachment and Segmentation Channel Coding Rate Matching Code Block Concatenation
Channel Coding

Channel Coding

Code Block CRC Attachment and Segmentation Channel Coding Rate Matching Code Block Concatenation Additional Layer 1
Rate Matching

Rate Matching

CRC Attachment and Segmentation Channel Coding Rate Matching Code Block Concatenation Additional Layer 1 Processes The
Code Block Concatenation

Code Block Concatenation

Channel Coding Rate Matching Code Block Concatenation Additional Layer 1 Processes The coding stages in Figure

Additional Layer 1 Processes

Additional Layer 1 Processes
Additional Layer 1 Processes
Additional Layer 1 Processes
Code Block Concatenation Additional Layer 1 Processes The coding stages in Figure 2-17 are indicative of
Code Block Concatenation Additional Layer 1 Processes The coding stages in Figure 2-17 are indicative of

The coding stages in Figure 2-17 are indicative of the LTE DL-SCH (Downlink Shared Channel) and the PCH (Paging Channel). Other channels, such as the UL-SCH (Uplink Shared Channel), BCH (Broadcast Channel) etc. are different but they can still utilize similar processes, e.g. they all have a “channel coding” stage.

2.2.1 Channel Coding

Channel coding in LTE facilitates FEC (Forward Error Correction) across the air interface. There are four main types:

Repetition Coding

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Block Coding.

Tail Biting Convolutional Coding.

Turbo Coding.

The actual method used is linked to the type of LTE transport channel (Table 2-3) or the control information type (Table 2-4).

Table 2-3 Transport Channel Coding Options

Transport Channel

Coding Method

Rate

DL-SCH

   

UL-SCH

PCH

Turbo Coding

1/3

MCH

BCH

Tail Biting Convolutional Coding

1/3

Table 2-4 Control Information Coding Options

 

Control Information

Coding Method

Rate

DCI

Tail Biting Convolutional Coding

1/3

CFI

Block Code

1/16

HI

Repetition Code

1/3

UCI

Block Code

Variable

Tail Biting Convolutional Coding

1/3

2.2.2 Modulation and Coding Scheme

One of the key parameters in the DCI messages is the MCS Index Parameter. Table 2-5 illustrates the mapping of the MCS index to the modulation and TBS (Transport Block Set) Index.

Table 2-5 Modulation and TBS index table for PDSCH

MCS

Modulation

TBS

MCS

Modulation

TBS

Index

Order

Index

Index

Order

Index

I

MCS

Q

m

I

TBS

I

MCS

Q

m

I

TBS

0

2

0

16 4

 

15

1

2

1

17 6

 

15

2

2

2

18 6

 

16

3

2

3

19 6

 

17

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2 LTE Air Interface

4

2

4

20 6

18

5

2

5

21 6

19

6

2

6

22 6

20

7

2

7

23 6

21

8

2

8

24 6

22

9

2

9

25 6

23

10

4

9

26 6

24

11

4

10

27 6

25

12

4

11

28 6

26

13

4

12

29 2

Reserved

14

4

13

30 4

15

4

14

31 6

The modulation order parameter indicates whether the scheduled transmission is QPSK (2 bits), 16QAM (4bits) or 64QAM (6bits). The UE is able to use this information, in conjunction with the physical number of Resource Blocks, i.e. symbols, to receive all the bits. Figure 2-18 illustrates an example of a scheduled message with associated parameters. As previously mentioned the resource allocation, modulation order and precoding information enables the UE to determine the number and location of the physical bits. The TBS (Transport Block Set) parameter in the previous table enables the UE to identify the size of the transport block(s) using a mixture of a table and equation. Since the coding is all predefined, the UE is able to replicate the number of coded bits (pre puncturing) and therefore, using the RV (Redundancy Version) parameter, identify which bits the eNB would have punctured/rate matched. Using this it can now attempt to decoded the transport block and verify the CRC.

Figure 2-18 Using the TBS Size

5MHz (25 Resource Blocks)

5MHz (25 Resource Blocks)

5MHz (25 Resource Blocks)
Figure 2-18 Using the TBS Size 5MHz (25 Resource Blocks) Issue 01 (2010-06-01) Huawei Proprietary and
Figure 2-18 Using the TBS Size 5MHz (25 Resource Blocks) Issue 01 (2010-06-01) Huawei Proprietary and
Figure 2-18 Using the TBS Size 5MHz (25 Resource Blocks) Issue 01 (2010-06-01) Huawei Proprietary and
Figure 2-18 Using the TBS Size 5MHz (25 Resource Blocks) Issue 01 (2010-06-01) Huawei Proprietary and
Figure 2-18 Using the TBS Size 5MHz (25 Resource Blocks) Issue 01 (2010-06-01) Huawei Proprietary and
Figure 2-18 Using the TBS Size 5MHz (25 Resource Blocks) Issue 01 (2010-06-01) Huawei Proprietary and
Figure 2-18 Using the TBS Size 5MHz (25 Resource Blocks) Issue 01 (2010-06-01) Huawei Proprietary and
Figure 2-18 Using the TBS Size 5MHz (25 Resource Blocks) Issue 01 (2010-06-01) Huawei Proprietary and

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LTE Radio Network Design Training Manual

Figure 2-19 illustrates an example of a transport block being coded and then scheduled using different modulation techniques. In so doing, it illustrates the efficiencies of using HOM (Higher Order Modulation) schemes.

Figure 2-19 Modulation and Coding Scheme Options

schemes. Figure 2-19 Modulation and Coding Scheme Options The main issue when using higher order modulation
schemes. Figure 2-19 Modulation and Coding Scheme Options The main issue when using higher order modulation

The main issue when using higher order modulation schemes is the increased SINR (Signal to Interference plus Noise Ratio) required. The actual value required is based on link level simulations and the resultant “Look-Up Tables”. For example, MCS Index “12” for 5 RB (Resource Blocks) would typically require 5.6dB SINR. In contrast, MCS Index “23”, for 2 RBs would typically require 15.06dB SINR.

It is also worth noting that different Look-Up Tables are typically generated for:

Different Channel Models, e.g. EPA (Extended Pedestrian A), EVA (Extended Vehicular A) and ETU (Extended Typical Urban) models.

Different Antenna Schemes, e.g. 2TX (Transmit) 2RX (Receive).

BLER (Block Error Rate), e.g. 10%.

MCS Decision

The decision/choice of MCS is a trade-off between SINR and resource utilization, with the SINR impacting on the coverage and power utilization.

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2 LTE Air Interface

2.3 LTE Channel Structure

The concept of “channels” is not new. Both GSM and UMTS defined various channel categories, however LTE terminology is closer to UMTS. Broadly there are four categories of channel.

Figure 2-20 LTE Channels

are four categories of channel. Figure 2-20 LTE Channels 2.3.1 Logical Channels In order to describe
are four categories of channel. Figure 2-20 LTE Channels 2.3.1 Logical Channels In order to describe

2.3.1 Logical Channels

of channel. Figure 2-20 LTE Channels 2.3.1 Logical Channels In order to describe Logical Channels it
of channel. Figure 2-20 LTE Channels 2.3.1 Logical Channels In order to describe Logical Channels it

In order to describe Logical Channels it is best to identify where Logical Channels are located in relation to the LTE protocols and the other channel types. Figure 2-21 shows Logical Channels located between the RLC and the MAC layers.

Figure 2-21 Location of Channels

Logical

Channels

layers. Figure 2-21 Location of Channels Logical Channels RLC MAC PHY Transport Channels Radio Channel

RLC

MAC

PHY

Location of Channels Logical Channels RLC MAC PHY Transport Channels Radio Channel Physical Channels Logical
Location of Channels Logical Channels RLC MAC PHY Transport Channels Radio Channel Physical Channels Logical

Transport

Channels

Logical Channels RLC MAC PHY Transport Channels Radio Channel Physical Channels Logical channels are
Logical Channels RLC MAC PHY Transport Channels Radio Channel Physical Channels Logical channels are

Radio

Channel

RLC MAC PHY Transport Channels Radio Channel Physical Channels Logical channels are classified as either
RLC MAC PHY Transport Channels Radio Channel Physical Channels Logical channels are classified as either

Physical

Channels

Logical channels are classified as either Control Logical Channels, which carry control data such as RRC signaling, or Traffic Logical Channels which carry user plane data.

Control Logical Channels

The various forms of these Control Logical Channels include:

BCCH (Broadcast Control Channel) - This is a downlink channel used to send SI (System Information) messages from the eNB. These are defined by RRC.

PCCH (Paging Control Channel) - This downlink channel is used by the eNB to send paging information.

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LTE Radio Network Design Training Manual

Figure 2-22 BCCH and PCCH Logical Channels

Training Manual Figure 2-22 BCCH and PCCH Logical Channels UE System Information Messages BCCH PCCH Paging

UE

System Information Messages BCCH PCCH Paging eNB Devices
System Information
Messages
BCCH
PCCH
Paging
eNB
Devices

CCCH (Common Control Channel) - This is used to establish a RRC (Radio Resource Control) connection, also known as a SRB (Signaling Radio Bearer). The SRB is also used for re-establishment procedures. SRB 0 maps to the CCCH.

DCCH (Dedicated Control Channel) - This provides a bidirectional channel for signaling. Logically there are two DCCH activated:

SRB 1 - This is used for RRC messages, as well as RRC messages carrying high priority NAS signaling.

SRB 2 - This is used for RRC carrying low priority NAS signaling. Prior to its establishment low priority signaling is sent on SRB1.

Figure 2-23 CCCH and DCCH Signaling

is sent on SRB1. Figure 2-23 CCCH and DCCH Signaling Traffic Logical Channels Release 8 LTE
is sent on SRB1. Figure 2-23 CCCH and DCCH Signaling Traffic Logical Channels Release 8 LTE

Traffic Logical Channels

Release 8 LTE has one type of Logical Channel carrying traffic, namely the DTCH (Dedicated Traffic Channel). This is used to carry DRB (Dedicated Radio Bearer) information, i.e. IP datagrams.

Figure 2-24 Dedicated Traffic Channel

i.e. IP datagrams. Figure 2-24 Dedicated Traffic Channel 2-18 Huawei Proprietary and Confidential Copyright ©
i.e. IP datagrams. Figure 2-24 Dedicated Traffic Channel 2-18 Huawei Proprietary and Confidential Copyright ©

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2 LTE Air Interface

The DTCH is a bidirectional channel that can operate in either RLC AM or UM mode. This is configured by RRC and is based on the QoS (Quality of Service) of the E-RAB (EPS Radio Access Bearer).

2.3.2 Transport Channels

Historically, Transport Channels were split between common and dedicated channels. However, LTE has moved away from dedicated channels in favor of the common/shared channels and the associated efficiencies provided. The main Release 8 Transport Channels include:

BCH (Broadcast Channel) - This is a fixed format channel which occurs once per frame and carries the MIB (Master Information Block). Note that the majority of System Information messages are carries on the DL-SCH (Downlink - Shared Channel).

PCH (Paging Channel) - This channel is used to carry the PCCH, i.e. paging messages. It also utilizes DRX (Discontinuous Reception) to improve UE battery life.

DL-SCH (Downlink - Shared Channel) - This is the main downlink channel for data and signaling. It supports dynamic scheduling, as well as dynamic link adaptation. In addition, it supports HARQ (Hybrid Automatic Repeat Request) operation to improve performance. As previously mentioned it also facilitates the sending of System Information messages.

RACH (Random Access Channel) - This channel carries limited information and is used in conjunction with Physical Channels and preambles to provide contention resolution procedures.

UL-SCH (Uplink Shared Channel) - Similar to the DL-SCH, this channel supports dynamic scheduling (eNB controlled) and dynamic link adaptation by varying the modulation and coding. In addition, it too supports HARQ (Hybrid Automatic Repeat Request) operation to improve performance.

Figure 2-25 LTE Release 8 Transport Channels

performance. Figure 2-25 LTE Release 8 Transport Channels 2.3.3 Physical Channels The Physical Layer facilitates

2.3.3 Physical Channels

The Physical Layer facilitates transportation of MAC Transport Channels, as well as providing scheduling, formatting and control indicators.

Downlink Physical Channels

There are a number of downlink Physical Channels in LTE. These include:

PBCH (Physical Broadcast Channel) - This channel carries the BCH.

PCFICH (Physical Control Format Indicator Channel) - This is used to indicate the number of OFDM symbols used for the PDCCH.

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LTE Radio Network Design Training Manual

PDCCH (Physical Downlink Control Channel) - This channel is used for resource allocation.

PHICH (Physical Hybrid ARQ Indicator Channel) - This channel is part of the HARQ process.

PDSCH (Physical Downlink Shared Channel) - This channel carries the DL-SCH.

Uplink Physical Channels

There are a number of Uplink Physical Channels in LTE. These include:

PRACH (Physical Random Access Channel) - This channel carries the Random Access Preamble. The location of the PRACH is defined by higher layer signaling, i.e. RRC signaling.

PUCCH (Physical Uplink Control Channel) - This channel carries uplink control and feedback. It can also carry scheduling requests to the eNB.

PUSCH (Physical Uplink Shared Channel) - This is the main uplink channel and is used to carry the UL-SCH (Uplink Shared Channel) Transport Channel. It carries both signaling and user data, in addition to uplink control. It is worth noting that the UE is not allowed to transmit the PUCCH and PUSCH at the same time.

2.3.4 Radio Channels

The term “Radio Channel” is typically used to describe the overall channel, i.e. the downlink and uplink carrier for FDD or the single carrier for TDD.

Figure 2-26 Radio Channel

or the single carrier for TDD. Figure 2-26 Radio Channel 2.3.5 Channel Mapping There are various

2.3.5 Channel Mapping

for TDD. Figure 2-26 Radio Channel 2.3.5 Channel Mapping There are various options for multiplexing multiple

There are various options for multiplexing multiple bearers together, such that Logical Channels may be mapped to one or more Transport Channels. These in turn are mapped into Physical Channels. Figure 2-27 and Figure 2-28 illustrate the mapping options.

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2 LTE Air Interface

Figure 2-27

Downlink Channel Mapping

ESM EMM IP
ESM
EMM
IP
NAS Layer RRC Layer RRC Integrity ROHC PDCP Layer Ciphering Ciphering RLC Layer TM TM
NAS Layer
RRC Layer
RRC
Integrity
ROHC
PDCP Layer
Ciphering
Ciphering
RLC Layer
TM
TM
TM
UM/AM
UM/AM
Ciphering Ciphering RLC Layer TM TM TM UM/AM UM/AM Logical BCCH PCCH CCCH DCCH DTCH Channels
Ciphering Ciphering RLC Layer TM TM TM UM/AM UM/AM Logical BCCH PCCH CCCH DCCH DTCH Channels
Ciphering Ciphering RLC Layer TM TM TM UM/AM UM/AM Logical BCCH PCCH CCCH DCCH DTCH Channels
Ciphering Ciphering RLC Layer TM TM TM UM/AM UM/AM Logical BCCH PCCH CCCH DCCH DTCH Channels
Ciphering Ciphering RLC Layer TM TM TM UM/AM UM/AM Logical BCCH PCCH CCCH DCCH DTCH Channels
Ciphering Ciphering RLC Layer TM TM TM UM/AM UM/AM Logical BCCH PCCH CCCH DCCH DTCH Channels
Ciphering Ciphering RLC Layer TM TM TM UM/AM UM/AM Logical BCCH PCCH CCCH DCCH DTCH Channels
Ciphering Ciphering RLC Layer TM TM TM UM/AM UM/AM Logical BCCH PCCH CCCH DCCH DTCH Channels
Ciphering Ciphering RLC Layer TM TM TM UM/AM UM/AM Logical BCCH PCCH CCCH DCCH DTCH Channels
Ciphering Ciphering RLC Layer TM TM TM UM/AM UM/AM Logical BCCH PCCH CCCH DCCH DTCH Channels
Ciphering Ciphering RLC Layer TM TM TM UM/AM UM/AM Logical BCCH PCCH CCCH DCCH DTCH Channels
Ciphering Ciphering RLC Layer TM TM TM UM/AM UM/AM Logical BCCH PCCH CCCH DCCH DTCH Channels
Ciphering Ciphering RLC Layer TM TM TM UM/AM UM/AM Logical BCCH PCCH CCCH DCCH DTCH Channels
Ciphering Ciphering RLC Layer TM TM TM UM/AM UM/AM Logical BCCH PCCH CCCH DCCH DTCH Channels
Ciphering Ciphering RLC Layer TM TM TM UM/AM UM/AM Logical BCCH PCCH CCCH DCCH DTCH Channels
Ciphering Ciphering RLC Layer TM TM TM UM/AM UM/AM Logical BCCH PCCH CCCH DCCH DTCH Channels
Logical BCCH PCCH CCCH DCCH DTCH Channels MAC Layer Transport BCH PCH DL-SCH Channels Physical
Logical
BCCH
PCCH
CCCH
DCCH
DTCH
Channels
MAC Layer
Transport
BCH
PCH
DL-SCH
Channels
Physical Layer
Physical
PBCH
PCFICH
PHICH
PDCCH
PDSCH
Channels

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LTE Radio Network Design Training Manual

Figure 2-28 Uplink Channel Mapping

NAS Layer ESM EMM IP RRC Layer RRC Integrity ROHC PDCP Layer Ciphering Ciphering RLC
NAS Layer
ESM
EMM
IP
RRC Layer
RRC
Integrity
ROHC
PDCP Layer
Ciphering
Ciphering
RLC Layer
TM
UM/AM
UM/AM
Logical
CCCH
DCCH
DTCH
Channels
MAC Layer
Transport
RACH
UL-SCH
Channels
Physical Layer
Physical
PRACH
PUCCH
PUSCH
Channels

In order to facilitate the multiplexing from Logical Channels to Transport Channels, the MAC Layer typically adds a LCID (Logical Channel Identifier).

2.4 LTE Data Rates

There are various options and configurations that impact the actual LTE data rates. These include:

Channel Bandwidth.

Cyclic Prefix Size.

Scheduling Options.

Physical Channel Overhead.

MIMO/Diversity Configuration.

UE Capabilities.

In addition, depending on the location of the UE and the planning of the network other factors such as the:

Required MCS and required SINR based on UE location.

ICI (Inter Cell Interference) Issues.

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2 LTE Air Interface

2.4.1 Physical Data Rates

Bandwidth Limitations

The cell bandwidth is very important to the calculation of cell and UE data rates.

Table 2-1 illustrates the channel bandwidth options available to LTE, as well as the FFT size and number of Resource Blocks

Table 2-6 LTE Channel and FFT Sizes

Channel

FFT Size

Subcarrier

Sampling Rate

Number of

Bandwidth

Bandwidth

Resource

 

Blocks

1.4MHz

128

 

1.92MHz

6

3MHz

256

3.84MHz

15

5MHz

512

7.68MHz

25

10MHz

1024

15kHz

15.36MHz

50

15MHz

1536

23.04MHz

75

20MHz

2048

30.72MHz

100

Downlink LTE Peak Rates

It is possible to calculate the downlink peak rates for different combinations of bandwidth, MCS and MIMO. Table 2-7 illustrates typical quoted figures.

Table 2-7 LTE FDD Downlink Peak Rates (FDD using Normal CP)

Effective

MIMO

1.4MHz

3MHz

5MHz

10MHz

15MHz

20MHz

MCS

Streams

QPSK ½

Single

0.85

2.21

3.71

7.46

11.21

14.96

16QAM ½

2x2

3.35

8.53

14.29

28.69

43.09

57.49

16QAM ¾

2x2

5.02

12.79

21.43

43.03

64.63

86.23

16QAM 1

2x2

6.69

17.06

28.58

57.40

86.18

114.98

64QAM ½

2x2

5.02

12.79

21.43

43.03

64.63

86.23

64QAM ¾

2x2

7.53

19.19

32.15

64.55

96.95

129.35

64QAM

9 10
9
10

2x2

9.03

23.03

38.58

77.46

116.34

155.22

64QAM 1

2x2

10.04

25.59

42.71

85.92

129.27

172.47

64QAM 1

4x2

19.09

48.47

81.11

162.71

244.31

325.91

4x2 19.09 48.47 81.11 162.71 244.31 325.91 The downlink peak figures assume that only 1OFDM symbol

The downlink peak figures assume that only 1OFDM symbol is allocated to the PDCCH.

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LTE Radio Network Design Training Manual

Uplink LTE Peak Rates

The uplink peak data rates are reduced when compared with the downlink. This is mainly due to the fact Uplink SM (Spatial Multiplexing) MIMO is not available in Release 8. Table 2-8 illustrates the various uplink peak rates.

Table 2-8 LTE FDD Uplink Peak Rates (FDD using Normal CP)

Effective<