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NB : PLEASE KNOW THAT EVERYTHING IN THIS DOCUMENT (and unfortunately maybe more that Ive might

missed) could be asked at least in one attendance of a test. Moreover:


*** = MUST BE KNOWN no matter what
**= very likely to be asked, or have been asked in more than one test (out of 4 of my tries)
*= seems important or has appeared once
Good luck !
- Aurlie D.

Design
1) Creativity in design
Creativity:
Creativity is a mental process involving the generation of new ideas or concepts, or new associations of the
creative mind between existing ideas or concepts

* Creativity techniques:
-

inventorying
intuitive
associative
provocative
analytic-systematic

Rhodes distinction:
Creative

person
product
process
press or environment

*Johnson point of view about creativity activity:


He suggests 2 dimensions:
-From the creative agent: sensitivity to problems and intellectual leadership
-From the creative object: originality, ingenuity, unusualness, usefulness, and appropriateness
According to Boden:
Distinction between Psychological creative ideas and historical creative ideas
*** Convergent and divergent thinking: J.P. Guilford (first to studies the creativity scientifically in 50s)
J.P. Guilford drew a distinction between convergent and divergent thinking. Convergent thinking aims for
a single correct solution to a problem, whereas divergent thinking involves creative generation of
multiple answers to a set problem.
*** Graham Wallas and Richard Smith presented one of the first models of the creative process:
1. preparation
2. incubation
3. intimation
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4. illumination
5. verification

Finkes Geneplore Model:


2 phases in which creativity occurs:

a Generative phase : with the construction of mental pre-inventive structure


a Exploratory phase : use of theses structure to come up with creative ideas

** Amabile three components needed to enhance creativity in business:


Necessary conditions but NOT sufficient.
1) Expertise (technical, procedural, intellectual knowledge)
2) Creative thinking skills (how flexible and imaginatively people approach problems)
3) Motivation (intrinsic and external)

*** Brainstorming from Alex Osborn

*** Rules for brainstorming/creative thinking


Quantity is needed
freewheeling is welcomed : the wilder the ideas the better
combination and improvement
criticism is ruled out
judgment of ideas is postpone

Creative Problem Solving stage (CPS)


-Mess-finding (what are the pb and issues)
-Fact-finding (what is known or unknown and needed)
-Problem-finding (discovering a fuzzy pb)
-Idea-finding (generating a large number of ideas)
-Solution-finding (converging/synthesizing idea in potentially useful solutions)
-Action-finding (generating potential actions steps)

2) Problems and processes


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*** What is Engineering Design?


Solving a problem that
- is not fully-defined in terms of its requirements
- has a multitude of satisfactory solutions
- requires creativity and engineering knowledge in generating and evaluating solutions (iterative
process)
- usually results in a piece of working hardware
Measuring effective Design in term of:
-

Time (faster)

Cost (cheaper)

Quality (better)

** Designers cost little, their impact on product cost great:

10% of the cost incurred = 70% of the cost committed


How many % of the cumulative lifecycle cost of a product can be defined in the design phase?
70-80%
Advantages of concurrent engineering:
Development time reduction: 30-70%
Increasing quality: 200-600%
Time to market reduction: 20-90%
*** Concurrent design = simultaneous design over-the-wall design method (the firsts have
replaced the third)
Over-the-wall Design:

*** Concurrent design:


Design for X (DfX)
X = M (Manufacturability)
X = Q (Quality)
X = A (Assembly)
X = E (Environment)
X = R (Reliability)
X = S (Safety and Serviceability)
*** The basic actions of problem solving:
Establish the pb
Plan how to solve the problem
Understand the problem
Generate alternative solutions
Evaluate the alternatives
Decide on acceptable solutions.
Communicate the results.

*** The design paradox:

As the design process progresses, you gain knowledge but you lose freedom to use what you know. Time
and cost normally drive the design project, so there is rarely an opportunity to start over or to redo a design.

Different types of mechanical design problems:


Selection design
*** Configuration design = packaging
Parametric design
Original design
Redesign
Variant design
Conceptual design and Product design

Type of Design Projects


Minor variation of an existing product
Improvement of existing product
Development of a new product
*Types of knowledge:
Procedural knowledge: design process knowledge
General knowledge
Domain specific knowledge: welding design, manufacturing processes, material science
Design teams and responsibilities:
- Extrovert vs. Introvert
- Fact-vs. possibility-oriented
- Objective vs. subjective
- Decisive vs. flexible

*** Design team goal:


Solving a problem through 5C:
Collaboration
Compromise
Consensus
Communication
Commitment

* Mechanical design process:


Establish a need (Product discovery)
Project planning
Product (Specification) definition
Conceptual design
Product development
Product support

Project Planning
Identify the tasks (type of design project*)
Form a Team Design (available ressources)
Develop a project plan
Product discovery:
-Technology push
- Market push
- Product change

3) Problems and solutions


*** QFD = House Of Quality

1. Identify customers (WHO)


2. Determine customer requirements (WHAT) = Kano Model
Delight, Linear, Must be

3. Determine relative importance of requirements (WHO vs. WHAT)


4. Identify and evaluate the competition (NOW vs. WHAT = Competition benchmarking)
5. Generate engineering specifications (HOW)
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6. Relate customers requirements to specification (WHAT vs. HOW)


7. Set engineering targets (HOW vs. HOW MUCH)
8. Identify relationships between specifications (HOW vs. HOW)
Example of questions:
-

what is NOT about the QFD, 3 random good ones and Determine ABSOLUT importance of
requirements which is false

Kano model, the 3 types of attributes?

What is the synonym of QFD (=House of Quality)?

What is the roof of the house? (HOW vs. HOW)

*** Morphological matrix (HOW)


Line = technical function = sub-functions
Column = options in technical solution = concepts
Goal = to generate multiple option that meets the requirements, to combine concepts
Invented by = Fritz Zwicky
*** Decision matrix method (one part of method QFD) = Stuart Pugh matrix = Pughs method
***Semi-quantitative and relative method for evaluating concepts
Most effective when done by each team member
Often requires iteration (repetition) as more is learned about the problem and concepts
** Pluses, minus and equals are summed

How it looks like :


Steps : Choose criteria, Their relative weight, select the alternatives, rate them (=,+,-), Compute the
whole

In the design process order: QFDmorphological matrixdecision matrix

*** List of requirements: (Know at least 3 or 4 of them)


Functional performance
Human factors
Physical requirements
Reliability
Lifecycle concerns
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Resource concerns
Manufactory / Assembly requirements

*** Concept: (text with blank)


A concept is an idea or structure that is sufficiently developed to
Evaluate the physical principles that govern its behavior
Evaluate technologies needed to realize them
Allow a rough sketch
Concepts follow function, products follow concepts

The Black-Box Model:


- system boundary
inflows, outflows
conservation of material, energy

** Source for concept ideas (at least know 4 of them)


- Use existing information and designs (analogies)
-

Patents

Reference books

Trade journals

Research journals

Group brainstorming, 635 method,

Use Extremes and Inverses

Faculty, industry contacts/ exeperts

Existing products

Method TRIZ : develop concepts evolved


Use of contradiction to find what make the pb hard to solve, by using 40 inventive principles to get off
the contradictions.
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Contradiction = trade-off when you can improve something without something else gets worse

Axiomatic Design
Design is a logical process based on this relationship, according to Pr. Nam Suh of MIT
Process

Customer

Physical

Function

* Concept evaluation
-

Develop specifications

Generate concepts

Evaluate concepts and decide

Evaluate for performance manufacture assembly and cost

Document the result

Go/No-go screening:
-> Can the customer be satisfied by the given concept?
-> Is the technology (engineering & manufacturing) mature enough?

4) Integrated design tools and structural optimization


Multi-body Dynamics Simulation
-

The field of mechanics relating to the motion of bodies under the action of forces is often
referred to as Dynamics.

It has two defined parts:


-

Kinematics, which is the study of motion without reference to the forces which cause motion

Kinetics, which relates the action of forces on bodies to their resulting motions

** Reverse Engineering:
During the Reverse Engineering process, we create the CAD model of an existing object (engineering
elements, statue, etc.). Then in the same form or with the extension of necessary changes they can be
reproduced.
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Main application: Redesign, optimize an existing part


* Process of Reverse Engineering:
0. Problem, strategy, preparing
1. Digitizing (data acquisition)
2. Pre-processing
3. Segmentation
4. Surface fitting
5. Export (redesign), manufacturing

*3D shape measurement methods

***Structural Optimization steps:


-

Topology optimization

Reconstructed CAD geometry

Parametric CAD geometry

Numerical (FEA)

Shape optimization

*Main steps of designing structures:


Function
Conceptual design
Optimization
Details

*The basic elements of an optimization model:


1. Design variables and design parameters
2. Optimization constraints
3. The objective function
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1) Design variables and design parameters

**From the mathematical point of view two types of design variables can be distinguished:
Continuous or discrete design variables.

**From the physical point of view there are four types of the design variables or parameter
1. Mechanical or physical properties of the material (Material design variable)
2. Topology of the structure, connecting members of the scheme, or the number of members of the
interface schema; (Topology Design Variables)
3. The shape of the structure (Configurational or Geometric Design Variables)
4. Cross-Sectional Design Variables or the dimensions of the built-in elements
2) Optimization constraint
The restrictions that must be satisfied in order to produce a feasible design are called constraints.
Types of optimization constraints
-

Geometrical optimization constraints: lower/upper limit of the design variables

Behavior requirement constraints: maximum stresses, displacements etc.

Mathematical constraints : set of inequalities and equalities constraints

3) The objective function

The objective function (or cost function) is the function whose least value is usually wanted in an
optimization procedure. It is used to compare feasible designs in function of weight, cost, and any other
type of criterion.

** Problem classes of the structural optimization:


Sizing optimization
Shape optimization
Topology optimization

* Classical Optimization Techniques


Linear programming
Integer programming
Nonlinear programming
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Stochastic programming

*** CAD definition of the design FE-modelTopology Optimization Shape optimization

** Pareto optimality:

a design is Pareto optimal if there does not exist any other design that satisfies all of the objectives better.
* The analysis step-by-step
Initial planning
Define the analysis problem
Select key variables for evaluation based on the criteria
Required solution accuracy, time allowed, number of analysis cycles
Approximate engineering analysis
Developing a conceptual FE model
Prepare first model: detailed mesh plan, apply BC, prepare load case(s)

** Linear problem vs. non-linear problem


Small deformations

Load-displament non linear

Stress is proportional to strain

Non-linear geometry, material or contact

Loads maintain their original direction as the

(the surface of the contact growths as the

deformation goes

the load decreases)


Everything is not known until converged
solution fulfilled

5) Design Production
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Knowledge Age: XXIst century


It is based on knowledge and communication.
Main characteristics:
Dematerialization
Connectivity
Virtual networks
Lifecycles of product:
Market lifecycle, product lifecycle, lifecycle with boarder perspective

** Product lifecycle (product perspective):


Production
Assembly
Transportation
Use (Operation and Standby)
Recycling/disposal
Reuse
** Product lifecycle (enterprise/user/society perspective):
Concept
Development
Production
Manufacturing
Operation
Support
Disposal and recycling
Models in production:
Product model, manufacturing model, enterprise model

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Manufacturing
1)

MRP

Lot for lot:


Produce in each period exactly the net demand
Properties:

No inventory in the end of the periods minimal inventories

Each period starts with a setup maximal setup costs

Merits:

Does not combine several periods work levelling

Just in time

Worth using in case of small setup costs

MRP
60s = Material Requirements Planning
80s = Manufacturing Resource Planning
*MRP simplifying assumptions
Capacities (human, machine..) are infinite
Fixed lead times
Materials and components are available

**MRP concepts
Time: discrete bucket of time, finite horizon
Order (demand): product, quantities, external independent demand, internal demand, running jobs
Inventories: On-hand + projected inventories
Product structure: BOM= Bill Of Material

*** MRP inputs/outputs


Independent demand for end items (MPS,

New planned orders (POReceipts)


Modified

PORelease..)
Item master data (BOM, PLT)

scheduled

receipts

notice..)

Internal material flow (On-hand inventory,


scheduled receipts)

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Error messages (exception reports)

(change

MRP Process

Lot Sizing Rules


LFL = Lot For Lot: take exactly what you need
FOQ = Fixed Order Quantity
FOP = Fixed Order Period
EOQ = Economic Order Quantity

** Optimal order quantity of Economic Order Quantity (EOQ):

Q* = Optimal Order Quantity


D: demand rate
A: constant setup / ordering cost for a lot
h: holding cost = c x i
c= Cost/unit ; i = Interest/year
The Economic Order Quantity rule takes into consideration the unit production cost of products.

** Optimal Period of time (EOQ suite)


P=Q/D
P: Period
Q: Optimal Quantity
D: Demand
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*BOM, Bill Of material

Properties: Tree structure with nodes, child-parents relations


Each item has a unique name and a LLC
***LLC = Low Level Code
End item LLC = 0
LLC(Child) = LLC(Parent)+1
When an item is present is several levels : LLC = Max (LLCi )
Example :
LLC(B) = 0
LLC(#300)=LLC(max(1,3) = 3 ; LLC(#500) = 1
LLC(#100 and #600) = 2
LLC(#400) = 3

*** MRP Method to know (see from Slide 18 to 50)

2) Manufacturing systems
Manufacturing Technologies
- Component production
-material removal/separation (metal cutting*)
-additive technologies (3D printing, rapid-prototyping)
-Forming and shaping (rolling, forging, extrusion..)
-Casting
-Material joining (welding, soldering, mechanical joining)
-
- Assembly
* Metal cutting Machining
- Power source needed
- Relative motion between the Tool and the Workpiece
- Material removal = chips
Primary motion: Speed (rotating) of the Workpiece
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Secondary motion: Feed (lateral speed of the Tool)


Ex : Lathe

**Primary motion of a lathe


The rotation of the spindle that rotates the work piece.

Types of manufacturing
Single (small number of product -1 to 100 a year- by using universal machines/cutting tools/fixtures
Series (small-medium or large series 100 to 10 000/year- using semi-automatic machines or NC, CNC
machine tools)
Mass (more than 10,000 work pieces/year, special machine tools, special tools, process oriented ans
preparation manufacturing)

*** Manufacturing System Layouts


Static build Layout (machines go to the product, more flexible, high personnel skills requirements)

Process Layout (product/sub-product goes to the different machines in the order of the process, batch or
job-shop syst., more complex material flow, higher flexibility, lower efficiency, more complex production
control, higher inventory level)
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Product Layout (Product to the machines, most regular for mass production simple production control,
highly reliable equipement)

** Group Technology Layout: combine advantages of mass


production and job shop production: higher volume and
flexibility, products grouped in part families, and each part
family assigned to a group of machines.
Cell: Group of machine assigned to a part family and
the material handling equipment.
T: Turning
M: Milling
D: Drilling SG:CG: Grinding

** Group Technology:
It is a method of grouping parts to be produced according to similarities.
- Design similarities:
shape
size
functions
- Manufacturing process similarities
process type
surface roughness, tolerances
machine tool types
- Classification and coding using IT tools
- GT connects the design and production databases

Advantages of Group Technology


For Design
For Production Planning
For Manufacturing
- Standardization of design
- Reduction of the number
- Lower setup times
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Fast design (drawing)


retrieval
Fast adaptation of new
designs

and planning time of


process plans
Reduction of the number
and creation time of NC
codes
Simplified
machinability
analysis
Reduction of the number
and types of tools and
fixtures; easier design of
tools and fixtures

Break even analysis:

* Categories of Manufacturing Systems

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More efficient equipment


design
Better
utilisation
of
manufacturing equipment
More flexible and faster
supply of urgent orders
Better quality
Easier production control
(capacity planning, load
balancing, scheduling)

Flexible Manufacturing Cell (FMC)


Cell around a machine tool (mini-cell)
Cell of few machine tools

* Flexible Manufacturing System


Integration of several machine tools and other machinery
Integration of manufacturing cells
* Advantages of FMS
Ex :CNC machine tools
-

Automatic material handling system

Central computer control

Flexibility in
product variety
production quantity

Random input smaller inventory

Tool store, tool management

Higher level integration: integration

** Comparison Transfer line vs. FMS

Aims of Manufacturing Automation:


-

Improve productivity

Improve quality

Reduce human involvement

Reduce work piece damage

Integrate manufacturing operations

Raise the level of safety


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Economise on floor space

*Types of Automation:
Hard Automation
-

very high number of products (e.g. engine blocks)

low flexibility (0)

Soft Automation
-

flexible or programmable automation

medium-high number of products

high flexibility

* Hard automation: Transfer machines


- Strait pattern
- Circular pattern

Classification of Machine Tools


Machine tools for defined cutting edge (cutting)
- Primary motion: translation (Planer, Shaper, Ban/Hawksaw, Broaching)
- Secondary motion: rotation (Turning, Milling, Boring, Drilling, Sawing, Machining center, Turning
center, gear manufacturing)
Machine tools for undefined cutting edge (abrasion)
- Grinding
- Honing
- Lapping
- Abrasive disk sawing
Non-conventional (erosion)
- Electro discharge
- Electromechanical
- Electro beam
- Ultrasonic
Mutli-task (two manufacturing processes from above)
Hybrid (machining process + other manufacturing processes like heat transfer/rolling)

Machine using laser


-

cutting

welding

heat treatment

melting

material deposition
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*** Selection of Machine tools (10pts)


- Maximum part size
- Work piece main geometry
-Type of the manufacturing process, type and number of tools needed
- Material removal rate
- Precision
- Kinematic behaviour (i.e. speed and acceleration)
- Batch size
- Price
- Environmental impact

** CNC integration (CNC = Computer Numerical Control)


User interface
Basic operating system (PC based today)
Program translator (ISO codes =G, M codes (e.g. G01 X100 Y200 Z300 F2000 S8000))
Interpolator (linear, circular, etc.)
Axes control (sensors, motors and their servo-amplifiers, Feedback control techniques (PID))
PLC (Programmable Logic Controller)
* Advantages of CNC Machine tools applications
Increased flexibility
Greater accuracy
More versatility
Higher productivity
Integration into a system is easier
** Machining centres (savoir reconnaitre sur une image)

C & Y axes, Turning center

Lathe

CNC machine tool with rotating tool

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5-axis Machining center

Five-axis machining centre:


It contains three linear and two rotational axes.
Tools Holder/changers

Tools Store:
-

Drum
Chain
Matrix

Robots Kinematics

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Application of Robots

Material handling: loading, unloading, transferring


Spot welding, arc welding, arc cutting, riveting
Deburring, grinding, polishing
Applying adhesives and sealants
Spray painting
Assembly
Inspection and gauging
Other (machining, laser welding)

Selection of Robots
Technical factors (Load-carrying capacity, Speed of movement, Reliability, Repeatability, Arm
configuration, Degrees of freedom, Control system, Work envelope
Economics (cost, benefit)
Robot safety
Conveyors types:

3)

Production Planning (PP)

* Aggregated production and capacity planning (tomb une fois mais TOUT savoir, jusqu
rsolution graphique type simple exemple slide 12, le tout pour 10pts !)

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Then you draw = as resource capacity limits as there is product,

The hierarchy of manufacturing process: (once asked but on 10pts !)

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The tasks have to be solved during the operational planning:


Cutting tool selection, tool path planning, and determination of the cutting parameters.

Components of the machining time (tree diagram) (once asked but on 10pts !)

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Setup time
Preparation
Program loading, tools approaching, tools pre-setting, fixture positioning, work piece clamping,
alignment, zero-point determination, and program writing/editing
Finishing
Unclamping, cleaning, measuring inspection
** Direct costs of the manufacturing:
Material
Operation, machining: Setup time,
Measuring, inspection
Repairing, refuse replacement
Transportation
* Indirect costs:
Process planning, NC programming, scheduling
*** Tolerancing method
Tolerancing on the middle part.
1) Define the nominal tolerance

T=A+BC
2) Define the relative tolerance (- = enemy, it inverses max and min)

3) Totally defined now


4) Average Tolerance and
5) Probability
P(min <= x<= max) = P((Tmin-Tmoy)/s)<=Z<=((Tmax-Tmoy)/s))
P(A <=Z<=B)
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( Phy(A)-Phy(B) if 0<A<B )
Phy(A)+Phy(B) if A<0<B

(that what we use the most because tolerances

max/min always on each side of the average)


6) How to improve this probability? Take the and +- Average tolerance, re-do the calculation to prove
it

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