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Fluid Mechanics

Ch 2 Fluid at Rest
Equation of Motion for a Fluid
with No Shearing Stress
dp=-gdz=gdh

z: coordinate pointing in opposite direction to gravity


h: depth, in the same direction as gravity

Example
Given: multiple-tube manometer as shown. Specific gravity of
oil is 0.8; specific gravity of mercury is 13.6.
Find: The pressure difference, pA-pB, in kPa

Solution

Solution

Example
A reservoir manometer is built with a tube diameter of 10 mm and
reservoir diameter of 30 mm. The manometer liquid is Meriam red
oil. Determine the manometer sensitivity, i.e., the deflection in
millimeters per millimeter of water applied pressure differential.
Given: Reservoir manometer as show
d=10 mm
D=30 mm
Find: Liquid deflection, h, in millimeters per millimeter of water
applied pressure differential

Solution

This equation can be simplified by expressing the applied pressure differential as an


equivalent water column of height he

This problem illustrate the effects of manometer design and choice of gage liquid on sensitivity.

Compressible fluid
At high pressures, compressibility effects in liquids
can be important. Pressure and density changes in
liquids are related by the bulk modulus, Ev, or
modulus of elasticity, as has been mentioned
previous, that is
Ev (

p
)T = ( p, Ev )

For gases being compressible fluids, =(p,T).


Since of gases are comparatively small, it follows
that dp/dz is corresponding small, and even over
distances of several hundred feet the pressure will
remain essentially constant for a gas.

Pressure variation with elevation


In analyzing the pressure distribution of the atmosphere of the
planet, the specific weight =g is not a constant.
The value of g could be assumed almost constant in many
cases but the density can be easily evaluated by the ideal gas
law pv=RT or p=RT
Two scenarios will be analyzed
Isothermal perfect gas
Temperature varies linearly with elevation

Isothermal perfect gas


Perfect gas p=RT
Isothermal T=constant
p/=p1/1=constant=c, where subscript 1 indicates
known data

If the elevation considered is not excessively large so


that we could assume g=constant, then

Isothermal perfect gas


Hence, the equation dp/dz=- becomes

Separating variables and integrating from p1 to p for z1 to z,


we get

Note that the pressure decreases exponentially with


elevation

Temperature varies linearly with


elevation
If T=T1+kz
then dT/dz=k or dz=dT/k
Also since

(1)

Substitute eqns (1) and (2) into the equation dp/dz=-,


we have

Temperature varies linearly with elevation


Integrate from z=0 where p=p1, T=T1 to z where p=p, T=T,
then

Solving for p and replacing T by T1+kz, we get

Note that T1 must be in degree absolute.

Example
An atmosphere on a planet has a temperature of 15 oC
at sea level and drops 1 oC per 500 m of elevation. The
gas constant R for this atmosphere is 220 Nm/(kgK).
At what elevation is the pressure 30 percent that of sea
level? Take g=9.00 m/s2.

Solution

The standard atmosphere


At sea level the U.S. Standard Atmosphere
Conditions are listed as follows:

The standard atmosphere

The standard atmosphere


The temperature decreases linearly with height (up to 11 km
above sea level, called troposhere) is according to
T=(288-0.006507 z) K
=(519-0.00357z) oR

From height of 11 km to 20.1 km, the atmosphere is isothermal


at a temperature of -56.5 oC which is called stratosphere.

Measurement of pressure
Absolute pressures are
always positive
Gage pressures can be
positive (negative) if the
pressure is above (below) the
atmospheric pressure
A negative gage pressure is
referred to as a suction or
vacuum pressure. In the text,
pressures will be assumed to
be gage pressures unless
specifically designated
absolute
10 psi or 100 kPa : gage
pressures
10 psia or 100 kPa (abs):
absolute pressure

Mercury barometer
Evangelista Torricelli (1608-
1647), 1644
Patm = h+Pvaporh
Pvapor=0.000023 lb/in2 (abs) at
68oF, can be neglected

Exp

Manometry Piezometer tube


Piezometer tube
PA=g1h1+P0

PA>0 ( greater than


atmospheric pressure)
PA is small => a reasonable h1
The fluid must be a liquid

Manometry U-tube manometer


The pressure PA is large =>
a heavy gage fluid (mercury)
can be used
The pressure PA is small =>
a lighter gage fluid (water)
can be used
The difference in pressure
between two containers or
two points in a given system
P1+1h1-2h2-3h3=P5
PA-PB=2h2+3h3-1h1

Manometry Inclined-tube manometer


(P1-P2)A=Alg =>
P=lsin
PA+1h1-2l2sin-
3h3=PB=>PA-
PB=2l2sinq+3h3-1h1
For gases of A and B,
then

As 0

Mechanical and electrical


pressure measurement devices
Bourdon pressure gage
When a pressure acts on an elastic structure, the
structure will deform, and this deformation can be
related to the magnitude of the pressure
This type of gage can be used to measure a negative
gage pressure (vacuum) as well as positive pressures

Mechanical and electrical


pressure measurement devices
Pressure transducer (linear
variable differential transformer
(LVDT)+Bordon gage)
The output is a linear function of
the pressure

Strain Gage Pressure Transducer


The sensing element is a thin,
elastic, diaphragm which is in
contact with the fluid
For both small and large pressures,
and for both static and dynamic
pressures
Can be very compact when
fabricated with MEMS technology

Dynamic Pressure Transducer


For transient pressure
measurements in shock
wave, explosion, blast, and
time of arrival applications
Usually based on
piezoelectric crystal
Not usable with DC or
steady-state conditions
Frequency response ~ 100
kHz
Rising time ~ s