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PUMP POWER CALCULATION

SUMMARY
Power is consumed by a pump, fan or compressor in order to move and increase the
pressure of a fluid. The power requirement of the pump depends on a number of
factors including the pump and motor efficiency, the differential pressure and the
fluid density, viscosity and flow rate. This article provides relationships to determine
the required pump power.

1. DEFINITIONS
Ph : Hydraulic power of the pump (kW).
Ps : Shaft power of the pump (kW).
Pm : Required power to the Motor (kW).
Q

: Volumetric flow of fluid through the pump (m3/h).

: Density of the fluid being pumped (kg/m3).

: Gravity (9.81 m/s2).

: Head produced by the pump (m).

dP : Differential pressure across the pump (kPa)

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p : Pump efficiency (%).


m : Motor efficiency (%).

2. HYDRAULIC POWER
The hydraulic power which is also known as absorbed power, represents the energy
imparted on the fluid being pumped to increase its velocity and pressure. The
hydraulic power may be calculated using one of the formulae below, depending on
the available data.

Units

Formula

P - kW
Q - m3/h
- kg/m3

Ph =

Qgh
3.6 106

Ph =

QdP
3, 600

Ph =

QdP
60, 000

Ph =

QdP
1, 000

g - m/s2
h-m
P - kW
Q - m3/hr
dP - kPa
P - kW
Q - L/min
dP - kPa
P - kW
Q - L/s
dP - kPa

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3. SHAFT POWER
The shaft power is the power supplied by the motor to the pump shaft. Shaft power
is the sum of the hydraulic power (discussed above) and power loss due to
inefficiencies in power transmission from the shaft to the fluid. Shaft power is
typically calculated as the hydraulic power of the pump divided by the pump
efficiency as follows:

Ps =

Ph
p

4. MOTOR POWER
The motor power is the power consumed by the pump motor to turn the pump shaft.
The motor power is the sum of the shaft power and power loss due to inefficiencies
in converting electric energy into kinetic energy. Motor power may be calculated as
the shaft power divided by the motor efficiency.

Pm =

Ps
m

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5. OTHER FACTORS WHICH INCREASE REQUIRED


POWER
There are several other pump and drive features which will increase the power
requirement to achieve a particular fluid transfer, these include:
Gearboxes
Belt drives
Variable speed drives (VSDs)
Each of these components will have their own efficiency ratings, which must be
factored into the power delivered by the motor.

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6. TYPICAL PUMP AND DRIVE COMPONENT


EFFICIENCY RANGES
The table below provides some typical efficiency values which may be used for
power requirement estimation for a selection of pump types. These values are for
correctly sized pumps, if a pump is oversized or poorly designed its efficiency may
be much lower than the values quoted below, this is particularly common in small
pumps.

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Pump

Typcial

Type/Component

Efficiency

Centrifugal Pump

60-85%

Sliding Vane Pump

60-90%

Gearbox

70-98%

Belt Drive

70-96%

Variable Speed Drive

80-98%

at Full Speed
Variable Speed Drive
at 75% Full Speed
Variable Speed Drive

70-96%

44-91%

at 50% Full Speed


Variable Speed Drive
at 25% Full Speed

9-61%

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7. FURTHER READING
1. Igor Karassik, Pump Handbook, Fourth Edition
2. Perry's Chemical Engineers' Handbook, Eighth Edition
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Article Created: July 9, 2012

ARTICLE TAGS
Absorbed Power Efficiency Fluid Flow Hydraulic Power Motor Power
Power Pump Shaft Power

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