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AssignmentsonOrganizationalBehavior
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Introduction
OrganizationalBehavior(OB)isthestudyofthewaypeopleinteractwithingroups.
Thecentralideaofthestudyoforganizationalbehavioristhatascientificapproach
canbeappliedtothemanagementofworkers.Organizationalbehaviortheoriesare

AssignmentsonOrganizationalBehavior
IntroductionOrganizationalBehavior(OB)isthestudyof
thewaypeopleinteractwithingroups.Thecentralideaof
thestudyof...

usedforhumanresourcepurposestomaximizetheoutputfromindividualgroup

assignmentsonfinnancialdecesions

members.(investopedia,2015).

IntroductionTakingfinancialdecisionsisoneofthemost
importantpartsofanyorganizations.itincludescash
management,analyz...

Variousleadershipapproachesorstylesarefollowedbydifferentorganizationto
motivatetheemployeetowardsthesharedgoalsoftheorganizations.Thisreport
mainlydealswiththevariousleadershipstylesandtheirpossibleimpacton
employee,Moreoveritalsohighlightsdifferentaspectsoftheteamworkandthe
impactoftechnologyoverbuildingofaperfectteam.

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LO1:Understandtherelationshipbetweentheorganizationstructureand

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culture
1.2Explainhowtherelationshipbetweentheorganizationsstructuresand
culturescanimpactontheperformanceofthebusiness

Organizationalstructuresandculturesareessentiallycorelatedandhave
substantialeffectonperformanceofthebusiness.Tounderstandtherelationship
betweenorganizationsstructureandcultures,wehavetogothroughthetermof
organizationalstructuresandcultures.
AnorganizationalstructureisExplicitandimplicitinstitutionalrulesandpolicies
designedtoprovideastructurewherevariousworkrolesandresponsibilitiesare
delegated,controlledandcoordinated.Organizationalstructurealsodetermineshow
informationflowsfromleveltolevelwithinthecompany.Inacentralizedstructure,
decisionsflowfromthetopdown.Inadecentralizedstructure,thedecisionsare
madeatvariousdifferentlevels.(Investopedia,2015)
Organizationalculturesarecivilizationintheworkplace(AlanAdler,2013)
Organizationalculturereferstothevaluessharedbyorganizationmanagersand
associates.Itincludessharedassumptions,beliefs,values,normsandlanguage
patterns(Ryall&Craig2003).Itdetermineshowacompany'semployeesand
managementinteractandhandleoutsidebusinesstransactions.Often,corporate
cultureisimplied,notexpresslydefined,anddevelopsorganicallyovertimefromthe
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cumulativetraitsofthepeoplethecompanyhires.Acompany'sculturewillbe
reflectedinitsdresscode,businesshours,officesetup,employeebenefits,turnover,
hiringdecisions,andtreatmentofclients,clientsatisfactionandeveryotheraspectof
operations.(Investopedia,2015)
Organizationalstructurescaninhibitorpromoteperformance,dependinghow
effectivelythesupervisoryrelationshipsandworkflowinfluenceproductivity.These
definedepartmentalstructureandthereportinghierarchy.Performancemanagement
involvesgoalsettingactivitiesandperiodicreviewsbymanagersinthereporting
hierarchy.Withoutdefinedpoliciesandproceduresthatareconsistently
enforcedthroughouttheorganization,performancemanagementstrategiescanfailto
achievetheirdesiredgoalofimprovingproductandservicequalityforenduser
customers
Organizationalcultureisthesumofvaluesandritualswhichserveasglue
tointegratethemembersoftheorganization.Cultureisacarrierofmeaning.
Culturesprovidenotonlyasharedviewofwhatisbutalsoofwhyis.In
thisview,cultureisaboutthestoryinwhichpeopleintheorganizationare
embedded,andthevaluesandritualsthatreinforcethatnarrative.Italso
focusesattentionontheimportanceofsymbolsandtheneedtounderstand
themincludingtheidiosyncraticlanguagesusedinorganizationsinorderto
understandculture.(RichardPerrin,2015)
1.3Identifyandoverviewfourimportantfactorsthatcaninfluenceindividual
behavioratwork
Individualcomingfromverydifferentrecessmayhavedifferentperspectivetowards
theorganization.Buttherearesomeseveralfactorsthatbasicallyinfluencethe
individualbehavioratworks.Fourofthemarediscussedbelow:
1.Leadership:Managersandleadersplayanimportantroleininfluencingthe
behaviorofindividualsatworkplace.Itistheresponsibilityofleaderstoseta
directionforteammembers.Inmajorityofthecases,ithasbeenobservedthat
employeesdonotfeellikegoingtoworkwhentheyhavestrictbosses.Leadersneed
tostandbytheirteamalwaystoGuidethemandhelpthemintheirdaytoday
operationsandhelpthemacquirenewskillsandupgradetheirknowledge.Make
themfeelimportant.Asaleader,heneedstobeastrongsourceofinspirationfor
yoursubordinates.(managementstudyguide,2015)
2.Skills:Duetothedifferenceinthestatuslevelorskilllevel,anemployeecan
behavedifferentlyindifferentsituations.Thebehaviorsfromtheleadersandthe
behaviorsthepeopleworksunderhimmaynotbethesame.
3.Workcultures
Employeesneedtofeelcomfortableatworkplaceforthemtostaypositive
andhappy.Rulesandregulationsshouldbesameforeveryone.
Employeesoughttobeencouragedtorespecttheirreportingbossesand
followthecodeofethics.Transparencyatalllevelsisessential.Youmust
knowwhatyourteammemberisuptoandviceaversa.Jobsecurityis
oneofthemostcrucialfactorsaffectingemployeebehavior.Standbyyour
teamatthetimesofcrisis.Donotthrowthemoutduringbadtimes.
4.Attitude:
Attitudeisdefinedaspredispositionoratendencytorespond
positivelyornegativelytowardsacertainidea,object,personor

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situation.Attitudecaneffectonindividualdecisionsandresponsesto
aparticularsituationsoraproblem.(Robbins,2013)
LO2:Understanddifferentapproachestomanagementandleadership
2.1comparedifferenttheeffectivenessofdifferentleadershipstylesindifferent
organizations

Leadershipistheactivityofleadingagroupofpeopleoranorganizationorthe
abilitytodothis.Leadershipinvolves:establishingaclearvision,sharingthat
visionwithotherssothattheywillfollowwillingly,providingtheinformation,
knowledgeandmethodstorealizethatvision.(businessdictionary,2015)different
organizationsfollowsdifferentleadershipstylestogettheworkdonefromthe
workers.
Accordingtothegivenscenario,leadershipstylesfollowedbytheCitizenBankPlc.
areasfollowas
1.Autocraticstyles
2.Laisserfaire
Ontheotherhand,Tastyfriedchickenfollowedthesestyles:
1.Participativestyles
2.Democraticstyles
Autocraticleadershipstyles:Thisisclassicmodelofmilitarystyleleadership
alsoknownascommandingleadershipstyles.Itisprobablythemostoftenused,but
theleastofteneffective.Becauseitrarelyinvolvespraiseandfrequentlyemploys
criticism,itundercutsmoraleandjobsatisfaction.Mr.Golemanarguesitisonly
effectiveinacrisis,whenanurgentturnaroundisneeded.Eventhemodernmilitary
hascometorecognizeitslimitedusefulness.Theadvantageofthisstyleisthisstyleis
purelyrapidenoughthatanydecisioncanmakequickly.ThatswhyCitizenbank
Plc.Followedthisstyles.Asthemarketisrapidlychanging,organizationshaveto
takemanypromptdecisions.
(Crippen,2010)
Laisserfaireleadershipstyles:Inthisstyletheleaderlethissubordinatetofreefor
makingdecision.Citizenbankbelievesthatmanagersofthecompaniesheis
investinginoughttobelefttorunthebusinesswithoutinterferencefromhim
(Kotelnikov,n.d.).Thatwhytheyempowerstheirmanagementteamtomake
decisionwithoutapproval.Alltheheadsofbusinessunitsinhisempireare
empoweredtomakedecisioninthecompanythattheyincharge.
Tastyfriedchicken,onotherhand,appliestheParticipativestylesintheircompany.
Unlikedemocratic,themanagerstillhastherighttomakethefinaldecision,buthe
alsotakestheopinionofhissubordinates.Thisoneononestylefocuseson
developingindividuals,showingthemhowtoimprovetheirperformance,and
helpingtoconnecttheirgoalstothegoalsoftheorganization.Coachingworksbest,
Mr.Golemanwrites,withemployeeswhoshowinitiativeandwantmore
professionaldevelopment.Butitcanbackfireifitsperceivedasmicromanaging
anemployee,andundermineshisorherselfconfidence.
Indemocraticleadershipstyles,thisstyledrawsonpeoplesknowledgeandskills,
andcreatesagroupcommitmenttotheresultinggoals.Itworksbestwhenthe
directiontheorganizationshouldtakeisunclear,andtheleaderneedstotapthe
collectivewisdomofthegroup.Mr.Golemanwarnsthatthisconsensusbuilding
approachcanbedisastrousintimesofcrisis,whenurgenteventsdemandquick
decisions.(Bass,2009)
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2.2Explainhoworganizationaltheoryunderpinsthepracticesofthe
management

Organizationaltheoryisthedisciplinethatstudiesthestructureanddesignofthe
organizations.Itanalysestheactualstructureoforganizationsandofferssuggestions
onhowtheireffectivenesscouldbeimproved.(Robbins,2009p.6)
Therearefivedifferentorganizationaltheories:scientificmanagement,classical
administration,humanrelationapproach,systemapproachandcontingency
approach.ForTastyfriedchicken,managerappliesthehumanrelationapproach
theoryofEltonMayo.Thehumanrelationapproachtheoryfocusesontheimportant
ofhumanfactorsanditsinfluencetoorganization.Themainpointofthistheoryis
thatmanagersneedtounderstandtheworkersfeelingsandtheirneeds.Themanager
alsoneedstoreducethecontrolonhisemployee.
Inordertomanagetheworkforceeffectivelyandgainbetterresults,participatory
decisionmakingstylesandteamworkareadopted.Thisapproachdivergessomewhat
fromtheclassicalbureaucratictheoriessuchasFayolandWeber,andthescientific
theoryofTaylor,whereamorefixedapproachisconsidered.(Dinitzen,2010p.12,
13)CitizenBankrecognizedthattheirorganizationrequiresamoredynamictheory,
andhastakentopracticemotivationaltheoriesandistryingtosettleintoanadequate
andefficientmanagementstylethroughexperimentation,whichthenewmanageris
requiredtoapply.
2.2Evaluatedifferentapproachesusedbythemanagement

Koontz,&Wiehrich(2008,p.17)offerdifferentmanagementapproaches.Oneof
theseisthe
Decisiontheoryapproachfocusesontheprocessesandpersonsmakingdecisions.
Decisionmakingisusedasthebasisforallactivitieswithin,andcanhelpmanagers
tocarryouttheirrolesefficiently,andimprovescommunications.Onthedownside,
thefocusistoonarrow,anddoesnotconsiderthemanydifferentaspectsof
management.
AnotheristheSystemsapproach,whichviewstheorganizationasagroupof
interrelatedpartswithaSinglepurposeofremaininginequilibrium.(KrielEtal.
2007)Whilethisapproachismostusefulinassimilatingdifferentpartsofan
organizationandintegratingthemtotheexternalenvironment,thisisnotanovel
concept,andcannotbeapplieduniversallytoeachandeverysituation.
SociotechnicalSystemsapproachbelievesthattechnicalsystemoranorganization
hasgreatinfluenceonthesocialsystem,andfocusesonproductionandoperations.
Theupsideofthisisthatenoughattentionisgiventothetechnicalinteractionsas
wellasthepeopleinmanaging,buttheflipsideisthatitfocusesmainlyonthelower
leveloperationalworkoftheorganizationwhiledisregardingthehigherlevels.(Kriel
Etal.2007)
Contingencyapproachtriestoabsorballthemanagementtheoriesandcomeup
withaunifiedplan,wheremanagersrealizethatonefixedapproachcannotbeused
foreverysituation.Ithastheadvantageoftakingintoconsiderationeverylimitation
oftheorganizationandthehumanresourcecapabilitiesinevaluatingpotential
solutions.(Montana&Charnov,2008).
LO3:Understandthewaysofusingmotivationtheoriesintheorganization
3.1DiscusstheImpactofdifferentleadershipstylesonemployeemotivation

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Leadershipstyleplaysagreatroleinthemotivationoftheemployeesofan
organization.[Lussier&Achua2010,p.69]statethatthesuccessofindividualcareers
andorganizationsisbasedonhoweffectivelytheleadersbehave.Thestyleofthe
managerleadingthemwouldcreateapositiveoranegativeimpactontheemployees
accordingtothesituation.
Differentleadershipstylesinthistwoorganizationsimpactsthebehaviorofthe
employeeindifferentways.Ifwelookintotheautocraticstylesofleadershipfrom
themanagersoftheCitizenbank,itnegativelyaffectstheemployee.Theemployees
starttothinkinasegregatedway.Theyfeelliketheyarenotthepartofthecompany
astheyareexcludedfromthedecisiontakingsteps.
Ontheotherhand,thedemocraticandparticipativestylefromthetastychicken
createsaverypositivemindsettothemindoftheemployees,theystartstofeelat
homebecausetheywereincludedinthedecisionsmakingstages.Moreoverit
ultimatelyinspiresthemtodothatworkwithalittlebitmorepassionbecausethey
knowattheendofthedayitistheirfamiliesworknotothers.
3.2Comparetheapplicationofdifferentmotivationaltheorieswithinthe
workplace

Tocreateabetterandcompetitiveworkplace,managerstrytofollowdifferent
motivationaltheories.Therearedifferentmotivationaltheoriesinattainingthisend.
AccordingtoMullins(2007),motivationisanindividualphenomenon,multifaceted
andintentional.Someofthemarediscussedbelow:
Maslow'shierarchyofneeds:Itisbasedonthehumanisticapproachthatpeople
tendtofulfilldifferentneedsatdifferentlevels,whichisarrangedasapyramid
shapedmodel.Thebottomwherethebottomhasphysiological(deficiencyneeds)and
thetophasgrowthneedssuchassatisfaction.(DuBrin,2009,p.375)
ByapplyingthistotheCitizenBanksituation,themanagementcouldfirsttryto
satisfyallemployeeneedsongoodworkplaceconditionsandsafety,andthenmove
uponhierarchybymeetingthesocialneedsofinteractionandteambuilding,together
withapplyingastrongculture.Finally,theselfactualizationneedsofgrowth
anddevelopmentofemployeescouldbelookedinto,toincreasetheirmotivation
further.

Image:Maslow'shierarchyofneeds

Equitytheory:JohnStaceyAdams'equitytheoryhelpsexplainwhypayand
conditionsalonedon'tdeterminemotivation.Italsoexplainswhygivingone
personapromotionorpayrisecanhaveademotivatingeffectonothers.
Whenpeoplefeelfairlyoradvantageouslytreatedtheyaremorelikelytobe
motivatedwhentheyfeelunfairlytreatedtheyarehighlypronetofeelingsof
disaffectionanddemotivation.
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Expectancytheoryofmotivation:Expectancytheoryofmotivation
emphasizesthementalprocessesregardingchoice,orchoosing.Itlooksat
selfinterestinthealignmentofrewardswithpeople'swantsandthe
connectionsamongexpectedbehaviors,rewardsandorganizationalgoals.
Fororganizations,ithelpsthemtorelaterewardsdirectlytoperformanceandto
ensurethattherewardsprovidedarethoserewardsdeservedandwantedbythe
recipients.
Herzberg'smotivationtheory
Herzberg'shygienefactorsvs.motivatorsworkplacemotivationtheoryisoneofthe
mostempiricalandcompellingtheoriesaboutmotivation.It'stheonlymotivational
theorythatsplitsoutdemotivatingfactorsfromtruemotivatorsitintroducesthe
conceptofmovementvs.motivation.Andit'sproducedmorereplicationsthanany
otherresearchinthehistoryofindustrialandorganizationalpsychology.
Herzbergresearchedhundredsofemployeesandcompaniesanddeterminedthat
mostcompaniesusewhatheunceremoniouslyreferstoasKITA,undertheerroneous
beliefthatitwillmotivatetheiremployees.
3.3Evaluatetheusefulnessifmotivationtheoryformanagers

Amotivationtheorycouldbeusedtogainbetterperformance.Managersfromboth
oftheorganizationscouldtryusingHerzberg'stwofactortheorytoensurethathis
employee'sneedsarebeingmetadequately.Thiswouldincreasetheproductivityof
thebankduetoincreasingemployeesatisfaction.Anotherthingthatcouldbedone
foreasierproblemsolvingistoconsiderthemotivationalneedsinthepyramidal
form,toseewhichshouldcomefirst.Theremunerationcouldbetiedtoperformance,
andextraworkandnewideascouldbegivenspecialrecognitioninlinewiththe
achievementmotivationtheory.Themanager'sbenefitscouldinturnbetiedtothe
overallperformancetoensurethathewillbeenthusiasticinmakingapositive
changeatthesupermarket.Amotivationaltheorywouldbehighlyvaluablein
transformingtheattitudesandbehaviorsofthestaff,andbringinevenbetter
performancefromthemtoincreaseprofitsandcustomerloyalty.
Lo4:Understandthemechanismfordevelopingeffectiveteamworkinthe
organizations
4.1explainthenatureofgroupandgroupbehaviorwithintheorganization

Workisagroupbasedactivityandiftheorganizationistofunctioneffectivelyit
requiresgoodteamwork.Groupsexertinfluenceoveritsmembership,andmanagers
mustutilizethisinordertoachieveahighstandardofworkandincrease
effectiveness.(Mullins,2007)Themembersofagrouphaveacommongoal,andare
interdependentoneachother.Thehumanrelationsapproachtomanagementconsiders
thissocialconstructasanimportantfactor.Grouppressureandacceptancemaybe
evenstrongerincentivesthansalary.(Fox,2006)Organizationsarepluralisticin
nature,andtheremaybedifferentinterestgroupswhowillnotnecessarilysharethe
managementsviewonmatters.ThetwomajorfunctionsofgroupsareTask
(collectinginformation,makingdecisionsetc.)andMaintenance(standard
setting,clarifying,cooperatingetc.)
4.2Discussthefactorsthatmaypromoteorinhibitthedevelopmentofeffective
teamworkwithintheorganization
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French&Bell(2006,p.27)saythattheinterestinteamworkhasincreasedinthe
recentpast,andthereisaddedpressuretodevelopselfmanagedanddirectedteams
toimprovequality,flexibilityandemployeemorale.Manyfactorssuchasphysical,
socialandpsychologicalmakepeopledifferentfromoneanother,andthismaycause
difficultiesinteambuildingeffectively.Similarinterestsandbackgroundsamongthe
teammemberswouldcausethecohesivenessofthegrouptoincrease,andincrease
thechancesofsuccesswithinthegroup.Similarityinbackgroundwouldpavewayfor
moreempathyandunderstandingamongtheteammembers.Thestabilityand
permanencyoftheteamtoo,playssomeroleinthis.Amorepermanentteamwould
bemorelikelytogetonwellwitheachother.Similarskilllevelsandtrainingarealso
positivecontributorsinhelpingtheteamstogetalong.
4.3Evaluatetheimpactofthetechnologyonteamfunctioningwithinagiven
organization

Likeotherfactors,usagesofthetechnologyalsohavesheerimpactoverthe
functioningoftheteam.Withthegrowingofthetechnology,manyscientifictools
havebeeninventedtofacilitatethejourneyoftheteamwork.Toolslikevideo
conferencingfacilitatesthedisposalofthetimeandtheplacebarrierforTakingdown
theteamworkwithabitmoreeffectivelyandefficiently.
Themostvibrantimpactoftechnologyoverteamworkhavebeennoticedafterthe
innovationofthesoftwarelikeworkstationwhichhelpsthemembersoftheteam
exchangingtheideasfortakinganewdecisions.Nowteammembersalsocouldput
inputindecisionsmakingprocedures.
Conclusion
Organizationalbehaviorisamultifaceteddisciplinewhichisveryimportantin
managingabusinesseffectivelyintoday'sdynamicglobalenvironment.Motivational
theories,leadershipstyles,andfactorsaffectingindividualbehaviormustbecarefully
studiedandappliedtofindanequilibriumthatfitswelltoanindividualorganization.
Technology,groups,andteamworkalsoplayandimportantpartinthiscontext.Itis
theroleofthemanagementtocreateaworkcultureandstructurethatallowsthe
employeestocontributetheirbestfortheorganization,whileallowingthemto
achievepersonalgrowthandsatisfactionatthesametime.

References
1.http://www.investopedia.com/terms/o/organizational
behavior.asp#ixzz3ttKAHXjAAccessedat01.12.2015
2.http://www.investopedia.com/terms/o/organizational

structure.asp#ixzz3ttQkLn34Accessedat01.12.2015
3.http://www.managementstudyguide.com/factorsaffectingemployeebehaviour.htmAccessedat08.12.2015
4.http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/leadership.html.Accessedat09.12.2015

5.CrippenA(2010)CNBC(online)availablewww.cmbc,comAccessedat

09.12.2015

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6.Robbins,s&JudgeT(2008)essentialoforganizingbehaviors.Newjersey:Pearson

Hall
7.AnnonGlassdor,(online),availablehttp:glassdoor,com.Accessed10.12,2015
8.Mullins,L(2007)managementandorganizationalbehavior:Pearsonhall
9.French,W&Bell,C(1984)OrganizationalBehavior:behaviorscience

interventionfororganizationdevelopment
10.Smith,M.ET.Alintroducingorganizationbehaviors(2009)

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