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PHY307.

SOLID STATE PHYSICS


1.
a)
I. A unit cell: is a conveniently chosen fundamental block by
repeating the entire space lattice that is generated. The unit cell
may be in form of a parallelogram (2D) or a parallelepiped (3D)
with lattice points at their corners.
II.
Lattice structure: A lattice can be defined as a regular periodic
array of points in space. Every lattice point can be located as;

III.

Reciprocal Lattice: For a perfect single crystal, the reciprocal


lattice is an infinite periodic three-dimensional array of points
whose spacing is inversely proportional to the distances between
the planes in the direct lattice.

b)
I.

The integers are 3, 4, 2


Take reciprocals: 1/3, 1/4, 1/2
Clear fractions (multiply by 12): 4, 3, 6
Reduce to lowest terms (already there)

II.

2.
a)
I. Packing Fraction (f) provide the quantitative measure of the
closeness of packing in a crystal structure and is defined as

f=

Volume occupied by atoms (hard spheres)

Volume of the unit cell of the structure


b)
3.
a)
I.

II.

Braggs law of diffraction states that the path difference between


two X-rays
which are reflected from adjacent planes is an integral multiple
of its wavelength

i.e.
Where;
Braggs angle,
d= interatomic plane spacing,

Wavelength of the X-rays

n = order of diffraction
b)

4.
5.
a) Ionic bonding: This type of bonding is formed through an
electrostatic attraction between two oppositely charged ions. (Cation,
which is usually a metal, and an anion, which is usually a nonmetal).
Example, reaction of sodium with chlorine (NaCl) and Copper(II)
Chloride (CuCl2).
Ionic compounds dissolve easily in water and other polar solvents.
In solution, ionic compounds easily conduct electricity.
Ionic compounds tend to form crystalline solids with high melting
temperatures.
Ionic compounds are solids, results from the intermolecular forces
(forces between molecules) in ionic solids.
Vander Waals (Inter atomic) bonding: Is the sum of the attractive
or repulsive forces exhibited by solid noble gas crystals and exists
between MOLECULES of the same substance. The outermost electron
shell is completely filled and the electron distribution is spherically

symmetric.
Each
atom
is
neutral
and has no permanent dipole moment. The attractive forces between
the atoms arise from fluctuations in the electron distribution.
Example, London dispersion forces that exist between nonpolar
molecules like chlorine gas and Dipole-Dipole forces that occur in
polar molecules like HCl.
b)
I.
(1)
Where Xn is the equilibrium position of the n th atom so that Xn =
na
Now substituting (1) into
Canceling the common quantities (the amplitude and the timedependent factor) we obtain
Canceling the common factor

eiqna leads to;

We find therefore the dispersion relation for the frequency

II.

6.
a)
The quantum of vibration is called a phonon in analogy with the
photon, which is the quantum of the electromagnetic wave.
Phonons can interact with other particles such as photons, neutrons
and electrons.
Phonon does not carry real physical momentum while Photon had a

momentum hq
A phonon is the collective oscillation of several atoms while a photon
is a packet of energy, which is the base of quantum mechanics.
A phonon is a mode of oscillation that occurs in lattice structures but
photon is a form of energy.

A phonon is a mode of vibration, which is neither a wave nor a


particle. A photon can be considered as a wave and a particle, which
are physically observable entities.

b)
When M1 M2, then M1/ M2 1
A1/A2 0, this gives a normal mode in which the atom with mass M 1
does not oscillate, while the atom with mass M2 oscillate with
frequency given in the equation above.
A1/A2 1 gives normal mode in which the atoms within the same
primitive cell move in phase, and the frequency is determine by the
lager one say M1

I.

II.
7.
a)
I.

The Fermi energy: is a concept in quantum mechanics usually


referring to the energy difference between the highest and lowest
occupied single-particle states in a quantum system of non-interacting
fermions at absolute zero temperature.

II.

The Fermi surface: is an abstract boundary in reciprocal space useful


for predicting the thermal, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties
of metals, semimetals, and doped semiconductors.
Free electron model: According to this model, the valence electrons
of the constituent atoms of the crystal become conduction electrons
and travel freely throughout the crystal

III.

b)
III.

Since T = 1K D = 92K, the heat capacity of a solid which


contains N atoms is given by

Dividing the expression by N, we obtain the heat capacity per unit


atom and dividing the latter by a3/4 we obtain the heat capacity per
unit volume, C. Therefore,