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THE CAREER AND

COLLEGE COUNSELING
GUIDE
A COMPLIMENTARY SERVICE PROVIDED BY
ANEES HUSSAIN

ANEES HUSSAIN
EXCELLENCE IN EDUCATION
PRESENTATION ON CARE ER CHOICES, COLLEGES AND FINANCIAL
AID - A GUIDE FOR STUDENTS AND PARENTS

FOREWORD
I have developed this College and Career Counseling Guide based on 20 years of
dedication to education, training and guiding over 13,000 students to the colleges of their
choice in many countries. Along this meaningful and enjoyable journey, I developed career
counseling skills as I found so many of my students somewhat helpless and without any idea
as to how to proceed on the long search of the career best suited to them.
Thus my career counseling skills have developed on the firing line and not through
specific training.
I personally feel that the most valuable part of this booklet is the career counseling part,
from pages 6 to 16s. In particular, the 11 Interest areas on pages 10 and 11 will, if thought
about and worked on, will help you to arrive at a career choice that best fits your profile and
instincts. The flowchart that I developed on page 15 is a most important working tool to
help you make the proper career selection, and after developing yourself as an attractive
candidate, will help you to get the job or independent career that you desire.
Career planning and College choice: The most exciting and most important items in the
lives of most students. To the extent that I can help you in this endeavor, to the same extent
will I feel that I have accomplished my mission.

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Introduction ___________________________________________________________ 6
Career Choice ________________________________________________________ 6
College Choice ________________________________________________________ 7
Getting Admission Into The College Of Your Choice___________________________ 7

Choosing The Right Career For Yourself____________________________________ 9


Careers Change You Dont Have To Get It Right The First Time _______________ 12
Dig Deeper__________________________________________________________ 12
The Career Choice And Job Selection Process A Flowchart ___________________ 15
A Last Word In Choosing Careers What Your Employer Will Look For _________ 16

Guide To Pakistani Colleges And Universities_______________________________ 17


Business Colleges _____________________________________________________ 18
Accountancy Colleges__________________________________________________ 21
Arts Colleges ________________________________________________________ 21
Engineering Colleges __________________________________________________ 21
Computer Science / Information Technology Colleges _________________________ 23
Medical Colleges _____________________________________________________ 27
Financial Aid Policies In Local Universities _________________________________ 28
Concluding Remarks On Pakistani Colleges And Universities___________________ 29

Guide To Colleges And Universities In The U.S. _____________________________ 30


Determining Which Colleges Are The Best For You __________________________ 31
Applying To Your Chosen Colleges _______________________________________ 32
Youve Been Accepted Now What? ______________________________________ 34
The Dreaded F Word - Finances________________________________________ 34
How To Find The Aid You Need _________________________________________ 38
Figure Out Your Best Deal______________________________________________ 40
Concluding Remarks On Financial Aid ____________________________________ 40
Concluding Remarks On Studying In The U.S My Columbia University Experience 41

The Rankings I U.S. College Rankings ___________________________________ 42


Undergraduate School Rankings _________________________________________ 42
Graduate School Rankings______________________________________________ 49

Guide To Colleges And Universties In The U.K. _____________________________ 54


Higher Education_____________________________________________________ 55
UCAS______________________________________________________________ 56
The UCAS Clearing Scheme ____________________________________________ 58
Finances And Scholarships In The UK_____________________________________ 59
Applying For A Grant _________________________________________________ 60
Routine Advice For International Students _________________________________ 61
Concluding Remarks On Studying In The U.K. My Cambridge Experience _______ 63

The Rankings II U.K. College Rankings __________________________________ 64


Guide To Colleges And Universities In Canada______________________________ 68
International Students _________________________________________________ 70
Studying In Canada Some Costs ________________________________________ 73
Legal Matters ________________________________________________________ 74
Brief Overview On Applying To A Canadian Educational Institution_____________ 75
Useful Links _________________________________________________________ 76
The Canadian Mission In Pakistan _______________________________________ 76
Concluding Remarks On Studying In Canada _______________________________ 77

The Rankings III Canadian College Rankings _____________________________ 78


The Ranking Criteria__________________________________________________ 79
Medical Doctoral Rankings _____________________________________________ 80
Primarily Undergraduate Ranking _______________________________________ 81
Comprehensive Ranking _______________________________________________ 82

Guide To Colleges And Universities In Australia_____________________________ 83


Steps Leading To A Successful Course Of Study In Australia ___________________ 84
Tuition Fees, Accommodation Costs And Scholarships ________________________ 90
Accommodation Options _______________________________________________ 91
Approximate Cost ____________________________________________________ 91
More About The Ausaid A.D.S Scholarships ________________________________ 93
The Australian High Commission In Pakistan _______________________________ 95
Concluding Remakrs On Studying In Australia Some Statistics And Comments ___ 96

Conclusion ___________________________________________________________ 96
S

INTRODUCTION
My trademark is Excellence in Education and my mission in life is to get students
into the colleges of their choice. To help students and their parents, this booklet shall focus
on:

q How to make the right choice of career.


q Which college(s) will best take you towards attaining your career goals?
q What is required to maximize the chance of getting into your chosen college?
q What is required to maximize the chance of getting the right amount of aid in
your chosen college?

CAREER CHOICE
The question: What will you be when you grow up is asked of all youngsters. Many
will answer; A doctor/engineer/businessman etc. Why? Because my father/uncle is one
Career choice is a very important issue, and most students and their parents are
inadequately equipped to cope with this. There are several important factors that influence
this decision:

q Family background
q Educational performance in school, especially favorite subjects
q Personal traits
q Aspirations
q Honest self-evaluation
q Job situation in target industry
Few students up to the age of 18 are sufficiently aware of what goes on in a particular
jo0b situation/industry. Nor are they mature enough to know precisely what career to
follow. In the U.S., a very sensible approach in liberal arts colleges is that the student does
not pick a major at the start of his college career. He or she is exposed to a wide variety of
courses in the first two years. These courses include: mathematics, economics, sociology,
economics, philosophy, history etcetera. Also, exposure to some courses in specific
disciplines, such as business administration, economics, accountancy, engineering,
journalism.
The purpose is two-fold: Give a broad education that serves as a wide base, and
secondly, expose students to many disciplines so that they can decide which one they prefer.
This is a good approach to education. Unfortunately Pakistani and British colleges do not
follow this approach. They want the student to decide from the start exactly which discipline
the student will follow.
I would advise parents to give their children space to select their own career choice,
while advising and guiding and finding information sources. I think it would be healthy to

have several family discussions on careers with family friends who are both experienced in a
career and wise enough to be open minded about other career choices. Then there are
experienced career counselors who can be of great help.
My best advice is for parents and concerned friends to carefully consider the 6 factors
listed above, over a long period of time, involving actively and in a central role the child in
question, and gradually evolving a career decision.
The final consolation to one who hesitantly chooses a particular career to study for is that
one is not bound for life to an inappropriate choice. Career changing is often done, and very
successfully so.

COLLEGE CHOICE
If a career has been decided upon, parents and the student can use the classification that
I have attached below to select the target college(s). Getting admission to the primary
college of your choice is the single most important step on the ladder to a successful and
thriving career.
Choosing a college requires careful consideration of the following factors:

q Reputation and longevity of the college.


q Faculty.
q Academic program
q Acceptability of the students in the job market
q Fee structure
q Extra curricular activities
q Affiliation with and acceptability of the degree by foreign universities
You can study the choices of the better colleges in Karachi, Lahore and other parts of
Pakistan as well as the U.S., as set out in the latter half of this document.

GETTING ADMISSION INTO THE COLLEGE OF YO UR CHOICE


For all colleges, your grades in school are one important factor in your selection.
Foreign Colleges: For American Universities, SAT scores are all important for admission
at the undergraduate level. In fact, a very high SAT score can get a fellowship. At the
graduate levels, the GMAT/GRE scores are very important. For UK colleges, the A level
results are most important. Australian and Canadian concentrate on the school of origin
plus the grades, but look at SAT results as an optional criterion.
Pakistani Colleges: Almost all have their own specialized admissions test, which gets
more that 50% weightage, with Intermediate or A Level grades also important in those cases

where the admission test is after the Intermediate or A Level results. Unfortunately, most
major local colleges and universities hold admission tests before the Intermediate or A Level
results are out. Thus the admission test becomes the 100% criteria for admission.
Proper preparation for admissions tests: I have prepared over 7,000 students for over 16
different admissions tests over the past 13 years. I can state with certainty that proper
preparation can increase any students performance by a major amount. The type of
preparation and details for each college will be discussed when questions are raised.

CHOOSING THE RIGHT CAREER FOR YOURSELF


Before you being your career planning process, you need to recognize that career
planning:

q Is highly personal and individual.


q Is an on-going, lifetime activity.
q Takes considerable time and effort.
q Involves thinking and writing.
q Requires interaction with others.
q Requires taking risks and staying open.
q May be engaging and fun
q And most importantly, begins with a vision and/or a passion.
All career planning commences with a self-assessment. You will need to know yourself
and communicate your value to your customer. One effective way of conducting a useful
self-assessment is to write down everything about yourself which you think will sell you as a
product to a prospective employer. Note your thoughts about the following aspects about
yourself:

q Your ideals. What are your images of the perfect job, location, company culture
etcetera? Where do you visualize yourself?

q Talents and knowledge. What abilities do you have to offer?


q Motivation. What motivates you most? What matters to you most in life? What
do you value? In short, why do you work? Is it the power that attracts you, or the
money, or the social status?

q Interests. What activities do you find the most appealing?


q Personality and interpersonal style. How do you typically approach life and
interact with others? Reserved, outgoing, introverted, extroverted etcetera.

q Life goals and ambitions. What contributions do you see yourself making
towards your chosen career and community in the course of your life?

Of course, a self-evaluation should not be limited to oneself. View yourself as others


perceive you to be. People can sometimes give you insights to facets of your personality
which you never realized existed. Self-understanding also involves a thorough evaluation of
the past. Events and experiences long forgotten need to be recalled. Analyze what brought
on certain major events in your life, how you dealt with them and what the ultimate outcome
was. Did it improve your life or make matters worse? This will give you a clearer picture of
whom you are, and will go a long way in helping you promote yourself to employers through
cover letters and interviews.
You also need to analyze trends in your environment before you set out on a specific
career path. Understand the corporate world by doing research on job roles, companies and

geographic regions. Do your interests match the overall environment you wish to work in?
Will your environment provide you with the opportunities to grow and expand in the future?
The chances are that there is more than one occupation which is right for you, but unless
you look at the full range of possibilities, working systematically through the steps, you may
never find out all the options suitable for you.
The following are eleven personal interest groups. Are you passionate about any of these
areas? Do you frequently indulge in any of these areas as a hobby? If you do then you
should seriously consider changing your hobby into a career.
ARTISTIC AND CREATIVE
Being artistic and creative doesn't only mean being able to paint, sculpt or make crafts.
You may have an interest and/or ability in music, drama, writing or the media, or you may
be creative in a more general way. For example, you may be good at thinking of different
ways to look at or solve a problem. Your creative interests may also lead you to jobs closely
related to the arts, such as those in administration, marketing or promotion.
CLERICAL AND ADMINISTRATIVE
You might be interested in writing reports and letters, or organizing, checking and
recording information accurately. At higher levels, you might plan, organize and supervise
office activities, company programs and other workers. Clerical workers do not necessarily
sit at a desk all day and, from time to time, may work away from the office. They may also
deal regularly with clients and other staff.
FIGURES AND COMPUTATIONAL
You might like to work with numbers, formulae and statistics or make calculations,
estimations and costing. You may use databases, sample surveys, computers and calculators
to collect, investigate and summarize information. Many people in this area have analytical
minds and may also use data to make predictions or forecasts on economic, social,
population or other trends.
HELPING AND COMMUNITY SERVICES
You could be the kind of person who is interested in helping or teaching people. You
could be involved in community welfare, education, health care, protective or information
services.
INFLUENCING AND PERSONAL CONTACT
You would normally find it easy to communicate with people. Your work may involve
discussing issues and influencing people's behavior or ideas. You should have good
reasoning and listening skills and be able to make a good impression. Being an effective
communicator doesn't mean you have to be outgoing. You can be quietly effective and do
this work well.

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LITERARY
You may like to work with words and ideas. This may involve creating original work or
editing and reviewing other people's work. You may also enjoy expressing your thoughts and
opinions in writing or discussion. This area often involves a lot of research.
MEDICAL
You may like to work with people in preventing, relieving or curing physical and mental
injuries and other medical conditions. You may work directly with patients. Some people feel
they don't have an interest in this area because of a fear of blood or operations but there are
other jobs in this field that don't involve contact with these things.
OUTDOOR
You might like to work out in the open and move about, often working from and
reporting to a central location such as a depot, office or station, mining and transport. Many
so-called 'indoor' jobs may also involve some outdoor work , and the amount of time spent
outdoors may depend on an employer's operations or the type of job or location.
PRACTICAL AND MANUAL
You might enjoy the kind of work which involves using your hands or operating tools to
prepare, make or repair things. You may prefer more practical tasks, for which precision and
accuracy are often important.
SCIENTIFIC
You might like to observe, investigate and enquire into scientific or technical processes.
This often involves research and experimentation. You often need patience and persistence,
particularly for long-term or complicated experiments and observations.
TECHNICAL AND ENGINEERING
You might like to work with tools, equipment or machines, in their design, construction,
maintenance or use. You could be working with technical manuals, blueprints or plans and
use computers as a design or manufacturing aid. You might have a curious nature, wanting
to know how and why things work.
Of course, a passion sometimes isnt enough. Ask yourself the following questions about
the career choice that interests you the most:

q Do I have the secondary school subjects required?


q Can I see myself carrying out all the different duties of the occupation?
q Would I be happy doing those tasks?
q Do I really want to do all the training involved? (How much study do I want to
do?)

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q Can I use my abilities in that occupation?


q Does that career satisfy my needs?
q Am I just pleasing my parents?
q Will there be good opportunities in the future?
q Do I like the sort of people I would work with?
q Would I fit into the culture of the workplace?
q Would I enjoy that sort of supervision?
You should be able to pick those occupations and career paths which satisfy your needs
and which are realistic choices for you. For most people there is not just one right
occupation. Follow up a number of occupations or courses that may suit you. Do not just
apply for one job or course - apply for several, otherw ise you may miss out and be left with
nothing.

CAREERS CHANGE YOU DONT HAVE TO G ET IT RIGHT THE


FIRST TIME
No matter what job you start out in, you will probably find yourself making a number of
career changes during your working life. Both people and occupations change over time. As
you develop more job skills, your priorities and work expectations will probably change. The
things that are important to you in a job today may not seem so important in 10 years time
with a higher level of experience and maturity.
The nature of work is changing rapidly and will certainly continue to do so. The
occupation you first start out in may be completely different a few years later. It is very likely
that you will find yourself reviewing your career goals many times throughout your lifetime.

DIG DEEPER
Exploring occupations and the world of work isn't meant to be a five-minute exercise.
You really need to invest the time if you are going to achieve some worthwhile results. If you
want to make 'informed' career decisions you need accurate information, advice and ideas.
You have matched possible job options to your interests. Whether you want to include
these interests as a part of daily working life, or prefer to keep them as a separate interest or
hobby is sometimes hard to decide. You may already have your mind set on a specific
occupation. However, you owe it to yourself to really check out the full story.
How much training is involved? Are there certain educational or other entry
requirements? What is the employment future like? Does the work change in different
employer settings? What are the physical and mental demands? Are there opportunities for
further development? Is the job a realistic option for you?
Having a specific occupation in mind can make it easier to plan career choices.
However, it is wise to keep your options open. Most industries have a wide range of job
options. If a specific occupation appeals to you, maybe there are some other occupations in
the same industry that will also appeal. In some industries, getting a complete picture of the
range of jobs and how they relate can be quite confusing.

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There are a number of occupations that are required by employers in most industry
sectors. If you consider that being able to 'travel' easily between employers and industry
sectors is important, choosing a portable occupation may be the answer. Jobs that allow for
easy transfer across industries include training and development, financial administration,
occupational health and safety, industrial relations, information technology and
marketing/public relations.
Increasingly, many occupations are being offered on a part-time or casual basis as
employers and workers look for better and more flexible ways of using resources and time.
Some industries are more suited to this style of employment, particularly the entertainment,
leisure, hospitality, fast food, tourism and retail sectors. Many people prefer to work parttime as it allows time for other interests. Do you have any preferences regarding your
working hours or mode of work? Are you a workaholic or a later sleeper?
Many occupations across a range of industries involve shift work, where the regular
hours of work are not 9am - 5pm, Monday to Friday. Manufacturing, health services and
computing are examples of industries in which employees may do shift work.
Seasonal work, where crops, entertainment events or other activities occur at a set time
in a given location, is another way of working. This may involve traveling to a number of
locations throughout the year.
The working conditions or environment associated with occupations may be important.
For example, you may be seeking a calm or peaceful type of working environment where
things are quiet and ordered. Occupations in libraries or research may offer such an
environment. Some people may be looking for an 'outdoor' job whereas others may prefer to
do indoor office work. But not all occupations take place in only one type of environment or
with one set of working conditions. These can vary from company to company and from one
industry to another. Some occupations can combine both environments, such as field work
coupled with laboratory/office research.
In some industries there are many 'self-contained' workplaces which have a range of
different occupation types and levels of employment. These include a television or radio
station within the media industry; a national park within the recreation industry; an
international hotel within the tourism and hospitality industry; an airport within the
transport industry; or a bank or building society within the finance industry. This means that
you can focus on a smaller work environment, rather than on a whole industry.
Some people may wish to work in an area with animals, children, people with disabilities
or elderly people. Others may prefer working with electronics or products, or items such as
motor bikes, computers, plants or ships. The links can be as varied as the range of people,
animals, products or items that exist. Quite often there is a range of occupations at different
levels and in different settings.
Some people are drawn to occupations that seem to have a particular image or standing
in society, for example, occupations with an image of authority or glamour. Make sure you
look at the actual duties, demands and responsibilities of a job carefully. In many of these
occupations, irregular and long working hours may be expected, and there may not always
be a clear career path. It is also important to realize that an occupation that's considered
powerful or glamorous today may not be in the future.

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Many occupations with high salaries involve years of study and effort, sacrifices or risks,
and unusual or irregular hours. You need to consider what kind of lifestyle you want to lead
as a result of your career. For many, the guarantee of good job prospects determines the
occupations they are prepared to consider. However, there are often factors that can change
employment predictions over time. It may be better to look at a group of jobs that appeal to
you and then do your best to show that you have the ability, training and personal skills to do
the work. Even when prospects don't look the brightest, a person with the right background
and technical and personal skills will often be rewarded with opportunities.
You can look at occupations that rely mainly on abilities you have which are natural,
learnt or a mixture of both. Some occupations can involve skills that may be gained over a
short period of time while others require years of training and experience. With a bit of
thought, you will be surprised how many skills and talents you can identify which can be
used as links to occupations.
How you feel mentally and physically can determine the type of occupation you can do
or keep. Increasingly, there are industry standards, which cover the physical aspects of work
situations. With the focus on occupational health and safety, as well as the introduction of
new technologies, the physical demands are not as great as many years ago. Some
occupations will always place more physical demands or expectations on workers. Others
require a greater level of alertness or mental capacity. Mental demands, occurring in a more
high-paced work environment, may cause stress to one person, yet provide a challenge to
another.
Some people hold strong work and/or personal values that they are not prepared to
compromise. It may be that you value respect and honesty in the workplace, or in business
transactions have a strong commitment to the work and expect a high level of teamwork and
support from others. Therefore, it is important to think about occupations, work
environments or industries where it is possible to hold and practice your values without them
being threatened. There may also be beliefs or traditions that are important to your ethnic or
religious background. Environmental and humanitarian beliefs may also influence your
choice of work.
You may have undertaken work experience as a part of secondary or further studies, or
you may have worked voluntarily in a friend's business. This type of experience will often
give you a 'feel' for a job or an industry. Such experience is valuable in helping you to decide
if it's the kind of work that you want to pursue. Occasionally, these placements lead to
permanent work because employers have had the opportunity to assess your suitability,
energy, interest and potential.
By now you should have realized that there are many ways to think about occupations,
careers and industries and, of course, not all have been mentioned here. It's likely that you
will think of other ways as you continue to explore your options. Do you have a clear picture
of all aspects of careers that interest you? If you do, it is not time to choose a college or
university for yourself which will provide you with the best opportunities to learn about the
career of your choice. . Remember that job availability changes from year to year as do
course requirements. Make sure your information is up-to-date.

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THE CAREER CHOICE AND JOB SELECTION PROCESS A


FLOWCHART

q
q
q
q
q
q
q

SELF ASSESSMENT
Your ideals.
Talents and Knowledge
Interests
Aptitude
Personality
Ambitions
Motivations / Goals
o Money
o Advancement
o Span of Control
o Enjoyment of Job
o Feeling of Helping
Others

INFLUENCING PARTIES
q Parents
q Siblings
q Teachers
q Peers

MATCH
AND
SELECT

SEARCH AND ANALYZE


JOB MARKET

DEVELOP THE PRODUCT


(YOU)
q Education
q Professionalism
q On-the-job Experience
via internships
q High GPA
q Extra-curricular activities

CAREER CHOICE

Suitable choice?

PRESENT AND PROMOTE


YOURSELF

Choice not suitable?

JOB SEARCH PROCESS


Resume Preparation
Cover Letter
Research on Target Company
Interview Training and
Preparation
q Follow up on Interview

q
q
q
q

MULTIPLE TRIES
= ULTIMATE
SUCCESS

15

A LAST WORD IN CHOOSING CAREERS WHAT YOUR EMPLOYER


WILL LOOK FOR
Lastly, always keep in mind that employers will evaluate you on the following aspects of
your personality when you apply for a job:

q Communication skills both written and verbal.


q Interpersonal skills the ability to work with others.
q Motivation/Drive/Ambition.
q Analytical and conceptual problem-solving skills.
q Degree of intelligence.
q Integrity and ethical standards.
q Leadership skills.
q Ability to sell ideas and influence others.
q Team play.
q Relevant education and experience.
q Track record of success.
q Sense of direction and clear career goals.
q Initiative and willingness to work hard.
q Confidence and maturity.
q Energy and enthusiasm.
q Creativity.
q Flexibility and adaptability.
q Ability to think independently.
q Common sense.
q Sense of humor.
q Balanced, well-rounded personality.

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GUIDE TO PAKISTANI COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES


Colleges
Business:
q SZABIST
q AMI
q IBA
q CBM
q LUMS
q KU
q PU
q PCBA
q Griffith*
Accountancy:
q ICAP

Engineering:
q NED
q GIK
q NUST
q SSUET
q UET
q PU
Law:

q Hamdard*
q SM Law*
q PU

Arts + Fashion Design:


q Indus
q AMI
q NCA*
q PSFD*

Computer Science / IT:


q SZABIST
q FAST
q AMI
q IBA
q CBM
q LUMS
q APIIT
q KU
q SSUET
q NED
q ILM
q PICS
q Griffith*
Medical:
q Aga Khan
q DOW
q BAQAI
q SMC
q KMDC
q King Edward

* Detailed information on these institutions is not available at present and will be


incorporated in future revisions of this document. Visit www.aneeshussain.com for
information on updates. Details on other professions / occupations shall also be available in
future revisions.

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BUSINESS COLLEGES
Shaheed Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto Institute of Science and Technology (SZABIST):

q Degree Offered: BBA.


q Duration of Study: Three (3) years.
q Requirements: At least 50% Intermediate or A Level C grades.
q Fee Structure: Rs. 15,000/- admission fee and Rs. 40,000/- per semester.
q Degree Offered: MBA.
q Duration of Study: 2 years.
q Requirements: Any Bachelors degree.
q Fee Structure: Rs. 15,000/- admission fee and Rs. 36,000/- per semester.

Asian Management Institute (AMI):

q Degree Offered: BBA.


q Duration of Study: 3 years.
q Requirements: At least 45% Intermediate or 8 passing subjects in O Levels with
a minimum of 2 Cs.

q Fee Structure: Rs. 5,000/- per semester admission fee and Rs. 7,000/- per course.

q Degree Offered: MBA.


q Duration of Study: 2 years
q Requirements: Any Bachelors degree.
q Fee Structure: As above.

Institute of Business Administration (IBA):

q Degree Offered: BBA / BBA Executive


q Duration of Study: 4 years.
q Requirements: At least 60% Intermediate or A Level C grades.
q Fee Structure: Rs. 31,000/- per semester and Rs. 60,300/- per semester for the
Executive program.

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q Degree Offered: MBA / MBA Executive


q Duration of Study: 2 years.
q Requirements: Bachelors degree in any field.
q Fee Structure: Rs. 31,000/- per semester.

College of Business Management (CBM):

q Degree Offered: BBA.


q Duration of Study: 3 years.
q Requirements: At least 50% Intermediate or 2 A Level C grades.
q Fee Structure: Rs. 45,000/- per semester.

q Degree Offered: MBA.


q Duration of Study: 2 years.
q Requirements: B.Com 2nd Division.
q Fee Structure: Rs. 50,000/- per semester.
Lahore University of Management Sciences (LUMS):

q Degree Offered: BSC (Hons) with specializations in Economics, Mathematics or


Finance and Accounting.

q Duration of Study: 4 years.


q Requirements: At least 60% Intermediate or C grades in principal Advanced
Level subjects and SAT I and SAT II.

q Fee Structure: Rs. 700,000+ for the 4 year program.


q Degree Offered: MBA.
q Duration of Study: 2 years.
q Requirements: 16 years of education, GMAT.
q Fee Structure: Rs. 20,000/- admission fee and about Rs. 180,000/- per year
tuition.

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Karachi University (KU):

q Degree Offered: B.A / B.Sc. (Hons) with specialization in Economics.


q Duration of Study: 3 years.
q Requirements: Intermediate in Arts, Science or Commerce.
q Fee Structure: NA
q Degree Offered: M.A / M.Sc. (Hons) with specialization in Economics.
q Duration of Study: 1 year.
q Requirements: B.A, B.Com or B.SC with Mathematics.
q Fee Structure: NA
Punjab University - Lahore (PU):

q Degree Offered: MBA / M.A (Economics)


q Duration of Study: 2 years.
q Requirements: B.A or B.Sc. degree in relevant field.
q Fee Structure: NA
Punjab College of Business Administration (PCBA):

q Degree Offered: MBA with specializations in Finance or Marketing.


q Duration of Study: 2 years.
q Requirements: B.Com or B.Sc.
q Fee Structure: Rs. 12,000/- per course.
Griffith College:

q Degree Offered: BA with specializations in Business Studies or Accounting and


Finance.

q Duration of Study: 3 years.


q Requirements: 5 O Level and 2 A Level passes.
q Fee Structure: Between Rs. 140,000/- and Rs. 160,000/- depending on package
chosen.

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ACCOUNTANCY COLLEGES
Institute of Cost Accountants of Pakistan (ICAP):

q Qualification Offered: Chartered Accountancy


q Duration: 4 foundation modules of six months each + 4 year articleship period.
q Requirements: At least 50% Intermediate or 2 A Level C grades.
q Fee structure: Rs. 12,000/- per foundation module.

ARTS COLLEGES
Indus Valley School of Arts and Architecture (Indus):

q Degree Offered: Bachelors in Design (B.D) with specialization in


Communication Design, Textile, Fine Arts, Ceramics and Architecture.

q Duration: 4 years. (5 years for Architecture specialization)


q Requirements:
q Fee Structure: Rs. 25,000/- to Rs. 30,000/- per semester.

Asian Management Institute (AMI):

q Degree Offered: Bachelors in Fashion Design (B.F.D)


q Duration of Study: 4 years.
q Requirements: At least 45% Intermediate or 8 passing subjects in O Levels with
a minimum of 2 Cs.

q Fee Structure: Rs. 65,000/- per semester.

ENGINEERING COLLEGES
Nadir Shah Eduljee Dinshaw University of Engineering and Technology (NED):

q Degree Offered: B.E with specializations in Civil, Electrical, Electronic,


Computer, Computer Science, Mechanical, Textile, Environmental, Metallurgy,
Industrial, Chemical or Architectural Engineering.

q Duration of Study: 4 years.

21

q Requirements: At least 72% Intermediate (Pre-Engineering).


q Fee Structure: Rs. 2,500/- admission fee and Rs. 10,000/- yearly.

Ghulam Ishaque Khan Institute of Information and Technology (GIK):

q Degree Offered: B.S with specializations in Computer Science and Engineering,


Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Engineering Sciences, Electronic
Engineering or Mechanical Engineering.

q Duration of Study: 4 years.


q Requirements: At least 60% Intermediate or 7 O Level and 3 A Level subjects
with no E or lower grade.

q Fee Structure: Rs. 175,000/- per year.


q Degree Offered: M.S with same specializations as above.
q Duration of Study: 2 years.
q Requirements: 4-year B.S degree or equivalent.
q Fee Structure: Same as above.
National University of Science and Technology (NUST):

q Degree Offered: B.E with specializations in Aerospace, Civil Engineering,


Computer Software Engineering, Electrical (Micro Electronics), Electrical
(Telecommuncations), Mechatronics and Mechanical.

q Duration of Study: 3.5 years.


q Requirements: At least 60% in F.Sc (Pre-Engineering) or equivalent.
q Fee Structure: Rs. 5,000/- admission fee and Rs. 6,000/- per month.

q Degree Offered: M.S with specializations in Environmental Engineering,

Geotechnical Engineering, Transportation Engineering, Structural Engineering,


Material
Engineering,
Mechanical
Engineering,
Electrical
(Telecommunications) Engineering, Electrical (Micro Electronics) Engineering,
Computer Software Engineering, Avionics Engineering and Aerospace
Engineering.

q Duration of Study: 1.5 years.


q Requirements: First Division B.Sc Or B.E
q Fee Structure: Same as above.

22

Sir Syed University of Engineering and Technology (SSUET):

q Degree Offered: B.S with specializations in Electronic, Computer, Biomedical or


Civil engineering or Computer Science.

q Duration of Study: 4 years.


q Requirements: At least 60% Intermediate or H.Sc.
q Fee Structure: Rs. 10,000/- admission fee and Rs. 8,000 per course.
University of Engineering and Technology - Lahore (UET):

q Degree Offered: B.Sc. with specializations in Chemical, Civil, Electrical,


Mechanical, Industrial,
Manufacturing, Mining, Petroleum, Metallurgical
Engineering or Materials Science.

q Duration: NA
q Requirements: Intermediate (Pre-Engineering) with Chemistry, Mathematics
and Physics.

q Fee Structure: NA

Punjab University Lahore (PU):

q Degree Offered: B.Sc. (Chemical Engineering)


q Duration: 4 years.
q Requirements: Intermediate or equivalent qualification.
q Fee Structure: NA

q Degree Offered: M.Sc. (Chemical Engineering)


q Duration: 1 year.
q Requirements: B.A / B.Sc. in relevant field
q Fee Structure: NA

COMPUTER SCIENCE / INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY COLLEGES


Shaheed Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto Institute of Science and Technology (SZABIST):

q Degree Offered: BCS.

23

q Duration of Study: Three (3) years.


q Requirements: At least 50% Intermediate or A Level C grades.
q Fee Structure: Rs. 15,000/- admission fee and Rs. 40,000/- per semester.

q Degree Offered: MCS.


q Duration of Study: 2 years.
q Requirements: Any Bachelors degree.
q Fee Structure: Rs. 15,000/- admission fee and Rs. 36,000/- per semester.

Foundation for the Advancement of Science and Technology (FAST):

q Degree Offered: BCS.


q Duration of Study: 3 years.
q Requirements: Intermediate or B.Sc. or Advanced Level equivalency or 5
Ordinary level passes.

q Fee Structure: About Rs. 74,000/- per annum.

q Degree Offered: MCS.


q Duration of Study: 2 years.
q Requirements: BCS / B.Sc. degree.
q Fee Structure: NA
Asian Management Institute (AMI):

q Degree Offered: BCS.


q Duration of Study: 3 years.
q Requirements: At least 45% Intermediate or 8 passing subjects in O Levels with
a minimum of 2 Cs.

q Fee Structure: Rs. 5,000/- per semester admission fee and Rs. 7,000/- per course.

Institute of Business Administration (IBA):

q Degree Offered: BBA (MIS) / BCS


q Duration of Study: 4 years.
q Requirements: At least 60% Intermediate or A Level C grades.

24

q Fee Structure: Rs. 60,300/- per semester.

q Degree Offered: MBA (MIS)


q Duration of Study: 2 years.
q Requirements: Bachelors degree in any field.
q Fee Structure: Rs. 27,000/- per semester.

College of Business Management (CBM):

q Degree Offered: BCS.


q Duration of Study: 3 years.
q Requirements: At least 50% Intermediate or 2 A Level C grades.
q Fee Structure: Rs. 45,000/- per semester.

Lahore University of Management Sciences (LUMS):

q Degree Offered: BSC (Hons) with specialization Computer Science.


q Duration of Study: 4 years.
q Requirements: At least 60% Intermediate, SAT I and SAT II.
q Fee Structure: Rs. 700,000+ for the 4 year program.

q Degree Offered: MS (Computer Science)


q Duration of Study: 1 year (full time) or 2 years (part time)
q Requirements: GRE and a Bachelors degree.
q Fee Structure: Rs. 20,000/- admission fee and about Rs. 3,500/- per unit.
Asia Pacific Institute of Information Technology (APIIT):

q Degree Offered: BCS.


q Duration of Study: 3 years.
q Requirements: At least 50% Intermediate or 4 A Level passes or 5 O Level
passes.

q Fee Structure: Rs. 124,000 per year.

25

Karachi University (KU):

q Degree Offered: B.S


q Duration of Study: 4 years.
q Requirements: At least 55% F.Sc (Pre-Engineering) or equivalent.
q Fee Structure: NA
q Degree Offered: M.C.S
q Duration of Study: 2 years. (1 year if B.S done from KU)
q Requirements: NA
q Fee Structure: NA

Sir Syed University of Engineering and Technology (SSUET):

q Degree Offered: B.S with specialization in Computer Science.


q Duration of Study: 4 years.
q Requirements: At least 60% H.Sc. / Intermediate with Physics, Mathematics,
Chemistry/Computer Science.

q Fee Structure: Rs. 10,000/- admission fee and Rs. 8,000/- per course.

Nadir Shah Eduljee Dinshaw University of Engineering and Technology (NED):

q Degree Offered: B.C.S


q Duration of Study: 4 years.
q Requirements: At least 85% Intermediate (Pre-Engineering).
q Fee Structure: Rs. 2,500/- admission fee and Rs. 10,000/- yearly.

Institute of Leadership Management Lahore (ILM):

q Degree Offered: B.C.S


q Duration of Study: 3 years.
q Requirements: Intermediate or Equivalent
q Fee Structure: NA

26

q Degree Offered: M.C.S


q Duration of Study: 2 years.
q Requirements: BCS/B.Sc. with Mathematics.
q Fee Structure: Rs. 250,000/- for the entire course.
Punjab Institute of Computer Sciences Lahore (PICS):

q Degree Offered: B.C.S


q Duration of Study: 3 years.
q Requirements: FA/FSC with Mathematics
q Fee Structure: NA
q Degree Offered: M.C.S
q Duration of Study: 2 years.
q Requirements: BCS/B.Sc. with Mathematics.
q Fee Structure: NA
Griffith College:

q Degree Offered: B.Sc. with specializations in Computer Science or Information


Technology.

q Duration of Study: 3.5 years.


q Requirements: 5 O Level and 2 A Level passes.
q Fee Structure: Between Rs. 140,000/- and Rs. 160,000/- depending on package
chosen.

MEDICAL COLLEGES
Aga Khan University Hospital (AKU):

q Degree Offered: M.B.B.S / Diploma and Bachelor of Science in Nursing.


q Duration of Study: 5 years.
q Requirements: At least 60% Intermediate or C grade in A Level Biology and
Chemistry.

q Fee Structure: Rs. 289,000/- per year.

27

Dow Medical College (DMC), Baqai Medical and Dental College (BMDC), Sindh
Medical College (SMC) and Karachi Medical and Dental College (KMDC):

q Degree Offered: M.B.B.S


q Duration of Study: 5 years.
q Requirements: At least 60% Intermediate (Pre-Medical) or 3 A Level C grades,
including Biology.

q Fee Structure: Rs. 10,000/- per year (SMC, DMC and KMDC), Rs. 180,000/- per
year (BMDC).

King Edward College Lahore:

q Degree Offered: M.B.B.S


q Duration of Study: 5 years.
q Requirements: At least 65% F.Sc. or equivalent. SAT I and SAT II preferred.
q Fee Structure: About Rs. 33,000/- for the entire program.

FINANCIAL AID POLICIES IN LOCAL UNIVERSITIES


Local universities often possess obscure financial aid policies. Most do not work under
fixed financial aid programs. Universities such as the Institute of Business Administration
and the College of Business Management routinely consider applications from its needy
students who are unable to meet the financial cost of their course of study. Of course, a
good academic and extra-curricular record and a high GPA help. You may end up being
subsidized for half the cost of your education by the university. However, such subsidies are
at the discretion of the administration and may be revoked at any time, so always provide for
a backing source of funding.
Local university students are often offered scholarships by corporate bodies and
organizations. Such offers are accompanied by a general announcement to students by the
college/university itself. However, these offers are generally need-based. That means prior
to being awarded a scholarship, applicants are expected to fill out forms detailing every
aspect of their familys financial situation. Interviews are usually held as well.
Some local institutions, such as the Lahore University of Management Sciences, do
indeed have formal financial aid policies sketched out. They provide grants as well as loans
to their top-tier students. Of course, competition in such institutions is intense, so do not
expect to be considered for a scholarship unless you are in the top five percent of your batch.
Finally, the Government of Pakistan occasionally announces scholarships and grants for
academically gifted students. Position holders in the Matriculate and Intermediate exams
are often provided further education at a subsidized rate.

28

CONCLUDING REMARKS ON PAKISTANI COLLEGES AND


UNIVERSITIES
WARNING: Make sure that the college that you are considering has UGC (University
Grants Commission) clearance. Many colleges and institutions granting Bachelors degrees,
including many with foreign college affiliation, do not have UGC clearance. Students who
study at these institutions and get a Bachelors degree find, to their dismay, that universities
and colleges such as IBA, CBM, SZABIST, FAST etcetera will not recognize these degrees
and the degree holder cannot gain admission. In fact, there are more colleges and
universities without UGC clearance than there are with this clearance. Do not take the oral
word of the officer of the institution, but examine the letter from the UGC granting
certification.

29

GUIDE TO COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES IN TH E U.S.


This section shall attempt to provide a brief overview of how the United States highereducation system functions. It includes information on selecting the correct colleges and
universities in the United States, applying to these institutions, and getting financial aid.
The information has been extracted from the following publications and sources:
1. Petersons Applying to Colleges and Universities in the United States.
2. Kaplans How to get into American Universities 2000 edition.
3. Petersons Graduate Programs in Engineering and Computer Science.
4. College Financial Aid for Dummies 2nd edition
5. The Internet.
The American Educational System currently houses nearly 450,000 international
students in more than 2,700 of the 3,500 colleges and universities in the country. These
students study in institutions with a total student count ranging from over 20,000 to fewer
than 1,000. These students usually graduate with degrees in medicine, law, engineering,
philosophy, computer science, mathematics and more.
Admission to a college or university typically follows satisfactory completion of twelve
years of elementary and secondary education. These institutions usually award bachelor
degrees, the Bachelor of Arts (B.A) and the Bachelor of Science (B.S) being the most
common, after a four-year period of study. These may be compared to two year
institutions, also referred to as community colleges or junior colleges, which award
associate degrees.
U.S colleges may either be public or private. Public schools are state supported and
residents of the sponsoring states can usually attend these schools for lower fees than
students coming from other states or from outside the U.S. Private schools generally have
higher costs as they do not receive the same primary funding form the state and federal
government. Colleges and universities with religious affiliations are private, most of them
being Christian.
The educational system in the U.S emphasizes a well-rounded course of study. In this
regard, the first one to two years of most undergraduate degree programs focus primarily on
basic introductory course work and general education in the arts and sciences. This exposes
students to a variety of academic disciplines and shows them how these fields are related.
Students entering the U.S system from educational systems in other countries may feel that
they have completed these general education requirements at home through previous study
at secondary level. However, general and liberal arts studies at the undergraduate level in
the U.S provide international students with an understanding of the bases and values of U.S
society, a perspective that is likely missing in similar courses taught in another culture. The
final two years of most undergraduate programs focus on the major subject concentration.
An important part of your educational experience in the U.S will be participation in the
nonacademic, social and extracurricular activities on campus. Many opportunities are
available for students to become involved in sports, student government, music, drama and
other organized and individual activities. Such activities are designed to contribute to your
personal growth, provide recreation, create opportunities to meet new people with similar
interests, and help prepare you for the future leadership roles upon graduation. Participation
in these activities, being an optional activity, is not required to obtain a U.S degree.

30

DETERMINING WHICH CO LLEGES ARE THE BEST FOR YOU


With a multitude of institutions to choose from, it is necessary to approach your choice
in a logical way to arrive at a list of schools best suited to your interests. In order to narrow
down your list, search the internet or purchase a credible college directory. Select the
schools that match your needs, while simultaneously eliminating schools that do not award
the degree that you wish to earn. The remaining institutions constitute your list.
COST

Look for the total of tuition and fees, room and board. You will need additional funds for
books and other living expenses. Are financial aid grants available? A good strategy would
be to compare the number of international students enrolled to the number of awards given
and the average amount granted. This will give you an idea of the possibility of receiving
one of these awards and how far it would go in covering your costs.
ENROLLMENT

Find the percentage of international students to the total student enrollment and the
countries represented. Will you feel comfortable amongst this mix? Is there a sufficient
student population from your country?
ENTRANCE DIFFICULTY

Attempt to find, through the college website or elsewhere, the number of international
applicants each year compared to the number of successful applicants. This will tell you
how difficult it is to get admission.
LOCATION

Does the location of the university suit you? Consider the climate in the surrounding
are, the population. Is the campus setting urban, suburban, small-town or rural and does it
appeal to you?
SIZE

Does the size of the college appeal to you? Are you the type who would perform better in
a small community-type setting with a few hundred students? Or are you the type to thrive
in an environment of cutthroat competition, surrounded by thousands of fellow students?
SPECIALIZATION

Is the college a bit too specialized for your tastes? For instance, MIT specializes in
technology and engineering programs. For a well-rounded education, a liberal arts college
would be your best bet.

31

APPLYING TO YOUR CHO SEN COLLEGES


Once you have narrowed down your list to seven to ten institutions, e-mail them with
requests for further information. Be sure to include your mailing address in your
correspondence. Within a few weeks, you should start receiving application packages from
the institutions which contain their prospectus, application form, financial aid information
form, and a few other relevant documents.
While waiting for answers to your requests for further information, consider what
international accreditation exams you shall have to write in order to be eligible for admission
to your chosen colleges. Most undergraduate schools require the SAT I and SAT II exams,
with the TOEFL exam being compulsory for all international applicants. Graduate schools
usually require the GMAT or GRE, depending on the nature of your specialization.
Be sure to request application materials as early as possible. It is best to start this
process about sixteen months before the date you intend to enter college. In addition, the
way you complete your application and present yourself is very important and will play a big
part in determining the outcome of your efforts to gain admission. If you want to find a
college or university that is able to meet your needs, it is very important for you to be
completely honest and sincere in the information you provide to them.
Carefully read the application and information that you have received from each school.
It will tell you how the school sees itself and its mission, philosophy, and educational goals.
Once you know what a specific college values and emphasized, you will have some idea of
what aspects of your own background and goals to emphasize as you prepare your
application. More important, getting a broad sense of the school will help you determine if it
is a place where you would fit in and be comfortable and happy.
Keep in mind that admission officers will be following the same procedure as you. They
will attempt to determine how your abilities, goals and interests match what they have to
offer and what kind of contributions you might be able to make to the college and its
students. Present yourself to the best advantage, but do not give incorrect information.
Most U.S schools look for a varied student population that represents a mix of cultures. As
an international applicant, do not forget to emphasize on what unique experience you will be
bringing to the school.
Final applications should be completed and sent as quickly as possible. The sooner a
college receives applications and all required supporting documents, the sooner they will be
reviewed and evaluated. An application submitted early gives you extra time to supply
additional information if it is requested.
Personal information requested on an application form plays a large role in
presenting you as an individual. Most admission officers will take into account that you are
form another culture and, if applicable, that English is not your native language. Share your
rich background, experiences and enthusiasm to the best of your abilities. Keep in mind
that the personal information asked for on the application will provide admission officers
with the information they need to get to know you as a person, not just your academic
achievements and test results. Make the most of this opportunity.

32

Be prepared to have at least one teacher provide a reference for you. Select someone
who knows you well and has taught you in a subject that is related to the course of study you
are thinking of following at college. If you are sure of your teachers opinion of yourself,
exercise your option to make the recommendations confidential between your teacher and
the college. Many teachers feel freer to write a more open recommendation if they know it
will be confidential.
Your official transcript or academic record is the objective part of your applications.
Have your official O and A level results, or your Matriculate and Intermediate results, sent
as soon as they are available. Make sure all photocopied result sheets are duly attested by
the certificate issuing authority. In addition, if these transcripts or records are not in
English, be sure to provide an English translation, duly certified. This should be
accompanied by the documents in the original language.
One major source of anxiety noted in students arises from their concern over taking
the TOEFL and/or other standardized accreditation tests. You should not allow these
worries to grow into any unwarranted anxiety over how well you will score. Most U.S
admission officers are aware of the difficulties that these tests present to students educated
outside of the U.S system or whose native language is not English. They will take this into
account. Despite this fact, it is common knowledge that international students achieve
higher scores in their SAT I and SAT II exams than U.S students. The tests are only one
part of the academic evaluation, and admission committees will place the results of your
examinations in the proper context.
With regard to financial aid, the most important factor is not to delude yourself with
illusions of a full scholarship. Always be prepared to provide the maximum amount of your
funding from your personal/family means. Find out early what the policies are at the
colleges that interest you. In addition, explore the possibilities for aid available through the
government of your home country, as well as other donor agencies operating within your
country. You will be asked to submit documentation of your familys financial resources to
help schools determine how much aid you will need if you are admitted. A bank statement
will also be required. Be prepared to submit the information as early as possible in order to
avoid delays later on. More information on obtaining financial aid is provided further on in
this booklet.
All applications have to be accompanied by an application processing fee set by the
college, usually in the range of $15 to $40 and payable in U.S dollars only. Therefore, it is
essential to send a complete application ready to be evaluated. A complete application will
usually consist of:
q Fully completed application form.

q Teacher recommendation(s).
q Secondary school report.
q Transcripts and other academic records.
q TOEFL scores.
q SAT I and/or SAT II scores.
q Non academic information as required.
q Financial aid application.

33

q Application fee.
It is of utmost importance to get your timing right. Make certain that you are aware
of all the deadlines set by the institution. Make a list of all the deadlines from your college
list so as not to mix up dates. Make sure to send all items and correspondence by air mail,
and mail them as far before the deadlines as possible.

YOUVE BEEN ACCEPTED NOW WHAT?


The letter of admission sent to you shortly after you have been informed of your
acceptance shall tell you exactly what steps to follow to confirm your acceptance of their
offer and how to prepare for the first term. You must respond with a yes or no to each
offer of admission.
Alternatively, you may receive a letter informing you of your placement on a waiting
list. This generally means that the admission office determined that you were qualified for
admission, but there was not enough room to admit all applicants. If you say yes to a
college that places you on their waiting list, you will be offered admission later as soon as
space becomes available.
Rules and regulations concerning the entrance of students into the U.S are
complicated. International students must submit to the U.S consular authorities, in order to
apply for a visa, a properly completed I-20 form and a valid passport form their home
country. The I-20 will be sent to you by the college after you have been admitted to their fulltime academic program and have demonstrated that you have sufficient financial resources
to cover all expenses for the duration of your studies.
Institutions may require you to pay one full years fees in advance. Proof of such
payment may sometimes be required by the consular authorities on submission of your I-20
before they grant you a visa. Other institutions that do not require full prepayment of fees
may have several options for fee payment. Most colleges end bills twice a year, once in the
summer before school begins and again in the winter to cover the second half of the years
fees. You will be billed for tuition, general activities, health insurance and housing/meal
costs. Extra costs, such as books and supplies, will not be billed by the college. Make sure
you include them when determining your budget for the year.
Lastly, most colleges offer a range of housing options. Some colleges require all first
year students to live on campus in college housing. You will generally be asked to indicate
your first, second and third choices from among the options available.

THE DREADED F WORD - FINANCES


A four year education at elite schools costs from $130,000 to $150,000. However, this
should not give you a reason to write off expensive schools. The amount your family is
expected to pay remains about the same no matter where you enroll. The more expensive
the college, the more aid for which you are eligible. All you need to do is apply and qualify
academically.

34

One piece of bad news: Although most schools still insist that they follow a needblind admission policy, which means that the decision to accept or turn down an applicant
is made without regard to that students financial need, many educators admit privately that
students who can pay have the edge over equally qualified students who are less able to
pay.
Some colleges prefer to reward students who excel in academics with merit
scholarships, while others choose to reward talent. Sports, music, drama and art are all
included. However, talented applicants with only so-so grades may even make the
scholarship cut. Sometimes, talent outweighs academic records.
The difference between the cost of your college education and the dollars your family
is expected to contribute towards your college education defines your level of need. This
has a particular meaning in financial aid offices, however. Financial aid counselors draw the
line between perceived need and demonstrated need. Perceived need is defined by you as
the amount you wish to obtain in scholarship. Demonstrated need is the amount of
scholarship that you should be eligible for, which is determined by the aid office by the mass
of paperwork and financial documents you submit along with your financial aid application.
The complex paperwork evaluates families income and assets to determine how much of the
overall college tab individual students and their parents can afford.
Financial aid personnel at various schools put approximately the same ceiling on
how much they expect a family to pay, regardless of costs at their college. Once youre
accepted for admission, they try to offer an aid package that makes up the difference. The
aid package you eventually receive will comprise of self-help money, which includes workstudy jobs and loans that must be paid back, and gift money which includes grants and
scholarships that arent paid back.
As an international student, your potential college expects you to embark upon your
aid-collection mission from within your own country. Begin with the premise that you will
gather money in your own country before shipping out. Of the half-million students who go
to the US form abroad each year to attend college, some 80% of undergraduate students and
nearly 50% of graduate students accumulate the funds from their own resources and those of
their families. Some even receive funding form their governments, which usually expect
them back home when they finish their college study.
The deepest pockets of funding for students from abroad are the colleges and
universities themselves. In a recent year, the schools in the US gave international students
nearly $147 million, according to reports filed with the College Board. Table 1.1 that
identifies the top 15 US undergraduate student international aid givers.
Graduate students, however, outrank undergrad students when schools hand out US
student money. Table 1.2 lists the top twenty graduate schools that give out aid to
international students.
Do not expect to finance your study by working in the United States at least not
legally. The federal government has strict regulations against international students working
off-campus during the first year; the rules arent very liberal even after first year. You may,
however, be able to find a U.S bank that will give you a loan if a creditworthy U.S citizen or
permanent resident co-signs for the loan. Another source of loans is:

35

The International Education Finance Corporation


424 Adams St.
Milton, MA 02186
888-296-IEFC (4332)
www.iefc.com
This organization is a unique, private firm that specializes in global loans for students.
The money for their programs come from the Bank of Boston and is guaranteed.
Table 1.1: Top Aid-Giving Schools for International Undergraduates
College

Number of
Students

Number of
International
Students

Dollars Awarded
to International
Students ($)

Number Given
Aid

Harvard and
Radcliff

6,630

450

7,515,315

311

Massachusetts
Institute of
Technology

4,363

334

5,220,054

201

Mount Holyoke

1,810

194

4,776,117

183

University of
Pennsylvania

11,404

847

3,750,000

150

Middlebury

2,087

141

6,445,950

137

Princeton

4,600

243

3,300,000

150

Dartmouth

3,932

326

3,165,360

132

Macalester

1,727

193

2,589,048

168

Brown

5,751

390

2,544,594

101

Eastern Michigan

17,528

457

2,210,200

430

Clark

2,047

339

2,109,376

184

Smith

2,630

201

1,956,816

107

Brandeis

2,976

153

1,942,049

90

Stanford

6,427

311

1,929,960

120

Franklin and
Marshall

1,807

103

1,819,125

77

Source: College Financial Aid for Dummies 2nd Edition.

36

Table 1.2: Graduate Aid - The 20 Schools that Award toe Most Aid to International Graduate
Students
College

No. of Students Enrolled


College-Wide
International

International Students
Total Dollars
Students

Cornell University

4,288

1,572

21,518,000

742

Arizona State
University

10,320

1,435

13,212,010

1,091

Boston University

8,348

1,895

13,127,918

907

UC: Berkeley

7,509

1,127

10,961,565

1,115

1,881

535

10,178,244

438

1,366

459

9,959,841

459

5,040

1,029

7,956,000

975

3,234

446

7,120,064

365

4,329

992

6,822,730

862

3,140

636

3,570,720

430

955

80

3,430,448

109

3,138

848

3,255,917

373

6,083

928

2,893,728

591

3,486

734

2,754,430

190

4,260

1,380

1,856,406

1,362

3,553

433

1,733,223

201

2,767

474

3,063,448

334

2,696

446

1,585,164

226

577

185

1,380,001

137

406

124

1,176,000

98

University of
Notre Dame
John Hopkins
University
Louisiana State A
&M
Vanderbilt
University
Oklahoma State
University
University of
Miami
Dartmouth
College
New Jersey
Institute of
Technology
North Carolina
State University
Georgetown
University
Iowa State
University
St. Johns
University
Auburn University
SUNY at
Binghamton
University of
Maharishi
Medical College
of Ohio

Source: College Financial Aid for Dummies 2nd Edition.

37

To find out more about U.S-sponsored aid that may be available to you as an
international student, you may contact the following organizations:

q The United States embassy or consulate in your home country.


q Institute of International Education (www.iie.org)
q NAFSA: Association of International Educators (www.nafsa.org)

This organization, previously called the National Association of Foreign


Student Affair, facilitates international education exchange between the U.S
and the rest of the world. The organization offers information only and
virtually no direct grants.
q U.S. Information Agency (www.usia.gov Educational and Cultural Affairs Bureau)
q Aid for international students seeking to study in the U.S: EduPASS
(www.edupass.org)
Most students are confused over when to apply for financial aid. You should apply for
admission and financial aid at the same time. You should not wait for one procedure to be
completed before starting on the other. When students apply for regular admissions, the
college normally notifies them of acceptance in April, May and June. However, most
financial aid priority deadlines are in February. If you wait until admission to apply, you
miss the deadlines for the awarding of financial aid.

HOW TO FIND THE AID YOU NEED


Your allies in the quest for financial aid are, ironically, the people who are going to
give it to you. In particular, the people in the admissions office and the college recruiter
whos responsible for your file. The expense of recruiting you costs out at about $2,400 per
head. After youre recruited and admitted, admissions personnel want to hang on to you,
especially at institutions that are in danger of opening a semester with empty seats. You
recruiter can recommend you for any special scholarships that are used to entice students
and lock up their enrollments. In effect, youre rewarded to for committing to join the
college.
A good procedure is to stay in touch with your recruiter and ask him to describe how
other students have financed their way through your potential school. Keep in mind that you
will have a few thousand students applying with you. Hence college recruiters are extremely
busy around the time they receive your financial aid documents. Do not expect a phone call
or e-mail asking you to supply any missing documents. Two weeks after sending your
application, e-mail or call the financial aid office to confirm that your file is complete.
Be wary of early decisions. If the school accepts your ED, they may offer you a
downsized financial aid package because youre already hooked. This is contrary to popular
belief that the ED-ers get more financial aid but consider the college point of view: This
guys a sure thing so why not save money for others who need enticement to enroll? If,
however, the school in question only offers need-based aid, such as the Ivy League schools,
you can make your decision as early as you want to. It will not affect your ability to obtain
aid.
If your financial aid offer does not meet your expectations, you may still have hope.
Most colleges will negotiate their financial aid award offers if you provide a good enough
reason to do so or make a sincere plea for guidance. Basing your negotiation on facts

38

presenting new information or calling attention to factors the financial aid counselor may
have overlooked is the surest way to win an appeal.
However, a few elite institutions may say take it or leave it. These are usually the
top-tier schools that take a rigid stance because they can, since they enjoy a surplus of
academically qualified applicants. Colleges mostly state their position on appeals early on in
the acceptance or award letter. If in doubt, you may e-mail the financial aid office and ask if
award appeals are accepted.
Make your appeal for more aid within two weeks after you receive your award letter
before all their scholarship money has been allotted to other students. However, your last
chance comes in the last week of October through the first week of November. Thats when
the college will know how much money it has in the kitty generated by students who had
accepted admission and financial aid and then went somewhere else or took fewer classes,
thus qualifying for less aid.
When submitting your appeal, make sure you write a good appeal letter. Keep it limited
to a page, mention facts and try to include a few figures showing what your wealth used to
be and what it is now due to what circumstances. Keep your tone polite and friendly.
When embarking on your scholarship hunt, here are a few useful rules to follow.

q Think ahead. Do not wait till your final year of schooling. Begin participating in

school and community activities NOW in order to develop a strong visible credential
to use in the scholarship search by the time you graduate.

q Search extensively. Begin with your school career counseling service. Use the
internet.

q Save all accomplishments. Keep records of all significant happenings during your

schooling years. Separate your high school activities from your community activities,
but include everything on your financial aid form. The high-school transcript does
not tell your entire story. Special notes and awards catch the eye of scholarship
readers who review and evaluate your application.

q Tailor your applications. Do not rely on one standardized application to win all

scholarships. Customize your application package to maximize your appeal in a


specific scholarship award environment.

The following internet resources may ease your financial aid search.
q ACT. (www.act.org/cc/index.html)
q Adventures in Education, Financial Aid Office. (www.tgslc.org/adventur/fao.htm)
q Chinook College Funding Service. (www.chinook.com)
q Chronicle of Higher Education. (www.chronicle.merit.edu)
q Citibank Student Loan Corporation. (www.citibank.com/student/CSLC.htm)
q College Board Online. (www.collegeboard.org)
q CollegeEdge. (www.CollegeEdge.com)
q College Fund Finder. (www.apollo.co.uk/a/cff)
q CollegeSelect. (www.cyber-u.com)
q College Xpress. (www.collegexpress.com/index.html)

39

q
q
q
q
q
q
q
q
q
q
q

DirectHit. (www.Directhit.com)
Educaid. (www.educaid.com)
eduPASS. (www.edupass.com)
Elm Resources. (www.elmresources.com)
ExPAN Scholarship Search.
(www.collegeboard.org/fundfinder/html/ssrchtop.html)
fastWEB. (www.fastweb.com)
FinAid The Financial Aid Information Page. (www.finaid.org)
KapLoan. (www.kaploan.com)
The Princeton Review. (www.review.com/College/Find/index.html)
Student Services. (www.studentservices.com/search)
U.S. News.Edu. (www.usnews.com/usnews/edu)

FIGURE OUT YOUR BEST DEAL


Your award letters come out of computers programmed with specific criteria.
College financial aid counselors may not have reviewed each one before mailing the letters,
hence you should go over yours with a fine-toothed comb. Not only are you trying to
determine your best scholarship deal (assuming youve qualified for awards from more than
one college), but youre also trying to find reasons to appeal for even more aid.
Immediately accept a part of each award, but do not commit fully. You dont want to
end up turning down a particular school and then changing your mind after it has given its
grant to someone else. After finally deciding on a school to accept, notify the financial aid
offices of the rejected schools as quickly as possible. This will allow them to free up money
for students on the award waiting list.
If your offer contains a job or college work-study position you may choose to turn
down that portion of your package and only accept the gift-aid, if you do not wish to be
employed in your initial period in college. However, this is not recommended.
Next, you need to make a small chart to be able to compare the financial advantages
from each of your award offers. Classify your chart by family contribution, total amount of
gift aid, total amount of self-help and total cost of education. Work out some ratios such as
the proportion of gift-aid to self-help and the gap between what you were awarded and what
you requested. These will help you compare your packages in relative, rather than absolute
terms.

CONCLUDING REMARKS ON FINANCIAL AID


A bit of bad news: If you dont win financial aid for your first year at college, chances
are you may not win any later. Of course, students with extremely high first year GPAs
(usually exceeding 3.9 on a 4 point scale) are reconsidered. Many private colleges give
priority to first -year aid winners at re-application time. Secondly, if you win financial aid
from outside your institution, expect to lose some of your schools award. Notifying your
school of any third-party awards is mandatory. You should try and negotiate to keep both
awards. If the college is to deduct some money from your award, request that they do so
from your college loan or work-study, and not from the gift-aid portion.

40

Some students make a few mistakes when applying for financial aid. The most
common: not asking about financial aid along with your application. Do not hang back
waiting to be admitted to a college before filing your financial aid request forms. Secondly,
do not take automatic renewal of your package for granted. Financial aid is an annual event,
unlike the one-time admissions process. Pick up financial aid packets from your colleges
aid office to continue or initiate awards for next year.
In a nutshell, financial aid is one of the most confusing and intricate aspects of
applying to college in the U.S. However, if you manage to sit through the financial aid
roller-coaster ride, youll sail through the college merry-go-round without trouble. The
internet is your best resource for additional financial aid information. In addition to all the
links mentioned in this document, be sure to visit the financial aid office websites for your
potential colleges.

CONCLUDING REMARKS ON STUDYING IN THE U. S MY


COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY EXPERIENCE
From 1963 to 1971 I was at Columbia University in New York City. I first studied for
the M.S in Industrial Engineering. I responded splendidly to the academic system at
Columbia. We had three classes per week for each of five subjects. In each class, we were
given one reading and one written assignment. Thus there were fifteen of each type of
assignment, each week. In addition, we also had regular quizzes, a mid-term and a final
examination. Some courses also required additional field work, such as a factory visit and a
report.
This regular treadmill of activity brought out the best in me, and I excelled in my
academic activities. In fact, in my courses for the M.S in Industrial Engineering, together
with my courses for the Ph.D. in Business Administration, I attained 26 As and 2 Bs, thus
giving me a Grade Point Average (GPA) of 3.94.
While taking two courses in the Business School designed for engineers, namely,
Finance and Accounting for Engineers and Economics for Engineers, for the first time in my
education I became aware of how to measure and make profits. I joined the Graduate
School of Business and ended up with two degrees a M.S. in Industrial Engineering and an
M.Phil. in Business Administration. The combined effect of these degrees made me
versatile and capable of performing well in various job positions.
My exceptional grades enabled me to win for, two years, the Ford Foundation
Fellowship for Doctoral Studies in Business, and to be made the President of the Alpha
Chapter of Beta Gamma Sigma, the honors society of business. My performances also led
me to become the youngest full-time faculty member of the Graduate School of Business. I
taught for five years, enjoying this as much as any experience in my life, and was rated
amongst the best teachers at the Graduate School of Business.
The educational atmosphere at Columbia University is so motivating, challenging and
utterly satisfying that I count my eight years spent there as amongst the best of my life.

41

THE RANKINGS I U.S. COLLEGE RANKIN GS


The following is essentially a reproduction of the 2002 US News rankings, summarized
to include those fields of higher education which are the most popular amongst the Pakistani
student body. Comprehensive rankings may be viewed at www.usnews.com. The first few
pages deal with undergraduate rankings while the final pages address graduate schools.
While going over the rankings, one needs to keep in mind the distinction between private
and publicly funded institutions. Private colleges and universities generally do better on
several measures in the U.S News ranking model. Because of their mission to serve students
in their state, publics generally don't score as high on selectivity as private colleges that have
more stringent admissions standards. Public schools also often lack the financial resources
of the better-endowed private universities.

UNDERGRADUA TE SCHOOL RANKINGS


The U.S. News rankings of colleges and universities provide an excellent starting point
for families comparing colleges because they offer an opportunity to judge the relative
quality of the educational experience at schools according to widely accepted indicators of
excellence. But many other factors that can't be measured should figure in your decision,
including the school's cost, the availability of aid, the feel of campus life, and the setting and
geographic location. The tables, both here and on the U.S. News website, are a source of
highly useful information about colleges that is otherwise hard to obtain and which will help
you narrow your search to a small number of colleges that are a good fit.
While scanning our lists to find colleges that feel right, students and parents may find
many names that they had not consideredor even heard of. There are hundreds of fine
colleges and universities, and ultimately the challenge is to narrow the list to a few that you'd
really like to attend. This guide will give you the names of some of those schools, but, more
important, will help you customize your search in ways that make the most sense for you.
RANKING CRITERIA AND WEIGHTS

The U.S. News rankings are based on several key measures of quality, shown in the table
below. These measures fall into seven broad categories: academic reputation; retention
(freshman retention and six-year graduation rate); faculty resources (for example, class size);
student selectivity; financial resources; alumni giving; and, for national universitiesdoctoral
and liberal arts collegesbachelor's only, an indicator of graduation rate performance. The
indicators include both input measures, which reflect the quality of students, faculty, and
other resources used in education, and outcome measures, which capture the results of the
education an individual receives. Scores for each measure are weighted as shown to arrive at
a final overall score.
Each school's rank (within its group of peer institutions) is based on the same set of
quality measures. 75 percent of a school's ranking is based on a formula that uses objective
measures of academic quality such as graduation rates. The remaining 25 percent is based
on a reputational survey. U.S. News asks the president, provost, and dean of admissions at
each school to rate the quality of the academic programs for schools in the same category,
including their own. While reputations are subjective, they are also importanta diploma
from a distinguished college helps graduates get good jobs and gain admission to top-notch
graduate programs, just as a high school's reputation can help or harm an applicant's
chances of getting into a good college.

42

Ranking
Category

National
Universities
Doctoral and
Liberal Arts
Colleges
Bachelor's
Category
Weight

Universities
Master's and
Comprehensive
Colleges
Bachelor's
Category
Weight

Academic
reputation

25%

25%

Student
selectivity (Fall
2000 entering
class)

Faculty
resources
(2000)

15%

20%

15%

20%

Sub-factor

National
Universities
Doctoral and
Liberal Arts
Colleges
Bachelor's
Sub-factor

Universities
Master's and
Comprehensive
Colleges
Bachelor's
Sub-factor

Academic
reputation survey

100%

100%

Acceptance rate

15%

15%

Yield

10%

10%

High school class


- top 10%

35%

0%

High school class


top 25%

0%

35%

SAT/ACT scores

40%

40%

Faculty
compensation

35%

35%

Percent faculty
with top terminal
degree

15%

15%

% fulltime faculty

5%

5%

Student/faculty
ratio

5%

5%

Class size, 1-19


students

30%

30%

Class size, 50+


students

10%

10%

Avg. Grad rate

80%

80%

Avg. freshman
retention rate

20%

20%

Graduation and
retention rate

20%

Financial
resources

10%

10%

Avg. Educational
Exp / Student

100%

100%

Alumni giving

5%

5%

Average alumni
giving rate

100%

100%

Grad. Rate
performance

5%

0%

Graduation rate
performance

100%

0%

Total

100%

100%

100%

100%

25%

43

TOP 25 UNDERGRADUATE LIBERAL ARTS PROGRAMS

The United State's 218 liberal arts colleges emphasize undergraduate education. The
Carnegie Foundation has redefined a liberal arts school as one that awards at least half its
degrees in the liberal artsthe benchmark previously was 40 percentso the list has changed
somewhat from previous years.

Rank

School

1.

Amherst College (MA)


Swarthmore College (PA)
Williams College (MA)
Wellesley College (MA)
Bowdoin College (ME)
Carleton College (MN)
Haverford College (PA)
Pomona College (CA)
Middlebury College (VT)
Davidson College (NC)
Grinnell College (IA)

Overall
Score
100.0
100.0
99.0
95.0
93.0
93.0
93.0
93.0
92.0
91.0
90.0

Wesleyan University (CT)

90.0

4.4

13.

Washington and Lee University (VA)

89.0

3.9

14.

Harvey Mudd College (CA)

88.0

4.2

Smith College (MA)

88.0

4.4

Vassar College (NY)

88.0

4.2

Bryn Mawr College (PA)

87.0

4.3

Claremont McKenna College (CA)

87.0

4.0

Colgate University (NY)

87.0

4.1

Colby College (ME)

86.0

4.1

Hamilton College (NY)

86.0

3.9

Bates College (ME)

85.0

4.1

Oberlin College (OH)

85.0

4.3

Mount Holyoke College (MA)

84.0

4.1

Trinity College (CT)

84.0

3.9

3.
4.
5.

9.
10.
11.

17.

20.
22.
24.

* denotes a public school.

44

Reputation (5)
4.8
4.7
4.8
4.6
4.5
4.5
4.4
4.3
4.3
4.2
4.3

TOP 25 UNDERGRADUATE BUSINESS PROGRAMS

Rank/School
1.
2.
4.
5.

7.
9.

12.
14.

16.

23.

University of Pennsylvania (Wharton)


Massachusetts Inst. of Technology
(Sloan)
University of MichiganAnn Arbor *
University of CaliforniaBerkeley (Haas)
*
U. of North CarolinaChapel Hill
(Kenan-Flagler) *
University of TexasAustin (McCombs)
*
Carnegie Mellon University (PA)
University of Virginia (McIntire) *
Indiana UniversityBloomington
(Kelley) *
New York University (Stern)
U. of IllinoisUrbana-Champaign *
Univ. of Southern California (Marshall)
Univ. of WisconsinMadison *
Purdue Univ.West Lafayette (Krannert)
(IN)*
Univ. of MinnesotaTwin Cities
(Carlson) *
Emory University (Goizueta) (GA)
Michigan State University (Broad) *
Ohio State UniversityColumbus
(Fisher) *
Pennsylvania State U.University Park
(Smeal) *
Univ. of MarylandCollege Park (Smith)
*
University of Washington *
Washington University in St. Louis
(Olin)
University of Arizona (Eller) *
University of Florida (Warrington) *
University of Notre Dame (IN)

* denotes a public school.

45

Average
reputation score
(5.0 = highest)
4.8
4.6
4.6
4.5
4.3
4.3
4.2
4.2
4.1
4.1
4.1
4.0
4.0
3.9
3.9
3.8
3.8
3.8
3.8
3.8
3.8
3.8
3.7
3.7
3.7

Specialization Rankings within Undergraduate Business


The following are rankings of the more popular business specialization programs.
The top five schools within each specialization have been included. Comprehensive
rankings are available on the U.S News website.
Accounting
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

U. of IllinoisUrbana-Champaign *
University of TexasAustin (McCombs) *
University of MichiganAnn Arbor *
University of Pennsylvania (Wharton)
Univ. of Southern California (Marshall)
E-Commerce

1.
3.
4.
5.

Carnegie Mellon University (PA)


Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (Sloan)
University of TexasAustin (McCombs) *
Univ. of MarylandCollege Park (Smith) *
University of CaliforniaBerkeley (Haas) *
Entrepreneurship

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Babson College (MA)


University of Pennsylvania (Wharton)
Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (Sloan)
Univ. of Southern California (Marshall)
University of TexasAustin (McCombs) *
Finance

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

University of Pennsylvania (Wharton)


New York University (Stern)
University of MichiganAnn Arbor *
University of CaliforniaBerkeley (Haas) *
Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (Sloan)

* denotes a public school.

46

Management Information Systems


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (Sloan)


Carnegie Mellon University (PA)
University of TexasAustin (McCombs) *
Univ. of MinnesotaTwin Cities (Carlson) *
University of Arizona (Eller) *
Management

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

University of Pennsylvania (Wharton)


University of MichiganAnn Arbor *
Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (Sloan)
Carnegie Mellon University (PA)
University of CaliforniaBerkeley (Haas) *
Marketing

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

University of Pennsylvania (Wharton)


University of MichiganAnn Arbor *
University of CaliforniaBerkeley (Haas) *
University of TexasAustin (McCombs) *
U. of North CarolinaChapel Hill (Kenan-Flagler) *

* denotes a public school.

47

TOP 25 UNDERGRADUATE ENGINEERING PROGRAMS

U.S. News ranks schools with at least one engineering program accredited by the
Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology (ABET). Schools with accredited
engineering programs that offer undergraduate degrees in engineering are placed on one of
two categories: schools whose highest engineering degree offered is a Ph.D. and schools
whose highest engineering degree is either a bachelor's or master's. Surveys for each
category were conducted in the spring of 2001. The rankings are based solely on the
judgments of deans and senior faculty who rated each program they're familiar with in their
category on a scale from 1 (marginal) to 5 (distinguished). Response rates were 52 percent
for schools whose top degree in engineering is a Ph.D. and 54 percent for schools whose top
degree in engineering is either a bachelor's or master's degree.
For the specialty rankings, schools that offered any courses in that specialty were eligible
to be ranked in that area, whether that program is ABET accredited or not. Deans and senior
faculty of engineering schools nominated up to 10 of the best programs in each specialty
area. Due to space constraints, we could not list all specialty rankings in this document.
They may be viewed on the U.S News website.

Engineering Schools with Ph.D programs


Rank/School
1.
2.
3.
4.
6.
7.

11.
12.
14.
17.
20.

24.

Massachusetts Inst. of Technology


Stanford University (CA)
University of CaliforniaBerkeley *
California Institute of Technology
U. of IllinoisUrbana-Champaign *
Georgia Institute of Technology *
Carnegie Mellon University (PA)
Cornell University (NY)
Purdue Univ.West Lafayette (IN)*
University of MichiganAnn Arbor *
Princeton University (NJ)
University of TexasAustin *
Univ. of WisconsinMadison *
Johns Hopkins University (MD)
Northwestern University (IL)
Pennsylvania State U.University Park *
Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst. (NY)
Texas A&M UnivCollege Station *
Univ. of MinnesotaTwin Cities *
Rice University (TX)
Univ. of CaliforniaLos Angeles *
University of Washington *
Virginia Tech *
Ohio State UniversityColumbus *
Univ. of CaliforniaSan Diego *

* denotes a public school

48

Average
reputation score
(5.0 = highest)
4.9
4.8
4.7
4.6
4.6
4.5
4.4
4.4
4.4
4.4
4.2
4.1
4.1
4.0
4.0
4.0
3.9
3.9
3.9
3.8
3.8
3.8
3.8
3.7
3.7

Engineering Schools without Ph.D programs


Rank/School
1.
2.
3.
4.
6.
8.
10.
13.
14.
16.

20.

Rose-Hulman Inst. of Tech. (IN)


Harvey Mudd College (CA)
Cooper Union (NY)
Cal PolySan Luis Obispo *
Rochester Inst. of Technology (NY)
United States Air Force Acad. (CO)*
United States Naval Academy (MD)*
Bucknell University (PA)
United States Military Academy (NY)*
Lafayette College (PA)
Swarthmore College (PA)
Villanova University (PA)
Milwaukee School of Engineering
Embry Riddle Aeronautical U. (FL)
Union College (NY)
Calif. State Poly. Univ.Pomona *
Kettering University (MI)
San Jose State University (CA)*
United States Coast Guard Acad. (CT)*
Bradley University (IL)
The Citadel (SC)*
Loyola Marymount University (CA)
Trinity University (TX)
Valparaiso University (IN)
Webb Institute (NY)

Average
reputation score
(5.0 = highest)
4.5
4.3
4.0
3.8
3.8
3.7
3.7
3.6
3.6
3.5
3.5
3.5
3.4
3.3
3.3
3.2
3.2
3.2
3.2
3.1
3.1
3.1
3.1
3.1
3.1

* denotes a public school.

GRADUATE SCHOOL RANK INGS


Choosing the right grad school requires serious introspection, since the best program for
you will be the onelarge or small, urban or rural, intensely competitive or more collegial,
highly social or notthat provides the coursework and the intellectual challenge you need to
thrive. It's important that you use these rankings as a supplement to careful thought and
other research, and not the sole deciding factor.

49

Each year, U.S. News re-evaluates graduate programs in business, education,


engineering, law, and medicine. The rankings are based on two broad types of dataexpert
opinion about program quality and statistical indicators that describe the strength of a
school's faculty, its research, and the performance of students both as they enter and leave.
The data was gathered by surveying more than 1,000 programs and 12,000 academics and
professionals in the fall of 2000. Educational excellence is difficult to define, much less
measure directly, but the indicators used are widely recognized as proxies for quality.
Experts in higher education have long considered reputation a valid measure of quality, and
a diploma from an institution known for excellence offers graduates a powerful edge in the
competition for good jobs.
Reputable measure: To gauge a school's reputation, deans, program directors, and
senior faculty were asked to judge the overall academic quality of programs in their field on a
scale of 1 ("marginal") to 5 ("distinguished"). Nonacademics are asked to submit a list of
up to 25 schools that they consider to be tops in their field. In medicine, we survey residency
program directors; in law, hiring partners at law firms as well as professionals in public
service. Corporate recruiters are canvassed for their knowledge of business and engineering
programs.
To judge how capably a program develops its students, U.S. News factors in such output
measures as the rates at which law school graduates pass the bar exam and the mean
starting pay package garnered by new M.B.A.'s. When possible, data are gathered following
norms established by standards-setting bodies in the discipline. Thus, the survey uses the
format mandated by the MBA Career Services Council as the standard for reporting salary
data. Similarly, questions used in the law survey are modeled on ones the American Bar
Association uses in its annual survey of law schools to gather figures on enrollment and bar
passage rates.
The value of rankings will always be a topic for lively debate. While data can never
substitute for an in-depth examination of the scope and breadth of a programand its fit
with your own unique talents and goalsthe rankings are an efficient means of comparing
schools' strengths and weaknesses.

TOP 25 GRADUATE BUSINESS SCHOOLS

Rank

School

1
2
3

Stanford University (CA)


Harvard University (MA)
Northwestern University (Kellogg) (IL)

50

Overall Reputation Reputation


Score (Academics) (Recruiters)
100
4.9
4.6
99
4.9
5.0
98
4.8
5.0

4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12

15
16
17
18
20
21
22
23

University of Pennsylvania (Wharton)


Massachusetts Institute of Technology
(Sloan)
Columbia University (NY)
University of CaliforniaBerkeley (Haas)
Duke University (Fuqua) (NC)
University of Chicago
University of MichiganAnn Arbor
Dartmouth College (Tuck) (NH)
New York University (Stern)
University of CaliforniaLos Angeles
(Anderson)
Yale University (CT)
University of Virginia (Darden)
Cornell University (Johnson) (NY)
Carnegie Mellon University (PA)
University of North CarolinaChapel Hill
(Kenan-Flagler)
University of TexasAustin (McCombs)
Indiana UniversityBloomington (Kelley)
University of Southern California (Marshall)
Georgetown University (McDonough) (DC)
Emory University (Goizueta) (GA)
Ohio State University (Fisher)
Purdue UniversityWest Lafayette
(Krannert) (IN)

97

4.8

4.9

96

4.8

4.4

93
91
90
89
88
87
86

4.5
4.6
4.5
4.7
4.5
4.3
4.3

4.2
4.2
4.3
4.4
4.8
4.2
4.2

86

4.2

4.2

86
84
83
81

4.1
4.2
4.3
4.2

4.2
4.3
4.2
4.2

80

4.1

4.2

80
78
75
74
72
72

3.9
3.9
3.7
3.4
3.7
3.6

4.2
4.2
3.9
4.0
3.9
3.5

72

3.7

4.1

TOP 25 GRADUATE ENGINEERING SCHOOLS

Rank
1
2

Overall Reputation
Score (Academics)
Massachusetts Institute of Technology 100
5.0
Stanford University (CA)
91
4.9
School

51

Reputation
(Recruiters)
5.0
4.4

3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
13
14
16
17
18
20
21
22
24
25

University of CaliforniaBerkeley
University of MichiganAnn Arbor
Georgia Institute of Technology
University of IllinoisUrbanaChampaign
California Institute of Technology
Carnegie Mellon University (PA)
Cornell University (NY)
University of TexasAustin
Texas A&M UniversityCollege Station
University of Southern California
Purdue UniversityWest Lafayette (IN)
Penn State UniversityUniversity Park
University of WisconsinMadison
University of CaliforniaSan Diego
Princeton University (NJ)
Northwestern University (IL)
University of MarylandCollege Park
University of MinnesotaTwin Cities
Harvard University (MA)
University of CaliforniaLos Angeles
University of CaliforniaSanta Barbara
Ohio State University
Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (NY)

88
86
85

4.9
4.6
4.5

4.4
4.5
4.7

83

4.7

4.4

82
80
78
77
75
75
74
70
70
69
68
66
66
64
63
62
62
61
60

4.8
4.4
4.4
4.2
3.9
3.5
4.2
3.9
4.1
3.8
4.2
3.9
3.6
3.9
3.5
3.8
3.5
3.6
3.7

4.3
4.3
4.3
4.3
4.1
3.2
4.5
4.3
4.3
3.2
4.0
3.9
3.5
4.0
3.2
3.5
3.2
4.1
4.3

TOP 25 GRADUATE EDUCATIONAL SCHOOLS

Rank

School

Overall
Score

Reputation
(Academics)

Reputation
(Recruiters)

Harvard University (MA)

100

4.4

4.6

52

2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
13
14
15

18
19
20
22

25

Stanford University (CA)


Teachers College, Columbia University
(NY)
University of CaliforniaLos Angeles
Vanderbilt University (Peabody) (TN)
University of CaliforniaBerkeley
University of MichiganAnn Arbor
University of Pennsylvania
University of WisconsinMadison
Northwestern University (IL)
Ohio State UniversityColumbus
University of Oregon
University of TexasAustin
University of IllinoisUrbana-Champaign
Indiana UniversityBloomington
Michigan State University
Temple University (PA)
University of North CarolinaChapel Hill
University of Virginia (Curry)
New York University
University of MinnesotaTwin Cities
Boston College (Lynch)
University of Georgia
University of MarylandCollege Park
George Washington University (DC)

99

4.6

4.3

97

4.4

4.4

90
89
88
87
85
84
83
76
76
75
73
72
72
72
71
70
69
69
67
67
67
64

4.1
4.2
4.2
4.3
3.6
4.3
3.7
4.0
3.3
3.8
4.1
3.9
4.1
3.2
3.8
3.9
3.4
4.0
3.3
3.8
3.8
3.1

3.8
4.1
4.0
4.1
3.4
3.8
3.8
4.0
3.0
3.8
3.4
3.8
3.9
3.2
4.1
3.7
3.3
2.9
3.3
3.6
3.0
3.7

TOP 25 GRADUATE LAW SCHOOLS

Rank

School

1
2
3

Yale University (CT)


Stanford University (CA)
Harvard University (MA)

Overall
Score
100
96
92

53

Reputation
(Academics)
4.9
4.9
4.9

Reputation
(Lawyers)
4.9
4.9
4.9

4
5
6
7
9
10
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
22
23

Columbia University (NY)


New York University
University of Chicago
University of MichiganAnn Arbor
University of Virginia
University of CaliforniaBerkeley
Duke University (NC)
University of Pennsylvania
Cornell University (NY)
Northwestern University (IL)
Georgetown University (DC)
University of TexasAustin
University of CaliforniaLos Angeles
Vanderbilt University (TN)
University of Southern California
University of MinnesotaTwin Cities
University of Iowa
Washington and Lee University (VA)
Boston College
George Washington University (DC)
University of IllinoisUrbanaChampaign
University of North CarolinaChapel
Hill

90
88
86
84
84
83
82
82
81
80
79
77
76
73
72
71
68
68
66
65

4.8
4.6
4.8
4.7
4.5
4.7
4.4
4.5
4.3
4.2
4.3
4.2
4.1
3.9
3.8
3.8
3.6
3.4
3.4
3.5

4.8
4.6
4.8
4.7
4.6
4.6
4.5
4.5
4.3
4.3
4.3
4.1
3.9
3.9
3.5
3.6
3.5
3.5
3.5
3.5

65

3.6

3.5

65

3.8

3.7

GUIDE TO COLLEGES AND UNIVERSTIES IN THE U.K.


UK qualifications are recognized and respected throughout the world. Your UK
qualification will be a solid foundation for building your future, boosting your career and
prospects for a higher salary. UK universities, colleges and schools will provide a vibrant,
creative and challenging environment in which to develop your potential. Quality standards
for UK institutions are among the best in the world. Universities, colleges and schools

54

continually have to prove that their courses meet strict criteria. Many other countries are now
trying to follow the example of the UK.
There are more than three thousand educational institutions that welcome
international students in the UK. You can choose from a variety of routes through the
education and training system, combining different types of course according to your needs
and abilities. In the UK, you could specialize in anything from computer games
programming, ocean engineering, music technology, meteorology or underwater
photography to multimedia design, anthropology, women's studies, hotel management or
dance. There are also more than a quarter of a million international students in the UK at
any one time.
UK degrees can take only three years and postgraduate Master's courses only one
year - compared with four years and two years in most other countries. This means you will
save a great deal on both tuition fees and living costs - and you will be able to start working
and earning money sooner. UK degree courses are shorter because they are more intensive,
and therefore more efficient in terms of your time and money. The closeness of the rest of
Europe to the UK means that many institutions offer work placements and periods of study
there.
Health care is often free for international students. You are likely to be able to take
advantage of National Health Service (NHS) treatment, as well as reduced-cost medicines,
dental treatment and eye tests. Thousands of scholarships and bursaries are offered by UK
institutions just for international students, while more than twenty-one thousand
international students receive scholarship funding from the UK Government every year. You
can also get more information about these from the scholarships pages on major websites
catering to prospective UK scholars.
Thanks to changes in work regulations, international students in the UK can now
work up to twenty hours a week when studying and full time during vacations.

HIGHER EDUCATION
Over 1 million people in the 18 - 21 age groups are currently engaged in HE and the
Government is committed to raising this figure even higher. This is the age of mass
participation, and colleges and universities are full of students from a wide range of
backgrounds, age ranges and ethnic origins.
Whatever your intended direction, you need to choose your school studies very
carefully. Some HE courses may require you to have passes in particular pre-16
qualifications, for example in mathematics and English GCSE. Usually between two and
four years of HE study is required for a degree, depending on the qualification required, but
it is increasingly possible to take HE on a part-time basis over a longer period.
Britain has the biggest choice of courses in Europe with, at the last count, over
50,000 courses available through UCAS. For some popular subjects, such as business or
computing, there are literally hundreds of study options. In terms of qualifications, the main
categories are as follows.

55

q Three-year degree courses - leading to awards such as Bachelor of Arts (BA),

Bachelor of Science (Bask) etcetera.


q Four-year degree courses - including many degree courses in Scotland, sandwich
courses involving one year in industry, courses with a year abroad, etcetera.
q Two-year Higher National Diploma or Diploma of Higher Education courses - these
are both popular qualifications in their own right; however, some students choose to
'top up' these qualifications into a degree.
In addition, some universities run special foundation courses, commonly known as Year
0 or Zero programs, targeted at students who wish to enter specific subject areas (egg.
science and engineering) but do not possess the relevant entry qualifications. These courses
are eligible for student loans in the usual way. In art and design, 'foundation studies' refers
to a one-year pre-HE course.

UCAS
UCAS is at the very heart of British Higher Education (HE). There are many ways
that the Universities and Colleges Admissions Service (UCAS) can help school and college
students. Operating as the only central applications service, for full-time undergraduate
courses in the UK, means that the UCAS handles applications from over 400,000 students a
year.
FILLING OUT THE UCAS FORM

Before you write anything, you should carefully read the booklet How to Apply 2002
Entry, which will be sent to you with the form itself. You may find it useful to photocopy
the form or practice filling it in. Do not, however, send a photocopied form to UCAS.
Because UCAS will photocopy your form at a reduced size, it is very important to
write clearly. You should use a black ball-point pen or black type. Do not use felt - tipped
or roller-ball pens or ink that shows on the reverse of the paper.
Section 3 of the UCAS form requires you to use UCAS codes when filling out your
choice of course(s) and institution(s). You can choose up to six courses. Enter one course
on each separate line.
To know which codes to use, you need to refer to the UCAS Directory 2002
Entry. This may have been sent to you with your UCAS form. If not, you can obtain a copy of
the Directory by contacting UCAS in the UK (see address list below) or your local British
Council office. You can also consult the UCAS Directory on line by visiting the UCAS
website www.ucas.com.
If you have additional information that you cannot fit on the form, you should
send the information directly to the institutions and not to UCAS. You should only do
his once you have received back a letter with your application number from UCAS.
When sending the extra information, you should quote the course you are interested in
and, most importantly, your UCAS application number.
Once you have completed the form, you will see that the section on the back requires a
written reference from the Head or Principal of your school or college on your academic

56

ability. Before giving your form to your referee, you should check it through carefully. If
you can, make a photocopy of the form for your own records. If, once your referee has
written your reference, she or he is planning to send the form straight to UCAS, you must
make sure that when you give the form to him or her, you also include your
completed acknowledgement card, International Reply Coupon and the application fee or
a completed credit /debit card payment form.
The acknowledgement card is a card that will have been sent to you with the UCAS
form. You should clearly write your name and address on this card. An International Reply
Coupon to the value of 40 pence sterling must be attached to the acknowledgement card.
Once UCAS has received your completed UCAS form, it will post the card back to you
as acknowledgement of receipt of he form.
There is an application fee of 5.00 sterling if you choose just one course at
one institution on your form (in other words, if you use just one line of he form). If you
choose more than one course (even at a single university or college), the fee is 15.00
sterling. This means that even if you choose only two courses, you will still have to pay the
fee of 15.00 sterling.
If your UCAS form is sent from outside the UK, payment of your application
fee should be made by sending one of he following with your name, address and seven
digit number from the top right-hand corner of page 1 of the form written on the back:

q an international money order; or


q a completed UCAS credit /debit card payment coupon; or
q a bank draft payable at a British bank; or
q a sterling cheque for the appropriate fee (5.00 or 15.00) payable at a British bank;
or

q evidence of payment, such as Economy International Moneymover, sufficient

to
cover the appropriate fee, to the UCAS International Account at Lloyds Bank plc,
Montpellier Branch, sort code 30-95-72, account number 0188578.

The acknowledgement card (with the International Reply Coupon) and the
application fee, in the form of one of the above, should be attached to the top of the
form (where shown) with a paper clip. Do not use tape, glue or staples on this form.
Once UCAS has received your form, it will immediately post back to you your
acknowledgement card. UCAS will then take between one and four weeks to check that
your form is complete, and send a copy to each institution you have chosen. Then
UCAS will then send you a letter listing your choice of course(s) and institution(s), and
your UCAS application number. This number is important and you must quote it whenever
you contact UCAS or if you need to send additional information to institutions (see above).
If you have applied for only one choice of course and institution, a supplementary
form will be included with the letter you receive. This may be used if you decide to add
further choices.

57

The next step is for the institutions to consider whether or not to offer you a
place on the basis of your application form. As soon as an institution makes a decision, it
will inform UCAS. UCAS will then write to you with this information. The institution may
also decide to inform you separately. You should not do anything until you have received
decisions from all your chosen institutions. When UCAS has received decisions from each
of your chosen institutions, it will write to you and ask which offer(s) you would like
to accept . If you have received more than one offer, you must make one firm acceptance.
If the offer you firmly accept is conditional on you getting certain
examination results, you may also hold a second offer as insurance acceptance. If the
offer you firmly accept does not require you to obtain certain examination results, it
is called an unconditional offer, and you may not hold a second offer at the same
time. Any offers that remain after you have decided which offers to accept , must be
declined by you. You must think carefully which offers to accept as you will not be able to
change your mind later.
If you have firmly accepted an offer which is conditional upon you obtaining certain
examination results, you should contact the institution making the offer as soon as you
have your examination results. It will then be up to the institution to make a final decision.
You will be informed of his decision through UCAS.
THE UCAS CLEARING SC HEME

Unfortunately, you may find that you do not receive any offers from the institutions
you apply to. This may be for a number of reasons, for instance, if you have made a
late application for a popular course or to a popular institution. Alternatively, you may
receive, and accept a conditional offer but fail to obtain the required examination results.
If you find yourself in his position, or if your form is received on or after the
deadline, you may still be able to secure a place on a different course and/or at a different
institution through the UCAS Clearing Scheme. UCAS will send you a Clearing Entry
Form and an instruction leaflet between.

WHERE TO SEND YOUR FORM AND OTHER USEFUL ADDRESSES

Completed application forms must be sent to:


UCAS Applications
PO Box 67,
Cheltenham,
Gloucestershire GL52 3ZD
United Kingdom.

58

You can request a UCAS application form and their Special Guide for
International Students by sending a message to UCAS:
UCAS
Application Requests
Rose hill
New Barn Lane
Cheltenham
Gloucestershire GL52 3LZ
UK
Email: enq@ucas.ac.uk
Web: www.ucas.com
Fax: +44 (0) 1242 544 960
You should enclose a completed UCAS credit /debit card payment coupon or an
international money order for 6.00 if you are also asking for a copy of he UCAS
Directory 2002 Entry. Remember that copies of the Directory are available for reference
at local British Council offices, and on he UCAS website.

FINANCES AND SCHOLARSHIPS IN THE UK


In recent years the cost of attending university/college has increased dramatically.
Obtaining a scholarship can greatly ease this financial burden. The following link will
provide you with details on scholarship programs offered by various institutions in the UK.
http://www.britishcouncil.org/eis/profiles/scholarships.htm
British government legislation allows publicly funded educational institutions to
charge 'overseas student' fees to international students unless they fulfill certain
requirements. Those who meet the requirements will be charged a lower 'home student' rate
of fee.
The amount of fee you will have to pay also depends on the type of course and the
institution at which you study. The course fees will therefore vary from one institution to
another and they may also increase each year by the level of inflation in the UK. You should
contact the institutions to which you have applied, to check how much you will have to pay.
The educational institution must make a decision on whether your fee status is
'home' or 'overseas', based on the EDUCATION (FEES AND AWARDS) REGULATIONS . They will
examine the information you provide about where you have been living and what you have
been doing for the three years before the beginning of the course. The institution will try to
decide if you have a relevant connection with the UK. If you have you will be charged the
lower 'home' rate of fee.
In order to have a relevant connection, you have to be ordinarily resident in the UK
for the full three year period before the beginning of your course. The period ends on the
following dates before the course starts:

59

q 1 September (if the course begins in the autumn)


q or 1 January (if the course begins in the winter)
q or 1 April (if the course begins in the spring or summer)
Therefore if your course begins in October 1999 you must have been ordinarily resident
in the UK from 1 September 1996 to 1 September 1999.
The term 'ordinarily' resident is defined in UK law. To be ordinarily resident in the UK,
you must show that you have 'habitually and normally resided in the UK from choice and for
a settled purpose'.
You must also show that you were not in the UK wholly or mainly for the purpose of
receiving full-time education during any part of the three year period. If the main reason for
your residence in the UK during any part of the three year period has been to receive fulltime education you will probably have to pay the overseas rate of fee.
The institution makes the final decision on whether you are a 'home' or 'overseas'
student, based on the facts which you provide. It is important to give them all the
information which they require to make the correct fee assessment.

APPLYING FOR A GRANT


The competition for grants to study in the UK is very strong. Most grant-making
organizations will insist that you meet some very strict requirements and you may have to be
nominated by your government to get a scholarship from the UK government. If you do not
meet all the requirements for a scholarship, then you will not be considered. When you apply
for a scholarship, remember:

You must apply for your scholarship at least one year before your course starts.
Deadlines vary, so you must check that you know what the deadline is before
applying.
Your application should be clear and concise. You should use the grant-making
body's application form, if it has one.
Many of the grant -making bodies will only give small amounts of money which
would not cover the full cost of a course.

Most scholarships for study in the UK are funded by the British Government and are
paid to another government for its students, either directly or through an organisation such
as the British Council.
The first thing you should do, therefore, is to contact your own Ministry of
Education or Education Department, which will have details of most schemes and will also
be able to advise you on your own government's conditions for studying abroad.
You should also contact the nearest British Council office in your own country,
which should have details of scholarship schemes and will also be able to give you
information on educational courses and on living in Britain. If there is no British Council
office, then contact the nearest British Embassy or High Commission. For many

60

scholarship schemes, it is necessary to apply well in advance of the start of the course, often
at least one year, and generally you must apply in your own country.
A number of other organizations and agencies operate schemes for study in the UK.
These include:
FULBRIGHT SCHOLARSHIPS
For information about Fulbright Scholarships, see the British Council USA web pages at
http://www.britishcouncil-usa.org/education/gradfunding2.shtml#
INTERNATIONAL AGENCIES

Some international organizations, such as UNESCO and WHO, operate schemes,


usually for developing countries. Details should be available from your own government's
Ministry of Education.
VOLUNTARY ORGANIZATIONS

Voluntary organizations, such as religious bodies and charities, sometimes award


scholarships, though they can be limited in size and scope. For information, contact the
appropriate organizations in your own country.
It is most unlikely that most international students will be eligible for support from
the British government other than through the schemes outlined above. In order to be
eligible for an award from a local education authority, you need to satisfy two basic
conditions. The first is that you have been ordinarily resident in the UK for three years prior
to the course beginning, and the second is that you have not for any part of that three years
been resident wholly or mainly for the purpose of full time education. There are some
exceptions to these basic rules, which benefit primarily refugees recognised by the UK and
EEA migrant workers.
Remember that even if you are lucky enough to obtain a scholarship, you still need to
be sure that it is enough to meet all of your costs. Once you are in the UK, it will be
extremely difficult, if not impossible, to obtain extra funds, and you will not be able to pay
for your study by working in the UK. Be especially careful if you only have a partial
scholarship. The local British Council office should have up-to-date guidance on the cost of
living in Britain. The institution you will be attending should provide you with details of
local costs.
Check the conditions of the scholarship carefully and be sure that they fulfill your
needs. Some are only for certain courses and for a fixed period of time. Once you've accepted
a scholarship and begun studying, it is very unlikely you will be able to change your course
or extend your scholarship.

ROUTINE ADVICE FOR INTERNATIONAL STUDENTS


Following are a few guidelines and questions frequently asked by students applying to
the UK for higher education.

61

WHAT IS THE COST OF LIVING IN THE UK?


This will vary according to where in the UK you decide to study. For instance London and
other big cities will be more expensive than other areas. The British Council
(http://www.britishcouncil.org/eis/costlive.htm) could give a general guide to the cost of
living in the UK.
HOW MUCH CASH SHOULD I BRING?
You should have enough money to pay for your transport from the airport to your final
destination. You may be staying with friends or family at first so will not have to think about
accommodation costs. If not, then you should have at least enough money for one or two
nights stay at a 'Bed and Breakfast' and for food during this time. If you can, bring most of
this money as travelers' cheques and take out travel insurance to cover you for your first
week of stay.
WILL I PAY THE HOME OR OVERSEAS FEE?
Only certain categories of students will be charged the 'home' fee. Broadly speaking they
are:
persons who have permanent residence in the UK and have been in the UK for three
years;
EEA migrant workers and their families in the UK who have lived in the EEA for
three years;
EU nationals and their children who have lived in the EEA for three years;
refugees (recognized by the UK government) and their families; and
persons who applied for asylum and have been granted exceptional leave to
enter/remain, and their families.
HOW MUCH WILL THE 'OVERSEAS' FEE FOR MY COURSE BE?
Overseas fees can range from 4,000 to 17,000 per year depending on the institution, the
level and the type of course. Some institutions give details of the fees they charge on their
websites. Check http://www.niss.ac.uk/sites/he-cis.html for a list of university (higher
education) websites and http://www.bubl.ac.uk/uk/fe/ for a list of further education
websites.
HOW CAN I GET DETAILS OF SCHOLARSHIPS THAT ARE AVAILABLE?
You should contact your local British Council Office about any scholarships that are
available to students from your country wishing to study in the UK. British Council Offices
in the UK cannot assist you. For further information from UKCOSA about this topic check
http://www.ukcosa.org.uk/pages/guidenote.htm#sof. To find out details of your nearest
British Council office, visit http://www.britishcouncil.org/where/index.htm.
DO I NEED TO GET A VISA BEFORE I TRAVEL TO THE UK?
If you are a national of a country that is on the 'visa national list' it is compulsory to obtain
entry clearance (known as a 'visa') before travelling. If your country is not on this list, it is
recommended that you get optional entry clearance (known as an 'entry certificate' rather
than a 'visa') in the following circumstances:

if you are coming to the UK as a student with your family, or


if you are coming to the UK as a 'prospective student' or
if you are coming to the UK to do a course of 6 months or less.

62

You should apply for entry clearance (either in the form of a visa or an entry certificate)
before you come to the UK by contacting the British Embassy or High Commission in your
country.
WHAT CONDITIONS MUST I MEET TO BE A STUDENT IN THE UK?
The 'Immigration Rules for students' require students who wish to study in the UK to meet
certain conditions that relate to: the place where you wish to study, your course, your ability
to follow the course, your finances, and your intentions during and after your studies.
CAN I WORK WHILST I AM STUDYING IN THE UK?
Most students on courses of more than 6 months will be given a passport stamp that allows
them to work part-time during the term (up to 20 hours a week) and any number of hours
during the vacations.
CAN I STAY IN THE UK TO WORK AFTER I HAV E FINISHED STUDYING?
It may be possible for you to stay on in the UK for practical training or work experience.
Under the 'Training and Work Experience Scheme', employers can apply for permits to
employ a person in a particular post. It may also be possible to stay on in the UK under the
'Innovators Scheme'. Note however, that it is very difficult to stay on in the UK after your
studies under the 'full work permit scheme'.
HOW CAN I FIND OUT ABOUT DIFFERENT COURSES OF STUDY IN THE UK?
The internet is a good place to obtain information about an institution and the courses it
runs.
For
example,
Hotcourses
(http://www.hotcourses.com/pls/cgibin/page_pls_all_homepage) and UCAS (http://www.ucas.co.uk/ucc/index.html) are
websites that can help you to search and apply for courses in the UK.
Prospects(http://www.prospects.csu.ac.uk/pdi/) provides details of postgraduate research
and study opportunities in the UK. Alternatively find the contact details of an institution and
write or email asking for the 'prospectus', a booklet which provides information on the
institution and the courses it offers. The institution will send you a copy free of charge.
HOW CAN I TELL WHICH INSTITUTIONS OFFER UK DEGREES?
There is an official list of institutions offering recognized UK degrees on the Department for
Education and Skill's website at www.dfes.gov.uk/recognisedukdegrees/
CAN I USE MY DRIVING LICENSE FROM HOME TO DRIVE IN THE UK?
This will depend on where your license was issued. You may be able to drive using your
current license for up to 12 months and then take a test. Alternatively, you may be able to
exchange your license for a British license or to apply for a provisional license and then take
the test.

CONCLUDING REMARKS ON STUDYING IN THE U. K. MY


CAMBRIDGE EXPERIENCE
I did my undergraduate studies at Trinity College, Cambridge, from 1959 to 1962. I
studied for the Mechanical Sciences Tripos an undergraduate engineering degree. My
reaction to Cambridge was one of exhilaration and excitement.
On the academic side, the educational system of Cambridge required that a student
perform in 8 examination papers at the end of each year. The system allowed a

63

tremendous degree of flexibility by way of voluntary, rather than compulsory, attendance


at lectures and no mandatory assignments or reports. Cambridge requires its students to
possess a certain degree of maturity and encourages them to make their own choices
regarding their educational activity.
However, the truly great thing about Cambridge was learning out-of-class from ones
peers. The best-qualified students, many with impressive family backgrounds, are at
Cambridge. The activities available for participation are numerous, and a student
develops into a well-rounded and confident person. I participated in debates, cricket,
squash, punting, and led a fairly active social life. The annual May Balls at each college
are the height of entertainment, and have given me numerous memories that have lasted
till today. All in all, Cambridge life helped strengthen my character and develop my
faculties.

THE RANKINGS II U.K. COLLEGE RANKIN G S


The following is a list of the fifty best ranked colleges compiled by The Times
newspaper. It has ranked major educational institutions in the UK on a scale of 100 based
upon the following categories:
q Teaching assessment. (T)
q Research assessment. (R)
q A-Levels. (As)
q Student/Staff ratio. (St)
q Library and computer spending. (L)
q Facilities spending. (Fac)
q First and upper second degrees. (Deg)

64

q Graduate destinations. (Des)


q Completion. (Com)
q Aggregate score. (Sco)
THE rankings measure these nine key aspects of university activity, using the most
recent data available at the time of going to press. All are designed to reflect the quality of
one aspect of the university. For each measure, the top score is set at 100 points and the
remainder is calculated as a proportion of this.
In the case of teaching, research and graduate destinations, some additional scaling has
been introduced to ensure that a very wide or very narrow range of scores does not have a
disproportionate effect on the overall ranking. Teaching quality carries the highest weighting
of 2.5. Research is also weighted, by 1.5, while all other measures carry their actual scores.
TEACHING ASSESSMENT
The Quality Assessment Agency and the funding councils send teams of academics to
rate university departments. The results of teaching-quality assessments are averaged for
each university. Now all scores are out of a maximum of 24 and the original categories have
been converted to numerical scores on this scale to calculate an average.
RESEARCH ASSESSMENT

Each university department entered in the assessment exercise was given a rating of 5*
(top), 5, 4, 3a, 3b, 2 or 1 (bottom). These grades were converted to a numerical scale and an
average was calculated, weighted according to the number of staff in the department getting
each rating.
ENTRY STANDARDS

Each student's best three A-level or AS grades are converted to a numerical score (A
level: A=10, B=8 . . . E=2; AS A=5, B=4 . . . E=1) and added up to give a score out of 30 for
an average for all students at the university.
There is no widely accepted way of converting scores from other qualifications, so these are
not included. Universities which have a policy of accepting students with low grades to
extend access policy will tend to have their average score depressed.
STUDENT-STAFF RATIO

The number of students is divided by the number of staff in a way designed to take
account of different patterns of staff employment in different universities.
LIBRARY AND COMPUTER SPENDING

A university's expenditure on library and computing facilities (but not buildings) is


divided by the number of full-time equivalent students. Expenditure over three years is

65

averaged to allow for uneven expenditure, such as upgrading a computer network. Some
universities are the location for major national facilities, such as the Bodleian Library in
Oxford and national computing facilit ies in Bath and Manchester. These universities will
tend to score more highly.
FACILITIES SPENDING

A university's expenditure on student facilities (sports, recreational, health, counseling


etc) is divided by the number of full-time equivalent students. Expenditure over three years
is averaged to allow for uneven expenditure. This measure tends to disadvantage Oxford
and Cambridge (and possibly some other universities with a collegiate structure) as it only
includes central university expenditure.
FIRSTS AND UPPER SECONDS

The number of graduates with first or upper second-class degrees is divided by the total
number of graduates with classified degrees. Enhanced first degrees (eg, an MEng awarded
after a four-year engineering course) are treated as equivalent to a first or upper second for
this purpose, while Scottish Ordinary degrees (awarded after three years rather than four) are
excluded.
GRADUATE DESTINATIONS

How does it work? The number of graduates who take up employment or further study
within six months of leaving university is divided by the total number of graduates with a
known destination. Universities with large numbers of medical, teaching or engineering
graduates will tend to score highly as a high proportion of graduates in these subjects go
directly into employment.
COMPLETION

The length of time students studied at each university is compared with the length of
time they would be expected to study if they completed the course normally. Completion
rates are strongly influenced by the entry qualifications of its students: those with a high
average A-level score will also have high efficiency.
More information can be found on the Times website at www.times-archive.co.uk .

University
1 Cambridge
London,
Imperial
3 Oxford
2

R As St

100 100 100 67

Fac

Deg

Des

Com

Sco

88

71

100

95

100

1,020

93

77

95

93

1,008

99

87

92

100 79

97

96

98

62

100 65

91

99

99

1,001

4 Bristol
5 London, UCL

90
92

76
86

89
84

62
73

71
78

100
76

84
78

95
93

97
89

937
932

6 Edinburgh

89

82

89

53

83

87

87

88

95

927

7 St Andrews

93

76

84

62

73

82

88

96

95

926

66

8 LSE

93

97

93

40

79

67

80

92

94

923

Warwick
10 Bath

97
82

87
81

87
82

47
50

72
84

76
94

77
80

96
93

96
96

923
907

York

97

81

83

57

69

76

70

90

97

907

12 Nottingham

92

73

87

50

73

75

85

95

97

903

13 Birmingham
London,
14
SOAS
London,
15
King's
16 Durham

89

73

82

57

68

79

78

94

94

884

95

76

73

57

91

69

77

82

83

882

85

73

79

80

72

68

70

100

87

879

91

76

85

38

69

82

73

90

99

877

17 Newcastle

89

69

77

53

80

83

75

89

91

873

18 Manchester
19 Lancaster

87
90

77
82

81
72

47
42

73
70

72
83

74
72

96
90

93
90

870
867

20 Sheffield

92

74

84

44

66

75

72

95

89

865

21 Loughboro'

94

68

70

47

69

84

68

95

93

862

22 Leeds
23 Glasgow

87
90

74
63

79
79

50
53

71
71

74
72

73
83

90
91

93
86

857
855

84

72

71

53

68

85

74

95

87

853

89

65

65

67

72

77

64

93

88

847

86
86
82
87
83
86

66
72
80
80
75
72

72
75
76
58
77
68

53
53
57
50
44
57

70
70
66
70
67
68

78
74
76
83
77
77

76
66
61
61
70
68

95
93
100
91
96
82

86
91
85
93
89
92

846
846
844
842
839
836

32 East Anglia
Queen's,
33
Belfast
34 Aston
Leicester
Sussex
37 Exeter
38 Surrey
39 Hull

85

73

72

38

66

76

74

90

94

833

87

59

79

47

67

82

63

95

93

832

87
84
79
83
83
88

58
71
77
64
66
62

70
72
71
76
67
66

42
50
50
47
57
53

69
69
72
67
67
70

79
73
73
69
76
63

74
65
67
76
62
69

96
91
94
95
100
96

93
95
88
95
90
90

829
829
829
827
825
821

40 Liverpool

84

66

74

53

68

73

60

90

91

820

24
25
26
28
29
30
31

London,
Roy Holloway
London,
Queen Mary
Aberdeen
Southampton
UMIST
Essex
Cardiff
Reading

67

41 Stirling
42 Dundee

87
83

62
61

66
65

44
62

72
68

76
77

72
67

93
91

86
84

819
814

43 Strathclyde

89

60

68

44

64

74

67

94

87

810

44
45
46
47

Kent
Swansea
Keele
Aberystwyth
London,
48
Goldsmiths'

84
82
80
81

62
59
66
61

67
63
67
60

44
47
44
38

70
65
59
68

71
72
65
78

58
73
74
66

94
88
91
88

92
89
90
93

798
791
789
783

73

69

63

50

65

65

67

92

90

779

49 Heriot-Watt
50 Bangor

80
81

59
53

62
55

29
44

76
72

87
71

53
59

93
90

88
93

777
766

GUID E TO COLLEGES AND UN IVERSITIES IN CANADA


Canadians place a premium on education and demand first-rate schools. Canada spends
more per capita on its education system than any other country in the G-7 and is among the
top three countries in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development
(OECD). A degree from a Canadian university is recognized world-wide and as a result,
international students who graduate from Canadian universities enjoy successful and
prosperous careers.
For the past several years, a United Nations survey has found Canada to be the best
place in the world to live. Conducted every year, the survey evaluates quality of life in 174
countries, using over 200 performance indicators. Canada earned particularly high marks for
its access to education, high life expectancy (due to universal health care system); and low
crime and violence rates. In addition, Canada's largest cities - Vancouver, Toronto and

68

Montreal - have been recognized as world class cities in which to live and work, for their
cleanliness and safety and for their cultural activities and attractive lifestyles.
There are no university or college entrance exams in Canada. For entrance into
undergraduate programs, universities evaluate a student's high school transcripts. For most
types of study, foreign students must prove fluency in the language in which they plan to
study (English or French - but not both).
As Canada has two official languages - English
and French - an international student can take a degree either at an English language or
French language institution. Some universities offer instruction in both languages. However,
students do not have to be fluent in both languages to attend a Canadian university.
This section provides a general outline of requirements for students interested in
applying to a university undergraduate program in Canada. There are a wide variety of
programs to choose from at this level. Please note that specific requirements for institutions
will vary and students are encouraged to check directly with the institution(s) they are
interested in for college-specific admissions requirements. General pre-requisites for
admission are:

q Successful completion of the equivalent of a Canadian secondary school academic


program with strong marks.

q Proof of strong proficiency in English (or French if you intend to study in French).

Students may be required to provide proof of language proficiency by way of a


language proficiency test such as the TOEFL, IELTS or MELAB.
q Some institutions have other forms of English or French language assessment; they
may offer their own language proficiency test or, may admit students to academic
programs on the basis of having successfully completed that institution's language
program.
Full-time student enrolments at individual universities range from over 35,000 to less than
1,000. In addition, most universities have a large number of part-time or continuing
education students. They offer a broad range of courses and a full range of degrees from
undergraduate to doctorates, and can also offer certificates and professional degrees. Fees
for universities differ depending on the province, institution and program of study.
The university year usually runs from September to May. Some universities are on a
semester or trimester system, with all courses available even in the summer. There is no
Canada-wide entrance test: each university sets its own admission standards and assesses
the qualifications of each applicant individually.
Another component of the Canadian Educational System is University College.
University Colleges are institutions that combine Canadian university and college traditions,
with a strong base of applied and academic programs offered in campus environments. As
the name suggests, a university college offers university degrees as well as college diploma
and certificate programs. Students can expect to find a wide range of program choices at
university colleges, including English as a Second Language (ESL) programs.
By official definition, Universities are educational institutions attended after at least 12
years of school, or after secondary school, for studies leading to a degree and research. All 93
member universities of AUCC offer three or four year bachelor degree programs; most offer
one to two year masters degrees and a number also offer doctoral or PhD programs.

69

Community colleges, another component of the Canadian educational system, are two-year
institutions that offer technical or vocational courses or courses for transfer to a university,
leading to a certificate or diploma. Community colleges do not generally offer degree
programs.
Contact:
Association of Canadian Community Colleges,
1223 Michael St. N.,
Suite 200,
Ottawa ON K1J 7T2 Canada.
Tel: 613-746-2222,
Fax: 613-746-6721.
or Visit www.accc.ca
As a component of the Canadian university system, university colleges offer students a
choice of either academically-oriented university degree programs or the more practicallyoriented college diplomas and certificates. As part of the Canadian college system, university
colleges are distinguished by their strong student support services, small classes and strong
campus environments. They also may offer combined degree/diploma programs and
university transfer programs.

INTERNATIONAL STUDEN TS
As mentioned earlier, each university has its own entrance requirements and will assess
you on an individual basis. The university will determine the equivalency of your academic
credentials. There is no nation-wide set of entrance exams. For more details about this or
any other part of the application process, contact the registrar at the university you wish to
attend. While Canada has no formal system of institutional accreditation, membership in
AUCC, coupled with a provincial charter, is deemed generally the equivalent. For specific
details on degree recognition, please consult with your countrys educational authorities or
the Canadian Information Centre for International Credentials. CICIC acts as a referral
service to support the recognition and portability of Canadian and international educational
and occupational qualifications. They assist individuals on how to have foreign credentials
or qualifications recognized in Canada by referring them to the appropriate bodies.
Alternatively, you may also refer to the Canadian University rankings presented in
succeeding pages of this booklet.
Contact:
CICIC, 95 St. Clair Ave. W., Suite 1106,
Toronto ON M4V 1N6 Canada,
Tel: 416-962-9725, Fax: 416-962-2800
or Visit:
www.cicic.ca
In order to study at a Canadian university, you must first be accepted in a program of
study that your desired university has to offer. Secondly, you must apply for a student
authorization at your nearest Canadian diplomatic post. You may also need a visitors visa,
which will be issued to you at the same time as your student authorization. It is best to
apply early, as processing of student authorizations usually takes one or two months. There
is a processing charge of $125 Cdn (approximately $85 US) for one person. If you plan to
study in the province of Quebec you must pay another $100 Cdn for a Certificat dacceptation
du Qubec. There is no fee for a visa when it is issued with a student authorization.

70

Generally, international students should apply to a Canadian university up to eight


months in advance. Some universities have application deadlines as late as June for a
September start date. Typical entry points for international students are the September and
January semesters. However, many universities have adopted a procedure of rollingadmissions which means that they consider international students applications as they
come in throughout the year. However, for graduate programs in particular, it can take time
to ensure you are matched with the right faculty adviser, and you should ensure that you
apply early. Calendars with course descriptions, admission requirements and procedures,
costs and scholarships are available from the registrar at each university and are usually also
accessible through the universitys Web site.
Engineering, optometry, medicine, veterinary medicine, law, and dentistry are fields
where the first professional degree is considered an undergraduate program. There is a great
deal of academic competition for these spaces and most universities have limits or quotas on
the number of qualified applicants admitted each year. A high level of academic
achievement is required for admission. Often at least two years of undergraduate study in a
related field are required before you can be admitted to the first professional degree
program. Check the university calendar to identify tests such as LSAT (law) or DAT
(dentistry) that may also be required. See the application process for undergraduate
programs above.
You may want to consult The Directory of Canadian Universities (DCU). Published by
AUCC, the DCU is the official guide to Canadas universities. The Directory provides
institutional profiles and includes information about admission requirements, tuition fees,
campus facilities and housing. The Directory features an index to more than 10,000
undergraduate and graduate programs. The print version of the DCU can be purchased from
AUCC. The online version of the directory can be accessed at no charge at
www.aucc.ca/dcu
In addition to the DCU online, the AUCC Web site offers a host of other information
about Canadian universities, including links to member Web sites. On university sites you
will find lots of useful information such as the latest academic calendar, which provides
detailed course descriptions, information regarding admission requirements and
scholarships. You can also write to the universities specifying your planned field of study.
The registrars office at each institution will be able to provide you with information about
undergraduate degrees. If you anticipate pursuing postgraduate studies in Canada you may
obtain more information by contacting the dean of graduate studies at the universities that
interest you.
There are a growing number of Canadian universities that offer entrance scholarships for
international students. You can get scholarship information from the financial aid offices of
the universities. You should also contact the ministry of education in your home country for
information on scholarships for study in Canada.
You may also order the free booklet Awards for Study in Canada from the Canadian
Bureau for International Education, 220 Laurier Ave. W., Suite 1100, Ottawa, Ontario,
Canada K1P 5Z9, Tel: 613-237-4820, Fax: 613-237-1073, or visit www.cbie.ca/awsc.html.
AUCCs Web site also includes information on scholarships and exchange programs.

71

Depending on the province, a bachelors or undergraduate degree takes either three or


four years to complete a degree. In provinces that grant three-year bachelor degrees,
students must complete an additional year to obtain an honours degree. In some provinces,
the fourth year is not necessary, but all honours programs require a high level of
achievement and concentration in the subject. An honours degree is generally a prerequisite
for admission into graduate studies. A masters degree usually requires at least one year of
full-time study (after an honours degree) and includes a thesis, practicum or a research
paper. A doctoral degree, or PhD, requires at least three years of additional full-time study,
with at least one year on campus. In most cases, a masters degree is required before
admission into a doctoral program, but some universities will accept students who have
completed an honours degree.
Most universities offer the option to live on-campus either in residences designated for
international students or in residences generally available to all students on campus.
However, acceptance at a Canadian school does not always automatically secure
accommodation in a residence. Students need to apply separately for on-campus housing.
Information on housing, both on- and off-campus, is available from the housing office or the
international student adviser at most universities.
Tuition fees for international students vary from province to province and may vary
based on your field of study. The table (on the following page) shows the range of tuition
fees for each province. Fees are in Canadian dollars. Please remember that you must also
budget for books, instruments, student activity fees, food, housing, travel/transportation,
health care, clothing, laundry and entertainment.
Full-time international students may work on-campus without obtaining an employment
authorization. Graduate or research work completed at facilities associated with your
institution (such as hospitals) meets the definition of on-campus. International students
can apply for an employment authorization if the work placement is an integral part of their
program of study, such as a co-op program.
Students have the opportunity to combine academic study with work experience by
spending one term on-campus followed by another term of full-time work at a job related to
the field of study. Check with the university whether there are any restrictions for foreign
students to participate in co-op programs.
The Canadian government is now looking at the possibility to allow, under certain
conditions, full-time international students to work part-time off-campus during the school
term and full-time during the holidays. For more information on this potential policy change,
contact your closest Canadian diplomatic post or student adviser.
You will have to arrange for medical coverage before you arrive in Canada. Medical
coverage varies from province to province and sometimes from university to university
within each province. The provinces of Alberta, British Columbia and Saskatchewan cover
inter-national students under their provincial health care plans. Manitoba, New Brunswick,
Newfound-land, Nova Scotia, Ontario, Prince Edward Island and Quebec do not cover
international students under their provincial health care plans. International students
planning to study in one of these provinces must arrange for private medical coverage
through private insurance companies.

72

STUDYING IN CANADA SOME COSTS


TUITION FEES
Tuition fees vary among schools and programs. The range of fees for full-time
international students by province, based on the academic year of two semesters for 2001-02,
was as follows:
Tuition Fees for Foreign Students ($CAD): 2001
Province
Undergraduate
British Columbia
$4,268 - $13,830
Alberta
$5,704 - $10,000
Saskatchewan
$6,600 - $10,477
Manitoba
$3,600 - $6,463
Ontario
$6,170 - $13,066
Quebec
$8,268 - $9,858
New Brunswick
$6,000 - $9,220
Nova Scotia
$6,373 - $11,003
Prince Edward Island
$7,000
Newfoundland
$6,600

2002
Graduate
$1,400 - $16,000
$6,029 - $19,200
$1,449 - $5,625
$4,095 - $6,600
$3,600 - $25,000
$2,896 - $20,000
$4,860 - $7,115
$3,817 - $18,700
$5,824
$1,896 - $3,549

FINANCIAL AID
Most Canadian universities are accredited by the U.S. Department of Education as
eligible institutions for the HOPE Scholarship and Lifetime Learning tax credits, and the
Student Financial Assistance Programs (including Stafford Loans). To confirm a certain
university's eligibility, search for its Federal School Code on-line at
http://www.ed.gov/offices/OSFAP/Students/apply/search.html.
To apply for student loans guaranteed by the U.S. federal government, you must
complete a Free Application for Federal Student Aid (FAFSA), available on-line at
http://www.fafsa.ed.gov/ or by calling (800) 433-3243. Contact the U.S. Department of
Education at http://www.ed.gov/offices/OPE/ for more information.
SCHOLARSHIPS
Individual universities offer a wide variety of scholarships and grants. The
universities' student financial services offices can provide detailed information about general
or program-specific awards available to American students.
LIVING EXPENSES
The cost of living will depend on the individual's spending habits and the
geographic location of the school. Roughly speaking, an American student would need
approximately USD$5,500 per year for housing, food, clothing and entertainment.
Information about living expenses and both on- and off-campus housing is available from
the individual universities.

73

LEGAL MATTERS
If you are an American citizen or permanent resident, you need a student authorization
from Citizenship and Immigration Canada to study in Canada. Upon acceptance into a
Canadian university, you may apply for your student authorization at a CIC office in the U.S.
or at any Canadian port of entry (border crossing).
As a Pakistani citizen, when applying you must meet the specific requirements for
Pakistani candidates, which are to be submitted along with a visa application at the
Canadian Mission in Islamabad. These requirements include:
1. A passport valid for the total length of intended studies;
2. A complete application for Temporary Entry to Canada (Student Authorization) and
the attached Family Composition form. An incomplete application may result in
refusal.
3. The original letter of acceptance from the institution will be required before the visa
and the student authorization can be issued.
4. Evidence of sufficient funds to pay for the costs of studying and living in Canada
(e.g. current bank statements, scholarships, bank statements of sponsors);
5. If parents will be supporting you, a letter from their employer stating dates
employed, position and salary.
6. Evidence of immigration status of your relatives living in Canada, such as their
Record of Landing form (IMM 1000) or Canadian Citizenship.
7. Receipts showing tuition fees paid in full for 2 semesters, even if it is not required by
your intended school of study.
8. Academic records of all educational institutions that you have attended;
9. TOEFL (Test of English as a Foreign Language) or IELTS (International English
Language Testing System) with a minimum score for TOEFL of 550 or 6.5 for
IELTS, even if it is not required by your school.
10. If destined to Quebec, a Certificat d'Acceptation du Qubec (Quebec certificate of
acceptance or CAQ).
11. Two passport-sized photographs;
12. The (non-refundable) processing fee is Rs. 5000, payable by bank draft in Pakistani
Rupees
Enclose two self-addressed envelopes size (8" x 10") along with your application;
Documents supporting the funding requirement may include a letter from your bank or
your parents' employers, bank statements for the past several months, and/or your parents'
and your latest tax returns.
Foreign students may work while attending school in Canada, generally under the
following conditions:
q on campus;
q as part of a course of study, such as a work term during the year, such as in
cooperative programs; or,
q after graduation in a study-related job for up to one year.
You will need to apply for an employment authorization if you want to work off-campus.
More information is available from Citizenship and Immigration Canada at
http://www.cic.gc.ca/.

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BRIEF OVERVIEW ON APPLYING TO A CANADIAN EDUCATIONAL


INSTITUTION
REQUESTING INFORMATION
Almost all Canadian universities have sections on their websites dedicated to
providing information for prospective students, including information on tuition fees,
student services, financial assistance, admission qualifications and deadlines. Application
forms are often available on-line, although you may also request copies by contacting the
admissions or registrar's offices of universities that interest you. An on-line directory of
Canadian universities is available at the Association of Universities and Colleges of Canada's
website.
APPLICATION TIMELINE
You should contact the admissions or registrar's offices of universities that interest
you in the fall of your senior year to request application packages. Application deadlines
typically fall in April or May, but a handful of universities require applications to be
submitted as early as mid-January, while some will accept them as late as the end of June. In
addition, many universities make an effort to offer admission to applicants before May 1. You
should contact each university's admission office to inquire about its policy.
APPLICATION PROCEDURE
In most cases, you should request application forms from and submit them to the
universities directly. There are a couple of notable exceptions:
q Applications to all universities in the province of Ontario are processed by the
Ontario Universities'
q Application Centre. Non-Canadian applicants use the OUAC 105F common form,
which can be completed on-line or by mail.
q Universities in the province of British Columbia accept paper applications by mail as
well as on-line submissions via the Post -secondary Application Service of British
Columbia.
INTERNATIONAL STUDENT STATUS
Some admission offices make a distinction between American and overseas
international applicants. For example, while overseas applicants must prove their proficiency
in the language of instruction (English or French) by taking standardized tests, American
applicants normally are not required to do so. Also, the application deadline for American
students will sometimes be different from the one for Canadians or students from overseas,
so you should check carefully.
STANDARDIZED TESTS
Most Canadian universities require American students to report their SAT I and/or
II scores as part of their applications. You should check with the admissions office and, if
applicable, the specific faculties to see whether this is the case.

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Many Canadian universities recognize results from Advanced Placement (AP)


and/or International Baccalaureate (IB) exams. Based on qualifying scores in selected tests,
first-year students may be permitted to register in upper-level courses or even receive credit
equivalent to a semester or year of studies. Contact the admissions office to see which
specific exams, if any, are recognized by each university.
Note that when filling out College Board (SAT/AP) forms, in the "Country Code"
field, Canadian provinces are listed separately. Look for "British Columbia, Canada" or
"New Brunswick, Canada" instead of "Canada."

USEFUL LINKS
Association of Universities and Colleges of Canada
http://www.aucc.ca/en/index.html
For detailed information (program offerings, tuition costs, enrolment figures, etc.) about
specific Canadian universities and colleges, see the AUCC's Directory of Canadian
Universities.
Association of Community Colleges in Canada
http://www.accc.ca/english/index.cfm
A source for information on career oriented schools in Canada.
Canadian Bureau for International Education
http://www.cbie.ca/index1.html
A good resource for students interested in studying in Canada.
Canadian Education Centre Network
http://www.cecnetwork.org/
The site promotes and markets Canada as a destination for international students.
Canadian Information Centre for International Credentials
http://www.cicic.ca/indexe.stm
Credit transfer regulations and information on Canadian post-secondary institutions.
Education in Canada
http://www.infocan.gc.ca/facts/educ_e.html
Canadian Government website with information on Canada's educational system.
International Education and Academic Relations
http://www.dfait-maeci.gc.ca/english/culture/canstud.htm
Information on student exchanges and awards, Canadian studies programs, post-secondary
institutions in Canada and student immigration requirements, provided by the Department
of Foreign Affairs and International Trade.

THE CANADIAN MISSION IN PAKISTAN


The Canadian Embassy is located in Islamabad. Following are details regarding how
you may contact the embassy:
Office Location:

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Canadian High Commission,


Visa Section,
Diplomatic Enclave,
Islamabad.
Mailing Address:
Canadian High Commission,
Visa Section,
P.O. Box 1042,
Islamabad,
Pakistan.
Website URL:
http://www.dfait-maeci.gc.ca/islamabad
Telephone Numbers:
Mission Tel.: (92-51) 227-9100
Immigration Tel.: (92-51) 227-9100
Mission Fax: (92-51) 227-9110
Immigration Fax: (92-51) 227-9113

CONCLUDING REMARKS ON STUDYING IN CANADA


A graduate of a Canadian high school has completed 12-13 years (depending on the
province) of formal education. In Pakistan it also takes 12 years of formal academic
education for an Intermediate or HSC (Higher Secondary Certificate). A Pakistani HSC or
Intermediate Arts, Science or Commerce therefore, equates with Canadian high school
graduation and persons holding an HS may consequently be eligible for admission to a
bachelor's degree program in Canada.
A Pakistani bachelor's degree is different from a Canadian bachelor's in that the former
requires 14 years (Intermediate plus two years) and the latter requires 16 years (high school
plus 3-4 years). Therefore, the holder of a Pakistani bachelor's degree in Arts, Science or
Commerce is generally not eligible for admission to a Canadian master's degree program.
To qualify, a Pakistani bachelor's degree holder will almost certainly have to study another
two years at the bachelor's level.
A Pakistani bachelor of Engineering or Law may be equivalent to the same degrees in
Canada. However, it is often the case that Pakistani and other foreign students must do
supplementary studies to satisfy the particular requirements applicable to their professions
in Canada
A master's degree from a recognized Pakistani university is the normal requirement for
admission to a Canadian Master's degree programme. However, in exceptional or
outstanding cases a Pakistani master's degree holder may be considered for direct admission
to a Canadian doctoral programme. Teaching experience, research background, publications
and professional work are important in this regard. An excellent command of English or
French is a must depending on the university to which you are applying. Letters of

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recommendation from educational and professional supervisors are key, as is your own
application to the Admissions Committee.
Hence the outlook for you, as a student applying from Pakistan, is quite promising. A
key hurdle involves obtaining a visa and student authorization from the Canadian Mission in
Islamabad. Once you have satisfied the legal requirements and passed your interview,
youre on your way to obtaining an education from one of the most academically advanced
countries in the world. While the U.S may have its world class Ivys, Canada boasts McGill,
University of Toronto, University of Western Ontario and others top class educational
institutes with a highly qualified faculty and internationally recognized degrees. Make the
best of your educational experience in Canada.

THE RANKINGS III CANADIAN COLLEGE RA NKINGS


The Maclean's ranking takes a measure of the undergraduate experience at Canada's
public universities. It compares schools in three peer groupings, universities with similar
structures and mandates. Using such factors as research funding, diversity of offerings and
the range of PhD programs to define groupings, the universities are placed in one of three
categories:
Primarily Undergraduate - Universities largely focused on undergraduate education, with
relatively few graduate programs.
Comprehensive - Universities with a significant amount of research activity and a wide range
of programs at the undergraduate and graduate levels, including professional degrees.

78

Medical Doctoral - This category includes those universities with a broad range of not only
undergraduate and graduate degree programs, but also PhD programs and extensive
research activities. They also qualify as medical schools, hence the term medical doctoral.
In short, the rankings fall in a continuum from the narrowest to the broadest in terms of
programs offered, with primarily undergraduate being the narrowest and medical
doctoral being the broadest. Hence the better known universities offering a wide range of
courses will be found under the latter category.
In reporting to Maclean's, universities include all federated and affiliated institutions.
The magazine does not rank schools with fewer than 1,000 full-time students, or those with a
strictly religious or specialized mission. The universities in the three categories are treated as
separate but equal. Maclean's ranks the schools on a range of factors in six broad groupings
(weightings are in parentheses). In total, Primarily Undergraduate universities are ranked on
21 performance measures, Comprehensive universities on 22 and Medical-Doctoral
universities on 23 -- resulting in slightly different weightings for some performance
measures.

THE RANKING CRITERIA


Student Body (21% To 22% Of Final Score)
Students are enriched by the input of their peers. For that reason, Maclean's collects the
incoming students' average high-school grades (11%), and the proportion of those with
averages of 75 per cent or higher (3%).
This count includes only those students whose secondary-school averages or CEGEP
scores served as the basis of admission. Mature students, for example, are excluded. As well,
it should be noted that certain universities, in the spirit of accessibility, accept students with
lower grades.
As a measure of drawing power, the magazine also counts the proportion of out -ofprovince students in the first-year undergraduate class (1.5%), and for Comprehensive and
Medical-Doctoral universities, the percentage of international students at the graduate level
(1%). This year, Maclean's introduced a new indicator -- the percentage of international
students in the first-year undergraduate class (0.5%) -- acknowledging the growing initiative
to attract students from abroad and the benefits such diversity brings to the classroom.
The student-body section also includes graduation rates (2%): the percentage of fulltime undergraduate students in their second year who go on to graduate from the institution
within one year of the expected time period. In addition, Maclean's collects data on the
success of the student body at winning national academic awards (3%) over the past five
years.
Classes (17% To 18%)
The rankings embrace the entire distribution of class sizes at the first- and second-year
levels (7.5% for Primarily Undergraduate universities, 7% for the other two categories), as
well as the third- and fourth-year levels (7.5% for the Primarily Undergraduate category, 7%
for the others). Class-size groupings are: 1 to 25; 26 to 50; 51 to 100; 101 to 250; 251 to 500; 501
plus. Maclean's also ranks schools on the percentage of first-year classes taught by tenured

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and tenure-track professors (3%), a measure of how much access new students have to top
faculty.
Faculty (17%)
The rankings assess the calibre of faculty by calculating the percentage of those with
PhDs (3%), and the number who win national awards (3%). In addition, the magazine
measures the success of eligible faculty in securing grants from each of the three major
federal granting agencies: Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada,
Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada, and the Canadian Institutes
of Health Research, as well as the Canada Council. Maclean's takes into account both the
number and the dollar value received last year. Social sciences and humanities grants plus
Canada Council grants (5.5%) and medical/science grants (5.5%) were tallied as separate
indicators.
Finances (12%)
This section examines the amount of money available for current expenses per weighted
full-time-equivalent student (3.3%), as well as the percentage of the budget spent on student
services (4.3%) and scholarships and bursaries (4.3%). When presenting their general
operating budget, institutions deducted any funds used to pay off debt.
Library (12%)
This section assesses the breadth and currency of the university's collection. Schools
received points for the number of volumes and volume equivalents per total number of
students (4% for Primarily Undergraduate and Comprehensive, 3% for Medical-Doctoral).
An additional indicator, measuring total holdings, regardless of student numbers, was used
in the Medical-Doctoral category (1%) to acknowledge the importance of extensive oncampus collections in those universities. As well, Maclean's measured the percentage of a
university's operating budget that was allocated to library services (4%) and the percentage
of the actual library budget that was spent on updating the collection (4%). In
acknowledging a shift from the traditional library model to an access model, Maclean's
captures spending on electronic resources in both the library expenses and acquisitions
measurements.
Reputation (20%)
This section reflects a university's reputation with its own graduates, as well as within
the community at large. When looking at alumni support, institutions received points for the
number -- rather than the value -- of gifts to the university over the past five years (5%).
For its reputational survey (15%), Maclean's sent surveys to 7,255 individuals across the
country. Respondents rated the schools in three categories: Highest Quality, Most
Innovative and Leaders of Tomorrow. Best Overall represents the sum of the scores.
MEDICAL DOCTORAL RANKINGS
Ranking University Last yr.
1
Toronto
1
2

UBC

2*

Queen's

2*

McGill

Western

80

Alberta

McMaster

Dalhousie

Ottawa

12

10

Montreal

11

Laval

11

12

Calgary

10

13

Sherbrooke

15

14

Manitoba

13

15

Saskatchewan

14

*indicates a tie

PRIMARILY UNDERGRADUATE RANKING


Ranking

University

Last yr.

Mount Allison

Acadia

St. Francis Xavier

Trent

Wilfrid Laurier

Bishop's

Winnipeg

81

Lethbridge

Saint Mary's

10

10

UNBC

11

Moncton

12

12

St. Thomas

11

13

Mount Saint Vincent

13

14

Nipissing

18

15

Brock

19

16

Brandon

16

17

Laurentian

15

18

UPEI

14

*19

Ryerson

17

*19

Cape Breton (UCCB)

21

21

Lakehead

20

* Indicates a tie.

COMPREHENSIVE RANKING
Ranking

University

Last yr.

Simon Fraser

2*

Guelph

Waterloo

2*

Victoria

York

Memorial

82

Windsor

Carleton

Concordia

10

10

New Brunswick

11

Regina

11

* Indicates a tie.

GUIDE TO COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES IN AUSTRALIA


Australia has the third largest number of international students in the English-speaking
world behind the USA and UK. In some countries Australia is the students first choice study
destination.
Australian qualifications and institutions are recognised globally for their high quality
and excellence. Graduates from Australia are very successful in finding jobs and hold
prominent positions worldwide. Additionally, they are readily accepted for postgraduate
study at leading international universities. Distinguishing Australia from many other
countries is the Australian Qualifications Framework (AQF) which is a national system of
learning pathways recognised throughout Australia and by other countries.
Multicultural Australia is a safe, friendly, sophisticated and harmonious society in which
students can learn and travel in an English speaking country. Australia also offers excellent
value for money and a standard of living which is among the highest in the world. Living

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expenses and tuition costs in Australia are considerably less expensive than the UK and
USA.
Most of the contents of this section has been compiled after extensive research on the
internet. The official Australian government site catering to international students,
http://studyinaustralia.gov.au, has been cited most extensively.
Australian Government legislation requires quality assurance agencies and codes of
conduct to be in place so that international students in Australia and their parents enjoy a
level of service and financial protection that is unrivalled.
More than 180,000 international students from about 80 countries study in Australia each
year. Students must meet minimum academic requirements and need a sufficient level of
English language proficiency for entry to Australian education and training institutions.
Institutions will assess whether you meet the selection criteria set for your proposed course
of study. They will look at the level and content of the study you have completed in Australia
or your home country.
The terms University and Degree are protected in Australia so that only institutions
which meet Australia's rigorous quality assurance processes can use the titles. Australia has
39 universities which are listed on the registers of the Australian Qualifications Framework
as well as a number of recognised higher education institutions. Australian universities also
have overseas branch campuses and exchange programmes for students and staff worldwide.
Australia has nearly 4000 formal agreements with universities around the world. Many
Australian universities concentrate on traditional areas of learning and inquiry, while others
are more vocational and applied in focus. All, to some extent, combine tuition with research.
It is Australias reputation as an innovative and research-intensive culture that is
attracting many international students at the postgraduate level. Australia's expenditure on
research and development ranks highly among OECD countries.

STEPS LEADING TO A SUCCESSFUL COURSE OF STUDY IN


AUSTRALIA
These steps are designed for people who will be traveling to Australia on a student visa.
In some cases there may be a variation to the application process depending on your country
of nationality. The table below provides a brief description of each of the steps involved
coming to Australia to study.
STEP 1 - STUDY PLANNING
Australia's national system of learning pathways enables students to move easily from
one sector and qualification level to the next, and from one institution to another.
What fields of study are you interested in? Universities offer many undergraduate and
postgraduate courses covering fields of study such as agriculture, business, economics,
education, environmental science, engineering, health sciences, humanities and social
sciences, information technology, law, mathematics and computing, medicine, science and
visual/performing arts.

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Vocational education and training institutions offer practical, career oriented courses
including business, computing, marketing, and tourism and hospitality.
Table Summary of All Steps
1. Study planning
Identify the course that best suits your academic needs and career goals. Consider
the field of study, level of qualification, course duration and where you want to study.
2. Course selection
Search the Australian Government database of registered courses and institutions
and select the ones that best match your study plan and preferred destination.
3. Admission application
Apply for admission to the institution offering the course. You may be asked to
provide evidence of your academic achievements and English proficiency.
4. Visa application
To be granted a student visa you must complete an application form, pay the visa
application charge and satisfy the student visa requirements. All students must have
medical insurance before they apply for a student visa.
5. Pre-departure
In some countries you can attend a pre-departure seminar to familiarise yourself with
studying and living in Australia.
6. Arrival and reception
Your institution can arrange for you to met at the airport on your arrival in Australia
and will provide an orientation program and ongoing support.

The Australian Qualifications Framework (AQF) is a national structure covering 12


different qualifications linking the four education sectors and providing learning pathways
and recognition for previous study. Once the status of your existing qualifications is
established the AQF means international students can choose from appropriate level courses
anywhere in Australia. Many institutions offer preparatory studies, also known as bridging or
foundation courses, to help meet the academic entry requirements of Australian institutions.
There are also many English language courses with starting dates throughout the year to
prepare you for further study in Australia.
In selecting an institution at which to study you might want to consider the environment
in which it is located (eg - urban or rural, climate and extra curricular activities available on
and off campus).
The majority of international students in Australia are full-fee paying students and are
not awarded scholarships. Student loans are not available easily for international students in
Australia.
You will need to consider whether you can afford to study at a particular institution. Fees
vary according to the institution and discipline selected. For example, science and medical
courses that require a large amount of laboratory and fieldwork are more costly than arts
courses. To be granted a student visa you will need to declare your financial ability and in

85

most cases you will need evidence of having sufficient funds to pay part or all of your tuition
fees.
There is also the cost of living to consider. If you intend to get a job while studying in
Australia then the money you earn from working in Australia should only supplement your
income and not be your primary source of income. You can only apply for a new student visa
with work rights after you arrive in Australia and have begun studying. You will only be
permitted to work a limited number of hours. Therefore you should not expect your earnings
to cover your living costs sufficiently.
STEP 2 - COURSE SELECTION
You have a wide range of courses to choose from in Australia. You will need to find out
which institutions offer the course you are interested in. Even if you are interested in only
one type of course you might find many institutions on your list. By law, all Australian
institutions and the courses they offer to international students must be accredited and
registered by the Australian Government. This register provides information on institution
services and locations, courses and their duration, and tuition fees. To find out which
institutions offer your preferred course...
Students must meet minimum academic requirements to be accepted into specific
courses. Each institution sets its own entry requirements so they may vary from one
institution to another, and from one course or faculty to another. Some courses also require
relevant work experience and this may be particularly important in relation to MBA and
other postgraduate studies.
You may be asked to provide evidence of your academic achievements and English
language proficiency to assess whether you meet the entry requirements for your proposed
course of study in Australia. Institutions will look at the level and content of the study you
have completed in Australia or your home country.
If you do not meet the entry requirements for further study you can enroll in secondary
school in Australia. If you do not meet undergraduate course entry requirements you may be
able to enroll in Foundation Studies which prepare you for further study in Australia and
reserve a provisional place in your proposed course. Bridging courses, such as a Master
Qualifying program, are also offered. It is recommended that you seek advice from the
institution about meeting their entry requirements before applying for admission into your
selected courses.
Evidence of English language proficiency is required when applying for a student visa.
Depending on your proposed study sector you will need to have a minimum score in the
IELTS English language proficiency test and/or a period of English language tuition.
Most university and vocational education and training courses also require students to
have a sufficient level of English language proficiency. You should check with each
institution what English language proficiency tests are recognised by that institution and
what the minimum scores are for each course. There are many English language courses
with starting dates throughout the year, Foundation Studies and secondary schooling to
prepare you for further study in Australia.

86

STEP 3 - APPLYING FOR ADMISSION


Once you have selected the courses and institutions in which you are interested in
applying, the Australian Education Centre or Australian Embassy can provide you with a list
of local Australian education agents or an institution's nominated contact officer where you
can obtain the necessary application form and advice.
A typical application form will ask you to provide the name of the course you are
applying for, and if you have second and third course preferences at the same institution.
Most application forms also ask for additional documentation, including full details of
previous study, including copies of qualifications already awarded to you and evidence of
your English language proficiency (for undergraduate and postgraduate studies, and
vocational education and training)
If you are unsure what documents you should provide contact the institution you have
selected. If you are currently enrolled in a course of study, you might be granted provisional
acceptance on the basis of previous academic performance in anticipation that your final
examination results do not differ greatly from the grades already attained.
After filling in your application form, you should attach all the required documents and
submit them direct to the institutions. Depending on the country you are from and the
institution you have selected, you may be instructed to send your form to either:

q a local agent of the institution in your country, or


q to the international office or nominated contact officer of the institution
The institution will assess your application and supporting documents and advise you if
you meet the entry requirements and will be admitted. If successful, the institution will send
you a letter of offer. Depending on your country of nationality and the education sector of
your study you may be required to undergo a pre-visa assessment before the institution
issues an Electronic Confirmation of Enrolment (eCoE). The eCoE is the only accepted
evidence of enrolment for processing student visa applications.
You may be required to pay tuition fees before applying for the student visa. The
institution will advise you of its requirements but generally it will require payment of at least
one semester of course fees.
STEP 4 - APPLYING FOR A VISA
Before you can apply for a visa, you should get a letter of offer from the institution you
applied for. International students must have a valid student visa for the duration of their
studies in Australia. You should check with the Australian Embassy in your country to see if
you are eligible to apply for a student visa before obtaining official confirmation of your
enrolment and paying tuition fees. You will only be issued with a student visa for study in
Australia if you seek to undertake a full-time course that is accredited and registered by the
Australian Government.
Visa application forms in English, Portuguese or Spanish can be downloaded from the
Department of Immigration and Multicultural Affairs (DIMA) website at
http://www.dima.gov.au/students/index.html. For application forms in host-country
languages contact your nearest Australian Embassy or DIMA office. Most students will need

87

to fill in the Application for a Student (Temporary) Visa Form 157A. Where can I get help
with filling out a visa application?
The visa application forms are designed so that you can complete them with minimal, if
any, help. The DIMA website has visa information forms for download and provides more
information on student visa requirements. However, if you wish to seek help in obtaining a
visa you are advised to use a registered migration agent. Contact the nearest Australian
Embassy or DIMA Office for a list is available of registered migration agents.
You will be asked to have a medical examination as part of the visa process. You will be
given a list of approved doctors and special forms for the doctor to complete.
Unless instructed otherwise by the institution or agent you have been dealing with, you
should send your visa application form (together with the correct visa charge and and all
necessary documents) to the nearest Australian Embassy or DIMA Office.
All students must show evidence that they have health insurance cover before a visa can
be issued. Australia has a very cost competitive medical insurance system. In many cases
you can pay the compulsory medical insurance (Overseas Student Health Cover, or OSHC
for short) premium to the education institution which will pay the health insurer on your
behalf.
You can only be granted a student visa if you intend to study a registered course or part
of a registered course on a full-time basis. If your application is successful you will be issued
with a Multiple Entry Visa allowing you to travel backwards and forwards to Australia within
the period for which the visa has been granted. That period will depend on the course for
which you have been accepted. Your visa can be cancelled if you discontinue your studies or
fail to meet the conditions of your visa.
If your application is not successful you will be told the reasons in writing. The decision
not to grant you a student visa cannot be reviewed if you applied from outside Australia.
Before re-applying for a student visa, you should carefully consider what evidence you can
provide to satisfy the decision maker that you meet all the requirements for a student visa.
If you apply in Australia and are refused a student visa then you may apply for a review
of the decision. You will be notified of your review rights in writing and the time limits for
lodging such an appeal.
STEP 5 - PRE-DEPARTURE
Before making final preparations for your trip, ensure your student visa is granted. The
institution in which you have enrolled will send you a confirmation of enrolment and an
information package. This package is very important because it contains information on
your selected course, your accommodation options and important events that you should
attend during the first weeks of study. It may include information about the city you are
going to, its climate, your likely clothing requirements, information about local customs,
shopping facilities, accommodation, transport, banking, mail and telephone services, the
estimated cost of living and the amount of money you should bring with you when you first
arrive, arrangements for your welcome and settling-in period and the date by which you are
expected to arrive. Be sure to contact your institution if you don't receive this material before
leaving your country.

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Unless you are being supported by an agent you will have to purchase your air
tickets. You should make sure you have a place to stay when you arrive in Australia so it is a
good idea to ask the institution to arrange a homestay or other accommodation for 2-4
weeks. During this time you can find your permanent accommodation. If you have not asked
the institution to arrange accommodation you will need to book your own accommodation.
The international office of your institution may be able to help you find suitable
accommodation, either on-campus and off-campus, once you arrive in Australia.
It is recommended that you check with your institution or a local Australian Education
Centre whether there are pre-departure briefings arranged.
Visitors from many parts of the world are attracted by Australias spectacular natural
environment and Australia also has many native plants and animals which are unique to this
planet. Australian quarantine is needed to keep out exotic pests and diseases that could
affect native flora and fauna, human health, agricultural industries and our environment.
This role is undertaken by the Australian Quarantine and Inspection Service (AQIS). Visit
the AQIS website at http://www.affa.gov.au/ for information in a range of foreign
languages on what you cannot bring into Australia and what your family and friends at home
cannot send to you through the mail. Also, gifts sent to you from outside Australia should
not be packed in cases that have contained fruit, vegetables or timber.
STEP 6 - ARRIVAL AND RECEPTION
If you have made prior arrangements, the institution in which you have enrolled will
send someone to meet you at the airport and take you to your accommodation. It is wise to
make this arrangement with your institution as you may be unfamiliar with transport and
Australian money when you first arrive. You will be told how to get to the institution on the
day of your orientation.
You will receive orientation at your institution by the international officer. They will
introduce you to the institution's rules and regulations and help you decide on your
timetable. If you haven't arranged your accommodation before you depart, the institution
may be able to help you to find suitable rental accommodation or a Homestay family. You
could also check campus notice-boards for other students looking for people to share units
or houses. Local newspapers run ads for accommodation vacant, particularly in Saturday and
mid-week editions. All students under 18 years of age must have their accommodation
approved by their institution.
It is an Australian Government requirement that students notify their education
institution of their address in Australia within seven days of arrival, and notify their
education institution of any change of address within seven days.
You must stay with the institution for 12 months (or for the duration of the course if it is
for less than 12 months) before you decide to change your course of institution. You can
change your course but before you do so you must apply to DIMA to change education
provider. There is an application charge of $125 except when a student changes courses
because the institution is unable to continue providing the course.
It is important to comply with Australian student visa conditions for the duration of your
stay. Under Government legislation students who break their visa conditions will face
mandatory visa cancellation. During your studies, you can leave Australia and re-enter if you

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hold a valid visa. Otherwise you will need to reapply, pay the charge and meet the current
visa requirements.
The Australian Government skilled migration programme targets young people who
have skills, an education and outstanding abilities that will contribute to the Australian
economy. From 1 July 2001, eligible students can apply onshore for certain permanent and
temporary visas. If you wish to migrate to Australia you should contact DIMA to find out the
migration requirements.

TUITION FEES, ACCOMMODATION COSTS AND SC HOLARSHIPS


Australia offers excellent value for money, with living expenses and tuition costs in
Australia considerably less expensive than the United Kingdom (UK) and the United States
of America (USA).
Tuition fees vary according to the institution and course selected but this booklet
provides a guide to the average costs. Scholarships are available for international students
however the competition is intense and the majority of international students in Australia are
full-fee paying students.
The average international student in Australia spends about $320 per week on
accommodation, food, clothing, entertainment, transport, international and domestic travel,
telephone and incidental costs. School students in Australia typically spend a little less about $265 a week - on accommodation and food, entertainment, transport and associated
items. While these are a realistic guide, it is important to remember that individual
circumstances will vary by location, course and lifestyle.
International students studying in Australia are required to have Overseas Student
Health Cover (OSHC) for the duration of your student visa in Australia. Students in Australia
are also responsible for their own accident and property insurance. It is a good idea to take
out travel insurance before leaving your country to cover lost baggage, cancellation of plane
tickets and repatriation.
International students can work while studying in Australia but the money you earn
should not be used as your only source of income. To be granted a student visa in Australia
you need to have adequate means of financial support.
International students are charged up-front tuition fees. Institutions sometimes make an
additional charge to cover other costs associated with being a student: student organisation
membership, library and laboratory costs and sports facility costs. Some courses make
specific charges for excursions, books, stationery and other essential material. These costs
will vary depending on the course or institution therefore average costs are provided below
and should only be used as a guide. All school tuition fees are exempt from Australia's
Goods and Services Tax (GST).
Institutions will advise when to pay your tuition fees and acceptable methods of
payment.

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Foundation Studies such as university


entrance, preparatory and bridging courses

$A9000$A14,000 a year

Undergraduate
Bachelor Degrees such as courses in arts,
$A10,000 $A13,500 a year
business, economics and law
Laboratory-based Bachelor Degrees such as
$A11,000 $A16,500 a year
science and engineering courses
Postgraduate
Graduate Certificates
$A9000 $A16,000
Graduate Diplomas
Masters Doctoral Degree
$A11,000$A18,500 a year

A variety of high standard student accommodation is available to suit different budgets


and needs. Students can opt to live in university accommodation or with an Australian
family. Shared accommodation with other students is common and popular.
Institutions provide students with help in finding accommodation and understanding
lease and tenancy conditions. Temporary accommodation can be arranged before you leave
home allowing you time on arrival to consider where and how you would like to be
accommodated in the longer term. Student notice-boards and newspapers often advertise
rooms, apartments and houses for rent.
Further advice is available from your prospective institution.

ACCOMMODATION OPTIONS

APPROXIMATE COST

HOMESTAY OR FARMSTAY

A$110A$270 PER WEEK

Gain access to the Australian lifestyle in a natural and friendly way through Homestay. This
is popular with younger students and those studying short-term English courses. Meals are
usually included in the cost. Single or shared rooms may be offered and the cost will vary
accordingly. Self-catering Homestay is sometimes available cheaply. Farmstay offers the
same services in a rural setting. Institutions maintain a register of families prepared to board
international students during the academic year. Education institutions ensure that
Homestay families are reputable and that they offer accommodation of a reasonable
standard.
HOSTELS AND GUEST HO USES
A$80A$135 PER WEEK
Hostels are usually run by organisations such as Youth Hostels Australia and the Young
Mens Christian Association (YMCA). Students share kitchen and bathroom facilities.

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SHARE ACCOMMODATION
A$50A$160 PER WEEK
RENTAL ACCOMMODATION
A$70A$350 PER WEEK
Students often share with fellow students. They advertise on notice boards and in
newspapers. Students may have to provide their own furniture. When renting a house,
apartment or bedsitter, landlords require rent to be paid in advance and will require a
security bond equal to one months rent.
BOARDING SCHOOLS
A$8000A$11000 PER YEAR
Many private secondary schools provide accommodation, meals and laundry services for
international students.
Note: Tuition fees are in addition to the boarding fees
UNIVERSITY ACCOMMODATION
A$80A$250 PER WEEK
Most universities offer a variety of accommodation on or near to campus such as university
apartments, residential colleges or halls of residence. Halls of Residence are usually cheaper
and a popular option with full-time international students. The cost ranges depending on the
type of accommodation.
UNIVERSITY APARTMENTS
Most universities offer a variety of accommodation on or near to campus such as university
apartments, residential colleges or halls of residence. Halls of Residence are usually cheaper
and a popular option with full-time international students. The cost ranges depending on the
type of accommodation.
UNIVERSITY RESIDENTIAL COLLEGES
Residential colleges provide accommodation with meals. They are slightly more expensive
than university Halls of Residence. The college undertakes cleaning and household tasks.
Sporting and social facilities, tutoring, libraries and (generally) computer access are also
provided.
HALLS OF RESIDENCE
Halls of residence are located on or near university campuses and are generally cheaper than
residential colleges. International students find them an attractive option. Students usually
have meals and some cleaning services provided. Only full-time students are accepted.
Students need to apply early because of the high demand for places.
International students in Australia on a student visa can apply for permission to work. A
student can work up to 20 hours a week on a casual basis during course time and full-time
during vacation periods if they have been granted a visa with work rights. If you are studying
a Masters or Doctorate course under subclass 574 you are permitted to work unlimited hours.
Family members can apply for permission to work up to 20 hours a week throughout the
year.
You can only apply for a visa with work rights after you arrive in Australia and have
begun studying. The application charge for a student visa with permission to work is A$50.
The money you earn from working in Australia should only supplement your income and not
be used as your only source of income.
Most students take part-time or casual jobs at some time during their studies. Some jobs
are closely tied to courses of study (such as formal cadetships and informal arrangements
such as part-time work by law students in solicitors offices). Some students tutor school
children or get jobs on campus in the canteen, the bookshop, in the institutions offices and

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as laboratory assistants. Some jobs are entirely outside the education community such as
bartending, babysitting, gardening, hospitality, sales, information technology, restaurants,
checkout work or fruit picking.
Some institutions offer a job placement service. If work is available you will need to
obtain a tax file number from the Australian Government. Under certain circumstances
dependants of students are permitted to work.
The Australian Government and education institutions offer scholarships for
international students. However, most of these are offered in universities and for
postgraduate study in particular. There are a number of other organisations offering
scholarships for international study. The majority of international students in Australia are
full-fee paying students. With only a limited number of scholarships available for
international students there is intense competition for these awards. For information on
scholarships available contact the individual institution direct. Otherwise, you may be able
to arrange sponsorships, privately, in your home country.
One important source of scholarships for international students is The Australian
Agency for International Development (AusAID) Scholarships. The Australian Agency for
International Development (AusAID) offers the Australian Development Scholarship (ADS)
for international students to study at Australian universities and vocational education and
training institutions. ADS scholarships enable international students from developing
countries to gain knowledge and skills which will help the development of their home
country when they return. For information on ADS contact the Australian Education Centre
or Australian Diplomatic Mission in your country or look on the AusAID web site at
http://www.ausaid.gov.au/scholar/
Australian universities offer a range of postgraduate scholarships to international
students predominantly targeting Doctoral and Masters Degrees by research. The course of
study and financial support is determined by the university. You should contact the relevant
university or go though the following links to obtain further information on the scholarships
available.

MORE ABOUT THE AUSAID A.D.S SCHOLARSHIPS


Australian Development Scholarships (ADS) provide opportunities for people from
selected developing countries to undertake post-secondary level study in Australia.
Australian Development Scholarships allow people to gain knowledge and skills which will
help the development of their home country when they return home after finishing their
study.
There are two categories of scholarships:
q Public sector: Governments in partner countries nominate candidates for the public
sector category.
q Open/equity: Applicants do not need to be nominated by their Government or employer.
Anyone who meets the selection criteria may apply.
You are only eligible for an Australian Development Scholarship (ADS) if you are a
citizen of one of the countries on the country list. Fortunately, Pakistan is listed as one of

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the countries which may receive an ADS scholarship. Applicants for ADS must satisfy both
the general eligibility criteria and specific criteria established for each country. To be eligible
for scholarship applicants must:

q have citizenship in an ADS participating country and must not have access to a place in
q
q
q
q
q
q
q
q
q
q

an Australian education institution on the basis of Australian permanent residence status


or eligibility to hold a New Zealand passport.
not have permanent residence status in New Zealand (unless their country does not
issue passports - the Cook Islands, Niue and Tokelau).
not be married or engaged to be married to a person who holds or who is eligible to hold
Australian or New Zealand citizenship or permanent residence status.
meet specific eligibility criteria imposed by the Government of the applicant's country of
citizenship (country specific eligibility criteria are available from Australian Diplomatic
Missions in the country of citizenship).
satisfy Australian Government requirements for international student entry to Australia
(health and character checks, etc.);
not hold another scholarship during the period of the ADS;
not hold or have held an Australian Government Scholarship in the preceding 12 months
at the time of application (with the exception of Papua New Guinea Secondary School
Project students);
satisfy the admission requirements of the Australian institution in which the course is to
be undertaken;
be applying to commence a new course of study and not be seeking support through
ADS for a course already commenced in Australia;
not be transferring from another Australian training scholarship to an ADS during the
same course of study.
be able to take up the scholarship in the calendar year for which the scholarship is
offered.

The Institutions contracted to receive Australian Development Scholarship awardees are:

q
q
q
q
q
q
q
q
q
q
q
q
q
q

Australian Maritime College


The University of New South Wales
The Australian National University
The University of Queensland
Curtin University of Technology
University of Southern Queensland
Flinders University
The University of Sydney
James Cook University
University of Technology, Sydney
Monash University
The University of Western Australia
Northern Territory University
Victoria University

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q
q
q
q
q
q
q

Southern Cross University


Swinburne University of Technology
The University of Melbourne
The University of Newcastle
Swinburne University of Technology (TAFE)
Victoria University (TAFE)
TAFE Queensland

Australian Development Scholarship students study a wide range of disciplines at


Australian universities and most technical training institutions. The scholarship numbers
and fields of study for each country are determined annually as part of Australia's bilateral
development assistance program with that country. Some countries may limit the level of
study (technical, undergraduate or postgraduate) and give priority to certain fields of study
to better meet development needs.
Scholarships are offered for the minimum period that the individual could be expected to
complete the academic program. Scholarships may include preparatory programs (including
English language tuition) which are normally limited to one year. Applicants considering
studying for particular professions (eg medicine, legal studies, etc) should note that they are
expected to complete their practical training in their own country. Only under exceptional
circumstances does ADS include a practical training period required for professional
registration.
Applicants who are offered a scholarship will be asked to sign an undertaking declaring
that they will comply with the conditions of that scholarship. Partner countries may impose
their own separate conditions on the scholarship. Conditions include:
q studying full time in Australia
q restrictions on employment in Australia
q complying with conditions set down by the institution
q achieving satisfactory academic progress
q accepting that the scholarship may be withdrawn by the Australian Government
q leaving Australia and returning to the home country on completion of the scholarship
q restrictions on returning to Australia within 2 years of the completion of the
scholarship
q repaying the total amount of the scholarship if conditions above are not adhered to.
Scholarship entitlements cover a return airfare to Australia, academic and other
compulsory fees, basic health insurance, an establishment allowance and a living allowance
paid fortnightly. The living allowance is paid at a higher rate when the student is joined long
term by one or more immediate family members. No assistance is available with the airfares
of family members.

THE AUSTRALIAN HIGH COMMISSION IN PAKISTAN


The Australian High Commission in Pakistan may be contacted for more details
regarding the AusAID/ADS scholarships.
Address:

95

Constitution Avenue and Ispahani Road,


Diplomatic Enclave No. 1, Sector G-5/4,
Islamabad, Pakistan.
Postal Address:
P.O. Box 1046,
Islamabad.
Telephone Number:
(92 51) 282 4345

CONCLUDING REMAKRS ON STUDYING IN AUSTRA LIA SOME


STATISTICS AND COMMENTS
There was a 16% increase in overseas student enrolments with Australian education
providers in 2000 over 1999. This follows an increase of 7.5% in overseas student numbers
between 1998 and 1999 and continues the long-term trend of growth experienced since feepaying students began studying in Australia in the mid 1980s. Out of this group, the
majority of overseas students studying with an Australian education provider during 2000
were from Asia (approximately 83%), which simply attests to the popularity of Australian
education in this continent. Amongst Australian states, New South Wales enrolled the
largest number of international students in 2000, followed by Victoria, Queensland, Western
Australia, South Australia, Australian Capital Territory, Tasmania and the Northern
Territory.
The most common field of study in which overseas higher education students were
enrolled during 2000 was Business, Administration and Economics, which accounted for
about 50% of all enrolments. The next most popular field of study within the higher
education sector was Science, which accounted for 15% of all enrolments. The majority of
these students (approximately 72%) undertook a Computer Science course. Australia,
therefore, has the potential of providing you with higher education up to par with the better
universities in the United States. Though the rarity of scholarships available to international
students may be a major demerit in applying to Australian universities, tuition fees as well as
living expenditures are lower than most US or UK colleges and universities.

CONCLUSION
You are at the most exciting and challenging stage of your development. Deciding
on a career, the college that will best prepare you for that career, and what to do to get
admission into that college. We have done our best to provide you with not only information
but also with guidance to help you make the best search, analysis and decision.
If you would like to further career or college selection guidance, we have a service that
you can employ.
We will also be holding periodic seminars in the future to assist students in picking the
right careers for themselves. For updates, please visit our website or call / e-mail us.
If you know which college you want to get into, there is no one with a record anywhere
near mine for successful admissions into the college of your choice. I look forward to
helping you on your exciting journey.

96

Anees Hussain.
www.aneeshussain.com
educationist@cyber.net.pk
(021) 5893385 / 5388455

ANEES HUSSAINS
WAY
HAS SUCCESSFULLY HELPED THOUSANDS OF
STUDENTS IN THEIR CAREERS FOR

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SAT I, SAT II, GMAT, GRE, TOEFL,


IELTS, LUMS, IBA, AGA KHAN, CBM,
SZABIST, BCS-FAST, KU-BSC, AMI,
MEDICAL COLLEGES, NED, SIR SYED,
GIK, NUST, ICAP AND OTHER EXAMS.
Anees Hussain has prepared over 13000 students since 1989 for
16 different tests. He gets over 3 times as many students
admitted to the colleges of their choice than his competitors.
He has over 1400 students admitted to IBA, Karachi, with 210 in
2001 and 2002. On international tests, more than 30% of his
students score 1400+ on their SAT (75 have scored 1500), 50%
scored 650+ on their GMAT (20 have scored over 700), 2000+ on
their GRE (15 have scored over 2200) and 267+ on their TOEFL
examinations.
ANEES HUSSAIN

Excellence in Education
www.aneeshussain.com

Head Office
Tel: (021) 5893385 / 5388455
73-C, 9th Commercial Street, Phase 4, D.H.A,
Karachi.
E-Mail: educationist@cyber.net.pk

98

ANEES HUSSAIN
B.A (HONS) M.A

Cambridge University,
England.

M.S - INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING

Columbia University,
New York, U.S.A.
M.PHIL - BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION,
Graduate School of Business, Columbia University,
New York, U.S.A
COLUMBIA GRADUATE SCHOOLS
Combined GPA of 3.94
FORMER PROFESSOR
Graduate School of Business, Columbia University,
New York, U.S.A.
Experienced in teaching students with learning difficulties and disabilities

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