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My

Korean
2

Young-A Cho
In-Jung Cho
Douglas Ling
To our parents

This book and its accompanying audio files are licensed under a Creative
Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.5 Australia License.

To view a copy of this license, visit


http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.5/au/.

This book and its accompanying audio files are available online at
http://www.arts.monash.edu.au/korean/klec.

Help us improve!
Korean.Studies@arts.monash.edu.au

Final draft August 2009


CONTENTS

PREFACE vii
TO THE TEACHER AND THE LEARNER xi

UNIT 11 ? 1

Asking and giving the reason for actions


Talking about past travel, leisure and holiday activities
Situation Dialogue 1 3
Cause and Result +/ so (that) 5

Vocabulary: Describing Things 9


Vocabulary: Counting Days 9
Situation Dialogue 2 13
Situation Dialogue 3 21

UNIT 12 ? 29

Requesting and offering services


Situation Dialogue 1 31
Offering: +/ ? Shall I do ? 33

Requesting: +/ please do 35

Situation Dialogue 2 41
Situation Dialogue 3 49

UNIT 13 ? 59

Talking about planned activities


Situation Dialogue 1 61
Future Activity: +/ be going to; will 63

+() in order to; with the intention of 64

Situation Dialogue 2 71
Situation Dialogue 3 77

i
UNIT 14 ? 85

Giving a reason or cause


Talking about illness and health
Giving advice
Situation Dialogue 1 87
Reason or Cause: + (/) since; because 89

Situation Dialogue 2 95
Vocabulary: Parts of the Human Body 97
Change in an Action or State: 100
+ while; while doing; and then
Situation Dialogue 3 105
Negative Commands: + please, don t do 107

Frequency: () () (three) times per (day) 111

Vocabulary: Length of Time 112

UNIT 15 ? 121

Talking about whether something might happen


Arranging events
Situation Dialogue 1 123
Sequence 1: +/ to; and; then 124

Sequence 2: + and then 128

Conditional if: +() if , (then) 130

Situation Dialogue 2 133


Situation Dialogue 3 139
Compulsion: +/ have to 141

Future Intention or Volunteering: +/ I will; let me 145

UNIT 16 ? 153

Talking about locations

ii
Situation Dialogue 1 155
Location: + is/are at .... 156

Situation Dialogue 2 163


Vocabulary: Location 165
Situation Dialogue 3 171
Vocabulary: House 180
Housing in Korea 181

UNIT 17 6 185

Talking about travel


Situation Dialogue 1 187
Vocabulary: Transportation 190
Public Transportation in Seoul 191
Situation Dialogue 2 195
Travel Time: ? How long does it take? 197

Taking transport: +/ / 200

Situation Dialogue 3 205


Transferring to another Means of Transport: 206
+/

UNIT 18 221

Describing and comparing things


Making contrasting statements
Talking about the weather
Situation Dialogue 1 223
Comparing: + () (more) than 224

Situation Dialogue 2 231


Situation Dialogue 3 237
Vocabulary: Seasons 239

iii
Vocabulary: Weather 239

Contrasting: + but 250

UNIT 19 ? 253

Confirming what you already know by using a tag question


Describing people, animals and things
Being polite by using soft sentence endings
How to suggest somebody try something
Situation Dialogue 1 256
Confirming: + , isn t it?; aren t they? 258

Vocabulary: Animals 261


Situation Dialogue 2 267
Describing with Modified Adjective Endings: +/// 269

Vocabulary: Describing People 273


Situation Dialogue 3 277
Soft Sentence Endings: +// 279

Making a Suggestion: +/ Try ... 284

Vocabulary: Suggesting 285

UNIT 20 ? 293

Describing people, animals and things


Situation Dialogue 1 295
Describing with Modified Verb Endings 298
o Past tense: Verb Stem + /
o Present tense: Verb Stem +
o Future tense: Verb Stem +/
Situation Dialogue 2 305
Vocabulary: Describing items 310
Vocabulary: Colours 311
Situation Dialogue 3 313

iv
TRANSCRIPT OF LISTENING TASKS 322
APPENDIX
Notes for Verb and Adjective Tables 360
Special Conjugation Rules of Verb and Adjective 362
Appendix 1: Copular be 364
Appendix 2: Verb Present Tense Endings 366
Appendix 3: Verb Past Tense Endings 370
Appendix 4: Verb Future Tense Endings 374
Appendix 5: Verbs with 378
+()()?; +()(), +()()?,
+()?; +()(), +
Appendix 6: Verbs with + ; + 382
Appendix 7: Verbs with 384
+(), +/() & +() ()
Appendix 8: Verbs with 386
+(), +/() & +() ()
Appendix 9: Casual Verb Endings 388
+/, +/, +() ;
+()?; +(); +()
Appendix 10: Verbs with +(); +(); +(); +; 392
+ (); +/; +/ ()

Appendix 11: Modified Verb Endings +, +()& +() 396

Appendix 12: Verbs with +/ ? and +/ 398

Appendix 13: Verbs with +/ 400


Appendix 14: Adjective Present Tense Endings 402
Appendix 15: Adjective Past Tense Endings 410
Appendix 16: Adjective Future Tense Endings 418
Appendix 17: Adjectives with +; +() 426
Appendix 18: Adjectives with 430
+()(), +/() & () ()

v
Appendix 19: Adjectives with 434
+(), +/() & +() ()
Appendix 20: Casual Adjective Endings 438
+/, +/, +()
Appendix 21: Adjectives with +; +/; +(); +() 442

Appendix 22: Modified Adjective Endings +() 446


Appendix 23: Particles and Suffixes 450

HANDWRITING SHEET 453

vi
Preface

This textbook is the second volume of My Korean, whose story of a long


development is already detailed in the preface of the first volume. We will,
however, repeat its development story again here because it tells about our
approach underlying the making of this book. If you have already read the
preface in the first volume, you may skip this one.
This textbook began its life as a personal collection of language
activities which complemented the textbook Learning Korean: New
Directions 1, (Pilot Edition 1) used in some Australian universities including
Monash University where we started teaching Korean in 1992. In 1995, this
meagre collection grew into a textbook of its own entitled Lets Speak Korean.
The following year the book went through a major change when Douglas
Ling, a former student of ours and a lecturer in Film Studies at RMIT
University (as a matter of fact, he is happily retired now), started helping us to
rephrase the grammar explanations to be more suitable for Australian learners.
The book title also changed to Talking to Koreans and we started to build a
Korean language learning web site based on the book and kept all the
materials on the site open to the public.
This open access policy was part of our efforts to promote Korean
language in Australia as well as around the world and to help other Korean
language educators who strove to provide a better learning environment
because of a dearth of Korean language learning materials. During the
following years, we kept modifying the book based on students feedback and
needs, added more learning materials to the web, as well as making another
title change into the current My Korean in 1998. However, in late 2006, we
lost a significant amount of our on-line materials when our university
introduced a new university-wide content management system. Only the
small amount but most important materials, have been migrated into the new

vii
system with generous assistance from the Faculty of Arts. This situation was
somewhat disastrous, however, it gave us a chance to rethink not only the
whole project but also about our approach to teaching, resulting in another
major rewrite for the book.
We have changed all the situation dialogues to make them more
authentic. In particular, we have broken away from the conventional method
of using mainly polite styles of speech throughout the entire book, because
this method tends to create highly unauthentic situations. For example, this
method created a very unlikely situation where two close friends used the
polite style of speech to each other. Therefore, we have used different styles
of speech which are appropriate to each situation, resulting in the use of close
friend style of speech in most cases. This style of speech is also more
appropriate for our students because they can immediately use it when they
talk to one another or when they talk to their Korean friends.
Another major change is the use of comics for every situation
dialogue to provide more extra-linguistic cues. When we communicate, we
use all kind of extra-linguistic cues available to make sense out of each
others speech. However, text-only dialogues lack these extra-linguistic cues
and make a students job of making sense out of an already foreign language a
lot harder. In order to solve this problem, we have used comics alongside the
recording of each situation dialogue, turning the dialogue multimodal and as
close as to that of a real situation. This multimodal dialogue allows learners
make meaning by using a crucial combination of words, graphics and sound.
Now, we should like to thank all those who have contributed in
different ways to this book:

To the Korea Foundation for the 2008 grant which made it possible to
include the comics for the situation dialogues and gave us the last push
into finishing this book;
To Ju Han Lee from Yeundoo Studio in Korea (http://yeundoo.com) for
the front cover design and the comics for the situation dialogues;

viii
To Hye-Jung Kim for most of the illustrations other than the situation
dialogue comics;
To Joel Atkinson, Erin Fitzgerald, Stephen Gartlan and Vicky Ryan for
formatting and editing;
To Youngsam Moon for providing invaluable information about
contemporary Korean expressions used by young people and for various
administrative works including organising a recording party and taking
part in it himself;
To Jihee Jung, Youngsun Hwang, Seongin Choi, Moon Chung and
Seonghwan Ahn for volunteering to do the recording;
To all the past and current students for their valuable feedback and
insights which they have let us gain through the collaborative exploration
of learning the language;
To Jung Sim Kim, Korean studies subject librarian at Monash University
for her hard work in building up the great Korean collection which was
invaluable in writing this book;
To our colleagues at the School of Languages, Cultures and Linguistics at
Monash University, in particular, Robert Irving, Bruce Jacobs, Helen
Marriott, Gloria Davies and Alison Tokita for their support and
encouragement;
And last but not least to our good friends, Lendriani and Nigel Thursfield,
Vicky and William Quek, Janet and Jim Murray, and Douglas and Helena
Ling for their love and support.

Following our open access policy, this book and its accompanying
audio files are licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-
Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.5 Australia License in the hope that this book
will make a small contribution to the development of Korean language
education throughout the world. As one of Less Commonly Taught
Languages, Korean still suffers from a dearth of learning materials. Korean
teachers often have to design their courses and develop learning materials that

ix
suit their students on top of their normal teaching duties, let alone their fight
to keep the Korean program alive. We have met many marvelous teachers
over the years and they have been our inspiration. We hope this book will
help those teachers in their efforts of creating a better learning environment
for their students.

To all, many thanks again for your assistance and encouragement.

Melbourne Young-A Cho


24 June, 2009 In-Jung Cho

x
To the teacher and the learner

This book is primarily written for a Korean language university course for
beginners with a survival level of Korean proficiency, but it may be used in
other settings including self-study. The guidelines, therefore, are focused on
teaching or learning in a university setting, but we suggest that all the users of
the book read them regardless of whether you are a teacher or a student
enrolled in a course or you are using it on your own for independent study.

Objectives
This book is a follow-up to the first volume of My Korean which introduces
learners to the Korean alphabet and some everyday situations to help them
acquire survival Korean. This book consolidates and extends the work
begun in the first volume by helping learners continue to develop their ability
to communicate in routine social situations.

Basic Approach
Our experiences of teaching Korean for more than two decades and the
results of language learning research tell us that a good foundation of
language structures is essential for learners to be successful. This book,
therefore, concentrates on giving learners a good working knowledge of the
basic structure and grammar of the Korean language with a limited number of
vocabulary items that are frequently used in everyday situations. Once they
acquire this knowledge, they can expand their vocabulary quite easily on their
own as need arises. This approach can also maximise small contact hours
(usually four to five hours a week) available in many university settings.

xi
Structure of the book
This book is organised into ten units and is basically taught one unit per week
in one semester. Each unit is composed of three situation dialogues, grammar
explanations and various tasks such as role plays, listening, writing and
reading.
Information about each unit is presented in the contents of this book.
Therefore, there is no need for further explanations here apart from Unit
Eleven, which is basically designed to refresh the learners memory of what
they have learned in the first volume although it introduces one new grammar
pattern.
There are fourteen appendices. Appendix One is about how to use
Korean on Microsoft Windows operating systems. Appendices Two and
Three are the graphics which can be used to teach verb and adjective
conjugation. Appendices Four to Fourteen have adjective and verb
conjugation tables. There is also a handwriting sheet which can be used for
writing practice or writing assignments at the end of the book.

Situation dialogues, role plays and listening tasks


As mentioned above, each unit is composed of three situation dialogues,
grammar explanations and various tasks such as role plays, listening, writing
and reading. The situation dialogues, role plays and listening tasks require
some explanation.
The situation dialogues are presented in two modes: comics and
text-only mode. Comics are used to provide extra-linguistic cues which are
normally available when we communicate. The comics and the recording of
each situation dialogue provide multimodal language input to help students
job of making meaning. There are also some differences in spellings used in
the comics and the corresponding text-only dialogue. We use the colloquial
version in the comics to show how some words are pronounced differently
from their standard spellings.

xii
The situation dialogues are also presented in two settings: the Korean
setting and the Australian setting. The first setting involves mainly two
Korean university students, Minseo Kim and Jihun Park. The second setting
revolves around three university students, Minjun Kim, Paul Smith and
Hyeonu Lee, who are studying in Australia. The presence of any of these
characters will tell you in which setting each dialogue is taking place.
The role plays are somewhat mechanical and different from those
based on communicative methods. They are to provide a more interesting
setting for the practice of speaking and listening. They can, however, be used
as a basis for the more communicative nature of role plays by encouraging the
students to be more creative and to play with the language.
Most listening tasks are from our old out-of-print listening books,
which were called Elementary Task-Centered Listening Comprehension of
Korean 1 and 2, published in 1994 and later changed to Korean Through
Active Listening 1 and 2. The listening books were always used alongside the
textbook until they became out of print in early 2008. This development has
allowed the incorporation of the listening tasks into the textbook, resulting in
the more rounded and user-friendly textbook. We have to admit that the
expressions in the listening tasks are not as natural as they should be, but they
still provide good input via listening, which is very important in language
learning. We have polished some English expressions, resulting in a few
discrepancies between the texts and the recordings.
The listening tasks do not have answer keys. It has only the transcript
at the end of the book and the learners are required to find the answers
themselves first by listening and then by reading.

Romanisation
This book has used the Korean government romanisation system.

xiii
11
?

Unit Focus:
Asking and giving the reason for actions
Talking about past travel, leisure and
holiday activities
Cause and Result +/ so (that)
Vocabulary: Describing Things
Vocabulary: Counting Days
2 UNIT 11 ?
UNIT 11 ? 3

Situation Dialogue 1
Paul and Minjun are talking about their vacations during the semester break.
: ~ . ?
: , . , ?
: . . .
: ? ?
: .
: ?
: , . .
?
: .
( )
...

Vocabulary
school holidays stayed + soft
ending
how long about; around;
approximately
last week ... about; around

2 2 weeks ... or so

mobile phone +another/any


other place
long time no see ++in Korea
not too bad ->
tired because; tired so
? have been to...? hang on
4 UNIT 11 ?

Note: You can use ... to mean about or so. Another option is to
use either .... or ....

Romanisation and Translation


Minjun : ya~ oraenmanida. Hey, long time no see.
banghak jal bonaesseo? How was your vacation?
Paul: ne, geureok jeoreogyo. Not too bad.
geunde, hyeong hanguge Hey, did you go (lit. go and
gatdawasseoyo? come back) to Korea?
Minjun : eo. gatdawasseo. Yeah, I did.
jinan jue wasseo. Came back last week.
Paul: geuraeyo? hangugen eolmana Yeah?
isseonneundeyo? How long did you stay there?
Minjun : han i juil jjeum. About two weeks.
Paul: dareun den an gasseoyo? Did you go anywhere else?
(Lit. You didnt go to another
place?)

Minjun : eo, an gasseo. dondo eopgo jom No. (Lit. Yeah, I didnt go.) I
pigonhaeseo geunyang jibe didnt have much money and
isseosseo. geunde neon mwo was a bit tired so I just stayed
haennya? at my home. What about
you? What did you do?
Paul: hanguk sikdangeseo I was working (lit. worked)
albahaesseoyo. part time at a Korean
restaurant.
[haendeuponi ullinda] [Mobile phone rings]
eo...jamkkanmanyo Hang on.
UNIT 11 ? 5

Cause and Result +/ so (that)


We use / to express the result of situation for a statement or give an
answer to a why question. You have learnt how to talk about what you are
doing, or what you usually do, using the present tense ending +/. You
will remember that you created a verb by adding this ending, which carries
the grammatical function, to a verb stem carrying the basic meaning. So to
create this +/ form, all we have to do is alter the ending that carries the
grammatical function. Instead of using the +/ ending, simply add
+/ to the stem:

+ + +
+ + +
+ + +

The general rules are:


a) If the last vowel of the adjective stem is () or (): +
+ its fine, so
+ its expensive, so

b) If the last vowel is not () or (): +


+ its far, so
+ its interesting, so

c) If the adjective stem ends in : changes to


Many Korean adjective stems end in . The rule for using these is exactly
the same as for the verb.
its clean, so
its warm, so
6 UNIT 11 ?

d) If the adjective stem ends with the consonant : drop +


In this case, the consonant is replaced with the vowel and then you add
.
its close, so
its difficult, so

e) If the adjective stem ends with the vowel : drop + or


In this case the final vowel is dropped and or is added,
depending on the vowel of the preceding syllable. If it is () or (),
add . Otherwise, add , including when the stem is a single syllable.
(someone) is sick, so
(someone/something) is big, so

Examples:
(1) . That dress is expensive,
so I cant buy it.
(2) . I havent any money,
so I cant go to a restaurant.

When you use the /, you must use the verb or adjective stem plus
/ irrespective of the tense of the sentence. Thus, in (3) to say it was
expensive so... we do not use but together with a past
tense in the final verb . Its the same in (4), is used, not
.

(3) . That dress was expensive,


so I couldnt buy it.
UNIT 11 ? 7

(4) A: ? Did you go to a restaurant yesterday?

B: . I didnt have any money,


so I couldnt go.
We can also split the sentence into two by using the conjunction as in
examples (5)-(7).
(5) . That dress is expensive.

. And so I cant buy it.

(6) . I havent any money.

. So I cant go to the restaurant.


(7) . He hasnt arrived yet.

. So we cant go.

Note: . Not .

More Examples:
(8) A: ? Why did you drink so much?

B: . I was feeling depressed,


so I had a few drinks.
(9) A: ? Why are you so late?

B: . My car broke down,


so I am late.
(10) A: ? Why didnt you do your
homework?
B: My parents came suddenly,

. so I couldnt do it.

(11) A: ? Why didnt you come to the


party yesterday?
B: . Some friends suddenly came,
so....
8 UNIT 11 ?

(12) A: ? (casual) Why did you go to see a doctor


yesterday?
B: ( )1. I had a headache,
so (I went see a doctor).

Note: In the West, many doctors are based in small clinics but this is not the
case in Korea. Koreans routinely go to a hospital for treatment for even minor
ailments. Thus, if statement A above were translated as Why did you go to
the hospital yesterday? it would give the wrong connotation.
UNIT 11 ? 9

Vocabulary: Describing Things


close far

light heavy

high low

clean dirty

tasty tasteless

cheap expensive

easy difficult

interesting boring

few many

quiet noisy

fine/ good bad

cold hot

big small

tired/ exhausted busy

Vocabulary: Counting Days


one day 7 / seven days

two days 8 / eight days


3 / three days 9 / nine days
4 / four days 10 / ten days

5 / five days 15 / fifteen days

6 / six days

Note: Except for one day and two days, Sino Korean number are used more often
these days.
10 UNIT 11 ?

Task 1: Listening
(EXPONENT)
Verb stem + I'd like to -Verb- but ...

(ESSENTIAL VOCABULARY)
money school holidays

travelling very

very much price (of


commodities)
at first too

China Singapore

Japan Taiwan

1 week how many days;


several days
3 days just; simply

this (time) can't

in there; there - for

because __ is/was because __ is/was


tired expensive
() went; had gone came back

stayed did

don't have and was interesting


wanted to go but
UNIT 11 ? 11

You will hear people talking about a trip. Put a mark in the middle
column next to each country visited and write down how long he stayed there
in a right column. Ready? Listen!


country Visit or not period


12 UNIT 11 ?
UNIT 11 ? 13

Situation Dialogue 2
Paul is talking to Minjun about the Korean dinner he had with his friends.
: ?
: . ? ?
: , .
.
: ? ?
: .
: ? ? ?
: .
: ? ?
: , .
.
: , ?
: , .

Vocabulary
these days ? busy?

got a bit sick of [++] this time


Yuk-gae-jang but

busy (+ as you know)


[+] yesterday
[rest ++ +] was a day off
? there how is it?
[ (all) (not able) (eat) (past tense)] was
not able to eat all of it
14 UNIT 11 ?

Romanisation and Translation


Paul: yosae bappayo? Busy these days?
Minjun : nan eonjena bappeuji. neon? Im always busy. You?
eoje ilhaesseo? Did you work yesterday?
Paul: aniyo, eojen swineun No, yesterday I had a day off,
narieosseoyo. geuraeseo so I had dinner with friends.
jeonyeoge chingudeulhago
gachi bap meogeosseoyo.
Minjun : geurae? eodi gasseonneunde? Yeah? Where did you go?
(Lit. Where had you gone?)
Paul: Seoul sikdangiyo. Seoul Restaurant.

Minjun : Seoul sikdang? geogi eottae? Seoul Restaurant? How was it?
eumsik masisseo? (Lit. How is that place?)
Food good?
Paul: ne gwaenchanayo. Yeah, fine.
Minjun : mwo meogeosseonneunde? tto What did you have (this time)?
bulgogi? Bul-go-gi again?
Paul: aniyo, neomu jaju meogeoseo No, Ive had it too often,
jom jillyeosseoyo. so Im sick of it. (Lit. Ive
ibeonen yukgaejangiyo. gotten sick of it.)
This time I had Yuk-gae-jang.
Minjun : mwo, yukgaejang? What? Yuk-gae-jang?
Paul: ne, geunde jom maewoseo Yeah, but it was a bit spicy for
da mot meogeosseoyo. me, so I couldnt finish it. (Lit.
couldnt eat it all)
UNIT 11 ? 15

Task 2: Complete the sentences


Complete the following excuses with an appropriate expression. The first
one is done for you.

(1) .

(2)

(3)

(4)

(5)

(6)

(7)

(8)

(9)

(10)
16 UNIT 11 ?

Task 3: Roleplay
A: You went to a department store with your friend yesterday. Your friend seemed
to be interested in the items below. But you are not sure what your friend bought as
you had to leave for another appointment. Ask them if they bought each of the items.
If not, find out why. Write the reasons beneath the items.

B: Your friend wants to know if you bought the items below. You decided not to buy
any of them. When your friend asks, tell them that you didnt buy the item and why.
You can use the following reasons to help you.

REASONS: A. B. C. D.

1 2 3 4

[ - Casual]
A: ?

B: , .

A: , ?
UNIT 11 ? 17
18 UNIT 11 ?

Task 4: Listening
(EXPONENT)
Verb stem + I was (Verb)ing

Verb or Adjective stem + / because (A) Verb or Adjective

A / I'm A.

(ESSENTIAL VOCABULARY)
bathing food

cleaning music

basketball game; match

exam study

telephone guest

kitchen room

next week minute(s)

Hello (on the phone) now

late [adverb] - after

again in the
afternoon
- in; at - from

for a moment

sorry, but finish(es)

? (Are you) busy? wait, please

will call was doing

was making was listening

was watching will come

because (A) answered (the phone)

/ Speaking. / It's me.


UNIT 11 ? 19

A May I speak to A?(on the phone) Lit. Please change to A

A May I speak to A?(on the phone) Lit. I request A

When rang the following people, they didn't answer the phone
immediately. When they answered, they said that they could not answer the
phone earlier because they had been doing something. What was each person
doing when the phone rang? Write down the letter of the picture that
describes what each person was doing. Ready? Listen!

1.________________ 2.________________ 3.________________

4.________________ 5.________________ 6.________________


20 UNIT 11 ?
UNIT 11 ? 21

Situation Dialogue 3
Minseo is telling Jihun why she didnt go to see a movie yesterday.
: ?
: , .
: ? ?
: ?
.
: ?
: ... , ..

Vocabulary
movie just; simply

cold Dunno

? [ was fun] how was it?


[(head)+(subject particle) (ached)]
I had a headache
[ (cold) (catch)+(past tense modifier)+
? (could it be the case that?)] Lit. Could it be the
case that youve caught a cold?
[(sleep)+ (probably because)] probably
because I slept

Note: You may find the usage of "cold" here seems strange because it relates
to a headache. Most dictionaries say "cold" only. The notion of gamgi can
include other illnesses with symptoms like a headache or fever. Korean
people worry about "gamgi" because it means you have caught something.
22 UNIT 11 ?

Romanisation and Translation


Jihun: eoje yeonghwa jaemisseosseo? How was the movie
yesterday? (Lit. Was the
movie enjoyable yesterday?)
Minseo: ani, eoje yeonghwa mot bwasseo. Oh, I couldnt go. (Lit. No, I
couldnt see the movie
yesterday.)
Jihun: wae? museun il isseosseo? Why? What happened? (Lit.
What had happened?)
Minseo: museun ireun? Nothing. (Lit. What
geunyang meoriga neomu apasseo. occurrence?) I just had a
really bad headache.
Jihun: gamgi geollin geo aniya? Could it be a cold? (Lit.
Could it be the case that
youve caught a cold?)
Minseo: geulsse... geunde, eoje jameul puk Um Well, (Lit. Well In
jaseo geureonji any case,) I feel alright after
jigeumeun gwaenchana.. sleeping well last night. (Lit.
probably because I slept
well...)
UNIT 11 ? 23

Task 5: Roleplay
A: Your friend was meant to be going to see a movie, but didnt do after all.
Find out the reason why. Write down their name below the appropriate
reason.

B: You were supposed to be going to see a movie, but you didnt because
something unexpected happened. When your friend asks about the movie, tell
them that you didnt do and why. You can use the following reasons to help
you.

1 2 3 4

[ - casual]
A: ?
B: . / .
A: ?
B: .
24 UNIT 11 ?

Task 6: Reading Comprehension

?
. .
.

.
3, 4 .
.
.

. .
.

. .
.

2008 6 20

Vocabulary
Southeast Asia Yours Sincerely

Thailand kind

originally later; in the future

was tired so had a good look


around
UNIT 11 ? 25

[+ ] was going to go [Lit. intended to go]


[+ ] going to return
[++] will send __ for you

Comprehension Questions (Answer in Korean.)


1. What did Andrew do during the semester break?

2. Where did he go?

3. How long did he stay in each country?

4. Why didnt he go to Thailand?


26 UNIT 11 ?

Task 7: Word Check


Match these adjectives with their opposites below. The first one is done for
you.

UNIT 11 ? 27

Task 8: Complete the dialogue


The following three lines are missing from the dialogue below. Work out what they
mean and insert them into the dialogue.

: ()?

: ? ?

: ?

(1) : ?

(2) : , .

(3) : _________________________________________________
(4) : . .

(5) : ?

(6) : .

(7) : _________________________________________________
(8) :

(9) : _________________________________________________
(10) : . .
.
28 UNIT 11 ?

Task 9: Writing
Write a short description of where you went and/or what you did during the
last semester break.
12
?

Unit Focus:
Requesting and offering services
Offering: +/ ? Shall I do ?
Requesting: +/ please do
30 UNIT 12 ?
UNIT 12 ? 31

Situation Dialogue 1
Amanda is taking a taxi in Seoul.
: ?
: .
: ? ?
: .
: , .
Approaching the destination
: ?
: .

Vocabulary
express bus terminal

? is it? taxi rank

(-) [+] please go (to)


? [+ ? ] shall I stop (for you)?
[+ ] pull over please

Note: The Korean inter-city express bus system is cheap, fast, and
convenient. Buses between cities leave about every ten minutes, though less
frequently for smaller towns. There is an express bus terminal (
) in every town, usually near the town centre.
32 UNIT 12 ?

Romanisation and Translation


Taxi eodi gaseyo? Where do you want to go? (Lit.
driver: Where are you going?)

Amanda: gosokbeoseu teomineollo ga Express Bus Terminal, please.


juseyo. (Lit. Please go to the Express Bus
Terminal.)
Taxi Gangnam teomineoriyo? The Kangnam terminal or
driver: dongseoul teomineoriyo? the East Seoul terminal?

Amanda: Gangnam teomineoriyo. The Kangnam terminal, please.

Taxi a, ne. Certainly. (Lit. Ah, Yes.).


driver:

Approaching the destination

Taxi eodiseo sewo deurilkkayo? Where would you like to get out?
driver: (Lit. Where shall I stop for you?)

Amanda: jeogi taeksi jeongnyuso Pull over by that taxi rank there,
apeseo sewo juseyo. please.
UNIT 12 ? 33

Offering: +/ ? Shall I do ....?


When you offer to do something, you can use:
Verb Stem + ? / ?
You have previously learnt how to create a present tense verb by adding
+/. When you are offering to do something simply replace with
.

+ + ?
+ + ?
+ + ?

If you dont know the present tense ending -/, refer to the
following rule:
a) If the last vowel of the verb stem is () or (): + ?

, ? Shall I give you a discount then?

b) If the last vowel of the verb stem is not () or (): + ?


? Shall I put (it) in an envelope?

c) If the stem ends with : changes to ?


? Shall I introduce (you) to Sumi?
34 UNIT 12 ?

Examples:
(1) A: ? Shall I wrap it for you?

B: , . Yes, please wrap it.


(2) A: ? How shall I cut your hair?

B: , . Just trim it, please.


(3) A: ? How much is that?

B: . Its 10,000 won. Would you like to

? take a (closer) look at it? [Lit. Shall I


show it (to you)?]
(4) A: Please dry-clean this suit.

.
B: ? When would you like it done by?
(5) A: Id like to exchange this for Korean

. currency.

B: ? How would you like (me to exchange)


it?
(6) A: ?1 Shall I bring a menu?

B: , . Yes please.
(7) ? *irregular May I help you?

(: help)

Note 1: ? is a very common expression similar to those given


above. However, it is not an example of the -/ form. It is a
construction that means bring. At this stage you only need to memorise it.
UNIT 12 ? 35

Requesting: +/ please do
When you accept an offer, reply with the form:
, Verb Stem + /

When you want to ask someone to do something for you:


Verb Stem + /

The rules:
a) If the last vowel of the verb stem is () or (): +
. Its too expensive.

. Please give me a discount.

b) If the last vowel of the verb stem is not () or (): +


A: ? Do you have (lit. put in) sugar?
B: , . Yes, please add (lit. put in) one
spoonful of sugar.

c) If the verb stem ends in : changes to


() . Please speak a bit slower.

Examples:
(1) . Please call a taxi.
(2) . Take a photo, please.
(3) Please write your address and

. telephone number here.


36 UNIT 12 ?

(4) Its too heavy

. so I cant lift it by myself.

. Please help me.

(5) Please lend me that dictionary for a

. little while.

(6) Please wake me up at 7 oclock

. tomorrow morning.

(7) A: ? How full would you like it?

B: . Please fill it up.


(8) A: ? Where to?

B: To the Express Bus Terminal, please.

.
(9) A: ? Where would you like to get out?

B: Pull over by the taxi rank there,

. please.

(10) A: () Please deliver one chajangmyeon and

. two chambbong.
B: , Certainly. Please tell me your address

. and phone number.


UNIT 12 ? 37

Task 1: Roleplay
Practise this roleplay with a partner. When you have finished, swap roles.

A: You are a taxi driver in Seoul.


B: You are a tourist in Seoul. Decide which of the places below you
will go to, and then ask a taxi driver to get you there.

- Gyeongbokgung Palace
- Deoksugung Palace
-
- Insa-dong (artefatcs street in the city)
-
-
- Sinchon (Subway) Station

[ ]
Inside the taxi

A( ): ?

B(): ______________ () .

Approaching the destination

A( ): ?

B(): [ ] .
38 UNIT 12 ?

Task 2: Listening
(EXPONENT)
Verb stem + / Please do Verb for me.

Verb stem + / Do Verb, please.

(ESSENTIAL VOCABULARY)
what / color

white black

red yellow

blue violet

socks trousers

really very

then; in that case hat/cap

Come this way, please

Welcome Show __ to me,


please
A ? Do you have A? A ? Don't you have A?

Certainly; Wait a minute,


Yes, sir/madam please.

? Do you like (it)? I like (it)


please wrap (it) sorry but

? How much is ? Shall I get you


(it)? (one)?
Please give me Here it is.
__
A ? How about A? what
UNIT 12 ? 39

O.K.

? What's your size?

A It's A.

? What are you looking for? (May I help you?)

You will hear a clothing shop assistant help three customers. In the order
that they appear in the dialogue, the customers are , , and .
Write down their names in the boxes of the items that they have bought.
Ready? Listen!

red violet yellow black blue white


40 UNIT 12 ?
UNIT 12 ? 41

Situation Dialogue 2
A waiter taking orders at a restaurant.
: ?

: , 2 .

: ?

: , .

After having the Bulgogi

: ?

: , .

: ?

: , .

Vocabulary
order 2 2 servings

2 dishes Bulgogi

Naengmyeon all

ate/drank (hon.)

? [+ +?] Shall I bring __?


42 UNIT 12 ?

Romanisation and Translation


Waiter: jumunhasigesseoyo? Are you ready to order? (Lit.
Will you order?)

Minseo: ne, bulgogi 2inbunhago Yes, well have two servings


naengmyeon du geureut juseyo. of Bulgogi and two bowls of
Naengmyeon.

Waiter: bulgogihago naengmyeon gachi Would you like the Bulgogi


gatda deurilkkayo? and Naengmyeon brought
together? (Lit. Shall I bring
the Bulgogi and
Naengmyeon together?)

Jihun: anyo, bulgogi meonjeo No, please bring the Bulgogi


gatda juseyo. first.

After having the Bulgogi

Waiter: da deusyeosseoyo? Have you finished?

Minseo: ne, da meogeosseoyo. Yes, we have.


Waiter: geureomyeon naengmyeon So, shall I bring the
jigeum gatda deurilkkayo? Naengmyeon now?

Minseo: ne, gatda juseyo. Yes, please.


UNIT 12 ? 43

Task 3: Roleplay
Practise this roleplay with a partner. When you have finished, swap roles.

A: You are a waiter in a Korean restaurant.


B: You are a customer in Korean restaurant. Decide which of the
foods below you will order.

Bulgogi (barbecued beef)


(broiled short ribs)
(grilled fish)
(grilled pork belly)
(bean paste stew)
(kimchi stew)
(ginseng chicken soup)
(stir-fried octopus)
(noodles in cold beef broth)
(cold noodles with raw fish)
(mixed vegetables on rice)
(kimchi fried rice)
(rice, meat and vegetables wrapped in seaweed)
(handmade wheat flour noodle soup)
(transparent noodles with vegetables)
(dumplings)
44 UNIT 12 ?

Task 4: Word and Grammar Check


Read the following list of the expressions for requesting or offering services.
. . ?
. . ?
. . ?
. . ?
. . ?
. . ?
. . ?

Write down an appropriate expression next to each of the people below. The
first one is done for you.

1 ? .

2 ___________________________________.

3 ___________________________________.

4 ___________________________________.

5
___________________________________.

6 ___________________________________.

7
___________________________________.

8 ___________________________________.

9 ___________________________________.

10 ___________________________________.

11 ___________________________________.

12 ___________________________________.
UNIT 12 ? 45
46 UNIT 12 ?

Task 5: Listening
(EXPONENT)
Verb stem + / ? Do you want me to __ (for you)?
May I __ (for you)?
Verb stem + / Please do __ (for me).

A . Please give (me) A.

(ESSENTIAL VOCABULARY)
worth sugar

one spoon (of) full

and ten thousand

thousand two bank


notessheets
please give me ? Would you like me
(A) to give you (A)?
please cut (A) ? Would you like me
to cut (A)?
please perm (A) ? Would you like me

to perm (A)?

please iron (A) ? Would you like me


to shave (A)?
please fill (A) up or put (A) in (B)

? Would you like me to fill (A) up or put


(A) in (B)?
? Would you like me to dry-clean (A)?

- in (particle specifying unit of currency)


UNIT 12 ? 47

You will hear customers saying what they need done. For each question,
circle the letter of the picture that describes what the customer wants. Ready?
Listen!

1. 2.

3. 4.

5. 6.
48 UNIT 12 ?
UNIT 12 ? 49

Situation Dialogue 3
Amanda asks about Minseos wellbeing.
: ?1
: , . ?
.
: . .
: ?
: ? .....
?
: . .

Vocabulary
? sick? there

window medicine for a cold

? [ + ?] could you shut A? (Lit. Do you wanna


shut A for me?)
[cold + ] (I say that) because its cold
? [+ +?] Do you want me to (lit. Shall I) get
(buy) A for you?

Note 1: Wh- question words (who, where, when, what) can also be used to
mean some- (someone, somewhere, sometime, something) in Korean.
There is no difference when writing; however, if the spoken stress is on the
question word, then it is a wh- question, and if the stress is on the verb, it is
a some- question.
50 UNIT 12 ?

Examples:
Are you Where does it hurt?

? sick/sore? (Lit. ?
Does it hurt
somewhere?)
? Youre eating ? What are you eating?
something?
Did someone Who came?

? come? ?

Romanisation and Translation


Amanda: eodi apa? Are you sick? (Lit. Are you
sick somewhere?)

Minseo: eo, meoriga. geogi changmun Yeah. Ive got a headache.


jom dada jullae? (Lit. Yeah, the head.) Could
chuwoseo geurae. you shut that window there?
Its a bit cold.

Amanda: geurae. arasseo. Sure.O.K.

Minseo: geunde gamgiyak jom isseo? By the way, have you got any
cold medicine?

Amanda: gamgiyak? eomneunde..... Cold medicine? I havent got


naega sada julkka? any. Ill get some for you?

Minseo: aniya. gwaenchana. No. Its alright.


UNIT 12 ? 51

Task 6: Roleplay .
A: You are having a party at your place tonight and there is a lot of
housework to do. Ask your flatmate to help by doing the chores
below.
B: Decide which of the chores below you will do and which you will
not, and then offer to help your flatmate. If you are asked to do a
chore that you will do, accept according to example dialogue 1. If
you are asked to do a chore you will not do, reply with an
appropriate excuse, as shown in example dialogue 2.

[ 1 - casual] [ 2]
B: ? B: ?
A: . A: .
B: . B: (allergy) .
A: , .
B: , .
52 UNIT 12 ?

Task 7: Listening
(EXPONENT)
Verb stem + / ? Could you (do it) for me, please?

, . Yes, okay.

, . Sorry, I'm a bit busy at the


moment.
. I can't at the moment.

(ESSENTIAL VOCABULARY)
door coffee

cleaning photo

window telephone

letter washing

umbrella room

post office guest

dishwashing evening

lawn money

too cold

busy no

? Why I will

1 a little bit 2 please

soon - in; at; to

now I see; okay

sorry but my (humble)

Here it is. ? Are you going?

There is a call for you.. will come

is/am/are doing I will bring (it)


UNIT 12 ? 53

? Could you open (A)?

? Could you make (A)?

Could you do (A)?

? Could you close (A)?

? Could you post (A)?

? Could you mow (A)?

? Could you lend (me A)?

? Could you hang out (A)?

? Could you answer (the phone)?

? Could you hang out (A)?


54 UNIT 12 ?

You will hear people asking others to do something for them. Write down
the letter of the picture which best describes what you hear. Listen to each
response and in the brackets mark O when a response is positive and X
when it is negative. Ready? Listen!

1. ( ) 2. ( ) 3. ( ) 4. ( )

5. ( ) 6. ( ) 7. ( ) 8. ( )

9. ( ) 10. ( ) 11. ( ) 12. ( )

. . .

. . .

. . .

. . .
UNIT 12 ? 55

Task 8: Listening
(ESSENTIAL VOCABULARY)
Korean homework

a lot time

A ? Have you got A? A/ . don't have A

sick a little bit

now

? Could you empty the rubbish bin, please?

You will hear a dialogue in which people are asking various favors from
others. Draw lines connecting the names of people who ask favors (in the left
column), to those of people asked favors (in the right columm), and the
pictures that describe each favor. Also write down in the parentheses next to
the people asked favors whether they say , or , ... - Just
write down or . Ready? Listen!
1. . a. ( )

2. . b. ( )

3. . c. ( )

4. . d. ( )
56 UNIT 12 ?

Task 9: Reading Comprehension


Amanda is writing an email to a Korean friend in Korea.

^^

() .

Vocabulary
and sightseeing

[+ +] for looking after


[+] Im worried
[ + ] please wake up
[+ ] Ill take you to some good spots.
UNIT 12 ? 57

Task 10: Writing


You have applied for a job as a flight attendant, and tomorrow you will have a
Korean language test. You want to prepare for some situations in which a
flight attendant is usually involved. Write a dialogue between a passenger and
a flight attendant.

Task 11: Writing


You have just checked into a hotel in Seoul and discovered that there is no
soap () or towel () in your room. Write a dialogue in which you call
the front desk. Request that the items be brought quickly so you can have a
bath. You should also ask for a room service menu and request a wake-up call
for 7 oclock tomorrow morning. (please wake me up: ).
58 UNIT 12 ?

Task 12: Roleplay


Compare your dialogue from Writing 1 or Writing 2 with a partners. Create a
combined dialogue and practice it together.
13
?

Unit Focus:
Talking about planned activities
Future Activity:
+/ be going to; will
+() in order to; with the intention of
60 UNIT 13 ?
UNIT 13 ? 61

Situation Dialogue 1
Minjun is asking Hyeonu about his plans for the coming school holidays.
: ?
?
: .
: ? !
?
: .
: ?
, ? ?
: , .
?
: ? .

Vocabulary
school holidays ! sounds nice!

Sydney

[++] yet
[ + ] Im going on a trip
[+ + + ] Im going to go by (lit. Im going
to go there taking a)
62 UNIT 13 ?

Romanisation and Translation


Minjun: ibeon banghage mwo hal What are you doing these
geoya? holidays?
museun gyehoek isseo? Got any plans?
Hyeonu: chingudeulhago yeohaenggal Im going on a trip with some
geoya. friends.
Minjun: yeohaeng? joketda! Travel? Sounds nice!
eodi gal geonde? Where are you going?
Hyeonu: sideuni. Sydney.
Minjun: sideuni? Sydney?
geunde, mwo tago gal geoya? How? (Lit. But what will you
bihaenggi? take to go there?) By plane?
Hyeonu: ani, beoseu tago gal geoya. No, bus. (Lit. No, Ill go there
taking a bus.)
geunde neon mwo hal geonde? What about you? What are you
going to do?
Minjun: na? Me?
ajikkkajin amu gyehoek I havent got any plans yet.
eopseo.
UNIT 13 ? 63

Future Activity: +/ be going to; will


When we want to talk about a future activity, we can use the pattern:
Verb Stem + / (polite)Verb Stem + / (casual)

The rules:
a) If the verb stem ends in a vowel: +
. Ill watch TV at home.

b) If it ends in a consonant (except ): +


? What are you going to eat?

Examples:
(1) ? When are you going to go to
Korea?
(2) . I am going to Korea next year.
(3) ? What are you going to do
this weekend? (hon.)
(4) . Im going to see a play
with a friend.
(5) ? How are you going to get to town?
(6) . Im going to catch a bus.
(7) I am going to work in a restaurant

. during the semester break.


64 UNIT 13 ?

+() in order to; with the intention of


In Korean, when you go (or come) somewhere to do something,
you can say +() (or +() ).

a) + , if the verb stem ends in a vowel:


. Im going (somewhere) to meet a friend.

b) + , if the verb stem ends in a consonant:


. Im going (somewhere) to eat Korean food.

Examples:
(1) A: ? Where are you going?

B: . To meet a friend. (casual)

(2) () . Im going to meet a friend


(in the city).

(3) . I am going to the library to study.

(4) . I came to Korea to learn Korean.

(5) . S/he has gone to the pharmacy


to buy some cough medicine.

Note: This construction can be used to answer the question Where are you
going? because the answer does not always require the name of the place
you are going to, but your reason for going out is a sufficient answer. In
example (1), the answer (). would satisfy the person
asking the question.
UNIT 13 ? 65

Task 1: Roleplay
Choose one of the places from the list below and an activity you can do there.
Move around the classroom asking your classmates where they are going and
what they will do there. Write down their names, and draw lines connecting
the place and the activity.

[ ]
A: ?

B: .

Activities Places


66 UNIT 13 ?

Task 2: Writing
Fill in the blanks with an appropriate activity.

1) .

2) _______________________________________ .

3) _______________________________________ .

4) _______________________________________

5) _______________________________________ .

6) _______________________________________ .

7) _______________________________________ .

8) _______________________________________ .

9) _______________________________________ .

10) _______________________________________ .
UNIT 13 ? 67

Task 3: Roleplay ?
Find out what your classmates are planning to do this weekend.
Reply according to the activities in the boxes allocated by your teacher.

[ 1 - casual]
A: (Name)/, ?
B: , 1 2 . ?
A: .

[ 2]
A: ?
B: , 1 2 .
(Name) ?
A: .

Note 1: You use (maybe) to express uncertainty, so you should not use
this word with a definite ending such as /.
Note 2: (go and) is a time sequence.
68 UNIT 13 ?

Task 4: Listening

(EXPONENT)
Verb stem + / ? Will you Verb....?

Verb stem + / will Verb

Verb stem + / be thinking of Verb

Verb stem + intend to (Verb)

(ESSENTIAL VOCABULARY)
city flower shop

bookshop furniture shop

house swimming pool

beach supermarket

movie book

flower library

sofa letter

swimming a walk

cleaning shopping

study alcohol

Olympic

friends tonight

- 1 at (a time) - 2 to (a place)

- in (a place where an - with


action is performed)
go and department store

? What will you do? intend to do

intend to drink thinking of doing

thinking of buying
UNIT 13 ? 69

You will hear people talking about what they are doing this evening. Write
down where they are going and the activities that they are doing in the table
below. The first key is given as an example. Ready? Listen!

Name Place Activity

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.
70 UNIT 13 ?
UNIT 13 ? 71

Situation Dialogue 2
Jihun and Minseo are talking about their plans for the coming weekend.
: ?

?
.

: ? ?

: .

: ? , ?

: , . ?

: ?
, .

Vocabulary
() with but (casual); by
the way
she/he (casual) special

plan

? [ + ] what will you be doing? (casual)


[+] on Saturday
[+ + ] be going to see (casual)
The Man The Woman

? [ ] Is A that good at (it)?


[+ + ] be going to go to work
(casual)
72 UNIT 13 ?

Romanisation and Translation


Jihun: ibeon jumare mwo hal geoya? What are you gonna do this
weekend?

Minseo: ibeon jumal? This weekend?


toyoiren amandarang yeongeuk Im going to see a play with
boreo gal geoya. Amanda on Saturday.

Minseo: jinjja? museun yeongeuk? Really? Which one?

Jihun: geu namja geu yeoja. The Man The Woman.

Minseo: geurae? geunde, amandaga Really? But is Amandas


hangugeo geureoke jalhae? Korean that good?

Jihun: geureom, gyae jinjja jalhae. Of course. Its absolutely great.


(Lit. She can really do it well.)
geunde neon mwo hal geoya? What are you gonna do?

Jihun: na? Me?


toyoiren teukbyeolhan gyehoek I dont have any in particular
eopgo, iryoiren albahareo planned for Saturday, and Im
galgeoya. working on Sunday.
UNIT 13 ? 73
74 UNIT 13 ?

Task 5: Listening
(EXPONENT)
when the class is finished/finishes

? What will you do?/What are you


going to do?
Verb stem + / will (Verb)

(ESSENTIAL VOCABULARY)
today tomorrow

evening class

song karaoke

library house

friend television

party book

food music

- in; at - to

- with when (A) is


finished/finishes
will make will study

will go will meet

will listen will sing

will watch will sleep

will read
UNIT 13 ? 75

You are going to hear dialogues describing various activities. Write down
the letter of the picture that describes what you hear. Ready? Listen!

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .
76 UNIT 13 ?
UNIT 13 ? 77

Situation Dialogue 3
Minseo is asking Jihun about what TV programs are on tonight.
: ?

: , .

: ? ?

: .

: ? ?

: SBS .

Vocabulary
today baseball

sports game/match team

broadcast; TV station which

[] program

Note 1: Usually the word () means what, but in this context it


should be translated as any. When saying ()? do
not stress the .

Note 2: means program. Lots of English words are shortened in this


way, such as for television and for air conditioner
(perhaps because most Korean words are only two syllables in length).
78 UNIT 13 ?

Romanisation and Translation


Minseo: oneul mwo jaemiinneun Whats on tonight?
peuro isseo? Anything interesting?

Jihun: eo, yagu gyeonggi. Yep, theres a baseball game.


Minseo: geurae? Yeah?
eoneu timhago eoneu Which teams?
tim?

Jihun: rotdehago samseong. Lotte versus Samsung.


Minseo: geurae? Yeah?
myeot sie eodiseo? What time on which channel?
(Lit. What time? Where?)

Jihun: yeol sie SBSeseo. 10 oclock on SBS.


UNIT 13 ? 79

Task 6: Roleplay ?
Find out what your classmates are doing this evening. If they are watching
TV, ask what programs they will watch, on which channel and at what time.
Write down their names and programs in the appropriate boxes. When asked
what you are doing this evening, answer that you will be watching TV at
home. Your teacher will provide information on the programs you will be
watching.

2 7 9 10 SBS

7:00
7:30
8:00
8:30
9:00
9:30
10:00
10:30
11:00
11:30

[ - casual]
A: ?
B: , .
A: ? ?
B: .
A: ? ?
B: SBS .
80 UNIT 13 ?

Task 7: Listening
(EXPONENT)
Verb stem + / ? Are you going to Verb? / Will you Verb?

(ESSENTIAL VOCABULARY)
what (kind of) () program
which channel

miniseries is on (the television)

? Will you watch (A)? will watch (A)

when today

o'clock - at

what - in

half and
Sino-Korean numbers up to 10 Pure Korean numbers up to 13

You will hear a conversation between and . They are talking


about the TV programs that they are watching this evening. The programs
are: Our House, The Burden of Proof ( ), Cold Steel(), and
The Simpsons(). Listen carefully to which person is watching which
program on which channel and at what time. Write down the names of the
programs and who is watching in the appropriate cells. Ready. Listen!
UNIT 13 ? 81

2009 8 19 ()

2 7 9 10 SBS

6:00

6:30

7:00

7:30

8:00

8:30

9:00

9:30

10:00

10:30

11:00

11:30
82 UNIT 13 ?

Task 8: Reading Comprehension


Seongchan has organised a trip to Sydney for the Korean Students Association. The
day before they are going to leave he runs into Sumi at the university.
The following advertisement for the trip will help you complete their dialogue
below.

!
: 2007 7 1 - 7 5
:
: ,
:
: 200 ( )
:

Vocabulary
date

transportation

accommodation

travel destination

contact (person/ place) where to contact

inexpensive A

price

Korean Students Association


UNIT 13 ? 83

Task 9: Complete the dialogue


Work out what the following three lines mean and insert them into Seongchan
and Sumis dialogue.

.
.
7 5 .

: , . . ?

: ?

: .

: ? .
?

: 7 1 .

: ?

: . ______________________________________.

: ?

: .2 . .
______________________________________________________.

: ?

: ______________________________________________________.
? ?

: . 1.

Note 1: The phrase Verb+ is used when someone has talked you into
doing something and you indicate your agreement. It is very colloquial and
could be translated by a phrase such as Im up for it.
84 UNIT 13 ?

Vocabulary
I havent seen you for ages
email

couldnt check (email)

? what are you going to do?

/ but; by the way

? are you going to stay

a few days

the Opera House

will go and see

the day after that

the Blue Mountains

? will we stay (over night)?

the dormitory
14
?

Unit Focus:
Giving a reason or cause
Talking about illness and health
Giving advice
Reason or Cause:
+ (/) since; because
Vocabulary: Parts of the Human Body
Change in an action or state:
+ while; while doing; and then
Negative Commands:
+ please, dont do
Frequency
() () (three) times per (day)
Vocabulary: Length of Time
86 UNIT 14 ?
UNIT 14 ? 87

Situation Dialogue 1
Jihun is asking Minseo whether she wants to have a meal together.
: ?

: , .

: ?

: , . ?

: ?

: ? , .

: ?

: ...

: ? .

VOCABULARY
not yet ? wanna eat?

cheap ? wanna go?

no good ? how about?

. alright; I suppose
88 UNIT 14 ?

Romanisation and Translation


Jihun: bap meogeosseo? Have you eaten?

Minseo: ani, ajik. No. Not yet.

Jihun: geureom uri gachi Do you wanna eat together


meogeullae? then?

Minseo: geurae, geureom. Yeah, alright.


mwo meogeureo galkka? Whatll we have?

Jihun: nalssiga chuunikka What about kalguksu


kalguksu eottae? since the weathers so cold?

Minseo: kalguksu? eo, joa. Kalguksu? Yeah, okay.

Jihun: Gaeseong kalguksuga ssago Gaeseong Kalguksu is cheap


masisseunikka geogi galkka? and tasty. Will we go there?

Minseo: geunde geogin seobiseuga jom Service there isnt too good
byeolloyeoseo...
Seoul gadeuneun eottae? How about Seoul Garden?

Jihun: Seoul gadeun? Seoul Garden?


geureoji mwo. I suppose
UNIT 14 ? 89

Reason or Cause:
+ (/) since; because
We previously learnt how to give a reason or cause by using +/.
However, you cannot always use +/ in the middle of a sentence. If
you look at the examples in Unit 11, you will notice that +/ is always
followed by a direct statement about events (usually in the past). But often
you will want to express a reason or cause and follow it with an order, a
suggestion, or a statement of what you intend to do. In these cases you must
use +() as the mid-sentence link between the reason or cause and the
resulting order, suggestion, or statement of intention. It can be used with
verbs, adjectives and nouns.

Verb or Adjective Stem + (); Noun + ()

busy - +
do not have - +
cold - (drop ) +

coffee +

Examples:
(1) . Since we (you) are busy,
do it quickly.
( )
(2) Since we dont have much time,

. lets catch a taxi.

( )
90 UNIT 14 ?

(3) Since its cold,

. I am going to have coffee.

( )

The rules:
a) If the verb or adjective stem ends in a vowel: +
Since its raining,

. take an umbrella.

b) If the verb or adjective stem ends in a consonant (not ): +


A: ? Where shall we go for lunch?
B: Since Seoul restaurant is cheap

1. and the foods good,


lets go there.

Note 1: In this example, the form is used to make a suggestion. You


could also say . is more informal than and is more
likely to be used by women.

c) If the verb or adjective stem ends in the consonant :


drop +
Since its cold,

. wear more clothes.

d) If the noun ends in a vowel: +


Since this is my coffee,

. dont take it away.

e) If the noun ends in the consonant: +


Since tomorrow is a public holiday,
UNIT 14 ? 91

I can sleep in.

Grammar: Unlike +/, + () or + () must be used with


the past tense of the verb or adjective when required.

(1) . Since Sumi has arrived, lets go.

(2) A: Michael, since you won a prize in

2. the lottery, you have to take us out.

B: . . OK, Ill buy dinner.

Note 2: When something good happens to somebody, such as winning in


the lottery, receiving a scholarship or getting a promotion, Korean custom
requires that they shout their friends or colleagues to a meal or a night out. It
is quite acceptable to remind them with the phrase or (more
casual)!

More on using + () and + /:


The following table shows which combinations can or cannot be used:
since (a reason) then (a result)

reason + /
direct statement about an event
reason + ()

reason + /
an order
reason + ()

reason + /
a suggestion
reason + ()

reason + /
a statement of intention
reason + ()
92 UNIT 14 ?

Task 1: Roleplay .
Your class has decided to go to a movie and afterwards to a restaurant this
Saturday. Go around and ask your classmates which restaurant they want to
go to and why. Write down their names and reasons next to the appropriate
restaurant. When you are asked which restaurant you want to go, choose one
on the list below as well as a reason and reply to your classmates. You may
make up your own reason.

[ ]
: ?
: .

REASONS:
a. b.
c. d. ;
e. f.
g. h. .

RESTAURANT NAME & REASON



UNIT 14 ? 93

Task 2: Listening
You will hear people expressing a reason or cause about their suggestion,
intention or order. Write down the reason or cause next to the relevant
picture. Ready? Listen!

don't have much time

5
94 UNIT 14 ?
UNIT 14 ? 95

Situation Dialogue 2
Minjun has noticed that Hyeonu has hurt his foot.
: ?

: , .

: , ?

: .

: ? ?

: ,

: .

: .

Vocabulary
foot

? What happened? (Lit. Why is it like that?)

Oh, no

got injured

? What were you doing at the time?


[what do+and then]
while playing soccer
(Lit. I was playing soccer and then)
fell over

What to do

Itll be alright. [soon get better+will+ oh


well, never mind]
96 UNIT 14 ?

Romanisation and Translation


Minjun: neo bari wae geurae? What happened to your foot?

Hyeonu: eo, jomdacheosseo. I just hurt myself.

Minjun: ani, mwo hadaga? Oh, What happened?

Hyeonu: chukguhadaga I fell over


neomeojeosseo.
when I was playing soccer.

Minjun: chukgu? mani apa? Soccer? It is really bad?

Hyeonu: ani, gwaenchana No. Its ok.

Minjun: eotteokanya. What to do

Hyeonu: got natgetji mwo. Ill be right.


(Lit. Itll be better soon)
UNIT 14 ? 97

Vocabulary - Parts of the Human Body


body mouth

ear head

eye arm

hand chest

stomach nose

leg foot

back
98 UNIT 14 ?

Task 3: Listening

(Exponent)
? Are you sick?

, . Yes, I'm a little bit sick.

? Which part of your body is aching?

A (body part) / . A is aching. or A hurts.

(Essential Vocabulary )
mouth ear

head eye

arm hand

chest stomach

leg foot

a little bit where/what part

sick/hurt/sore -/ subject particle


UNIT 14 ? 99

You are going to hear dialogues in which people are asking if someone is
sick or hurt and, if they are, which part of their body is aching. Listen for the
aching body parts and in each space write down the letters which
correspond to the ones that you hear. Ready? Listen!

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

6. 7. 8. 9. 10.
100 UNIT 14 ?

Change in an Action or State:


- while; while doing; and then

When there is a change in the action or state we can use:


action or state 1 + action or state 2

If we are engaged in one activity and it is interrupted by another, we use


+. There is no exact English equivalent, though in the examples given
here it can be translated as while. However, unlike the English while,
when using + the subject of the two actions must always be the
same.

Examples:
(1) . I fell over while running.
(2) . I had an accident while driving.
(3) . We fought while playing soccer.
(4) I twisted my ankle

. while dancing.

(5) . He drowned while swimming.


(6) I hurt my finger

. while cutting vegetables.

(7) I hurt my arm

. while playing basketball.

(8) The ball hit me

. while I was playing baseball.

(9) I hurt my back

. while moving a desk.


UNIT 14 ? 101

(10) I hurt my knee

. when I fell riding my bicycle.

(11) I hurt my back

. while mowing the lawn

Grammar: Even though the first action is a past event, the verb does not
include the tense - we just attach + to the verb stem. The second verb
indicates the tense of both actions.

Note: This pattern can also be used if the change of action is deliberate
not only when the first action is interrupted by the second action, but
indicating a transition from one action to another.
102 UNIT 14 ?

Task 4: Vocabulary
Here is a list of words referring to parts of the body which you need to know
for this task. Write them next to their English equivalents. The first one is
done for you.

A E I
B F J
C G K
D H L

body . foot ___________

arm ___________ hand ___________

back ___________ head ___________

chest ___________ leg ___________

ear ___________ mouth ___________

eye ___________ stomach ___________


UNIT 14 ? 103

Task 5: Roleplay ?
Strangely, all the students in your class seem to have gotten hurt recently
including you. Stand up and go around the classroom finding out how they
got hurt. Before you start the conversation, point with your finger to the part
of your body that got hurt so your classmates can know.

HOW YOU GOT HURT:


a. . b. .
c. . d. .
e. f. .
g. h. .
h. . i. .

Name Body part hurt How

[ - casual]
A: ?
B: , .
A: ?
B: .
A: ?
B: , / . OR ,
104 UNIT 14 ?
UNIT 14 ? 105

Situation Dialogue 3
Minseo felt a bit sick, so she went to a pharmacist.
: ?
: .
: ?
: .
: . .

: .
, .

Vocabulary
pharmacist That must be a cold

fever please take/eat (hon.)

three times ? Are you sick? (hon.)

a day /? What about?

() after meal(s) for the time being

[+ seems+]
I think there is and
I am coughing as well

Just a moment, please

have a good rest

don't drink alcohol [ drink++


dont+honorific verb infix +and]

Note: In Korea you will find many small pharmacies (). When
106 UNIT 14 ?

Koreans have a minor ailment, they often go and discuss their illness with a
pharmacist who suggests some medicine. However you need prescriptions
from doctors for most illnesses.

Romanisation and Translation


Pharmacist: eodiga pyeonchaneuseyo? How can I help you?
(Lit. Where are you sick?)

Minseo: eoje jeonyeokbuteo meoriga (Lit. Im here because)


apaseoyo. Ive had a headache since last
night.

Pharmacist: yeoreunyo? Do you have a fever?

Minseo: yeoldo jom inneun geo gatgo Yes, I think so and I am


gichimdo jom haeyo. coughing a bit as well..

Pharmacist: geureomyeon gamgineyo. That must be a cold.


jamkkanman gidariseyo. Just a moment, please.

Pharmacist: i yak harue se beon sikue Take this medication three


deuseyo. times a day after meals.
dangbungan murihasiji Take it easy for the time
masigoyo, being (lit. dont exert yourself
puk swiseyo too much) and have a good
rest.
UNIT 14 ? 107

Negative Commands: + please dont


When we want to tell someone not to do something, we can use:
Verb stem +

Examples:
(1) . Dont smoke.

(2) . Dont worry.

(3) . Be quiet. (literally means dont


make a noise)
(4) . Dont be late.

(5) . Dont run.

Less polite form + ( )


(6) . Dont smoke.

(7) . Dont worry.

- can be combined with - to mean Dont do that, do this


instead:
(8) . Dont run, walk slowly (instead).

(9) Dont sleep,

. study hard (instead).

(10) . Be quiet and listen carefully


108 UNIT 14 ?

Task 6: Roleplay
A: Choose your bad habits from the list below. Tell your partner about
them and seek for advices. Refer to the example dialogue.
B: Your partner has come to you for help. Refer to the example dialogue.

[ 1]
A: .
B: .

[ 2- casual]
A: .
B: .

Bad habits (Advice)

1. . .

2. .

3. .

4. . skip breakfast

5. . easily loose temper

6. . cross legs

7. .

8. .
UNIT 14 ? 109

Task 7: Listening
(Exponent)
Verb stem + / be going to Verb

Verb stem(1) + Don't Verb(1) but Verb(2), please


Verb stem(2) + /

(Essential Vocabulary )
post office intersection

Sunday school holidays

what movie what

this evening this way

() (at) home () (by) bus

() (by) train where

this time straight

first too (much)

- at excuse me but

you mean boring

uncomfortable Thank you

have grown up please go

go and don't go but

don't see (A) but going to do

going to see going to go

? Where is it? by bus

by what transportation () (to the) left

? To the left? () (to the) right

please mow the lawn

110 UNIT 14 ?

You will hear four dialogues in which people give advice on various
matters. Put a mark X on the picture that is given a negative remark.
Ready? Listen!

1. . . 2. . .

Jurassic Park The Piano

3. . . 4. . .
UNIT 14 ? 111

Frequency:() () (three) times per (day)


When we want to say we do something regularly such as I play tennis twice
a week, we first attach the time particle - to a time noun and use a
number plus for the frequency (once, twice, etc).

once five times nine times

twice six times ten times

three times seven times eleven times

four times eight times

Examples:
(1) . Take this medicine once a day.

(2) . I play tennis twice a week.

(3) I go to see a movie

. about three times a month.

(4) I call home twice a month.

(5) . I go on a business trip


about four times a year.
112 UNIT 14 ?

Vocabulary - Length of Time

Days

one day / seven days

two days / eight days

/ three days / nine days

/ four days / ten days

/ five days / eleven days

/ six days / fifteen days

Weeks
one week seven weeks

two weeks eight weeks

three weeks nine weeks

four weeks ten weeks

five weeks eleven weeks

six weeks
UNIT 14 ? 113

Months
one month seven months

two months eight months

three months nine months

four months ten months

five months eleven months

six months

Years
one year seven years

two years eight years

three years nine years

four years ten years

five years eleven years

six years
114 UNIT 14 ?

Task 8: Word Check


Here is a list of words relating to days. Match them with their English
equivalents. The first one is done for you.

one day . six days ____________

two days ____________ seven days ____________

three days ____________ eight days ____________

four days ____________ nine days ____________

five days ____________ ten days ____________

Here is a list of words relating to frequency. Match them with their English
equivalents. The first one is done for you.

once . six times ____________

twice ____________ seven times ____________

three times ____________ eight times ____________

four times ____________ nine times ____________


five times ____________ ten times ____________

once a day .
twice a day ____________________________________
three times a day ____________________________________
UNIT 14 ? 115

Task 9: Roleplay
A: Here is a set of personal hygiene and health related habits. Ask your
partner how often s/he does each one.
B: Answer the questions on the personal hygiene and health related habits
listed below.

HABITS FREQUENCY
1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

11.

12.

13.

14.

[ ]
A: ?
B: .
116 UNIT 14 ?

Task 10: Listening


(EXPONENT)
Verb stem + / have to verb

Verb stem + ? You verb, don't you?

(ESSENTIAL VOCABULARY)
bread fruit

Indian tea throat

exercise cigarette

coffee alcohol

tennis meal

vitamins a lot

occasionally always

always rarely

morning/breakfast instead of

especially really/very much

very not at all/never

often a little bit

just a little bit from now on

without fail - every

every morning

smoke eat

drink I see.

do ? Do you do (A)?

did(honorific) Because (I) like (it)


? Are you sick? ? Are you hungry?
UNIT 14 ? 117

? You smoke, don't you? ? You eat ___, don't


you?
? How about (A)? by the way; but

You will hear and talking about their habits. Write down their
names in the appropriate cells. Ready? Listen!

This time, you will hear and talking about their habits. Write
down their names in the appropriate cells. Ready? Listen!

118 UNIT 14 ?

Task 11: Reading Comprehension


3 4
30

1 ()

2008 6 5

Vocabulary
sir/madam every meal

directions for use 30 30 minutes

times taking medicine

() portion; amount () sachet (pill)

// before/during/after each time

medicine for internal use


UNIT 14 ? 119

Comprehension Questions (Answer in Korean.)

1. What is the name of the patient?

2. How often does he/she take this medicine?

3. When does he/she take this medicine?

4. How many tablets does he/she take?

5. How long does he/she take this medicine?


120 UNIT 14 ?

Task 12: Writing


You have an assignment due today but you havent been able to finish it.
You want an extension from your lecturer but he is not in his office. Write a
note explaining that you have been sick. (You think that the best way of
getting an extension is to get his sympathy by exaggerating how sick you
are.)

Task 13: Writing


We are carrying out a research project into household accidents and minor
illnesses that occur in society. Could you please assist us with data on your
household, indicating for each family member what has happened during the
last year and where relevant, how often.
15
?

Unit Focus:
Talking about whether something might
happen
Arranging events
Sequence 1: +/ to; and; then
Sequence 2: + and then
Conditional if: +() if , (then)
Compulsion: +/ have to
Future Intention or Volunteering:
+/ I will; let me
122 UNIT 15 ?
UNIT 15 ? 123

Situation Dialogue 1
Hyeonu and Minjun are talking about plans for this afternoon.
: ?

: .
.
?

: , ....
?

Vocabulary
go and exam; test

Well maybe ___ or something

gym exercise

[+] Its because there is/I have

Romanisation and Translation


Hyeonu: oneul ohue mwo hal geoya? What are you doing
this afternoon?

Minjun: doseogwan gaseo gongbuhal Im going to study Japanese at


geoya. naeil ilboneo siheom the library, cause I have a test
itgeodeun. neon? tomorrow. You?

Hyeonu: nan, geulsse.... Me? Hm


helseukeulleop gaseo Maybe working out at the
undongina halkka gym or something?
124 UNIT 15 ?

Sequence 1: +/ to; and; then


You have learnt that +/ is used to express the reason or cause for a
statement or give an answer to a why question (Unit 11). +/ can also
be used to show a sequence of activities, like when you want to indicate
certain situation follows a particular action. For example, you go somewhere
and carry out an activity at that place.

When using +/ the subjects of the clauses should be the same:

( ) .
I met a friend yesterday and (I) had a drink together (with him).

.
(WRONG!!!) I met a friend yesterday and he had a drink (with me).

Examples:
(1) . I went home to watch television.

(2) Susan went to Korea

. to study Korean history.

(3) . Ill go to the bank


to get some money.

(4) I usually go to the gym

. to do aerobics.

(5) My (younger) sister goes to a coffee

. shop to meet her boyfriend.


UNIT 15 ? 125

(6) Would you hurry up over here and

. open the door, please.

(7) Would you go to the office and

. get me a pen, please.

(8) I want to go to graduate school and

. continue studying.

(9) . Please, go out and wait.


126 UNIT 15 ?

Task 1: Roleplay
Choose a place and an activity from this list below and have a conversation
with your partner. Keep going until you and your partner have said all of
them.
Places

1. PC

2.

3. (convenience store)

4.

5.

6. (coaching school)

7. (student club)

8.

Activities
a. / e. /
b. / f. /
c. / g. /
d. / h. /

[ 1] [ 2 - casual]
A: ? A: /?
B: . B: .
_____ ? ?
UNIT 15 ? 127

Task 2: Listening
You are going to hear some dialogues on future plan. Listen carefully and
write down the place next to the activity. Ready? Listen!

1.
friends house

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.
128 UNIT 15 ?

Sequence 2: - and then


To show going somewhere and then subsequently going somewhere else.
The linking ending after or is +:

+
+

Examples:
(1) I went to the bank and then

. to my office.

(2) I will go to the bank and then

. to the office.

(3) I usually go to the gym and then

. to university.

(4) I will come home and then

. go to the pool.

(5) . Please come over for a second.


(Lit. Please come for a short time
and then go.)

Note: As you are describing one action and then, after it has finished, a
second one, it is necessary to use or as the linking ending.
The perfect tense / indicates that the first act of going/coming has been
completed before the second one takes place. This is the vital difference
between + and +. When using +, the subject of the two
actions must always be the same.
UNIT 15 ? 129

Task 3: Roleplay
Choose two places from this list below and have a conversation with your
partner. Keep going until you and your partner have said all of them.

Places

1. PC

2.

3. (convenience store)

4.

5.

6. (coaching school)

7. (student club)

8.

[ 1- casual]
A: ?
B: , . ?

[ 2]
A: ?
B: , . _____ ?
130 UNIT 15 ?

Conditional if: + / if , (then)


When we link two clauses with if we can say:
Verb or Adjective stem + /, Main Clause.
The rules:
a) If the verb or adjective stem ends in a vowel: +
If it rains, I wont go to the

. mountains.

b) If it ends in a consonant (not ): +


If I dont have any money,

. I will borrow some from my friends.

c) If it ends in consonant : drop +


. Open windows, if you feel hot.

Examples:
(1) If you go to library,

. please return this book for me.

(2) . If you are tired, have a rest.

(3) If youve got time,

. please drop in at my office.

(4) If you see Seon-young,

. please give her this.

(5) A: . These sneakers are too expensive

B: . If theyre too expensive,


dont buy them.
UNIT 15 ? 131
132 UNIT 15 ?
UNIT 15 ? 133

Situation Dialogue 2
Hyeonu and Minjun are talking about plans for tomorrow.
: ?

: . ?

: ? . ?

: ?

: ? .
?1
: , ?
.

Vocabulary
Great [good+emphasizing]
? Where to? [+]
lets think [think+lets]
if the weather is good [weather good+if]
? Shall we go riding?
[ride+ to go+shall we?]
? What can we do? [how do+soft ending
that is asking for anothers opinion]

Note 1: The use of (casual)/(polite) is a common stylistic feature.


/ is used in many ways and often there is no specific grammatical
meaning associated with it.
134 UNIT 15 ?

Romanisation and Translation


Hyeonu: uri naeil mwo halkka? What do you wanna do
tomorrow?
Minjun: geulsse. nalssi joeumyeon Well, do you wanna go bike
jajeongeo tareo galkka? riding if the weathers good?

Hyeonu: jajeongeo? jochi. Riding? Great.


geunde eodiro? But where to?
Minjun: seinteu kilda eottae? How about St. Kilda?

Hyeonu: seinteu kilda? joa. St. Kilda? Perfect.


geunde biga omyeon But what if it rains?
eotteoke haji?
Minjun: geulsse, mwol halkka? Hmm, what shall we do?
geugeon geuttae Lets see what its like. (Lit.
saenggakaja. Lets think about that at the
time.)
UNIT 15 ? 135

Task 4: Roleplay ?

A: The pictures below depict some possible events that will affect your
partner. Choose one and ask your partner what they will do if it happens.
Refer to the example dialogue.

B: Answer your partners questions about what you would do if the events
shown below happened to you.

[ ] [ - casual]

A: ? A: ?

B: . B: .

A: ? A: ?

B: . B: .
136 UNIT 15 ?

Task 5: Listening
(EXPONENT)
? What will you do?

? How will you do (it)?

Verb or Adjective stem + / if Verb/Adjective

Verb stem + / will Verb

(ESSENTIAL VOCABULARY)
money weather

test rain

travel picnic

swimming dancing

home music

television what

- at if (A is) sick

if (A) has lots (of B) if (A is) nice/good

if (it's) hot if (it's) cold

if (A is) difficult if (A) doesnt have


(B)
if (A) comes will have a rest

will go will do

will dance will cry

will watch will listen to


UNIT 15 ? 137

You are going to hear some dialogues on supposition. Listen carefully and
draw lines connecting two pictures that are related. Ready? Listen!
. a.

. b.

. c.

. d.

. e.

. f.

. g.

. h.
138 UNIT 15 ?
UNIT 15 ? 139

Situation Dialogue 3
Jihun is asking Minseo if she wants to see a movie today.
: ?
: ? .
.
.

: ? .
: ?
.

: .
.

Vocabulary
with friends

due date

? [+ +] do(nt) you want to go to see

[+ +] have to write

[+ ] have to finish

[ cant+ oh well, never mind]

? [+ ?] cant we see?
[+ + ] have to go to pick up
140 UNIT 15 ?

Romanisation and Translation


Jihun: minseoya, oneul sigan Minseo, do you want to go see a
isseumyeon gachi movie today? (Lit. If you have time
yeonghwa boreo an do you not want to go to see a movie
gallae? together?)
Minseo: eotteokaji? repoteu sseoya Oh, I have an assignment to do and I
haneunde. oneulkkaji have to finish it today. Its due
kkeunnaeya dwae. naeiri tomorrow. (Lit. The due date is
jechullarigeodeun. tomorrow.)
Jihun: geurae? geureom hal su Really? Oh well
eopji mwo.
Minseo: naeil bomyeon an dwae? What about tomorrow? (Lit. Cant
naeireun sigan inneunde. we see it tomorrow?) Im free
tomorrow.
Jihun: naeireun naega an dwae. I cant tomorrow. I have to go to the
gonghange nuna airport to pick up my sister.
pigeopareo Gaya dwae.
UNIT 15 ? 141

Compulsion: +/ have to
When you must do something or are forced to do it without having any
choice, you can say:
Verb stem + /
Verb stem + / (Casual)

Rules:
a) If the last vowel of the verb stem is () or (): +
+ have to live

b) If the last vowel is not () or (): +


+ have to eat

c) If the verb stem ends in : changes to


- have to do
Alternatively, you could also use: Verb stem + / .
The two forms are basically interchangeable.

Examples:
(1) . I must hand in the homework by
tomorrow.

(2) . I gained the weight a lot recently.

. So, I have to do some exercise.

(3) A: . It is raining outside.

B: . Then, we have to take an umbrella.

(4) . Tomorrow I have an exam.

. So, I have to study hard.


142 UNIT 15 ?

Task 6: Roleplay
A: Suggest that you and your partner go to a movie together today. If s/he
does not have time, write down the reason. Refer to the example
dialogue.
B: You cannot go to the movies today because you are busy. Choose one of
the reasons below and tell your partner.

[ - casual]
A: , ?
B: ? . .
A: ? . (Well, so be it.)

REASONS:
a. A friend is coming from Korea. So I have to go to the airport.

b. Its my fathers birthday ( ) tomorrow. So I have to buy a


present.

c. There is a Korean test tomorrow. So I have to study.

d. My mother is giving a party this evening. So I have to clean the house.

e. My mother is giving a party this evening. So I have to go shopping.

f. I have my part-time job this evening. So I have to go to work.

g. There is a World Cup soccer match on TV this evening. So I have to


watch it.

h. I have a job interview ( ) tomorrow. So I have to get my


hair cut
UNIT 15 ? 143

Reasons ()
1.

2.

3.

4.
144 UNIT 15 ?

Task 7: Complete the Sentences


Here is a list of things that you have to do. Complete the sentences by
matching each phrase with the appropriate location. The first one has been
done for you.

A G

B H
C I
D J
E K
F L

1. .

2. .

3. .

4. .

5. .

6. .

7. .

8. .

9. .

10. .
UNIT 15 ? 145

Future intention or Volunteering:


+ / I will; let me
When we want to say we intend do something or we volunteer to do
something, we can use: Verb stem + /.
The subject of sentence must always be I or we when using this form.
Rules:
a) If the verb stem ends in a vowel: +
. Let me explain.
b) If the verb stem ends in a consonant: +
. I will quit smoking from today.

Examples:
(1) A: . Seon-young is not home.

B: . I will call again later.

(2) A: , . I dont have a pencil.

B: . I will lend it to you.

(3) A: . The homework is too hard.

B: . Ill help you.

(4) A: ? Where will you wait?

B: . Ill wait at my office.

Grammar: Although both + and + translate as will there


is an important difference. + expresses the speakers intention to do
something, which is why it can only be used with I or we. Hence, it is a
much more specific than + which denotes any future action and can
be used with any subject.
146 UNIT 15 ?

Task 8: Roleplay ?
Your class has decided to have a party at your teachers house to celebrate the
successful completion of the semester. You are in charge of assigning jobs to make
the party happen. Go around the classroom asking what each classmate wants to do.
Write down their names beneath their jobs. Your teacher will tell you what job you
want to do.

[ ] [ - casual]

A: B ? A: ?

B: B: .

A: C . A: C .

B: B:
UNIT 15 ? 147

Task 9: Complete the Sentences


Below is a list of things you want to do. Complete the sentences using
+/ or +/.
drink tea wear a suit
have Korean food wear sneakers
watch T.V tonight go and see a film with my friends
tomorrow
read a novel at home this Sunday go shopping

1. A: ?

B: .
2. A: ?

B:
3. A: ?

B: . . _____________________________________
4. A: ?

B: . _________________________________________
5. A: ?
B: ________________________________________________________
6. A: ?
B: ________________________________________________________
7. A: ?

B: . __________________________________
8. A: ?
B: ________________________________________________________
148 UNIT 15 ?

Task 10: Reading Comprehension


Dong-jun has written an email to a girl he likes, Seong-eun.

.
.

.
.

Vocabulary
say hello office

couldn't Fitness club

+ so body-building competition

if diet

if have time work

sometime conscientiously; hard

Ill buy
UNIT 15 ? 149

Comprehension Questions (Answer in Korean.)


1. Where does Seong-eun work?

2. Why did Dong-jun go to the fitness club?

3. What does he need to prepare for next week?

4. Why must he do lots of work at the office?


150 UNIT 15 ?

Task 11: Listening


(EXPONENT)
Verb stem + /? Do you want to Verb?

Verb stem + / I will Verb.

(ESSENTIAL VOCABULARY)
this (time) weekend

- to; at what

who rice

- and Kimchi

? shall we do? vegetables

Mt. Dobong

go on a picnic/to fine
have fun
? How about?

Korean B.B.Q beef I will make and bring

? want to bring...? I will bring

? want to prepare...? O.K.

I will prepare
UNIT 15 ? 151

You will hear , and arranging a picnic. Write down the


corresponding letter of the picture that describes the item that each person
will bring. Ready? Listen!

1. : 2. : 3. :

. .

. .
152 UNIT 15 ?
16
?

Unit Focus:
Talking about locations
Location: + is/are at ....
Vocabulary: Location
Vocabulary: House
Housing in Korea
154 UNIT 16 ?
UNIT 16 ? 155

Situation Dialogue 1
Amanda is asking a receptionist about the location of a cafe.
: , .

: ?

: ?

: ! ? 8 .

Vocabulary
excuse me cafe

what (number) floor

Romanisation and Translation


Amanda: jeo, yeogiyo. Excuse me.
Receptionist: ne? Yes?
Amanda: yeogi kapega myeot cheunge Which floor is the caf on?
isseoyo?
Receptionist: a! kapeyo? (Oh,) the caf?
palcheunge itseumnida. Its on the 8th floor.
jeogi oreunjjogeuro If you go down there and
gasimyeon ellibeiteo turn right youll come to the
itseumnida. elevator. (Lit. If you go to
the right over there, there
elevator is there.)
156 UNIT 16 ?

Location: + is/are at ....


When we want to talk about where something is located, we add the particle
+ to a place word and use the verb :

[place]+

Examples:
(1) A: ? Where is the shoe shop?

B: ? 1 . The shoe shop?


Its on the 1st (ground) floor.

(2) A: ? Where is Sumi now?

B: . Shes in her room.

(3) A: ? Where is the telephone?

B: . Its next to the lift.

(4) A: ? Where is the bank?

B: . Its behind the post office.

(5) A: ? Where do you live?

B: . I live near the university.

Grammar Note: The difference between + and +


The location of an activity is usually followed by +(e.g.
. I am watching TV in the living room.). However, the
place where someone or something is located is followed by the particle +.
UNIT 16 ? 157

Task 1: Roleplay ?
Form a group of three and practice this roleplay. Your teacher will give you
an information sheet with the locations of some of the following places. Write
down the correct floor beneath the names of those places- but dont show this
information to the other students.

Now find out which floor the rest of the places are on by using the example
dialogue.

[ ]
A: , A: ,

B: ? B: ?

A: ? A: ?

B: ? 7 . B: 7 .
158 UNIT 16 ?

Task 2: Listening
(EXPONENT)
A(shops)/ ? Where is A (located)?

(A /) B . (A) is in floor B.

(ESSENTIAL VOCABULARY)
cinema; theater restaurant

supermarket bank

post office coffee shop

floor counting noun where

- in Sino-Korean numbers up to 6

You are going to hear customers asking at a shopping centre information


desk which floor the following shops are located on. Write down the letter of
the shops on the relevant floor of the building. Ready? Listen!

a. b. c. d. e. f.

2
1
UNIT 16 ? 159
160 UNIT 16 ?

Task 3: Listening
(EXPONENT)
A(things)/ ? Where is A (located)?

A / B . A is in the shelf No. B.

(ESSENTIAL VOCABULARY)
thank you shelf

grape(s) banana

milk coke

beef cheese

tomato ketchup coffee

beer sweets

where - in

number counting noun

Sino-Korean numbers up to 12

You are going to hear some dialogue about locations. As you see in the
picture below, you do not know the location of the items that you are looking
for. Listen for each item and its location and write down the number of the
shelf that holds each item in the blank space next to it. Ready? Listen!
UNIT 16 ? 161

1 2

3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

Shopping List

1. 6.

2. 7.

3. 8.

4. 9.

5. 10.
162 UNIT 16 ?
UNIT 16 ? 163

Situation Dialogue 2
Hyeonu is looking for a ruler that he misplaced.
: , ? .

: ? , .

: .

: .

: 1 ?

: , .

: . . .

Vocabulary
ruler ? + did it go?
desk on

definitely drawer

once top drawer

[ ] bottom drawer
Oh! Here it is!
found [+ ] have a look
by any chance [used for politeness in requests]

Note 1: The word means on top of but when you use it together with
another noun it becomes . Its like in English where we say upper or top
when we are describing something. Similarly, becomes , meaning
bottom or lower.
164 UNIT 16 ?

Romanisation and Translation


Hyeonu: eo, eodi gatji? Oh, where did it go?
bunmyeonghi yeogi I'm sure it was here...
isseonneunde. Do you have a ruler by any
neo hoksi ja isseo? chance?

Minjun: ja? eo, chaeksang wie. Ruler? Yeah, on my desk.

Hyeonu: chaeksang wie eomneunde. Its not here.

Minjun: geureomyeon chaeksang Then check the drawer.


seorap hanbeon bwa bwa. (Lit. Then take a look in the
drawer.)

Hyeonu: wit seorap? The top drawer?

Minjun: ani, araet seorap. No, bottom drawer.

Hyeonu: a. yeoginne. Oh, there it is. (Lit. Its


chajasseo. here.) Found it.
UNIT 16 ? 165

Vocabulary: Location
in front of behind

on, above / below, under


inside, in outside

to the right of to the left of

next to opposite

near on the other side;


opposite
A B between A and B where; somewhere

Examples:
(1) A: ? Where is a supermarket?

B: . Its in front of the pharmacy

(2) A: ? Where is a florist?

B: . Its next to the bakery

(3) A: ? Where is a fruit shop?

B: . Its on the right of


the florist.
(4) A: Where is the cinema

? around here?

B: . Its behind the bank.

(5) A: ? Where is a video shop?

B: . Its opposite the post office.

(6) A: ? Where is the ball-point pen?

B: . Its on the desk.

A: . Its not on the desk.


166 UNIT 16 ?

Task 4: Roleplay ?
A: You are sharing a house with a friend who always uses things and then
leaves them in strange places. Find out where they have put the following
items, and write down their locations underneath.

Vocabulary: table, sofa, chair, bookcase, floor

Write Korean location words next to the English ones.


in front of ___________ behind ___________
on, above ___________ below, under ___________
on the right of ___________ on the left of ___________
next to ___________ opposite to ___________

between A and B ___________ where ___________

[ ] [ - casual]

A: ? A: ?
B: . B: .
UNIT 16 ? 167

B: Your housemate wants to know where you have put the following items.
First decide where you have put them and then answer their questions.

Vocabulary: table, sofa, chair, bookcase, floor

Write Korean location words next to the English ones.


in front of ___________ behind ___________
on, above ___________ below, under ___________
on the right of ___________ on the left of ___________
next to ___________ opposite to ___________

between A and B ___________ where ___________

[ ] [ - casual]

A: ? A: ?

B: . B: .
168 UNIT 16 ?

Task 5: Listening
(EXPONENT)
A(thing)/ ? Where is A (located)?

A(thing)/ B(place) . A is in B.

(ESSENTIAL VOCABULARY)
sofa dining table

bed car

television suitcase; bag

living room garage

dining room bedroom

cellar toilet

bathroom kitchen

basement garden
UNIT 16 ? 169

Look at the house below. There are various things in it like a dining table,
a trunk, bed and so on. Now, you are going to hear people asking where these
things are located. Listen for the things and locations and write down the
letter of the things (in the list) next to them in the appropriate rooms. Ready?
Listen!

List of Things That People are Talking About

a. b. c. d. e. f.
170 UNIT 16 ?
UNIT 16 ? 171

Situation Dialogue 3
Amanda has just come back home and is looking for Sujeong.
: ?
: , . , ?
: .
: ? ?
: .
: .

Vocabulary
where dont know

kitchen just

[ ] (I) am here the city

? you went? (Lit. went and came back)

Romanisation and Translation


Amanda: eodi gatda wasseo? Have you been somewhere?

Minseo: eo, sinaee jom. Yeah, Just to the city.


geunde, sujeongi jigeum eodi Hey, where is Su-jeong?
isseo?

Amanda: bueoke. In the kitchen.

Minseo: bueoke? In the kitchen?


geogiseo mwo hae? Whats she doing out there?

Amanda: molla. Dunno.

Sujeong: na yeogisseo. Im here.


172 UNIT 16 ?

Task 6: Roleplay ?
A: You are sharing the house below with , , , , ,
, , , and your partner. You have just come home and want to
know where everybody is and what they are up to. When your partner gives
you the information, use it to identify the figures in the picture below. Write
down the appropriate name next to the person.

[ 1 - casual] [ 2]

A: ? A: ?

B: , . B: .
, ,
? ?
A: . A: .

B: ? ? B: ?

A: . A: .
UNIT 16 ? 173

B: You are sharing the house below with , , , , ,


, , , and your partner. Your partner has just come home and
wants to know where everybody is and what they are doing. Answer their
questions according to the information given in the picture below.

[ 1 - casual] [ 2]

? A: ?

, . B: .
, ? , ?

. A: .

? ? B: ?

. A: .
174 UNIT 16 ?

Task 7: Listening
(EXPONENT)
A(people)/ ? Where is A?

A B . A is in B.

? What is/are he/she/they doing there?

(ESSENTIAL VOCABULARY)
where - in

- in - with

there bedroom

living room garage

dining room cellar

toilet bathroom

kitchen basement

garden television

meal/food food

watching making

sleeping having a bath

playing table tennis


UNIT 16 ? 175

You are sharing the house below with , , , , ,


, , and . As you have just come home, you don't know where
they are or what they are doing. You are asking about them. Listen for the
locations and activities and write the names of people in the appropriate
rooms. Ready? Listen!
176 UNIT 16 ?

Task 8: Reading Comprehension


The following are housing advertisements in a Korean community
newspaper.

SHARE

5 1

21

100

TO LET
3
1 1
, 200 ,

Vocabulary
boarding preference

newly built 21 shared room for 2 people

two story house electricity

own room include

fully furnished 100 $100 per week

laundry and

supplied / carport/garage

- quiet wireless
UNIT 16 ? 177

Comprehension Questions (Answer in Korean)


1. What station is the boarding house near? How far away is it?

2. Which services are provided by the boarding house?

3. How much is the shared house rent? What is included in the rent?

4. What sort of room do you get in the shared house?

5. What is nearby to the flat?

6. Which of the three places is best for a car owner? Why?


178 UNIT 16 ?

Task 9: Reading Comprehension


Susans flatmate will be going back to her own country in a months time so
Susan is looking for a new one. Susan has heard that a Korean classmate,
Sumi, is looking for a room, so she has emailed her.

, .

10 .

, , , .

160 .

, ?

UNIT 16 ? 179

Vocabulary
dormitory Korean supermarket

? What do you ? interested?


think about it?

roommate necessary

clean far; distant

still inconvenient

next month go back

gas contact (me)

per week [ week + per]

? [ live+ question ending]


180 UNIT 16 ?

Vocabulary - House
house

layout

two story house

downstairs

upstairs

living room

/ kitchen

room

laundry

bathroom

bedroom

garage

garden

stairs

door

window

dining room

basement

store room

toilet

the main living room/master bedroom


UNIT 16 ? 181

Housing in Korea
There are three main types of housing in Korea:

Apartment
In 2005, 53% of Koreas population was housed in apartment buildings.
These are typically over ten stories high and grouped together in large
complexes, with private security and a shared garden and/or childrens play
area.

House
There are relatively few houses in large cities due to the price of land.
However, they are still common in rural areas. You can see houses newly
built in the traditional Korean style in some wealthier residential areas.

Villa
In Korea, the term villa refers to housing which is more spacious and more
expensive than an ordinary apartment. Villas buildings are smaller than
apartment buildings, and a watchman and a manager take care of security and
maintenance.
182 UNIT 16 ?

Task 10: Word Check


Match these words: here is a list of vocabulary related to the house. Write
down the Korean words next to the equivalent English words. The first one is
done for you.
A H
B I
C J
D K
E L
F M /
G

1 living room _ ___

2 stairs __________________

3 bathroom __________________

4 door __________________

5 bedroom __________________

6 kitchen __________________

7 dining room __________________

8 garden __________________
9 basement __________________

10 garage __________________

11 storeroom __________________

12 window __________________

13 toilet __________________
UNIT 16 ? 183

Task 11: Writing


Your housemate wants to know where you have put the items below. Use the
information to answer each of the following questions.

book on the sofa shoes in front of the sofa

phone on the table bag next to sofa

umbrella next to the bookcase newspaper under the chair

1 ? .

2 ? _______________________________.

3 ? _______________________________.

4 ? _______________________________.

5 ? _______________________________.

6 ? _______________________________.
184 UNIT 16 ?

Task 12: Writing


You need to find a housemate. Write an advertisement for a Korean
community newspaper.
17
6

Unit Focus:
Talking about travel
Vocabulary: Transportation
Public Transportation in Seoul
Travel Time:
? How long does it take?
Taking transport: +/ /
Transferring to another Means of Transport:
+/
186 UNIT 17 6
UNIT 17 6 187

Situation Dialogue 1
Amanda is at a bus stop on her way to Lotte Department Store.
: ?

1: .

A bus pulls up

: ?

1: , . 161 .

Another bus pulls up.

: ! ?

2: , .

Vocabulary
? stop?

? goes?

number

? goes, right?

Excuse me! (Lit. uncle; addressing a man)

Bus going/that goes to Lotte Department Store

[(get on/board)+(polite ending- asking


someone to do something)] get on
188 UNIT 17 6

Romanisation and Translation


Amanda: yeogi Lotte baekhwajeom Does the bus to Lotte
ganeun beoseu seoyo? Department Store stop here?

Person 1: ye. Yes.

A bus pulls up

Amanda: Lotte baekhwajeom gayo? Is this going to Lotte


Department Store?

Bus driver 1: aniyo, an gayo. No.


161beon beoseu taseyo. Take bus number 161.

Another bus pulls up.

Amanda: ajeossi! i beoseu Lotte Excuse me! Is this going to


baekhwajeom gajyo? Lotte Department Store?

Bus driver 2: ne, ppalli taseyo. Yes, please hop on quickly.


UNIT 17 6 189

Task 1: Roleplay
A: You are Korean exchange student who has come to Monash University.
Ask your partner how to get to the places you want to go.

B: Your Korean friend is asking you how to get to the places s/he wants to go.
Provide them with the information. Refer to the example dialogue below.

Buses stopping at the Clayton bus loop:

Bus No. Route

630 between Elwood and Monash University

631 between Waverly Gardens SC and Southland shopping centre

691 between Bayswater and Waverley Gardens

703 between Blackburn and Middle Brighton

733 between Box Hill and Oakleigh

737 between Croydon and Monash University

802
different routes between Dandenong and Chadstone shopping
804
centre
862

[ - casual]

A: ________________ ?

B: , _____________ . /
190 UNIT 17 6

Vocabulary - Transportation
train take; get on;
board; ride

ship; boat get off

bus change; transfer


(transport/vehicle)

airplane go by foot

motorcycle take; catch (to go)

car / timetable

bicycle fare

subway depart

taxi arrive

tram take (how long)

boat it takes a long


time

truck near; close

yacht far

bus stop rush hour

express bus ticket


terminal

railway station 1 subway line 1

subway station

airport bus card

Seoul from Seoul to bus going/that


Tokyo Tokyo goes to the city
UNIT 17 6 191

Public Transportation in Seoul


http://www.lifeinkorea.com/Information/Trans/seoul-trans.cfm
Bus:
There are four types of buses: blue, green, red and yellow. Blue
buses travel the major routes between downtown Seoul and its satellite cities.
Green buses serve the routes between subway stations and nearby
residential areas. Red buses serve routes between major areas
(downtown, Gangnam, Yeongdeungpo, etc.) and metropolitan satellite cities
(Ilsan, Bundang, Uijeongbu, etc.). Yellow buses travel circular belt
roads in the downtown and the major metropolitan areas.

Taxi:
There two types of taxis: regular () and deluxe (). Deluxe
taxis provide better service and are more comfortable, However they are also
more expensive. You can distinguish deluxe taxis by their black colouring.
Taxis can be booked over the phone or hailed on the street. Regular taxis are
permitted to double hire so even if a taxi is occupied you can still hail it. Call
out your destination to passing taxi drivers, and if they are going your way,
they will stop and pick you up. Regular taxi fares are very cheap, making
them a convenient form of public transport. The flip side is that the drivers
have difficulty in making a decent living. As a result they generally drive fast
to earn more fares and may be rude if you are travelling only a short distance.

Subway: /
The word (train) is used to refer to long distance inter-city trains. Within
a city people refer to either the (subway) or the (above ground
electric train). The Seoul subway system is extensive, allowing convenient
travel to most areas of Seoul.
: http://www.seoulsubway.co.kr/
192 UNIT 17 6

Task 2: Word Check


Match these Korean words with their English equivalents. The first one is
done for you.

A F
B G
C H
D I
E J

1 train

2 airplane

3 bicycle

4 bus

5 car

6 motorcycle

7 ship

8 subway

9 taxi

10 tram
UNIT 17 6 193
194 UNIT 17 6
UNIT 17 6 195

Situation Dialogue 2
Paul has left the dormitory to go to a house near the university.
: .
: ? ? 1 ?
: . . 10 .
: ? ? ?
: , .
, .

Vocabulary
dormitory

close to; near

A not more than A

takes (amount of time)

? What do you think about..?; How is..?

[+] near and


[+()] left; came out
? [(move house)+] did you move (house)?
not really far

Note 1: In Korean, there are two different ways to show a starting point. To
show a starting point in time, use the marker +, to show a starting point
in space, use +.

Example:
A: ? Have you got a class today?
B: , 2 4 . Yes, I have a class from 2 oclock to 4
oclock.
196 UNIT 17 6

Romanisation and Translation


Paul: jeo gisuksaeseo nawasseoyo. I moved out of the dormitory.
(Lit. I came out of the
dormitory.)

Minjun: geurae? eodiro isahaesseo? Really? Where did you move to?
hakgyoeseo1 gakkawo? Are you close to uni?

Paul: ne. hakgyo geuncheoyeyo. Yeah, its close to uni.


georeoseo 10bunbakke an Its a 10 minute walk at most.
geollyeoyo. (Lit. It takes no more than ten
minutes on foot.)

Minjun: geurae? jip eottae? joa? Yeah? How is the house? Good?

Paul: ne, gwaenchanayo. Yeah, its okay.


beoseu jeongnyujangdo Its close to the bus stop and not
gakkapgoyo, syopingsentado very far from the shopping
byeollo an meoreoyo. centre.
UNIT 17 6 197

Travel Time
? How long does it take?
When asking how much time something takes we can use the expression:
? (casual- neutral ending )
? (casual- feminine ending)
? (casual- masculine ending)

The answer to ? is the period of time followed by .

Examples:
(1) A: How long does it take from your

? home to school?

B: . It takes about 10 minutes on foot.

(2) It takes 50 minutes by car

. from home to the office.

(3) A: How long does it take

? from Seoul to Pusan by train?

B: . It takes about 6 hours.

(4) A: ? Have you finished your


homework?
B: . . Yes, but it took a long time.

(5) A: I want to send this parcel to USA.

. ? How long will it take?

B: . About a week.
198 UNIT 17 6

Task 3: Roleplay ?
A: You are a Korean exchange student in Melbourne who wants to travel
around in Australia. Ask your fiend how long it takes to get to the places
below.

B: Your Korean friend is asking you how long it takes to get to the following
places. Tell them how many hours you think it will take if they use a
particular mode of transport. You should be able to use five different modes
of transport in this roleplay. Refer to the example dialogue below.

DESTINATIONS

[ - casual]
A: ?

B: .

Note: is about.
UNIT 17 6 199

Task 4: Listening
(EXPONENT)
A(means of transportation) ? How long does it take by A?

A . It takes A hour(s).

(ESSENTIAL VOCABULARY)
how long takes (amount of time)

hour(s) AhLet me see


Well
New York Chicago

San Francisco Los Angeles


Pure Korean numbers up to 18 Sino-Korean numbers up to 40

This time, Paul and Amanda are talking about their travel plan around the
U.S.A. Listen for the traveling times and places of departure and arrival.
Draw arrows connecting places of departure and arrival and write along these
arrows the traveling times. Ready? Listen!
200 UNIT 17 6

Taking Transport: +/ / take ...


When we want to say that we go or come by a particular mode of transport,
add +/ / to the noun for the means of transport. The
expression literally means get on the means of transport and then go/come.

The rules:
a) If the noun ends in a vowel: +
b) If the noun ends in a consonant: +

Examples:
(1) () ? Do you go to school by bus?

(2) A: () Do you go to the market by bus?

?
B: , () No, I take the subway.

(3) A: . I went to Busan yesterday (and


came back).
B: ? Did you go there by train?

A: , . No, I drove my car.

(4) A: ? How shall we get there?


(lit. What shall we get on and go?)

B: . Lets catch a taxi.


UNIT 17 6 201

Task 5: Roleplay ?
First fill in the blanks with your details.
___________/.

_____________ .

(_______ ______) _______ .

(Or . / .)

________ .

Now ask each of your classmates where they live, how they come to school,
and how long it takes them. The example dialogues will help you.
NAME SUBURB TRANSPORTATION TIME REQUIRED

[ 1] [ 2 - casual]

A: [ ], ? A: ?

B: [Richmond] . B: [Richmond].

A: , ? A: , ?

B: [ ] . B: [ ].

A: A: [ ]?
? ?
B: [ 50] . B: [ 50 ].
202 UNIT 17 6

Task 6: Listening
(EXPONENT)
? Where is your house?

A(area) . I live in A.

?/ ? How do you come to school?


A(means of transportation) . I come by A.

? How long does it take?

A (hours) B (minutes) . It takes about A hour(s) and


B minutes.

(ESSENTIAL VOCABULARY)
car taxi

train bicycle

bus house

live what

school (meaning includes - by (mode of


university/college) transport)
take/s (time) hour(s)

minutes how long

come by A(mode of - about


transport)
Pure Korean numbers up to 12 Sino-Korean numbers up to 50
(going up in fives)
Melbourne suburbs: Richmond, Boxhill, Glen Waverley, Hawthorn, Clayton
UNIT 17 6 203

You are going to hear some dialogue about how people get to school and
how long it takes from home to school. Listen for the means of transportation
and the time taken. Write down the time and the names of those who are using
each means of transportation in the appropriate box. Ready? Listen!

name


time
204 UNIT 17 6
UNIT 17 6 205

Situation Dialogue 3
Amanda is asking for directions to Korea University in the subway station.
: ?

: 6 .

: ?

: .. .

: ! , .

Vocabulary
from here how

takes how long

[+] catch and () ..... about . or so

(an abbreviation for) Korea University

Korea University Station

? does it take? [? softer question ending]


[++ ] should get off (polite)

Romanisation and Translation


Amanda: yeogiseo Goryeo daehakgyo How can I get to Korea
eotteoke gayo? University from here?
Receptionist: jihacheol yukhoseon tago Take subway line 6 and
goryeodaeyeogeseo naerisimyeon then get off at Korea
dwaeyo. University station.
Amanda: eolmana geollinayo? How long does it take?
Receptionist: eum..yak osip bunjjeum Ah It takes about 50
geollyeoyo. minutes.
Amanda: a! ne, gamsahamnida. Ah! I see. Thank you.
206 UNIT 17 6

Transferring to Another Means of Transport


+/
It is often necessary to change from one means of transport to another. The
way to describe this in Korean is to say how you travelled on the first means
of transport, using the pattern from the previous section, and then add that
you transfer to another means of transport using the pattern:

Refer to the following rule:


a) If the noun ends in a vowel or consonant : Noun +
b) If the noun ends in a consonant (except consonant ): Noun +

Examples:
(1) A: ? How do you come to school?

B: . I catch the train to Seoul station.

1. There I change to a bus.

(2) A: Do you go direct from Melbourne

? to Seoul?

B: I change planes at Sydney.

(3) Passengers transferring to the

. Inchon line should change trains at


the next station.

Note 1: literally means switch and get on.


UNIT 17 6 207

Task 7: Roleplay ?
A: You are a tourist in Seoul. Ask people how to get to the places in the left
column. Refer to the example dialogue. When the person gives you the
information, complete the details in the table below.

Destination You are at Subway line Arriving


1 3 3
Museum Gyeongbok Palace
3

3
Express Bus Terminal

Olympic Park Dongdaemun
Stadium

Suwon (City)
Note 1: (museum) is pronounced pang-mul-kwan.

[ ]
A: [] ?

B: [3] [] .

A: .
208 UNIT 17 6

B: A tourist wants to know how to get to the places in the left column.
Provide them with the information listed in the table. Refer to the example
dialogue.

Destination You are at Subway line Arriving


1 3 3
Museum Gyeongbok Palace
3 3
Dongguk University
3 3
Express Bus Terminal
3
Olympic Park Dongdaemun
Stadium
1
Suwon (City)
Note 1: (museum) is pronounced pang-mul-kwan.

[ ]
A: [] ?

B: [3] [] .

A: .
UNIT 17 6 209

Task 8: Listening
(EXPONENT)
A/. My name is A.

A(place) . I work in A.

A(place) B(place) . I go from A to B on foot.

A(place) B(place) I go from A to B by C.

C(means of transportation) .

(ESSENTIAL VOCABULARY)
car bicycle

train house

restaurant hairdresser's

company/office bank

name work

takes (amount of time) go

on foot - in; from

- about - by

minutes I (humble expression)

my (humble expression)
210 UNIT 17 6

You can see in the picture some people going to their workplaces. Four of
them will introduce themselves to you. Listen carefully and see if you can
identify which four people they are. Write down the letters of the pictures that
describe what you hear, names of the four and how long it takes them to travel
from home to work in the appropriate spaces. Ready? Listen!

1. / : / 2. / : /

3. / : / 4. / : /

a. b.

c. d.

e. f.

g. h.
UNIT 17 6 211

Task 9: Reading Comprehension


Susan is explaining to her friend Dongjun how to get to the city from Monash
University.

: ? .

: ?

: .

630 Huntingdale .

City Flinders St .

: Flinders St

: .

: ?

: .

Vocabulary
from here the city; city centre

complicated get off

how should go

front how long

bus to the city takes

a bit () .... about

station
212 UNIT 17 6

Task 10: Roleplay


A: You are Korean exchange student who has come to Monash University.
Ask your partner how to get to the places in the left column.
B: Your Korean friend is asking you how to get to the places in the left
column. Provide them with the information listed in the table. Refer to the
example dialogue below.

Destination Departing Transport Transferring Transport Arriving

City Monash Bus 630 Huntingdale Train Flinders St


Station
Melbourne Caulfield Train Flinders St Tram Melbourne
University University
Chadstone Monash Bus 802

Airport Clayton Train Southern Sky Bus Airport


Cross
St Kilda Carlton Tram

[ 1]

A: _____________ ?

B: _____________ . Or

____________ ____________ ____________ .

[ 2]

A: _____________ ?

B: ____________ ____________ ____________ .

_____________ _____________ .
UNIT 17 6 213

Task 11: Reading Comprehension


Amanda is writing an email to a Korean friend in Australia describing aspects
of being a student at Korea University.
,

? ? ^^ ?

. 1.

. , .

? .

2.

Vocabulary
? How are you? moved (house)
(Are you well?)
been a while, hasnt it? far

boarding house often

? did you find (it)? keep in touch


(Lit. contact)
; [Names (female)] [Name (male)]

? doing well? (Lit. you are well, arent you?)

Lets try to catch up (Lit. Lets see each others faces


sometime)

Note 1: Chamshil () is a suburb just south of the Han River in Seoul and
is where the Olympic Stadium is located.
Note 2: is pronounced yeollak
214 UNIT 17 6

Comprehension Questions (Answer in Korean)


1. Where does Amanda live and with whom?

2. How does she go to university?

3. How long does it take?


UNIT 17 6 215

Task 12: Listening


(EXPONENT)
A/. My name is A.

A B(place) . A work(s) in B.

A(place) B(place) It takes (me) C minutes

C . from A to B on foot.

A(place) B(place) It takes (me) D minutes

C(means of transportation) from A to B by C.

D .

(ESSENTIAL VOCABULARY)
bank company/office

hotel school; campus

library supermarket

hairdresser's factory

pharmacy travel agency

coffee shop hospital; doctors


clinic*
garage (car repair shop) post office

shoe shop house

restaurant bicycle

motorcycle train

taxi car

bus name

my our

- in; from on foot

- by minutes
216 UNIT 17 6

- about I

work takes (time)

teach

works (honorific form) teaches


(honorific form)
father mother

elder brother to a male

elder brother to a female elder sister to


a female
elder sister to a male Sino-Korean numbers up to 50
(going up in fives)

You are going to hear four stories that tell you about four families shown
in the picture below. A family member will tell you where each member of
his or her family works, how they get to work and how long it takes from the
house to each place of work. For each family member draw a line connecting
his/her mode of transport to the correct work place. Write in along this line
the travelling time and that particular person's names or relationship to the
speaker (e.g. , ). Ready? Listen!
UNIT 17 6 217

1.

2.

3.

4.
218 UNIT 17 6

Task 13: Listening


(EXPONENT)
? What shall we do?

? Where shall we go?

A(place) . Let's go to A.

? How shall we get there?

A(place) B(place) Let's go from A to B by C.

C(means of transportation) .
Verb stem + /? Shall we (verb)?

Verb stem + /. Let's (verb).

(ESSENTIAL VOCABULARY)
what where;
somewhere
bus train

car travel

- and - to; at (place)

- by and

then; in that case by the way;


but
fine let's go

let's come

? Shall we come? ? Shall we go?

during school holidays Let's go


travelling
Adelaide Alice Springs

Gold Coast Melbourne


UNIT 17 6 219

You are going to hear the dialogue in which Thomas and Susan are talking
about their travel plan around Australia during school holidays. Listen for the
means of transportation and places of departure and arrival. Draw arrows
connecting places of departure and arrival and write in along these arrows the
means of transportation. Ready? Listen!
220 UNIT 17 6

Task 14: Writing


A friend at a different university needs to travel to your university library to
borrow a book. Write a set of instructions explaining how to get from your
friends university to yours by public transport, including how long each
stage will take. (Choose two universities that are far apart.)
18

Unit Focus:
Describing and comparing things
Making contrasting statements
Talking about the weather
Comparing: + () (more) than
Vocabulary: Seasons
Vocabulary: Weather
Contrasting: + but
222 UNIT 18
UNIT 18 223

Situation Dialogue 1
Minjun is looking to buy a car.
: , ?

: . ?

: , , .

: ?

: ... .

Vocabulary
Corolla ? Do you like it?

Civic price

size than; compared to

[more small+and] smaller and

Romanisation and Translation


Minjun: ya, i cha eottae? Hey, what do you think of this
car?
Hyeonu: gwaenchaneunde. Its alright.
maeume deureo? Do you like it?
Minjun: eo, geunde, igeo neomu Yeah, but its too expensive.
bissande. korollaboda keugido And its smaller than a Corolla
deo jakgo. too.
Hyeonu: geureom i sibigeun? Well what about this Civic
then?
Minjun: geulsse... Well
gagyeogeun gwaenchaneunde The price is alright but
saekkkari byeolloya. I dont really like the colour.
224 UNIT 18

Comparing: + () (more) than


When you want to compare two nouns, you can use the particle - after
the second noun as an equivalent to the English word than. The word
(more) is optional.

Examples:
(1) () . Australia is bigger than Korea.
(2) () . This dress is cheapher than that
one.

But when you are expressing a comparison without a than B counterpart,


you have to use the word (more).
(3) . Australia is bigger.
(4) . This dress is more expensive.
(5) . Today is less cold than yesterday.
(6) Melbourne is less cold than Seoul

. in winter.

Note: In examples (5) and (6) we are making a comparison that is less. In
these cases we need to include the word (less).

(7) () . I have come earlier than Susan.


(casual)
(8) A: ? (casual) Which one is tastier?

B: . They are all the same


(9) . Susan studies better than me.
(10) . Its much simpler than it seems.
(11) . Its harder than it seems.
(12) . Its tastier than it looks.
(13) . Its heavier than it looks.
UNIT 18 225

Task 1: Roleplay .
A: You are going to buy a second-hand car. Ask your partner to help you to
choose a good one.

B: You have found some information about some used cars from an Internet
website. Provide the information to your partner.
http://yalge.auto.yahoo.co.kr/autos/used/

2004 1994 2004 1996

2,150 590 630 180

Vocabulary
consume(s) lots of petrol

old (a thing)

[ 1] [ 2 - casual]

A: ? A: ?

B: , . B: , .

A: ? A: ?
226 UNIT 18

Task 2: Building Sentences


Compare the following two advertisements and complete the sentences.

Honda Hyundai


2006
2005 4 8 km
8 3 km $10500
$11900

Vocabulary
like cheap

mileage expensive

old (things) short

price long

99 99 model mileage is low

1. .

2. _______________ _______________ .

3. _______________ .

4. _______________.
UNIT 18 227

Task 3: Listening
(EXPONENT)
A(noun)/ Adjective stem + /. A is Adjective.

(ESSENTIAL VOCABULARY)
weather clothes

money problem

flower(s) mountain

cold hot

fine; good expensive

cheap clean

dirty There is/are a lot

easy difficult

sick high

beautiful -/ subject particles


228 UNIT 18

Choose the picture that describes what you hear and write down the
corresponding letter in the space below. Ready? Listen!

1. 2. 3. 4.

5. 6. 7. 8.

9. 10. 11. 12.

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .
UNIT 18 229

Task 4: Listening
(ESSENTIAL VOCABULARY)
car bad

There are few; There is low


little (in quantity)

You are going to hear a statement that describes the pictures below. Listen
carefully and repeat what you hear only if it is true. Do not repeat if it is not
true. If it is true, you will hear the same statement again. And if it is not true,
you will hear the word FALSE" and the true statement. Ready? Listen!
1. 2. 3.

4. 5. 6.

7. 8. 9.

10. 11. 12.

13. 14. 15.


230 UNIT 18
UNIT 18 231

Situation Dialogue 2
Minjun is asking about Pauls studies.
: ?

: .

: ? ? ?

: , . .

: ?

: . , , .

Vocabulary
grammar similar

pronunciation than; compared to

easy reading

writing easier

Romanisation and Translation


Minjun: jigeum mwo gongbuhae? What are you studying now?
Paul: ilboneoyo. Japanese.
Minjun: geurae? ilboneo eottae? Yeah? Whats Japanese like?
hangugeoboda swiwo? Is it easier than Korean?
Paul: geulsse, jal moreugesseoyo. Well, Im not quite sure.
munbeobeun biseutaeyo. The grammars similar, but
geunde bareumi pronunciation is easier than
hangugeoboda swiwoyo. Korean.
Minjun: geurae? Really?
Paul: ne. geunde, ilgi, sseugineun Yeah. But Korean is easier to
hangugeoga deo swiwoyo. read and write.
232 UNIT 18

Task 5: Roleplay

A: You are in a department store with your friend and want to buy the things
in the picture below. Ask their opinion on each item as shown in the example
dialogue. Write down his or her opinion in Row A1 and reply with one of the
reasons why you like the item below. You should write these down in row B1.

Reasons:
A. () B. () C. ()

B: You are in a department store with your friend who wants to buy the things
in the picture below. S/he will ask your opinion on each item as in the
example dialogue. Choose a different reason for each item and write down the
reason that you dont like them in Row A1. Write down your friends opinion
in Row B1.

Reasons:
A. () B. () C. () D. ().
1 2 3 4


A
B

[ - casual ]
A: ?
B: .
A: .
UNIT 18 233
234 UNIT 18

Task 6: Listening
(EXPONENT)
A / B () Adjective stem + / A is (more) Adjective than B

(ESSENTIAL VOCABULARY)
white black

money trousers

mountain Mt. Chiri

Mt. Halla who ( who


+ subject particle)
which yesterday

today tall

long short (in length)

cheap expensive

high There are a lot/many

few; little hot

more - than; compared to

Concord Lantra
UNIT 18 235

You will hear a dialogue in which various comparisons are made. Draw
lines connecting names with the correct pictures. Ready? Listen!

1. a. . 2. a. .

b. . b. .

3. a. . 4. a. .

b. . b. .

5. a. . 6. a. .

b. . b. .
236 UNIT 18
UNIT 18 237

Situation Dialogue 3
Amanda is an exchange student who is not used to a Korean winter.
: ..... .

: , ?

: .

: ?

: ? .

: , ?

: .... .

Vocabulary
Brrr! cold

cold not really

instead rain (noun)

often it rains/its raining

hot days much; far; a lot

hot humidity level

[+] is low, so
[ +++ ] not steamy/muggy/sticky
238 UNIT 18

Romanisation and Translation


Amanda: eu.....oneul jinjja chupda. BrrrIts really cold today.
yeogi gyeoureun neomu chuwo. Winter here is too cold.

Minseo: geureom, melbeoreuneun an So, Melbourne isnt cold in


chuwo? winter?
Amanda: byeollo an chuwo. Not really cold.

Minseo: nundo an wa? Does it snow?


(Does it not even snow?)
Amanda: nun? an wa. daesin biga jaju Snow? No, it doesnt.
wa. It rains a lot though.
(Lit. Instead, it often rains.)
Minseo: geureom, yeoreumeun eottae? What about summer then?
seoulboda deowo? Is it hotter than Seoul?
Amanda: eum.... deoun nareun seoulboda UmOn hot days it is a lot
hwolssin deowo. hotter than Seoul.
geunde seupdoga najaseo But not sticky, because the
mudeopjin ana. humidity is low.
UNIT 18 239

Vocabulary - Seasons
spring

summer

autumn

winter

Vocabulary - Weather

raining cloudy fine/clear


warm

hot windy snowing


cool cold
240 UNIT 18

Task 7: Word Check


Here is a list of the seasons and terms describing the weather. Match the
Korean with the English. The first one is done for you.

A H
B I
C J
D K
E L
F M
G

1 spring . 8 fine _______________

2 summer _______________ 9 hot _______________

3 autumn _______________ 10 rain _______________

4 winter _______________ 11 snow _______________

5 cloudy _______________ 12 warm _______________

6 cold _______________ 13 windy _______________

7 cool _______________
UNIT 18 241

Task 8: Roleplay ?

A: Ask your partner what the weather will be like in the big Australian
cities tomorrow.

B: Tell your partner what the weather will be like tomorrow. Refer to the
map below.

[ ]
A: ?

B: . .
242 UNIT 18

Task 9: Listening
(EXPONENT)
? Where are you from?

A . Im from A.

? What's the weather like there?

Verb or Adjective stem + Verb or Adjective and

(ESSENTIAL VOCABULARY)
spring summer

autumn winter

fine/clear cloudy

warm cold

fine and cloudy and

good was good

weather was warm

- as well; also but

cold and snow

rain comes

? came? no

then a little

very now

wind cold, isn't it?

A It's A where

- from Australia

Canada Osaka

Japan Canberra

San Francisco it rained/was raining


UNIT 18 243

it was windy ? Does it snow?

You are a taxi driver in Seoul, and you often meet people from overseas.
Whenever you meet these people you always ask them about the weather. Put
a mark in the table. Ready? Listen!

1.

2.

3.

4.
244 UNIT 18

Task 10: Listening


(EXPONENT)
Verb or Adjective stem + Verb or Adjective and

Verb or Adjective stem + Verb or Adjective but

Verb or Adjective stem +/ Verb or Adjective

(ESSENTIAL VOCABULARY)
weather money

cold fine

unhappy cloudy and

a lot; much a lot but

(is/does) not it rains

it snows dance well but

don't sing a song; sing a


cant sing song/songs
dance and its windy/the
wind blows
but
its windy/the
wind blows and
UNIT 18 245

You will hear a statement that describes the relation between two pictures.
Choose two pictures that describe what you hear and write down the
corresponding letters in each space. Between the letters you write down place
a mark - either = when the two ideas add together so as to emphasise each
other; or a >< when the ideas are in opposition. Ready? Listen!

1. 2. 3.

4. 5. 6.

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .
246 UNIT 18

Task 11: Listening


(EXPONENT)
Verb or Adjective stem + will Verb or will be Adjective

Verb or Adjective stem + Verb or Adjective and then... or


Verb or Adjective but then...

(ESSENTIAL VOCABULARY)
Seoul Kangnung

Taejon Taegu

Pusan Kwangju

Cheju Island each

region tomorrow

weather a little bit

the whole country 's

mainly cloudy but

will report in the morning

from the afternoon .... without going


(onwards) any further
(Lit. as it is)
It will be fine

It will snow
It will rain
It will be cloudy

have reported

You will hear the recorded information about tomorrow's weather on the
phone. Choose the symbol that describes what you hear and write down the
corresponding letter next to each city on the map. Ready? Listen!
UNIT 18 247

. . . .
248 UNIT 18

Task 12: Reading Comprehension


, ?

. .

. .

. .

. .

Vocabulary
for/during that quality (of goods)
period
shoes crowded

small but soon

quiet and Korean class

clean again; also

tourist commodity price

travelled

Ill keep in touch (Lit. Ill contact you.)


UNIT 18 249

Namdaemun Market

Kyeongju (a historic Korean city)

There were not many

? How have you been?

Comprehension Questions (Answer in Korean.)


1. What did Susan do during the holidays?

2. Compared to Melbourne, what is Seoul like?

3. What did she buy?

4. Where did she go shopping and what were the prices like?

5. Compared to Seoul, what is Kyeongju like?

6. Why were there not many tourists in Kyeongju?


250 UNIT 18

Contrasting: + But
When we want to make a statement that contradicts or makes a contrast with
what has just been said, we add + to the verb or adjective stem.

Examples:
(1) . Its windy but not cold.
(2) . It was expensive but I bought it.
(3) , . Its cloudy, but not cold.
(4) . That person is rich, but unhappy.
(5) . Its expensive, but the design is
good.
(6) I like Japanese food, but

. I dont go to Japanese restaurants


often since its expensive.
(7) It was cloudy, but not cold

. yesterday

Note: Use the marker or with + to show past tense. The past tense
marker goes between the verb or adjective stem and + as in (7) in which
is made of ++.

(8) A: ? Did you go to see a movie


yesterday?
B: I wanted to go, but I couldnt.
(9) A: Did you talk to her/him yesterday?

?
B: , No. Yesterday I went to her/his

. office, but she/he wasnt there.


UNIT 18 251

Task 13: Writing


Compare the city you are in now with another city you know. Compare
aspects such as , , , and so on.
252 UNIT 18
19

?

Unit Focus:
Confirming what you already know by using
a tag question
Describing people, animals and things
Being polite by using soft sentence endings
How to suggest somebody try something
Confirming: + , isnt it?; arent they?
Vocabulary: Animals
Describing with Modified Adjective
Endings: +///
Soft Sentence Endings: +//
Making a Suggestion: +/ Try ...
Vocabulary: Suggesting
254 UNIT 19 ?
UNIT 19 ? 255
256 UNIT 19 ?

Situation Dialogue 1
Amanda suggests playing 20 questions with Minseo.
: .
: . .
: , . .
: ?
: .
: ?
: , .
: ?
: , .
: ?
: .
: , ! ?
: , .

Vocabulary
20 questions

[] you [casual, familiar/intimate]


? (is) big?

! I know!

[ get it right/find the correct answer +()past tense]


got it right
[ + ] try to think of
I have thought (of one)

[ +()] ask (me)


UNIT 19 ? 257

Romanisation and Translation


Amanda: uri seumugogae haja. Lets play 20 questions.

Minseo: joa. niga meonjeo hana OK You think of something (lit.


saenggakae bwa. one) first.

Amanda: eum, saenggakaesseo. OK. Um, Ive got one. (Lit. I


mureo bwa. thought of one.) Ask me.

Minseo: dongmuriya? Is it an animal?

Amanda: eo. Yep.

Minseo: jibeseo sara? Domestic? (Lit. Lives in the


house?)

Amanda: eung, jibe sara. Yeah, (it does).

Minseo: keo? Is it big?

Amanda: ani, an keo. Nope, its not.

Minseo: gaeya? Is it a dog?

Amanda: ani. Nope.

Minseo: a, aratda! Ah, Ive got it!


goyangiji? Its a cat, isnt it?

Amanda: eo, majasseo. Yep, you got it.


258 UNIT 19 ?

Confirming: +()
, isnt it?; , doesnt it?; , arent they?
When you want to ask about something you already know use + at the
end of the sentence. + comes after the verb, descriptive wordor noun,
and is pronounced with a falling intonation. The contracted form + is often
used in colloquial speech.

[1] The present tense rule:


a) After a verb or descriptive word stem: +
? Youre open tomorrow, arent you?

b) After a noun: +()


i) If the noun ends in a vowel: +
. ? Hello, is that Korea University?

ii) If the noun ends in a consonant: +


? Hello, is that Professor Parks

? residence?

Examples:
(1) A: ? It is really cold, isnt it?

B: , . Yes, it is.
(2) A: ? The coffee is too strong, isnt it?

B: , . No, its fine.


(3) A: ? The exam is easy, isnt it?

B: , . No, its difficult.


(4) A: ? Its still raining outside, isnt it?

B: , . No, it stopped a while ago.


UNIT 19 ? 259

(5) A: ? Its a public holiday tomorrow,


isnt it?
B: , . Yes, thats right.
(6) A: Michael is skiing/skis very well,

? isnt he/doesnt he?

B: , . Yes, he is/does.
(7) A: ? You dont exercise much, right?

B: , . No, not much. [Lit. Yes, not much.]


(8) ? Korean is interesting, isnt it?

[2] The past tense rule:


a) After a verb or descriptive word stem: +/
i) If the last vowel is () or (): +
? Michael has gone to Korea, hasnt
he?
ii) If the last vowel is not () or (): +
? Yesterdays movie was good,
wasnt it?

b) After a noun: +/
i) If the noun ends in a vowel: +
? He was a swimmer before,
wasnt he?
ii) If the noun ends in a consonant: +
? Yesterday was Young-mis
birthday, wasnt it?
260 UNIT 19 ?

More Examples:
(1) A: ? It was really hot yesterday, wasnt
it?
B: , . Yes, it was.

(2) A: ? Young-mi called you yesterday,


didnt she?
B: , . Yes, she did.

(3) A: ? Yesterdays exam was easy,


wasnt it?
B: , . Yes, it was.

(4) A: ? It rained a lot there yesterday,


didnt it?
B: , . Yes, it did.

(5) A: ? It was Young-mis book, wasnt


it?
B: , . Yes, thats right.

(6) A: ? Michael hasnt come back yet, has


he/right?

B: , No, he will be back soon.


[Lit. Yes, he will be back soon.]
UNIT 19 ? 261

Vocabulary - Animals
puppy

dog

gorilla

cat

bear

camel

chicken

pig

horse

snake

lion

cow

sheep

rat/mouse

kangaroo

elephant

koala

tiger
262 UNIT 19 ?

Task 1: Roleplay
Your teacher will split you into small groups. One student should think of an
animal and the rest of the group should find out what it is by playing Twenty
Questions. Take it in turns to be the one answering.

[ ] [ - casual]
A: ? A: ?
B: . B: .
A: , ? A: , ?
B: . B:
UNIT 19 ? 263
264 UNIT 19 ?

Task 2: Listening
(EXPONENT)
A / It's not A.

A / Adjective stem +/ A is Adjective

(ESSENTIAL VOCABULARY)
dog cat

elephant fish

bee giraffe

horse mouse; rat

kangaroo neck

nose tail

flower honey

sea () people

Africa Australia

big long

small like

hate; not like live

run make

afraid of ride

fly but; however


(formal)
and very

together quickly; fast

- with - in/at/to

-/ subject particles -/ object particles

-/ topic particles
UNIT 19 ? 265

You will hear descriptions of the animals and insect below. In each space
write down the letter which corresponds to the animal described. Ready?
Listen!

1. 2. 3. 4.

5. 6. 7. 8.

. . . .

. . . .
266 UNIT 19 ?
UNIT 19 ? 267

Situation Dialogue 2
Hyeonu is asking Minjun about his ideal girlfriend.
: ! ?

: .. .

: ..?

: . .

: ~ ? ?

: . !

: .

Vocabulary
style short hair
like slim

long straight hair ? what else?

I see

[ + ] girls with fashion sense


(Lit. girls who dress well)
Yun Eun Hae - an actress who appeared in the TV
miniseries Coffee Prince
268 UNIT 19 ?

Romanisation and Translation


Hyeonu: minjuna! neon eotteon seutairui Hey Minjun! What kind of girl
yeojaga joa? do you like?

Minjun: eum.. yuneunhye gateun seutail. Hm.. A girl like Yun Eun Hae.

Hyeonu: geureom..danbalmeori? Soyou like short hair?

Minjun: eo. nan gin saengmeoriboda Yeah. I like short hair more than
danbalmeori seutairi joa. long straight hair.

Hyeonu: a~ geurae? Ah, really?


geureom dareun geon? What else?

Minjun: nalssinhan yeoja. Slim girls.


geurigo ot jal imneun yeoja! With fashion sense!

Hyeonu: geureokuna. Ah I see..


UNIT 19 ? 269

Describing with Modified Adjective Endings:


+///
You can modify a noun by placing an adjective (descriptive word) in front, as
in the English interesting film and small bag. The modified noun can be
the subject or object of a sentence. For example:
. I saw an interesting film yesterday.

The rules:
a) If the descriptive word stem ends in a vowel: +
- + cheap

- + big

- + expensive

- + pretty

- + clean

- + crowded; complicated

- + strong

- + weak

b) If it ends in a consonant: +
- + small

- + fine
270 UNIT 19 ?

c) If it ends with /: +
- + interesting

- + boring

- + delicious

- + bad tasting

d) If it ends with : - drop +


- + light

- + heavy

- + hot(spicy)

- + hot(temperature)

- + cold

Examples:
(1) A: ? How about this one then?

B: . Its a bit big.

? Dont you have a smaller one?

A: 1 ? How about this one

B: . Its a bit heavy.

? Dont you have a lighter one?

(2) A: ? Who is the longhaired woman?

B: . She is my younger sister.


(3) A: ? Do you like Korean food?

B: , . Yes, I do.

. Except too spicy food.


UNIT 19 ? 271

(4) A: ? Which bag is Young-mis?

B: . The big travel bag over there.


(5) A: . Its cold today.

B: Its best to have a hot coffee on a

. cold day like today, isnt it?

(6) A: ? Shall we go see a movie today?

B: ? Are there any interesting movies


on at the moment?
(7) A: ? What type of man do you like?

B: . Lets see. A handsome and smart

2. man with a good sense of humour.

Note 1: The word is a shortened form of ( + topic particle


). A is contrasting two things, so the topic particle / needs to be used
for the second one.

Note 2: When two or more descriptive words are used together before a noun,
+/// is attached to the last descriptive word and the other ones are
linked with + as in (7): .
272 UNIT 19 ?

Task 3: Word Check


Here is the list of animal names. Write a brief description of the animal. The
first one is done for you.

A B C D
E F G H
I J K L

1 .

2 ______________________________________________________.

3 __________________________________________________.

4 __________________________________________________.

5 ______________________________________________________.

6 ____________________________________________________.

7 ______________________________________________________.

8 ______________________________________________________.

9 ____________________________________________________.

10 ______________________________________________________.

11 __________________________________________________.

12 __________________________________________________.

13 __________________________________________________.

14 __________________________________________________.
UNIT 19 ? 273

Vocabulary - Describing People


blonde

black

hair

moustache

is talking person talking

has put on a long skirt


woman wearing a long skirt
is pretty pretty woman

is slim slim woman

is handsome handsome man

is wearing glasses person


wearing glasses
is tall tall person

is short short person

() is average height average


height person
is thin thin person

is fat fat person


2007 7 30
*: ( )
*: ,
http://english.chosun.com/w21data/html/news/200706/200706280014.html
274 UNIT 19 ?

Task 4: Roleplay / ?
You are doing survey on what type of a man or women the opposite sex likes
in the 21st century. Move around the class and ask your classmates.

[ APPEARANCES]
1. (tall) /
2. (small)
3. (sexy)
4. (slim)
5. (strong)
6. (fat)
7. (long hair)
8. (short hair)
9. (pretty)
10. (handsome)
11. (intelligent) /
12. (caring)
13. (talkative)
14. (rich)
15 ()/ (humorous)

[ ]
A: / ?

B: . /.
UNIT 19 ? 275
276 UNIT 19 ?
UNIT 19 ? 277

Situation Dialogue 3
Amanda is buying sneakers in a shoe shop.
: ?

: .

: ?

: .

: .?

: . ?

: ? ? ?

: , .

: ?

: , .

Vocabulary
looking for (hon.) looking for

(its) a bit small ? how is it?

go for this bigger one

okay [+ exclamatory ending]


? Would you mind telling me ...?
[phrase for asking strangers personal questions]
[+ ] try on (shoes)
? Do you like it? (hon.)

? [ wrap + for you + shall]


Shall I wrap (it) for you?
[ wrap + please (for me)] please wrap it
278 UNIT 19 ?

Romanisation and Translation


Shop mwo chajeuseyo? What are you looking for?
assistant:

Amanda: undonghwa channeundeyo. Im looking for some sneakers.

Shop saijeuga eotteoke doeseyo? Whats your size?


assistant:
Amanda: jal moreugesseoyo. Im not sure.

Shop geureom igeo hanbeon sineo Then try this one on.
assistant: boseyo. eotteoseyo? How is it?

Amanda: jom jageundeyo. Its a bit small.


deo keun geo eopseoyo? Do (Lit. Dont) you have
anything bigger?
Shop keun geoyo? igeon Bigger? How about these?
assistant: eotteoseyo?.maeume deuseyo? Do you like them?

Amanda: ne, gwaenchanneyo. Yes, theyre okay.

Shop geureom igeollo hasigesseoyo? Would you like to take these


assistant: then? (Lit. go for these...)

Amanda: ne, igeollo ssa juseyo. Yes, Ill take this pair please.
(Lit. Yes, please package these
for me.)
UNIT 19 ? 279

Soft Sentence Endings: +//


The ending +// softens the sentence, making it more polite. The
use of +() with descriptive wordsis particularly common. For
example, when you ask the price of something at a market stall and think its
a bit expensive, you say . It is grammatically correct to say
, which has exactly the same English meaning, however, using the
softer form, , shows you have some concern for their feelings and
you are not trying to be rude. (It softens potential bluntness in negative
comments.) Thus, by using this form you are more likely to successfully
negotiate a lower price. On the other hand, if you think that the stall holders
price is unreasonable and you are not interested in buying, you could drop the
softened ending and say .

Using the +/ form with descriptive words is a direct or objective way


of describing something. It is safe to use it if you are complimenting someone
or making a positive statement about something. For example:
(This book is interesting). But if there could be a negative
connotation, a Korean would soften it: (This book is (a
bit) boring). In English you would get the same effect by using a certain tone
of voice or hesitating mid-sentence, or adding a bit to the description. (The
Korean form is often used in combination with the word - a bit.)

To create this form simply add +// to the ending that carries the
grammatical function.
280 UNIT 19 ?

The rules:
[1] The present tense rule:
a) After a verb stem: +
. Shes not home at the moment.

. You speak Korean well.

b) After a descriptive word stem:


i) if it ends in a vowel: +
. Im afraid I am busy today.

ii) if it ends in a consonant: +


. Its a bit small.

c) After a Noun:
i) if it ends in a vowel: +
A: , ? Hello, is Michael there?
B: . Speaking.

ii) if it ends in a consonant: +


A: , ? Hello, is that Sung-suk?
B: , . Yes, this is Sung-suk.

Examples:
(1) A: ? Is that Korea university?

B: . . No, youve got the wrong


number.
(2) A: ? This movie is interesting, isnt
it?
B: . . Umits not that interesting for
me.
UNIT 19 ? 281

(3) A: ? Are you hot?

B: , . Yes, a little bit.


(4) A: ? You havent seen Miss Park?

B: . She is photocopying a document


at the moment.
(5) A: ? Arent you going to work?

B: . Its Sunday today.


(6) A: ? Arent you taking this
document?
B: . I dont need it.
(7) A: ? How would you like this one?

B: . Well...I dont really fancy it.

[2] The past tense rule:


a) After a verb or descriptive word stem:
i) if the last vowel is () or (): +
A: ? Michael hasnt gone to Korea,
has he?
B: , . No, (Im sorry to say) hes gone
already.

ii) if the last vowel of the verb stem is not () or (): +


A: ? That movie yesterday was
good, wasnt it?
B: . WellI didnt find it that

. interesting.
282 UNIT 19 ?

b) After a noun:
i) if it ends in a vowel: +
A: ? Today is Young-mis birthday, isnt
it?
B: , . No, it was yesterday.

ii) if it ends in a consonant: +


A: . I have brought an application.
B: The deadline was yesterday

. (unfortunately).

More Examples:
(8) A: ? You havent seen my book?

B: . I put it away (actually).


(9) A: ? Do you have milk?

B: . Weve run out of it (Im afraid).


(10) A: ? Did our team win?

B: , . No, we lost.
(11) A: ? You havent seen Mr. Park?

B: . He has gone to meet a client.


(12) A: . I rang you at your office yesterday.
B: . (Um) it was Sunday yesterday.
(13) A: ? Havent you finished filing the data?

B: . I havent finished yet.


(14) A: ? Did you see the baseball game
yesterday?
B: . I was busy, so I didnt.
UNIT 19 ? 283

Task 5: Roleplay
A: You are a discerning shopper looking for a bag. Using the soft ending
-(), reject each of the bags with one the reasons provided below.

B: You are a shop assistant in a bag shop dealing with quite a fussy customer.
The customer will reject all the bags you show them. Write down the letters
of the reasons in the blanks.

REASONS:
A. B. C. D.
E. F.

[ ]
: . ?
: ?
: , . ?
: .
: , ?
284 UNIT 19 ?

Making a Suggestion: +/ Try ...


When you want to suggest that someone should try doing something, use the
form: Verb Stem + /
This form literally implies that you do something and then see () what
the outcome is. To create this form simply alter the ending that carries the
grammatical function. Instead of using the +/, use +/ as
the ending:


The rules are:


a) If the last vowel of the verb stem is () or (): +
1 Try sitting down here.

Note 1: When we want to speak to someone, we might say:


Sit down here for a moment (and Ill tell you something).

b) If the last vowel is not () or (): +


. Try this (clothing) on.

c) If the verb stem ends in : changes to


. Have a think about it.

Examples:
(1) . Try skydiving.

. It is fun.

(2) . Meet him/her (and see how it turns


out).
UNIT 19 ? 285

(3) . Go ahead and talk.


(4) A: ? You havent seen my bag?

B: . Go over there and try to find it.


(5) . This is a new beer.

. Try it and see if you like it.

(6) . Try these on. (for shoes or socks)

Vocabulary - Suggesting
Try this (clothing) on

Try these (footwear) on

Try these (glasses) on

Try these (gloves) on

Try this (food)

Take a seat (I want to tell you something). Try sitting


on this.... (for example in a furniture shop.)
Try this (tie or belt) on

Have a listen

Have a read

Note: The form does not always mean try, but suggests that the person will
experience something new or have gained new information/experience after
the action.
286 UNIT 19 ?

Task 6: Word Check


Read the following list of expressions for offering services.
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
I

Write down an appropriate expression to follow each of the sentences below.


The first one is done for you.

1 . .

2 . _____________________________.

3 . _____________________________.

4 . _____________________________.

5 . _____________________________.

6 . _____________________________.

7 . _____________________________.

8 MP3 . _____________________________.

9 . _____________________________.
UNIT 19 ? 287

Task 7: Roleplay .
A: You are a shop assistant in the shops below. Ask the customer
what s/he is looking for and suggest they try it.

B: You are the customer.

Shop Items Shop Items


/ pants boots

skirt leather
shoes
bread sofa

beverage chair

fruit desk

glasses MP3 MP3

sunglasses player

gloves novel

neck-tie comic

belt magazine

[ ]
A: ?

B: .

A: ? (comfortable).
.
288 UNIT 19 ?

Task 8: Reading Comprehension


:
:

? .
(Philip Island) .
(Melbourne) 2 ,
.

. 30 .
.
. !

.
.
. .
.
.
.

Vocabulary
addressee seashore

subject; topic animal

these days tourist

curious; wonder among

news famous
UNIT 19 ? 289

about grey

(the) world tree

height slow

night sleepy

only was sleeping

[+] and (connector for adding extra information)

[ come out + because]


Because (they) come out
[ see+ can] can see

Comprehension Questions (Answer in Korean.)


1. Why was Susan curious?

2. How far away from Melbourne is Philip Island?

3. Who did she go with and why?

4. How big are the penguins there?

5. How does Susan describe Kangaroos?

6. How does she describe Koalas?


290 UNIT 19 ?

Task 9: Listening
(EXPONENT)
Verb or Adjective stem + Verb or Adjective and

Verb stem + be (Verb)ing

(ESSENTIAL VOCABULARY)
today people

age age counting unit


(years)
very a little bit

black blond

hair mustache

pretty thin and [lit. has


become thin and]
average; fat
normal(ly)
tall short and

handsome and wearing glasses and


tall and - as well

? Whom am I going to meet?

-/ topic particles Pure-Korean numbers up to 61


UNIT 19 ? 291

You are working for a tour agency. One of your duties is to meet people
from overseas at the airport. Your boss is describing four people whom you
are going to meet today. Identify which is which by writing down the letter
of the picture which corresponds to each dialogue. Ready? Listen!

1. 2. 3. 4.

. . . .

. . . .
292 UNIT 19 ?
20
?

Unit Focus:
Describing people, animals and things
Describing with Modified Verb Endings
o Past tense: Verb Stem + /
o Present tense: Verb Stem +
o Future tense: Verb Stem +/
Vocabulary: Describing items
Vocabulary: Colours
294 UNIT 20 ?
UNIT 20 ? 295

Situation Dialogue 1
Minjun asks his friend Hyeonu about some pretty girls he doesnt know.
: ?

: ?

: .

: , .

: ?

: ? , . .

: ? .

Vocabulary
A [+ ]
the person talking with A
? Whos that?

[ +] wearing glasses

[+ ] tall person

[(drop )+ ] long skirt


[ + ] the woman wearing the skirt
[lit. the female who has put on a long skirt]
? [+ soft ending] Whos that?

[+ soft ending] pretty


- is often pronounced -, creating the
casual/non-standard version .
296 UNIT 20 ?

Romanisation and Translation


Minjun: jeogi polhago iyagihaneun Whos that talking to Paul?
saram nuguya?

Hyeonu: nugu? Which one? (Lit. Who?)

Minjun: angyeong kkin ki keun saram. The tall one with glasses.

Hyeonu: a, amanda dongsaengiya. Ah, thats Amanda's (younger)


brother.
Minjun: geureom jeogi gin chima ibeun Then whos the girl over there
yeojaneun nugunde? in the long skirt (lit. who has put
the long skirt on)?
Hyeonu: nugu? a, sujan. Who? Ah, Susan.
pol yeoja chinguya. Shes Pauls girlfriend.
Minjun: geurae? yeppeunde. Yeah? Shes pretty.
UNIT 20 ? 297
298 UNIT 20 ?

Describing with Modified Verb Endings


English has expressions like How was the movie (that) you saw yesterday?
In the equivalent Korean expression, the clause (in bold) goes in front of the
noun it modifies: ?.When we are using a verb in a
modifying phrase, it is necessary to take into account the tense of the verb:

[1] Past Tense: +/


a) If the verb stem ends in a vowel: +
- + met

- + saw

b) If it ends in a consonant: +
- + ate

- + read

- + has put on

[2] Present Tense: +


- + is reading

- + is eating

- + is watching

- + is putting on

[3] Future Tense: +/


a) If the verb stem ends in a vowel: +
- + will meet

- + will see
UNIT 20 ? 299

b) If it ends in a consonant: +
- + will eat

- + will read

- + will put on

Examples:
(1) person
A the person talking
B the person talking to Paul
C The person talking to Paul
is my friend. .

(2) movie
A the movie we saw
B the movie we saw yesterday
C The movie we saw yesterday
was very boring. .

(3) house
A the house where we will live
B That is the house where we will live. 1 .

Note 1: is the shortened form of ( + subject particle ).


Similarly, you can say () this (one), () that (one)
and ( ) which one.
300 UNIT 20 ?

Task 1: Word Check


Match the list of expressions describing people with their English equivalents.
The first one is done for you.

A G
B H
C I
D J
E K
F L

1 man with glasses .

2 tall person _____________________________

3 woman wearing long skirt _____________________________

4 man with moustache _____________________________

5 pretty woman _____________________________

6 handsome man _____________________________

7 ugly person _____________________________

8 short person _____________________________

9 medium height person _____________________________

10 thin person _____________________________

11 slim woman _____________________________


UNIT 20 ? 301

Task 2: Roleplay ?
Suppose that you are at a friends party.

A: There are some people who you dont know well.


Ask B their names by describing them.

B: You know all the people at the party. Answer As questions.


1. Sandy 2. John 3. Steve 4. Paul
5. Monique 6. Martin 7. Helena

[ ]
A: ?
B: ?
A: .
B: , . ( ).
302 UNIT 20 ?

Task 3: Listening
(EXPONENT)
A ? Do you know where A is?

Verb or Adjective stem + Verb or Adjective and

Verb stem + be (Verb)ing

A B A has B.

(ESSENTIAL VOCABULARY)
trousers shorts

jeans long skirt

black suit

mustache bald

tie glasses

hair curly hair

short and wearing (tie/belt)

wearing is wearing [lit. has


(hat/glasses) put on] (hat/glasses)
tall is wearing [lit. has
put on] (clothes)
very and

A (I'm) looking for (a/some) A


A ? Have you seen A?
UNIT 20 ? 303

You will hear people describing someone whom they are looking for at a
party. Number the people correctly from 1 - 7. Ready? Listen!

1. Sandy 2. John 3. Steve 4. Paul


5. Monique 6. Martin 7. Helena
304 UNIT 20 ?
UNIT 20 ? 305

Situation Dialogue 2
Minjun is asking Hyeonu whether he knows anyone who is interested in
working at a Korean restaurant.
: ?
: .
: ?
: .... ?
: ?
: , .
: ?
: ? .
: , . , . .

Vocabulary
looking for I have, but

there is; have ? (you) know,


right?
[ serve+ ] waiter(s)
(Lit. person who will serve customers)
? have interest (in)?

[ + ]
friends who are looking for part-time work
? [ +?] shall I ask around
[lit. investigate/inquire about]?
? [ +?] Could you (do that for me)?
[lit. Do you wanna do that for me?]
306 UNIT 20 ?

[ +] the guy or girl (Lit. young


person) who studies Japanese
[ +]
since/because/considering s/he speaks Korean
(its) perfect

[ + +()]
Please ask (her/him) (for me)

Romanisation and Translation


Minjun: hanguk sikdangeseo seobinghal Theyre looking for waiters
saram channeunde neo gwansim for a Korean restaurant.
isseo? Would you be interested?
(Lit. Are you interested?)
Hyeonu: gwansimeun inneunde sigani Yeah, but I dont have time.
eopseo.
Minjun: geureom alba channeun chingu Well, are any of your friends
eopseo? looking for a job?
Hyeonu: geulsse....naega ara bolkka? Ah I can ask around.
(Lit. Shall I ask around?)
Minjun: geurae jullae? Could you?
Hyeonu: a, itda. Ah, theres one.
Minjun: nugu? Who?
Hyeonu: neo sujan alji? You know Susan, dont you?
hangugeohago ilboneo The girl who studies Korean
gongbuhaneun ae. and Japanese.
Minjun: a, sujan. geurae, Ah, Susan. I know.
gyae hangugeo hanikka jal She speaks Korean - shed be
dwaetda. geureom hanbeon perfect. Please ask her. (Lit.
mureo bwa jwo. Please ask her once for me.)
UNIT 20 ? 307
308 UNIT 20 ?

Task 4: Roleplay ?
The class will be divided into two groups. Using the first example dialogue,
find out who in your group has done, is doing, or will do about half of the
activities below. Write their names in the appropriate cell. Use the example
dialogue 2 to complete your list with the other group.

[ 1]
A: (polite) Or
(very casual)?
B: . (polite). / . (very casual).

[ 2]
A: ?
B: ./ .(all )/ .(no one)

Past Activities

1. ?

2. ?

3. ?

4. ?

5. / ?

6. ?

7. ?
UNIT 20 ? 309

Present/Habitual Activities

8. ?

9. ?

10. ?

11. 100 ?

12. / ?

13. ?

14. ?

Future Activities

15. ?

16. ?

17. ?

18. ?

19. ?

20. ?
310 UNIT 20 ?

Vocabulary - Describing Items


wallet Visa card

bag umbrella

sunglasses student card

/ mobile phone gloves

dictionary () (glasses) frame

small big

() (it is) a new one worn/ old

smaller bigger

darker lighter

/ brand what kind of thing


[ ?]
what is it like?

this (one) that (one)


UNIT 20 ? 311

Vocabulary - Colours
/ colour / white orange

red / black violet

1 blue / green brown

yellow / pink grey

rainbow , , , , , (indigo),

Note 1: is also used sometimes to describe the colour green. In


ancient Korean there were only five pure colour words, so was used
to denote both blue and green.
312 UNIT 20 ?
UNIT 20 ? 313

Situation Dialogue 3
Amanda is at a lost property office asking if her bag has been handed in.
: .
: ?
: .
: ?
: , .
: , ?
: , .
: , ?
: , .
: ?
: .
: ! , . . .

Vocabulary
lost item bag

black leather

is... this (one)

this (one) that (one)

that (one) aged/worn

inside dictionary

? [ this +() ? (question ending could it be)]


Is this it? (Lit. Could this be it?)
(thats) right
314 UNIT 20 ?

[ right +() exclamatory ending] right!


[+] (I) have lost
? What kind of (bag) is it?

A B (A) is inside (B)

Romanisation and Translation


Amanda: jeo gabangeul I have lost my bag.
ireobeoryeonneundeyo.
Receptionist: eotteon geoyeyo? What kind of bag is it?
Amanda: kkaman saek gajuk Its a black leather bag.
gabangindeyo.
Receptionist: igeoyeyo? Is it this one?
Amanda: aniyo, geugeotboda jom No, its a bit bigger than that.
keoyo.
Receptionist: geureomyeon, jeogeoyeyo? Then, is this one yours?
Amanda: aniyo, jeogeotboda jom No, it's a bit older than that.
nalgasseoyo. (Lit. No, it has aged a bit
more than that.)
Receptionist: geureomyeon, igeongayo? Then, is this yours?
Amanda: ne, majayo. Yes, thats the right one.
Receptionist: ane mwoga deureo isseoyo? Can you tell me whats
inside? (Lit. What is inside?)
Amanda: hangugeo chaekago Theres a Korean textbook
jeonjasajeoniyo. and an electronic dictionary.
Receptionist: a! ne, manneyo. yeogi Yes! Thats right. Here you
itseumnida. geurigo yeogi are. Now please sign here.
sainhae juseyo.
UNIT 20 ? 315

Task 5: Word Check


Match these colours with their English equivalents below. The first one is
done for you.

A / F
B G
C H /
D I /
E / J

1. white / .

2. black ____________________________________________

3. red ____________________________________________

4. yellow ____________________________________________

5. blue ____________________________________________

6. green ____________________________________________

7. brown ____________________________________________

8. grey ____________________________________________

9. pink ____________________________________________

10. orange ____________________________________________

11. violet ____________________________________________


316 UNIT 20 ?

Task 6: Word Check


Match these items with their English equivalents. The first one is done for
you.
A B C D
E F G H

1. Visa card .

2. bag _______________________________________

3. gloves _______________________________________

4. mobile phone _______________________________________

5. sunglasses _______________________________________

6. student card _______________________________________

7. umbrella _______________________________________

8. wallet/purse _______________________________________

Fill in the blanks with the words that would best complete each sentence.

1. ____________ ?

2. ____________ ? , ?

3. ____________ ?

4. ____________ ?

5. ____________ .

6. ____________ ?

7. (wool) ____________, 2 .
UNIT 20 ? 317

Task 7: Roleplay
A: Choose an item from the list below. You have left this on the bus so you go
to the lost property office to try and find it. Describe the lost item. Refer to the
example dialogue.
B: You are working in the lost property office at the bus station. Refer to the
example dialogue.

ITEMS:
1. wallet/purse 2. Visa card

3. bag 4. mobile phone

5. gloves 6. sunglasses

7. student card 8. umbrella

[ ]
A: .
B: ?
A: .
B: ?
A: , .
B: , ?
A: , .
B: , ?
A: , .
B: ?

.
! , . .
318 UNIT 20 ?

Task 8: Listening 2
(EXPONENT)
A / I have lost A

(ESSENTIAL VOCABULARY)
bag umbrella

gloves sunglasses

small big

new one frame

worn big

bigger leather

white folding one

this (one) black

red yellow

blue what sort of

that's right a little bit


UNIT 20 ? 319

You will hear people describing things that they have lost. Identify the
correct item for each person and write down its letter. Ready? Listen!

1. 2. 3. 4.

. blue . yellow . black (frame) . white (frame)

. red . blue . brown . black


320 UNIT 20 ?

Task 9: Reading Comprehension


This is a lost property form that Paul has filled out for something he lost on
the No. 2 subway line.


: Paul Smith .
(resident registration number): .
: 2 .
: 2009 5 16 .
: .
: , .
.

Comprehension Questions (Answer in Korean.)

1. What did Paul lose?

2. Where did he lose it?

3. What colour was it?

4. What was inside it?


UNIT 20 ? 321

Task 10: Reading Comprehension


Susans Korean friend is arriving from overseas tomorrow. Susan had
originally agreed to meet her at the airport but something came up. She has
now arranged for someone else to go instead. The following is her email
explaining the situation and describing the person who will pick her friend up
at the airport.

? 6 40 ?

. .

(Lisa) .

. .

! !
322 UNIT 20 ?

Vocabulary
pick-up How have you been? / How
are you going?
...is..., isnt it? I am sorry but

is and will wait

arrival arrival place

blonde immediately

instead () international terminal

[ unable go out +(future)


probably/it seems]
probably wont be able to go
() have a (serious) cold

[+ ] will recognise
() [ worry + dont] dont worry
[ +]
look similar (people), so
[+] crowded, so
TRANSCRIPT OF LISTENING TASKS

Unit 11, Task 1


A : ?
B : , . .
. .
.
A : ?
B : , . .
A : ?
B : . .
.
A : ?
B : , .

Unit 11, Task 4


(Dialogue) 1
: , . .
: . , . .

(Dialogue) 2
: , . .
: . .
.
324 TRANSCRIPT OF LISTENING TASKS

(Dialogue) 3
: , . .
: .
: , . .
.

(Dialogue) 4
: , . .
: .
: . .

(Dialogue) 5
: , . ?
: ? .
: ?
.
.
.

(Dialogue) 6
: , . .
: .
: ?
: , . .
TRANSCRIPT OF LISTENING TASKS 325

Unit 12, Task 2


(Dialogue) 1
: .
: ?
: , .
: .
: , . .
: ?
: , ? .

(A minute later)
: . ?
: , . .

(Dialogue) 2
: .
: ?
: , .
: , ?
: . .
: , ?
: , .
: ?
: . ?
: , .
326 TRANSCRIPT OF LISTENING TASKS

(Dialogue) 3
: ?
: ?
: , . , ?
: ?
: , . ?
: .
: , .
?
: , . .
: .
: . .
: , .

Unit 12, Task 5


(Dialogue) 1
A : ?
B : , .

(Dialogue) 2
A : ?
B : , .

(Dialogue) 3
A : ?
B : , .
TRANSCRIPT OF LISTENING TASKS 327

(Dialogue) 4
A : ?
B : , .

(Dialogue) 5
A : ?
B : , .

(Dialogue) 6
A : ?
B : ,

Unit 12, Task 7


(Dialogue) 1
A : ?
B : , .

(Dialogue) 2
A : ?
B : , .

(Dialogue) 3
A : . ?
B : , .

(Dialogue) 4
A : . ?
B : . .
328 TRANSCRIPT OF LISTENING TASKS

(Dialogue) 5
A : ?
B : . .

(Dialogue) 6
A : . .
B : , .

(Dialogue) 7
A : ?
B : . ?
A : ?
B : , .

(Dialogue) 8
A : ?
B : , ?
A : , ?
B : , .

(Dialogue) 9
A : , ?
B : , .

(Dialogue) 10
A : , ?
B : , .
TRANSCRIPT OF LISTENING TASKS 329

(Dialogue) 11
A : , ?
B : , .

(Dialogue) 12
A : , ?
B : , .

Unit 12, Task 8


(Dialogue) 1
: , ?
: , . .

(Dialogue) 2
: , ?
: , . . .

(Dialogue) 3
: , ?
: , . .

(Dialogue) 4
: , ?
: , . , ?
: ?
: . .
330 TRANSCRIPT OF LISTENING TASKS

Unit 13, Task 4


(Dialogue) 1
A : , ?
B : .

(Dialogue) 2
A : , ?
B : .

(Dialogue) 3
A : , ?

B : .

(Dialogue) 4
A : , ?
B : .

(Dialogue) 5
A : , ?
B : .

(Dialogue) 6
A : , ?
B : .
TRANSCRIPT OF LISTENING TASKS 331

(Dialogue) 7
A : , ?
B : .

(Dialogue) 8
A : , ?
B : .

Unit 13, Task 5


(Dialogue) 1
A : ?
B : .

(Dialogue) 2
A : ?
B : .

(Dialogue) 3
A : ?
B : .

(Dialogue) 4
A : ?
B : .

(Dialogue) 5
A : ?
B : .
332 TRANSCRIPT OF LISTENING TASKS

(Dialogue) 6
A : ?
B : .

(Dialogue) 7
A : ?
B : .

(Dialogue) 8
A : ?
B : .

(Dialogue) 9
A : ?
B : .

(Dialogue) 10
A : ?
B : .

Unit 13, Task 6


: , ?
: Our House .
: ?
: .
: ?
: .
: ?
TRANSCRIPT OF LISTENING TASKS 333

: The Burden of Proof .


: ?
: . ?
: Cold Steel The Simpsons .
: ?
: Cold Steel .
The Simpsons .

Unit 14, Task 2


1. .
2. .
3. .
4.
5. .

Unit 14, Task 3


(Dialogue) 1
A : ?
B : , .
A : ?
B :

(Dialogue) 2
A : ?
B : , .
A : ?
B : .
334 TRANSCRIPT OF LISTENING TASKS

(Dialogue) 3
A : ?
B : , .
A : ?
B : .

(Dialogue) 4
A : ?
B : , .
A : ?
B : .

(Dialogue) 5
A : ?
B : , .
A : ?
B : .

(Dialogue) 6
A : ?
B : , .
A : ?
B : .

(Dialogue) 7
A : ?
B : , .
A : ?
TRANSCRIPT OF LISTENING TASKS 335

B : .

(Dialogue) 8
A : ?
B : , .
A : ?
B : .

(Dialogue) 9
A : ?
B : , .
A : ?
B : .

(Dialogue) 10
A : ?
B : , .
A : ?
B : .

Unit 14, Task 7


(Dialogue) 1
A : ?
B : .
A : .
B : Jurassic Park .
A : Jurassic Park .
Jurassic Park The Piano .
336 TRANSCRIPT OF LISTENING TASKS

(Dialogue) 2
A : ?
B : .
A : .
B : .
A : . .

(Dialogue) 3
A : ?
B : .
A : . .

(Dialogue) 4
A : , ?
B : .
A : , ?
B : , .
A : , .

Unit 14, Task 10


(Dialogue) 1
: , ?
: , .
: ?
: , . ?
: , . , ?
: , . .
?
TRANSCRIPT OF LISTENING TASKS 337

: . .
: , . , ?
: , . ?
: . , .

(Dialogue) 2
: , ?
: ? ?
: , .
: ?
: . . ?
: . .
, .
: . , .
: . , ?
: . .
: .
.
: .

Unit 15, Task 2


(Dialogue) 1
A: ?
B: .

(Dialogue) 2
A: ?
B: .
338 TRANSCRIPT OF LISTENING TASKS

(Dialogue) 3
A: ?
B: . ?
A: .

(Dialogue) 4
A: ?
B: . ?
A: .

(Dialogue) 5
A: ?
B: , .
A: ? ?
B:

(Dialogue) 6
A: ?
B: , . ?
A: . .

Unit 15, Task 5


(Dialogue) 1
A : ?
B : .
TRANSCRIPT OF LISTENING TASKS 339

(Dialogue) 2
A : ?
B : .

(Dialogue) 3
A : ?
B : .

(Dialogue) 4
A : ?
B : .

(Dialogue) 5
A : ?
B : .

(Dialogue) 6
A : ?
B : .

(Dialogue) 7
A : ?
B : .

(Dialogue) 8
A : ?
B : .
340 TRANSCRIPT OF LISTENING TASKS

Unit 15, Task 11


: ?
: .
: . ?
: .
.
?
: .
?
: . .

Unit 16, Task 2


(Dialogue) 1
: ?
(information) : .

(Dialogue) 2
: ?
: .

(Dialogue) 3
: ?
: .

(Dialogue) 4
: ?
: .
TRANSCRIPT OF LISTENING TASKS 341

(Dialogue) 5
: ?
: .

(Dialogue) 6
: ?
: .

Unit 16, Task 3


(Dialogue) 1
: ?
: .
: .

(Dialogue) 2
: ?
: .
: .

(Dialogue) 3
: ?
: .
: .

(Dialogue) 4
: ?
: .
: .
342 TRANSCRIPT OF LISTENING TASKS

(Dialogue) 5
: ?
: .
: .

(Dialogue) 6
: ?
: .
: .

(Dialogue) 7
: ?
: .
: .

(Dialogue) 8
: ?
: .
: .

(Dialogue) 9
: ?
: .
: .

(Dialogue) 10
: ?
: .
TRANSCRIPT OF LISTENING TASKS 343

: .

Unit 16, Task 5


(Dialogue) 1
A : ?
B : .

(Dialogue) 2
A : ?
B : .

(Dialogue) 3
A : ?
B : .

(Dialogue) 4
A : ?
B : .

(Dialogue) 5
A : ?
B : .

(Dialogue) 6
A : ?
B : .
344 TRANSCRIPT OF LISTENING TASKS

Unit 16, Task 7


(Dialogue) 1
A : ?
B : .

(Dialogue) 2
A : ?
B : .
A : ?
B : .

(Dialogue) 3
A : ?
B : .
A : ?
B : .

(Dialogue) 4
A : ?
B : .

(Dialogue) 5
A : ?
B : .

(Dialogue) 6
A : ?
B : .
TRANSCRIPT OF LISTENING TASKS 345

Unit 17, Task 4


: , ?
: .
: ?
: .
: , . , ?
: .
: ,
?
: .
: . .
: .
: , . , ?
: .
: , ?
: , . .
, ?
: .
:
?
: , . .
?
: .
346 TRANSCRIPT OF LISTENING TASKS

Unit 17, Task 6


(Dialogue) 1
: , ?
: Richmond .
: ?
: .
: .
: .

(Dialogue) 2
: ,
?
: Boxhill .
: ?
: .
: .
: .

(Dialogue) 3
: , ?
: Glen Waverley .
: ?
: .
: .
: .
TRANSCRIPT OF LISTENING TASKS 347

(Dialogue) 4
: , ?
: Hawthorn .
: ?
: .
: .
: .

(Dialogue) 5
: , ?
: Clayton .
: ?
: .
: .
: .

Unit 17, Task 8


(Self-introduction) 1
.
. .
. .

(Self-introduction) 2
.
. .
. .
348 TRANSCRIPT OF LISTENING TASKS

(Self-introduction) 3
.
. .
. .

(Self-introduction) 4
.
. .
. .

Unit 17, Task 12


(Self-introduction) 1
. .
.

.
.

.
.

.
.

(Self-introduction) 2
. .
.
TRANSCRIPT OF LISTENING TASKS 349

.
.

.
.

.
.

(Self-introduction) 3
. .
.

.
.

.
.

.
.

(Self-introduction) 4
. .
.

.
.
350 TRANSCRIPT OF LISTENING TASKS

.
.

.
.

Unit 17, Task 13


: , ?
: .
: ?
: .
: , . , ?
: .
: .
:
.
: , . .
,...
?
: , .
.
: ?
: , . .

Unit 18, Task 3


1. . 2. .
3. . 4. .
5. . 6. .
TRANSCRIPT OF LISTENING TASKS 351

7. . 8. .
9. . 10. .
11. . 12. .

Unit 18, Task 4


1. . .
2. . --FALSE-- .
3. . .
4. . --FALSE-- .
5. . --FALSE-- .
6. . .
7. . --FALSE--
8. .
9. . --FALSE-- .
10. . .
11. . .
12. . --FALSE- .
13. . .
14. . .
15. . .

Unit 18, Task 6


(Dialogue) 1
A : ?
B : .
352 TRANSCRIPT OF LISTENING TASKS

(Dialogue) 2
A : ?
B : .

(Dialogue) 3
A : ?
B : .

(Dialogue) 4
A : .
B : .

(Dialogue) 5
A : ?
B : .

(Dialogue) 6
A : .
B : , .

Unit 18, Task 9


(Dialogue) 1
A : ?
B : .
A : ?
B : , .
A : ?
B : , . .
TRANSCRIPT OF LISTENING TASKS 353

(Dialogue) 2
A : ?
B : .
A : ?
B : . .

(Dialogue) 3
A : ?
B : .
A : ?
B : , .

(Dialogue) 4
A : ?
B : .
A : ?
B : , , .
.

Unit 18, Task 10


1. .

2. .

3. .

4. .
354 TRANSCRIPT OF LISTENING TASKS

5. .

6. .

Unit 18, Task 11


.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.

Unit 19, Task 2


1. . , . .

2. . . .

3. . . .

4. . .

5. . .
TRANSCRIPT OF LISTENING TASKS 355

6. . .

7. . .

8. . .

Unit 19, Task 9


(Dialogue) 1
A : ?
B : .
, .

(Dialogue) 2
A : ?
B : . , , .
.

(Dialogue) 3
A : ?
B : . ,
.

(Dialogue) 4
A : ?
B : . , .
.
356 TRANSCRIPT OF LISTENING TASKS

Unit 20, Task 3


1. ?
. .

2. ?
. .

3. , . ?
. .

4. ?
. .

5. ? .
.

6. . .

7. ? .

Unit 20, Task 8


(Dialogue) 1
A : , .
B : ?
A : .
B : ?
A : , .
B : ?
TRANSCRIPT OF LISTENING TASKS 357

A : , .

(Dialogue) 2
A : , .
B : .
A : .
B : ?
A : .
B : ?
A : , .

(Dialogue) 3
A : , .
B : ?
A : .
B : ?
A : , .

(Dialogue) 4
A : , .
B : ?
A : .
B : ?
A : , .
358 TRANSCRIPT OF LISTENING TASKS
APPENDIX
360 APPENDIX

Notes for Verb and Adjective Tables

An asterisk (*) following a word in the table is used to indicate an exception


to the conjugation rule. For example, is the very polite form of eat
(not ).

Where headings do not distinguish between a question or statement form,


the same form is used for both.

An x indicates that the conjugation for that cell is not applicable. For
example, there is no formal very polite form of (cheap), ,
because the subject of the sentence would not be a human being and
therefore we cannot use an honorific form.

A q following a word in the table is used to indicate that the form given
only applies to questions. For example, ? can only be used to
say Do you find it delicious? and not That food is delicious, because the
subject of the sentence is not a human being and therefore we cannot use an
honorific form.

The Korean words for handsome, old (human being), old (things), thin
(people) and ugly are often used with , so this has been added to the
stems of each (stem+):

+
+
+
+
+
APPENDIX 361

For certain perception words such (interesting) and (tired),


the very polite statement form(+) cannot be used for third persons.
Therefore, this form has been omitted from the tables, where the +/
form can be used as the alternative.
(hate; dislike) is listed under the title of adjectives since it is an adjective
in Korean and does not follow the same conjugation rules as a verb.

Instead of dictionary form, the verb or adjective stem has been provided in
the following appendices. Therefore, you will need to add to the stem to
look up a particular word in the dictionary. For example, would appear
under .
362 APPENDIX

Special Conjugation Rules of Verb & Adjective


When the stem ends in , the is removed when the next
rule
syllable starts with a vowel. For example, (build) becomes
( build) and (if you build).

When the stem ends in , the is removed when the next


Rule
syllable starts with a vowel . For example, becomes
(listen).

When the stem ends in , the is removed when the next


rule
syllable starts with , , , , or . For example, (long)
becomes (is long) and (because its long).

When the stem ends in , the changes into before +


rule
and before +. For example, becomes (help)
and becomes (beautiful).

When the stem ends in , the is deleted when the next


rule
syllable starts with a vowel. For example, (big)
becomes (is big) and (sick) becomes (is sick).

When forming the +/ form of stems that end in , is


rule
deleted and +/ are added to the stem. For example
becomes (cut) and becomes (sing).

For stems ending in , can be found instead of in


rule some formal writing.
APPENDIX 363

When the adjective stem ends in , the is deleted when the


rule
next syllable starts with or . For example,
becomes (ifis blue).

The following rules are less common:

When forming the +/ form of (go) to give a


rule
command, is used.

When forming the +/ form of (come) to give a


rule
command, is used.

When forming the + or + form of some stems such as


rule
and , + and + are used instead. For example,
(reach so that); (is blue so that).

When forming the + or + form of some stems such as


rule
, is deleted. For example (scoop up and).
364 APPENDIX

Appendix 1: Copular be

Present Tense (is and are)


Casual Casual Casual Polite Very Polite
Question Question
be +? +? + + +
+? +? + + +
be not ? ?

Past Tense (was and were)


Casual Casual Casual Polite Very Polite
Question Question
be +? +? + + +
+? +? + + +
be not ? ?

Future Tense (will be)


Casual Casual Casual Polite Very Polite
Question Question
be x x + + +
+ + +
be not x x

With +() ending


Present Past Future (Suppostition)

be +() +() + ()
+() +() + ()
be not () x ()
APPENDIX 365

Formal Formal Formal Formal


Statement Statement Question Question
Very Polite Very Polite
be + + +? +?
+ + +? +?
be not ? ?

Formal Formal Formal Formal


Statement Statement Question Question
Very Polite Very Polite
be + + +? +?
+ + +? +?
be not ? ?

Formal Formal Formal Formal


Statement Statement Question Question
Very Polite Very Polite
be + + x x

+ +
be not x x

With + ending
Present Past Future (Suppostition)

be + + +
+ + +
be not
366 APPENDIX

Appendix 2: Verb Present Tense Endings


Stem Casual Casual Casual Very Polite
Question Question (Polite)
+? +? +/() +()

ask ()

build ()

buy ()

call ()

choose ()

clean ()

come ()

cook () ()

dance () ()

do ()

draw ()

drink () *

eat () *

give ()

go ()

go regularly ()

help ()

leave ()

listen ()

live ()

marry ()

meet ()

order ()
APPENDIX 367

Formal Statement Formal Statement Formal Question Formal Question


Very Polite Very Polite
+/ +() +/? +()?

* *

* *


368 APPENDIX

Stem Casual Casual Polite Very Polite


Question Question
+? +? +/ +()

play ()

quit (job) ()

quit (smoking) ()

read ()

rest ()

sing ()

sit down ()

sleep () *

smoke ()

speak ()

stand up ()

start ()

study ()

swim ()

take (vehicle) ()

talk () *

wait ()

walk ()

watch ()

wear ()

wear (shoes) ()

work ()

write ()
APPENDIX 369

Formal Formal Statement Formal Question Formal Question


Statement Very Polite Very Polite
+/ +() +/? +()?

* *

* *


370 APPENDIX

Appendix 3: Verb Past Tense Endings


Stem Casual Casual Casual Very Polite
Question Question (Polite)
+/? +/? +/() +()

ask ()

build ()

buy ()

call ()

choose ()

clean ()

come ()

cook () ()

dance () ()

do ()

draw ()

drink () *

eat () *

give ()

go ()

go regularly ()

help ()

leave ()

listen ()

live ()

marry ()

meet ()

order ()
APPENDIX 371

Formal Statement Formal Statement Formal Question Formal Question


Very Polite Very Polite
+/ +() +/? +()?

* *

* *


372 APPENDIX

Stem Casual Casual Casual Very Polite


Question Question (Polite)
+/? +/? +/() +()

play ()

quit (job) ()
quit
(smoking) ()

read ()

rest ()

sing ()

sit down ()

sleep () *

smoke ()

speak ()

stand up ()

start ()

study ()

swim ()

take (vehicle) ()

talk () *

wait ()

walk ()

watch ()

wear ()

wear (shoes) ()

work ()

write ()
APPENDIX 373

Formal Statement Formal Statement Formal Question Formal Question


Very Polite Very Polite
+/ +() +/? +()?

* *

* *


374 APPENDIX

Appendix 4: Verb Future Tense Endings


Stem Casual Polite Very Polite

+() +() +()

ask

build

buy

call

choose

clean

come

cook ()

dance ()

do

draw

drink *

eat *

give

go

go regularly

help

leave

listen

live

marry

meet

order
APPENDIX 375

Formal Statement Formal Statement Formal Question Formal Question


Very Polite Very Polite
+() +() +() ? +() ?
?

* *

* *


376 APPENDIX

Stem Casual Polite Very Polite

+() +() +()

play

quit (job)

quit (smoking)

read

rest

sing

sit down

sleep *

smoke

speak

stand up

start

study

swim

take (vehicle)

talk *

wait

walk

watch

wear

wear (shoes)

work

write
APPENDIX 377

Formal Statement Formal Statement Formal Question Formal Question


Very Polite Very Polite
+() +() +() ? +() ?

* *

* *


378 APPENDIX

Appendix 5: Verb with +()()?; +()(),


Stem Shall we? I want to /
Do you want to?
+()() ? +()()

ask () ()

build () ()

buy () ()

call () ()

choose () ()

clean () ()

come () ()

cook () () ()

dance () () ()

do () ()

draw () ()

drink () ()

eat () ()

give () ()

go () ()

go regularly () ()

help () ()

leave () ()

listen () ()

live () ()

marry () ()

meet () ()

order () ()
APPENDIX 379

+()()?; +()?; +()(),+


Would you like to? Would you like to? I will I will
(Very Polite) (Very Polite Formal) (Very Polite Formal)
+()? +()? +()() +
()

()

()

()

()

()

()

()

()

()

()

* * ()

* * ()

()

()

()

()

()

()

()

()

()

()
380 APPENDIX

Stem Shall we? I want to /


Do you want to?
+()() ? +()()

play () ()

quit (job) () ()

quit (smoking) () ()

read () ()

rest () ()

sing () ()

sit down () ()

sleep () ()

smoke () ()

speak () ()

stand up () ()

start () ()

study () ()

swim () ()

take (vehicle) () ()

talk () ()

wait () ()

walk () ()

watch () ()

wear () ()

wear (shoes) () ()

work () ()

write () ()
APPENDIX 381

Would you like to? Would you like to? I will I will
(Very Polite) (Very Polite Formal) (Very Polite Formal)
+()? +()? +()() +
()

()

()

()

()

()

()

* * ()

()

()

()

()

()

()

()

* * () *

()

()

()

()

()

()

()
382 APPENDIX

Appendix 6: Verbs with +; +


Stem Lets and
+ +

ask

build

buy

call

choose

clean

come

cook ()

dance ()

do

draw

drink

eat

give

go

go regularly

help

leave

listen

live

marry

meet

order
APPENDIX 383

Stem Lets and


+ +

play

quit (job)

quit (smoking)

read

rest

sing

sit down

sleep

smoke

speak

stand up

start

study

swim

take (vehicle)

talk

wait

walk

watch

wear

wear (shoes)

work

write
384 APPENDIX

Appendix 7: Verbs with +(),+/()


Stem and / but and / but and / but
(present) (past) (future)
+() +/() +() ()

ask () () ()

build () () ()

buy () () ()

call () () ()

choose () () ()

clean () () ()

come () () ()

cook () () () ()

dance () () () ()

do () () ()

draw () () ()

drink () () ()

eat () () ()

give () () ()

go () () ()

go regularly () () ()

help () () ()

leave () () ()

listen () () ()

live () () ()

marry () () ()

meet () () ()

order () () ()
APPENDIX 385

& +() ()
Stem and / but and / but and / but
(present) (past) (future)
+() +/() +() ()

play () () ()

quit (job) () () ()

quit (smoking) () () ()

read () () ()

rest () () ()

sing () () ()

sit down () () ()

sleep () () ()

smoke () () ()

speak () () ()

stand up () () ()

start () () ()

study () () ()

swim () () ()

take (vehicle) () () ()

talk () () ()

wait () () ()

walk () () ()

watch () () ()

wear () () ()

wear (shoes) () () ()

work () () ()

write () () ()
386 APPENDIX

Appendix 8: Verbs with +(),+/()


Stem Its because Its because Its because
(present) (past) (future)
+() +/() +() ()

ask () () ()

build () () ()

buy () () ()

call () () ()

choose () () ()

clean () () ()

come () () ()

cook () () () ()

dance () () () ()

do () () ()

draw () () ()

drink () () ()

eat () () ()

give () () ()

go () () ()

go regularly () () ()

help () () ()

leave () () ()

listen () () ()

live () () ()

marry () () ()

meet () () ()

order () () ()
APPENDIX 387

&+() ()
Stem Its because Its because Its because
(present) (past) (future)
+() +/() +()

play () () ()

quit (job) () () ()

quit (smoking) () () ()

read () () ()

rest () () ()

sing () () ()

sit down () () ()

sleep () () ()

smoke () () ()

speak () () ()

stand up () () ()

start () () ()

study () () ()

swim () () ()

take (vehicle) () () ()

talk () () ()

wait () () ()

walk () () ()

watch () () ()

wear () () ()

wear (shoes) () () ()

work () () ()

write () () ()
388 APPENDIX

Appendix 9: Casual Verb Endings+/,+/,


Stem Present Past Future
+/ +/ +()

ask

build

buy

call

choose

clean

come

cook ()

dance ()

do

draw

drink

eat

give

go

go regularly

help

leave

listen

live

marry

meet

order
APPENDIX 389

+() ; +()?; +(); +()


Shall we? I want to I will
+()? +() +()


390 APPENDIX

Stem Present Past Future


+/ +/ +()

play

quit (job)

quit (smoking)

read

rest

sing

sit down

sleep

smoke

speak

stand up

start

study

swim

take (vehicle)

talk

wait

walk

watch

wear

wear (shoes)

work

write
APPENDIX 391

Shall we? I want to I will


+()? +() +()


392 APPENDIX

Appendix 10: Verbs with +(); +(); +();


Stem in order to if because

+() +() +()


ask

build

buy

call

choose

clean

come x

cook

dance ()

do

draw

drink

eat

give

go x

go regularly

help

leave

listen

live

marry

meet

order
APPENDIX 393

+; + (); +/; +/ ()
but dont so that have to
+/
+ + () +/ +/

() ()

() ()

() ()

() ()

() ()

() ()

() ()

() ()

() ()

() ()

() ()

() ()

() ()

() ()

() ()

() ()

() ()

() ()

() ()

() ()

() ()

() ()

() ()
394 APPENDIX

Stem in order to if because

+() +() +()


play

quit (job)

quit (smoking)

read

rest

sing

sit down

sleep

smoke

stand up

start

study

swim

take (vehicle)

talk

talk

wait

walk

watch

wear

wear (shoes)

work

write
APPENDIX 395

but dont so that have to


+/
+ + () +/ +/

() ()

() ()

() ()

() ()

() ()

() ()

() ()

() ()

() ()

() ()

() ()

() ()

() ()

() ()

() ()

() ()

() ()

() ()

() ()

() ()

() ()

() ()

() ()
396 APPENDIX

Appendix 11: Modified Verb Endings +, +()


Stem present past future
+ +() +()
ask

build

buy

call

choose

clean

come

cook (

dance ()

do

draw

drink

eat

give

go

go regularly

help

leave

listen

live

marry

meet

order
APPENDIX 397

& +()
Stem present past future
+ +() +()
play

quit (job)

quit (smoking)

read

rest

sing

sit down

sleep

smoke

speak

stand up

start

study

swim

take (vehicle)

talk

wait

walk

watch

wear

wear (shoes)

work

write
398 APPENDIX

Appendix 12: Verbs with +/ ? and


+/
shall I do ? please, do
+/ ? +/

bring * *

cut

dryclean

exchange it

fill up

give discount

go

help (somebody)

introduce (someone)

iron

jot down

lend

perm

put in

put (someone) through

recommend

shave

show

show around

sign

speak (slowly) () ()

wake

wrap

write down
APPENDIX 399

Note: * ? / These are very common expressions which


are similar to those given above. However these are not example of the +/
or +/ form. At this stage you only need to memorize them.
400 APPENDIX

Appendix 13: Verbs with +/


+/

ask Just ask me (or him/her).

come Please come here (and Ill tell you something).

dance Make an attempt to dance.

drink Try (drinking) it and see if you like it.

eat Try (eating) it and see if you like it.

find Try to find it.

get in Please get in (my car) (and Ill tell you something).

go Please go and try.

listen Listen to it (and see what you think) or

listen Make an attempt to listen.

meet Meet him/her (and see how it turns out).

order Try ordering (this dish or product).

put on Try putting this on. (for shoes and socks)

put on Try putting this on. (for hats)

put on Try putting this on. (for clothes, dresses, coats, pants)

read Make an attempt to read it (and see what you/I think).

ring Try ringing him/her.

sing Make an attempt to sing it (and see what you/I think)

sit down Sit down here (and Ill tell you something).

sit down Try sitting down here (and see if its comfortable).

speak Please speak up (If you tell me I will listen)

think Have a think about it.

try Please try. (or Make an attempt.) Have a go at it.

use Try using it.

write Try writing it.


APPENDIX 401
402 APPENDIX

Appendix 14: Adjective Present Tense Endings


Stem Casual Casual Casual Very Polite
Question Question (Polite)
+? +? +/() +()
afraid ()

bad ()

beautiful ()

big ()

boring ()

bright ()

busy ()

cheap () q

clean ()

close ()

cloudy ()

cold(thing) ()

cold ()

complicated ()

cool ()

cute ()

dangerous ()

dark ()

deep ()

delicious () q
APPENDIX 403

Formal Statement Formal Statement Formal Question Formal Question


Very Polite Very Polite
+/ +() +/? +()?

x x

x
404 APPENDIX

Stem Casual Casual Casual Very Polite


Question Question (Polite)
+? +? +/() +()
difficult ()

diligent ()

dirty ()

easy ()

expensive ()

far ()

fat ()

fine(weather) ()

fun ()
(enjoyable)
good ()

handsome + ()

happy ()

happy ()

hate/dislike () q

heavy ()

high ()

hot ()

hot (spicy) ()

hot () q
(temperature)
interesting ()
(fun )
APPENDIX 405

Formal Statement Formal Statement Formal Question Formal Question


Very Polite Very Polite
+/ +() +/? +()?


406 APPENDIX

Stem Casual Casual Casual Very Polite


Question Question (Polite)
+? +? +/() +()
interesting () q
(attention)
kind ()

lazy ()

light ()

long ()

low ()

narrow ()

noisy ()

numerous ()

old (people) + ()

old (thing) + () x

pretty ()

quick ()

quiet ()

sad () q

salty ()

shallow ()

short ()

sick ()

slim ()
APPENDIX 407

Formal Statement Formal Statement Formal Question Formal Question


Very Polite Very Polite
+/ +() +/? +()?
x

x x


408 APPENDIX

Stem Casual Casual Casual Very Polite


Question Question (Polite)
+? +? +/() +()
slow ()

small ()

small ()
(quantity)
smart ()

strong ()

tall ()

tasteless () q

thick ()

thin (people) + ()

thin (thing) ()

thirsty () q

tired () q

ugly + ()

warm ()

weak ()

wide ()

young ()
APPENDIX 409

Formal Statement Formal Statement Formal Question Formal Question


Very Polite Very Polite
+/ +() +/? +()?


410 APPENDIX

Appendix 15: Adjective Past Tense Endings


Stem Casual Casual Casual Very Polite
Question Question (Polite)
+/? +/? +/() +()
afraid ()

bad ()

beautiful ()

big ()

boring ()

bright ()

busy ()

cheap () q

clean ()

close ()

cloudy ()

cold (thing) ()

cold () q

complicated ()

cool ()

cute ()

dangerous ()

dark ()

deep ()

delicious () q
APPENDIX 411

Formal Statement Formal Statement Formal Question Formal Question


Very Polite Very Polite
+/ +() +/? +()?

x x

x
412 APPENDIX

Stem Casual Casual Casual Very Polite


Question Question (Polite)
+/? +/? +/() +()
difficult ()

diligent ()

dirty ()

easy ()

expensive ()

far ()

fat ()

fine ()
(weather)
fun ()
(enjoyable)
good ()

handsome + ()

happy
()
happy ()

hate/dislike () q

heavy ()

high ()

hot ()

hot (spicy) ()

hot () q
(temperature)
interesting () q
(fun )
APPENDIX 413

Formal Statement Formal Statement Formal Question Formal Question


Very Polite Very Polite
+/ +() +/? +()?


414 APPENDIX

Stem Casual Casual Casual Very Polite


Question Question (Polite)
+/? +/? +/() +()
interesting ()
(attention)
kind ()

lazy ()

light ()

long () *

low ()

narrow ()

noisy ()

numerous ()

old (people) + ()

old (thing) + () x

pretty ()

quick ()

quiet ()

sad () q

salty ()

shallow ()

short ()

sick ()

slim ()
APPENDIX 415

Formal Statement Formal Statement Formal Question Formal Question


Very Polite Very Polite
+/ +() +/? +()?
x

x x


416 APPENDIX

Stem Casual Casual Casual Very Polite


Question Question (Polite)
+/? +/? +/() +()
slow ()

small ()

small ()
(quantity)
smart ()

strong ()

tall ()

tasteless () q

thick ()

thin + ()
(people)
thin (thing) ()

thirsty () q

tired () q

ugly + ()

warm ()

weak ()

wide ()

young ()
APPENDIX 417

Formal Statement Formal Statement Formal Question Formal Question


Very Polite Very Polite
+/ +() +/? +()?


418 APPENDIX

Appendix 16: Adjective Future Tense Endings


Stem Supposition Supposition
Casual Polite
+() +()
afraid

bad

beautiful

big

boring

bright

busy

cheap

clean

close

cloudy

cold(thing)

cold

complicated

cool

cute

dangerous

dark

deep

delicious
APPENDIX 419

Supposition Supposition Supposition


Very Polite Polite Formal Very Polite Formal
+() +() +()


420 APPENDIX

Stem Supposition Supposition


Casual Polite
+() +()
difficult

diligent

dirty

easy

expensive

far

fat

fine(weather)

fun (enjoyable)

good

handsome +

happy

happy

hate/dislike

heavy

high

hot

hot (spicy)

hot (temperature)

interesting (fun )
APPENDIX 421

Supposition Supposition Supposition


Very Polite Polite Formal Very Polite Formal
+() +() +()


422 APPENDIX

Stem Supposition Supposition


Casual Polite
+() +()
interesting
(attention)
kind

lazy

light

long

low

narrow

noisy

numerous

old (people) (future)


+ (supposition)
old (thing) (future)
+ (supposition)
pretty

quick

quiet

sad

salty

shallow

short

sick

slim
APPENDIX 423

Supposition Supposition Supposition


Very Polite Polite Formal Very Polite Formal
+() +() +()

* *

/
*
x x


424 APPENDIX

Stem Supposition Supposition


Casual Polite
+() +()
slow

small

small (quantity)

smart

strong

tall

tasteless

thick

thin(people) +

thin(thing)

thirsty

tired

ugly +

warm

weak

wide

young
APPENDIX 425

Supposition Supposition Supposition


Very Polite Polite Formal Very Polite Formal
+() +() +()


426 APPENDIX

Appendix 17: Adjectives with +; +()


Stem and Exclamation
+ +()
afraid ()

bad ()

beautiful ()

big ()

boring ()

bright ()

busy ()

cheap ()

clean ()

close ()

cloudy ()

cold(thing) ()

cold ()

complicated ()

cool ()

cute ()

dangerous ()

dark ()

deep ()

delicious ()
APPENDIX 427

Stem and Exclamation


+ +()
difficult ()

diligent ()

dirty ()

easy ()

expensive ()

far ()

fat ()

fine(weather) ()

fun (enjoyable) ()

good ()

handsome + ()

happy ()

happy ()

hate/dislike ()

heavy ()

high ()

hot ()

hot (spicy) ()

hot (temperature) ()

interesting (fun ) ()
428 APPENDIX

Stem and Exclamation


+ +()
interesting ()
(attention)
kind ()

lazy ()

light ()

long ()

low ()

narrow ()

noisy ()

numerous ()

old (people) + ()

old (thing) + ()

pretty ()

quick ()

quiet ()

sad ()

salty ()

shallow ()

short ()

sick ()

slim ()
APPENDIX 429

Stem and Exclamation


+ +()
slow ()

small ()

small (quantity) ()

smart ()

strong ()

tall ()

tasteless ()

thick ()

thin(people) + ()

thin(thing) ()

thirsty ()

tired ()

ugly + ()

warm ()

weak ()

wide ()

young ()
430 APPENDIX

Appendix 18: Adjectives with +()(),


Stem and / but and / but and / but
(present) (past) (future)
+()() +/() +() ()
afraid () () ()

bad () () ()

beautiful () () ()

big () () ()

boring () () ()

bright () () ()

busy () () ()

cheap () () ()

clean () () ()

close () () ()

cloudy () () ()

cold(thing) () () ()

cold () () ()

complicated () () ()

cool () () ()

cute () () ()

dangerous () () ()

dark () () ()

deep () () ()

delicious () () ()
APPENDIX 431

+() & +() ()


Stem and / but and / but and / but
(present) (past) (future)
+()() +/() +() ()
difficult () () ()

diligent () () ()

dirty () () ()

easy () () ()

expensive () () ()

far () () ()

fat () () ()

fine(weather) () () ()

fun (enjoyable) () () ()

good () () ()

handsome + () () ()

happy () () ()

happy () () ()

hate/dislike () () ()

heavy () () ()

high () () ()

hot () () ()

hot (spicy) () () ()

hot (temperature) () () ()

interesting (fun ) () () ()
432 APPENDIX

Stem and / but and / but and / but


(present) (past) (future)
+()() +/() +() ()
interesting () () ()
(attention)
kind () () ()

lazy () () ()

light () () ()

long () () ()

low () () ()

narrow () () ()

noisy () () ()

numerous () () ()

old (people) + () () ()/


()
old (thing) + () () ()
()
pretty () () ()

quick () () ()

quiet () () ()

sad () () ()

salty () () ()

shallow () () ()

short () () ()

sick () () ()

slim () () ()
APPENDIX 433

Stem and / but and / but and / but


(present) (past) (future)
+()() +/() +() ()
slow () () ()

small () () ()

small (quantity) () () ()

smart () () ()

strong () () ()

tall () () ()

tasteless () () ()

thick () () ()

thin(people) + () () ()

thin(thing) () () ()

thirsty () () ()

tired () () ()

ugly + () () ()

warm () () ()

weak () () ()

wide () () ()

young () () ()
434 APPENDIX

Appendix 19: Adjectives with +(),


Stem Its because Its because Its because
(present) (past) (past)
+(). +/() +() ()
afraid () () ()

bad () () ()

beautiful () () ()

big () () ()

boring () () ()

bright () () ()

busy () () ()

cheap () () ()

clean () () ()

close () () ()

cloudy () () ()

cold(thing) () () ()

cold () () ()

complicated () () ()

cool () () ()

cute () () ()

dangerous () () ()

dark () () ()

deep () () ()

delicious () () ()
APPENDIX 435

+/() & +() ()


Stem Its because Its because Its because
(present) (past) (past)
+(). +/() +() ()
difficult () () ()

diligent () () ()

dirty () () ()

easy () () ()

expensive () () ()

far () () ()

fat () () ()

fine(weather) () () ()

fun (enjoyable) () () ()

good () () ()

handsome + () () ()

happy () () ()

happy () () ()

hate/dislike () () ()

heavy () () ()

high () () ()

hot () () ()

hot (spicy) () () ()

hot () () ()
(temperature)
interesting (fun ) () () ()
436 APPENDIX

Stem Its because Its because Its because


(present) (past) (past)
+(). +/() +() ()
interesting () () ()
(attention)
kind () () ()

lazy () () ()

light () () ()

long () () ()

low () () ()

narrow () () ()

noisy () () ()

numerous () () ()

old (people) + ()() () ()/


()
old (thing) + ()() () ()
()
pretty () () ()

quick () () ()

quiet () () ()

sad () () ()

salty () () ()

shallow () () ()

short () () ()

sick () () ()

slim () () ()
APPENDIX 437

Stem Its because Its because Its because


(present) (past) (past)
+(). +/() +() ()
slow () () ()

small () () ()

small (quantity) () () ()

smart () () ()

strong () () ()

tall () () ()

tasteless () () ()

thick () () ()

thin(people) + () () ()

thin(thing) () () ()

thirsty () () ()

tired () () ()

ugly + () () ()

warm () () ()

weak () () ()

wide () () ()

young () () ()
438 APPENDIX

Appendix 20: Casual Adjective Endings


Stem Present Past Future / Supposition
+/ +/ +()
afraid

bad

beautiful

big

boring

bright

busy

cheap

clean

close

cloudy

cold(thing)

cold

complicated

cool

cute

dangerous

dark

deep

delicious
APPENDIX 439

+/, +/, +()


Stem Present Past Future / Supposition
+/ +/ +()
difficult

diligent

dirty

easy

expensive

far

fat

fine(weather)

fun (enjoyable)

good

handsome +

happy

happy

hate/dislike

heavy

high

hot

hot (spicy)

hot (temperature)

interesting (fun )
440 APPENDIX

Stem Present Past Future / Supposition


+/ +/ +()
interesting
(attention)
kind

lazy

light

long

low

narrow

noisy

numerous

old (people) + /

old (thing) +

pretty

quick

quiet

sad

salty

shallow

short

sick

slim
APPENDIX 441

Stem Present Past Future / Supposition


+/ +/ +()
slow

small

small
(quantity)
smart

strong

tall

tasteless

thick

thin(people) +

thin(thing)

thirsty

tired

ugly +

warm

weak

wide

young
442 APPENDIX

Appendix 21: Adjectives with +; +/;


+(); +()
Stem but so that because if
+ +/ +() +()

afraid

bad

beautiful

big

boring

bright

busy

cheap

clean

close

cloudy

cold (thing)

cold

complicated

cool

cute

dangerous

dark

deep

delicious
APPENDIX 443

Stem but so that because if


+ +/ +() +()

difficult

diligent

dirty

easy

expensive

far

fat
fine
(weather)
fun
(enjoyable)

good

handsome +

happy

happy

hate/dislike

heavy

high

hot

hot (spicy)
hot
(temperature)
interesting
(fun )
444 APPENDIX

Stem but so that because if


+ +/ +() +()
interesting
(attention)

kind

lazy

light

long

low

narrow

noisy

numerous

old (people) +

old (thing) +

pretty

quick

quiet

sad

salty

shallow

short

sick

slim
APPENDIX 445

Stem but so that because if


+ +/ +() +()

slow

small

small (quantity)

smart

strong

tall

tasteless

thick

thin (people) +

thin (thing)

thirsty

tired

ugly +

warm

weak

wide

young
446 APPENDIX

Appendix 22: Modified Adjective Endings +()


Stem present
+()
afraid

bad

beautiful

big

boring

bright

busy

cheap

clean

close

cloudy

cold(thing)

cold

complicated

cool

cute

dangerous

dark

deep

delicious
APPENDIX 447

Stem present
+()
difficult

diligent

dirty

easy

expensive

far

fat

fine(weather)

fun (enjoyable)

good

handsome

happy

happy

hate/dislike

heavy

high

hot

hot (spicy)

hot (temperature)

interesting (fun )
448 APPENDIX

Stem present
+()
interesting
(attention)

kind

lazy

light

long

low

narrow

noisy

numerous

old (people)

old (thing)

pretty

quick

quiet

sad

salty

shallow

short

sick

slim
APPENDIX 449

Stem present
+()
slow

small

small (quantity)

smart

strong

tall

tasteless

thick

thin (people)

thin (thing)

thirsty

tired

ugly

warm

weak

wide

young
450 APPENDIX

Appendix 23: Particles and Suffixes


+/ Topic Particles .
+ (honorific) (after nouns, pronouns) .

+/ Subject Particles .
+ (honorific) (after nouns, pronouns) .

+/ Object Particles .
(after nouns, pronouns)
+/ Direction Particles to (a person)
(with people) .
+ (honorific) .

+()/() Source Particles from (a person)


.

+ Destination Particle to (a location)


.

+ () Dictection Particle to, towards


.

+ Location Particle in; at; on


.

+ Location Particle in; at; on


(with action verb) .

+ () Instrument Particle by means of


.

+ Possessive 's
Particle

... Delimiter Particle from ... to (distance)


Delimiter Particle from ... to (time)


+ Delimiter Particle only


10

+ (with negative) Delimiter Particle only; no more than


10 .

+ Delimiter Particle each, every, all


+ Emphasis Particle also, too



APPENDIX 451

+ (+) Combined Emphasis


+ (+) Particles
+ (+)

+ Plural Suffix students


+ Conjunction Particles and

+/ (between nouns)

+() with

+ () Conjunction Particle or
(between nouns)

+ Comparision Particle rather than, compared with


Reasons because of

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