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masters thesis on nonlinear swing up and stabilization control of inverted pendulum on a cart

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PENDULUM ON A CART

for the Degree of Master of Science (MSc) in the Faculty of

Engineering and Physical Sciences

2015

ASUK AMBA J.

School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering

TABLE OF CONTENTS

LIST OF TABLES ......................................................................................................................... 4

LIST OF FIGURES ....................................................................................................................... 5

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS ........................................................................................................... 7

DECLARATION .......................................................................................................................... 8

COPYRIGHT .............................................................................................................................. 9

ABSTRACT .............................................................................................................................. 10

CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................. 11

1.1 BACKGROUND ......................................................................................................................... 11

1.2 OBJECTIVES ............................................................................................................................ 13

1.3 ORGANIZATION OF THESIS ...................................................................................................... 13

CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW ........................................................................................... 14

CHAPTER 3: MODELLING OF INVERTED PENDULUM ................................................................ 17

3.1 MATHEMATICAL MODEL OF THE IP02 INVERTED PENDULUM(IP) SYSTEM FROM QUANSER

...................................................................................................................................................... 17

3.2 STATE SPACE EQUATION OF NONLINEAR INVERTED PENDULUM (IP) SYSTEM...................... 22

3.3 MODEL VALIDATION AND NATURAL DYNAMICS ................................................................... 22

3.4 JACOBIAN LINEARIZATION OF NONLINEAR INVERTED PENDULUM SYSTEM ........................ 23

3.5 ANALYSIS OF LINEAR SYSTEM IN THE UPRIGHT EQUILIBRIUM ............................................... 24

CHAPTER 4: CONTROLLER DESIGN AND SIMULATION RESULTS ................................................ 25

4.1 FEEDBACK LINEARIZATION ...................................................................................................... 25

4.1.1 INPUT-STATE LINEARIZATION .......................................................................................... 25

4.1.2 INPUT-STATE LINEARIZATION OF THE INVERTED PENDULUM ....................................... 26

4.1.3 APPROXIMATE FEEDBACK LINEARIZATION ...................................................................... 29

4.1.4 APPROXIMATE FEEDBACK LINEARIZATION OF THE INVERTED PENDULUM .................... 29

4.2 SLIDING MODE CONTROL....................................................................................................... 31

4.2.1 SLIDING SURFACE DESIGN ............................................................................................... 32

4.2.2 SLIDING CONTROL DESIGN............................................................................................... 32

4.2.3 DEALING WITH CHATTERING .......................................................................................... 33

4.2.4 SLIDING MODE CONTROL DESIGN FOR THE APPROXIMATELY LINEARIZED INVERTED

PENDULUM(FL/SMC) ................................................................................................................ 33

4.2.5 TUNING AND SIMULATION OF FEEDBACK LINEARISATION WITH SLIDING MODE

CONTROLLER ............................................................................................................................. 34

2

4.3.1 INPUT-OUTPUT LINEARIZATION OF THE INVERTED PENDULUM..................................... 37

4.3.2 INPUT TO OUTPUT(ANGLE) LINEARIZATION WITH INTERNAL DYNAMICS STABILIZING

CONTROL(FL/ZDC) ..................................................................................................................... 39

4.3.3 TUNING AND SIMULATION OF INPUT-OUTPUT(ANGLE) LINEARIZATION WITH ZERO

DYNAMICS CONTROLLER .......................................................................................................... 41

4.4 LINEAR QUADRATIC REGULATOR(LQR) .................................................................................. 43

4.4.1 DESIGN , TUNING AND SIMULATION OF LQR CONTROLLER FOR THE INVERTED

PENDULUM ............................................................................................................................... 44

4.5 PROPORTIONAL, INTEGRAL AND DERIVATIVE(PID) CONTROL................................................ 46

4.5.1 TUNING AND SIMULATION OF PID CONTROLLER ............................................................ 47

4.6 SWING UP CONTROL OF INVERTED PENDULUM .................................................................... 49

4.6.1 SWING UP BY POSITION VELOCITY(PV) CONTROL ......................................................... 49

4.6.2 TUNING AND SIMULATION OF PV CONTROL SWING UP ................................................. 49

4.6.3 SWING UP BY ENERGY CONTROL USING PASSIVITY OF PENDULUM .............................. 51

4.6.4 TUNING AND SIMULATION OF PASSIVITY BASED ENERGY SWING UP CONTROL ............ 53

4.7 ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION OF RESULTS ................................................................................ 55

4.7.1 COMPARISON OF PERFORMANCE ................................................................................... 55

4.7.2 COMPARISON OF ROBUSTNESS ....................................................................................... 56

4.7.2 COMPARISON OF SWING UP CONTROLLERS ................................................................... 58

CHAPTER 5: CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION .............................................................. 59

5.1 CONCLUSION ........................................................................................................................... 59

5.2 RECOMMENDATION ............................................................................................................... 59

REFERENCES ........................................................................................................................... 60

APPENDICES........................................................................................................................... 62

APPENDIX A: SIMULINK DIAGRAM .............................................................................................. 62

APPENDIX B: MATLAB CODES ...................................................................................................... 69

TOTAL WORD COUNT: 14,937

LIST OF TABLES

Table 3.1: Parameters of the inverted pendulum from Quanser...................................................17

Table 3.2: D.C Motor Parameters...................................................................................................19

Table 4.1: Tuning of sliding mode controller..................................................................................35

Table 4.2: Tuning of LQR control parameters.................................................................................44

Table 4.3: Comparison of performance of stabilizing controllers...................................................55

Table 4.4: Comparison of robustness of stabilizing controllers......................................................57

LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 1.1: Quanser IP02 Inverted Pendulum on a Cart...................................................................11

Figure 1.2: Applications of Inverted Pendulum...............................................................................13

Figure 3.1 : Modelling of inverted pendulum...................................................................................17

Figure 3.2: Modelling of the d.c motor.............................................................................................19

Figure 3.3: Impulse response of nonlinear pendulum model...........................................................22

Figure 3.4: Properties of linear IP model at upright equilibrium......................................................24

Figure 4.1: Approximate Feedback linearization with Sliding Mode Control(Power Law)..............35

Figure 4.2: Tracking , noise & disturbance rejection of Approx. Feedback Lin. with SMC................36

Figure 4.3: Input-Output Linearization with pendulum angle as output..........................................38

Figure 4.4: Input-output Linearization with cart as output and stable zero dynamics(pendulum)..39

Figure 4.5:Input-Output(Angle) Linearization and Internal dynamics(cart) stabilizing control

...42

Figure 4.7: LQR simulation with

and

................................................................45

Figure 4.9: Two loop PID controller for inverted pendulum.............................................................46

Figure 4.10: PID controller tracking 0.3m cart distance from initial angle of 0.2rads

............48

Figure 4.12: Swing up, tracking and stabilization of pendulum with PV and FL/SMC......................50

Figure 4.13: Swing up, Tracking and stabilization of PV control with noise and disturbance..........50

Figure 4.14: Swing up using Energy and Passivity of pendulum......................................................55

Figure 4.15:Swing up and Tracking with disturbance and noise of Passivity-Energy Control..........55

Figure 4.16: LQR with maximum noise power of 0.7 and disturbance of 0.2...................................57

Figure 4.17: PID maximum noise of 0.1 and disturbance of 0.2.......................................................57

Figure 4.18:FL/SMC with maximum noise of 1.4 and disturbance of 0.2.........................................58

Figure 4.19: FL/ZDC with maximum noise of 0.3 and disturbance of 0.2........................................58

Figure A1.2:Top level diagram of physical model of IP with SimScape..........................................62

Figure A1.3: Physical model of inverted pendulum plant with SimScape.....................................63

Figure A2.1: Top level diagram of system with LQR control..........................................................63

Figure A2.2: LQR control design.....................................................................................................63

Figure A3.1: Top level diagram of approximate linearization with sliding mode control..............64

Figure A3.2: Approximate feedback linearization function block..................................................64

Figure A4.1: Top level diagram of input-output linearization with zero dynamics control...........64

Figure A4.2: Input-Output(angle) linearization with virtual control..............................................65

Figure A4.3: Zero dynamics stabilizing function block...................................................................65

Figure A5: Convert Radians to degree...........................................................................................65

Figure A6.1: Top level diagram of two loop PID............................................................................66

Figure A6.2: PID control.................................................................................................................66

Figure A7.1: Top level diagram of PV swing up control.................................................................67

Figure A7.2: PV control using pendulum angle and pendulum velocity.......................................67

Figure A7.3: State feedback Control of Cart for PV swing up.......................................................67

Figure A8 Passivity based energy swing up function block..........................................................68

Figure A9.1: Switching function for swing up control..................................................................68

Figure A9.2: Integral of Squared Error.........................................................................................68

Figure A9.3: Calculate Mean Absolute Control Action................................................................69

Figure A9.4: State Generator.......................................................................................................69

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS

LQR

SMC

IP

Inverted Pendulum

FL/ZDC

PV

P.O

Percentage Overshoot

PID

SIMO

ISE

MACA

SSE

Modulus of vector

Horizontal Component of vector quantity

Vertical Component of vector quantity

DECLARATION

I, AMBA ASUK J., hereby declare that no part of the work referred to in this

dissertation has been submitted in support of an application for another degree or

qualification of this or any other university or other institute of learning.

...........................................................

COPYRIGHT

1. The author of this dissertation (including any appendices and/or schedules to this

dissertation) owns certain copyright or related rights in it (the Copyright) and he has given

The University of Manchester certain rights to use such Copyright, including for

administrative purposes.

2. Copies of this dissertation, either in full or in extracts and whether in hard or electronic

copy, may be made only in accordance with the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988

(as amended) and regulations issued under it or, where appropriate, in accordance with

licensing agreements which the University has entered into. This page must form part of

any such copies made.

3. The ownership of certain Copyright, patents, designs, trademarks and other intellectual

property (the Intellectual Property) and any reproductions of copyright works in the

dissertation, for example graphs and tables (Reproductions), which may be described in

this dissertation, may not be owned by the author and may be owned by third parties.

Such Intellectual Property and Reproductions cannot and must not be made available for

use without the prior written permission of the owner(s) of the relevant Intellectual

Property and/or Reproductions.

4. Further information on the conditions under which disclosure, publication and

commercialisation of this dissertation, the Copyright and any Intellectual Property and/or

Reproductions described in it may take place is available in the University IP policy (see

http://documents.manchester.ac.uk/display.aspx?DocID=487), in any relevant Dissertation

restriction declarations deposited in the University Library, The University Librarys

regulations (see http://www.manchester.ac.uk/library/aboutus//regulations) and in the

Universitys Guidance for the presentation of Dissertations.

ABSTRACT

Under-actuated systems such as the inverted pendulum on a cart have more degrees of freedom

than actuation, such systems find ready applications in modern robotics and technology. The

design and simulation of stabilizing and swing up controllers for an inverted pendulum is the

major objective of this thesis.

Linear control techniques such as the Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR) that optimizes the control

effort/state, and the error driven Proportional Integral Derivative (PID) control are designed using

a linearized Lagrangian model of the pendulum. Also, transforming the nonlinear state space

equations via feedback linearization enables the design of nonlinear controllers using techniques

such as sliding mode control(SMC), Lyapunov stability theory and singular perturbation theory.

Furthermore, the energy of the pendulum as well as its angle and velocity are used to design

swing up controllers using principles of energy control, passivity and position- velocity (PV)

control.

The results obtained show that all the designed controllers can stabilize the pendulum with LQR

and Approximate Linearization/SMC giving superior performance and robustness. Passivity based

swing up is found superior in performance and robustness to PV control.

The controllers designed have been subject to all the constraints and conditions peculiar to the

real system and found to be satisfactory. However, practical implementation of these controllers

is highly recommended.

10

CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION

1.1 BACKGROUND

The inverted pendulum on a cart is a popular benchmark problem for researchers in control

systems and automation[1]. The control of an inverted pendulum is analogous to balancing a

broomstick on the index finger with the control motion constrained to a single dimension of

space. The control of an inverted pendulum is difficult due to certain properties it possesses. It is

a nonlinear system which is unstable in the upright position. Also, it is an underactuated system

due to the lack of direct control over some direction it needs to be steered. The control

techniques for such underactuated systems find ready applications in modern automation,

robotics and fault tolerant control[2].

The IP02 Single Inverted Pendulum(SIP) from Quanser Inc. is the physical pendulum model being

considered in this thesis. The IP02 consists of a linear servo base unit with a pendulum attached

to it as can be seen from Fig. 1.1.

Technically, the IP02 is the base of the pendulum containing the motor driven cart. The cart

measures about a metre in length while the pendulum measures about two third of a metre

across[3]. Encoders provide measurements of two states of the system which are the cart

distance and the pendulum angle. To obtain the other states therefore would require an observer

being used or a differentiator. Gears in the motor couple the rotation of the motor into linear

motion in the cart. The motor driving the cart is specified to handle a maximum of 15volts[3].

From a control theoretic viewpoint, the inverted pendulum is a non-minimum phase system as it

has unstable zeroes. This implies the system initially steers in an opposite direction relative to the

control sense. More so, the non-minimum phase of the system makes it possess an unstable zero

dynamics and therefore difficult to use input-output feedback linearization techniques.

11

Furthermore, it is stated in [4] that the inverted pendulum is not globally controllable especially

when moving from the downward stable position, to the upright unstable position. This is

because its controllability matrix losses rank when it crosses the horizontal at

. This makes it a

difficult problem to swing up the pendulum using active control from any single controller.

In this project, feedback linearization and techniques from sliding mode, LQR and PID control are

used for the stabilization(about upright equilibrium) and tracking (along the cart) of the inverted

pendulum. Also, swing up controls are designed using position velocity control and passivity

based energy control.

Feedback linearization is a control strategy that changes the state space coordinates of a non

linear system into linear coordinates using transformation functions called a diffeomorphism [5].

Because feedback linearization is model based, the system is modelled precisely to capture

significant details about the systems dynamics. The technique of approximate linearization is then

applied to deal with the lack of involutivity in the system which makes it difficult to perform the

classical input-state linearization. Furthermore, sliding mode control is then used to design a

controller for the approximately linearized system.

Sliding mode control is a nonlinear robust control strategy[6]. The robust nature of sliding mode

control arises due to the invariance a system acquires when "sliding" on a chosen switching

surface[7]. The surface is a dynamic switching condition for the discontinuous control action that

must be applied to any system to make it a variable structure system.

Input -output linearization is also used to control the inverted pendulum. However, to deal with

the unstable internal dynamics, the system is made singularly perturbed. With a high gain

controller used in the input -output linearization, the system becomes singularly perturbed with

respect to the zero dynamics[8]. This implies the dynamics under input -output linearization

control has a fast transient and therefore the zero dynamics can be treated as an independent

system. A Lyapunov function based on the states affected by the zero dynamics is used to derive a

stabilizing controller for the zero(internal) dynamics.

Linear controllers such as LQR and PID, which make use of the linearized model in the control

design are also implemented for the cart -pendulum. The PID is designed using pole placement to

tune its parameters. The LQR controller is designed by solving the quadratic optimization problem

using the solution of the resulting Ricatti equation. A comparison is also made between the

performance of the linear controllers to the nonlinear controllers designed.

12

This project also implements swing up controls using position-velocity(PV) control and energy

based passivity control. PV control uses the angle and the velocity of the pendulum, scaled by

suitable gains to determine the reference to feed to an independent cart controller in order to

swing up the pendulum. Energy based passivity control exploits the dissipative nature of the

pendulum and by virtue of controlling the total energy and the cart , the pendulum is made to

converge in its homoclinic orbit in order to swing it up[4]. Other swing up strategies exist which

use direct pendulum energy control [9].

The motivation for the selection of this project results from the enormous applications of the

techniques involved in controlling this system to other practical systems such as segway robots,

under-actuated systems, fault control and a lot more practical systems as shown in Fig. 1.1 below.

1.2 OBJECTIVES

The objectives of this project includes:

The derivation and validation of a mathematical model for the IP02 inverted pendulum

The design and simulation of controllers for the inverted pendulum based on techniques

such as approximate feedback linearization, input-output feedback linearization, PID

control, LQR control and PV swing up and Passivity based energy control

This thesis is organized into six chapters. Chapter 1 is the introduction. Chapter 2 is a review of

literature. Modelling and analysis of the dynamics of the inverted pendulum is done in chapter 3.

Chapter 4 contains the controller design, simulation and results . Chapter 5 is conclusion.

13

The objective of control is to make systems behave in a desired way [10]. According to [11],

control is everywhere and remains a vital aspect of modern science and technology. The inverted

pendulum has since the 1950s been an interesting benchmark control problem in both research

and academia[1]. The inverted pendulum control problem is interesting and challenging due to its

unique characteristics as enumerated below:

It is nonlinear [12]

Its relative degree and controllability are not well defined [4]

It is a single input multiple output system and therefore has coupled dynamics

It has constraints on the size of the control action and the states [14]

The inverted pendulum on a cart consists of a swinging pole pivoted on a movable cart. The

pendulum swings freely about its point of pivot on the cart with no direct actuation while the cart

is directly actuated to move horizontally [4]. The inverted pendulum has two physical equilibrium

points:- the upright vertical position which is unstable and the downward pendant position which

is stable [13] . The linear inverted pendulum on a cart is one among other forms of inverted

pendulum systems such as:- the acrobot [16,17], the pendubot [16,4,18],the furuta pendulum

[4,19] and the reaction wheel pendulum [4,20]

According to [1], the principal control problem for the inverted pendulum on a cart, involves

swinging up the pendulum from the downward stable position to the unstable upright position,

and then balancing the pendulum at the upright position and further moving the cart to a

specified reference position. The control of the inverted pendulum was first tackled by Roberge

in 1960 , and then by Schaefer and Canon in 1966 [1]. Since then, several control techniques have

been studied with applications to the control of an inverted pendulum [1].

An attempt on the use of feedback linearization was done in [21] and it was proven that the

inverted pendulum is not full state linearizable. According to [4], the relative degree of the cart

pendulum is not constant and the controllability distribution does not have a constant rank since

the system loses controllability as it swings past the horizontal. This makes the application of

14

feedback linearization techniques to the inverted pendulum difficult. In [22], the technique of

approximate feedback linearization was proposed to deal with the difficulties associated with

non-involutive systems like the inverted pendulum. This involved the use of an output function

that gives the maximum relative degree and then ignoring all terms in the diffeomorphism that

makes the system non-involutive within a chosen region. The method was successfully applied in

the control of a ball and beam in [16] and then in the control of an inverted pendulum in [23]. [23]

cascaded sliding mode control with the approximate feedback linearization and implemented the

controller in the physical plant with very satisfactory performance obtained. In [24], similar

approximation techniques as in [25], are used to generate transformations needed to successfully

change the state space coordinates of the nonlinear inverted pendulum and a feedback law is

designed using a constructive backward process to both swing up and stabilize the inverted

pendulum. The performance obtained was satisfactory with a wide domain of attraction. In

[26],various sliding mode control algorithms are compared

in the

control of an inverted

pendulum after transforming the system state space using approximate feedback linearization.

Second order sliding mode control with super twisting reaching law was found to give the best

results with respect to stability, transient performance ,chattering reduction and robustness. In

[8], input-output linearization was used to control the cart inverted pendulum with the pendulum

angle used as output and integrator back-stepping control used to stabilize the unstable internal

dynamics. Stability analysis was done in the above to analyse the stability of the system using

singular perturbation theory and simulations done with good results obtained. [27] designed a

single global controller for both swing up and stabilization of the inverted pendulum using input

output linearization with respect to the pendulum angle and a mechanism to deal with the

singularity that occurs in the control action when the pendulum crosses the horizontal. Also, the

unstable internal dynamics associated with the cart was stabilized using Lyapunov stability

theory. Satisfactory results were obtained using the above methods.

A robust adaptive back stepping controller is designed in [28] for the cart inverted pendulum

using a Lyapunov based approach and a robust adaptive control law defined to deal with

modelling uncertainties. The control algorithm above exhibited a stable performance in the

presence of unknown parameters of the inverted pendulum and had a large domain of attraction

to the equilibrium position.

Linear controllers have been applied with great success in the stabilization and tracking control of

the inverted pendulum as discussed in [1].In [29], a comparison is made between a conventional

PID controller and an LQR controller for the stabilization of a rotary inverted pendulum. LQR is

15

shown to give better performance and robustness than the PID controller. An LQR controller is

designed in [30] for the cart inverted pendulum by first modelling the system and then solving the

quadratic optimization control problem. Good results were obtained both from the simulation

and experiment demonstrating the

techniques such as neural networks and fuzzy control have been implemented for the inverted

pendulum as discussed in [31-33].

The swing up control of the inverted pendulum is a more difficult and interesting control

problem. It is hard to use a single continuous controller to swing up the pendulum as most

controllers generate a singularity when crossing the horizontal [4] and are usually destabilizing

with respect to the pendulum angle .It was discovered in [9], that controlling the energy rather

than the position and velocity of the pendulum can make it easier to swing up the pendulum. An

energy based approached was therefore proposed by [9] where the sum of the kinetic and

potential energy of the pendulum were used to derive the precise acceleration to give the cart

such that the pendulum gains energy corresponding to the upright position. Energy based swing

up was also demonstrated by [18] but this time, the passivity property of the pendulum was

exploited to design the control law by using a Lyapunov function of the energy, cart position and

cart velocity. The major idea used by [18] was to control the cart movements such that the

pendulum converges in its homoclinic orbit where its passivity properties would naturally drive it

to the upright position. Other ideas in the swing up control of an inverted pendulum involve the

use of the angular position and velocity of the pendulum both scaled by suitable gains, to

calculate the reference position to give to an independent cart controller[34].The design of a

reference signal for the cart movement profile that would result in the pendulum swinging up is

also a common approach to swinging up a pendulum[35]. It must be noted that the swing up

strategies discussed above are all hybrid approaches as they involve the use of two different

controllers and suitably switching between both in order to swing up and stabilize the pendulum.

The hybrid solution to swinging up the pendulum is the most common in the literature for reasons

mentioned earlier. The swing-up control of an inverted pendulum using a single continuous

controller is a much harder problem.

The control problem of an inverted pendulum has been widely researched as evident in the

previous paragraphs, not just for its theoretical importance but also because it is under-actuated,

and the control of such systems are readily applied in the design of robots, airplanes, systems

under fault, hovercraft amongst others [16,4,2].

16

Modelling and simulation of the dynamics of the inverted pendulum is done in this chapter.

The inverted pendulum is a Single Input Multiple Output (SIMO) system as it has a one input and

two outputs. The IP02 Linear Inverted Pendulum from Quanser Inc is considered in the modelling

of the system. Table 3.1 shows the parameters of the inverted pendulum to be modelled.

SYMBOL PARAMETER

VALUE

Metre(m)

Metre(m)

Displacement of Cart

Metre(m)

Pendulum Angle

Radians(m)

Mass of cart

Mass of pendulum

Pendulum's Moment of Inertia

Equivalent coefficient of dry friction on cart surface

Viscous damping coefficient of pendulum axis

Cart driving force

Newton(N)

Gravitational acceleration

17

The modelling approach used for the inverted pendulum is based on the Euler-Lagrange

equation. The Lagrangian of the system is formed by subtracting the potential energy of the

system from the kinetic energy.

First, the kinematic equations of the system are derived below. From Fig. 3.1.

,

,

where

=Origin,

,

; Let

. Then

(3.1)

;

(3.2)

;

From [3], the Euler Lagrange equation of motion for mechanical systems is given by:

(3.3)

where

Lagrangian of system

Resultant Force/Torque.

But

But

and

(3.4)

18

and

(3.5)

;

=Resultant force on cart

The actuator providing

(3.6)

(3.7)

From Figure 3.2 with reference to the parameters of the D.C motor in Table 3.2 and using

Kirchoff's Voltage Law; Let

(KVL);

0.18

=

The pinion converts the applied gear torque into a linear force(F) with the torque

But

19

SYMBOL

PARAMETER

VALUES

Armature Current

Amperes(A)

Armature Coil Inductance

Back E.M.F

Volts(v)

Angular Speed of motor

Rads/s

Motor Pinion radius

Motor efficiency

Torque Constant of Motor

Motor Torque

Nm

Nm

(3.8)

With

and

, (3.8) becomes

(3.9)

Let

and

Therefore,

(3.10)

Substituting (3.4), (3.5) and (3.10) in the Euler-Lagrange equation in (3.3) gives:

(3.11)

20

But

(3.12)

Putting (3.12) in (3.11) gives the Equation of motion of the pendulum as:

+

(3.13)

(3.14)

Where

However, substituting all variables into (3.14) gives (3.15).

+

(3.15)

Simplifying (3.15) gives the equation of motion of the IP as shown in (3.16) & (3.17) respectively:

(3.16)

(3.17)

Making

(3.18)

the subject yields equation (3.19) below

+

.

Making

(3.19)

the subject in (3.17) gives;

(3.20)

the subject yields (3.21) below

(3.21)

21

Equations (3.19) and (3.21) are therefore the differential equations for the inverted pendulum

with actuator dynamics.

SYSTEM

To express the differential equation of the IP derived in state space, the following state variables

are defined for the system:

Let

.

,

The state space representation of the inverted pendulum with actuator is therefore

,

(3.22) ; where

(3.23)

and

(3.24)

To validate the model obtained in the previous section, a simulation is done in MATLAB/SIMULINK

with the nonlinear plant as shown in Fig. A1.1-A1.3(Appendix A). The nonlinear system is given an

impulse and allowed to naturally evolve over time. From Fig. 3.3, it is observed that the pendulum

and cart, start from an initial angle of

and

forth within a small displacement from the origin until it comes to rest after about

seconds.

The pendulum falls off from the upright position downwards in an anti-clockwise direction and

keeps swinging back and forth about the downward vertical (

with decreasing

amplitude until it comes to rest in the downward vertical position after 30 seconds. The

pendulum is unstable in the upright position as it moves away from it while it is stable in the

downward position as it converges to it. This behaviour is as expected of a physical inverted

pendulum plant with friction in both the cart and pendulum. This therefore validates the

mathematical model of the system developed.

22

3.4

SYSTEM[12]

A Jacobian linearization of the system about the equilibrium point(s) is required in order to probe

the nature(stability, poles e.t.c) of the system about its equilibrium points. Jacobian linearization

uses the Taylor series expansion to approximate the nonlinear state space equations with linear

ones in the vicinity of the operating/equilibrium point. Let the linearized plant have the state

space equation :

Output at equilibrium

(3.26)

The equilibrium points are infinitely many but only two physical equilibrium points are relevant:

The upright vertical position with

Linearization about the upright vertical equilibrium :

The Linearized system about the upright equilibrium is represented in state space in thus

;

(3.28)

23

and

The linearized system around the upright equilibrium position

has state-space

equation as shown in 3.28. The transfer matrix of the system is shown in (3.29) below:

(3.29)

The poles of the plant around the upright equilibrium are computed by finding the eigenvalues of

the matrix

. The plant is fourth order, SIMO and is found to have the four poles at

and

. The poles obtained above indicate that the plant is unstable in the

upright equilibrium point. This further reinforces the confidence in the model obtained as the

actual system is expected to be unstable in the upright position. From (3.29), the plant has the

following zeros:

and

it is clear that the system is non-minimum phase as it has zeros in the closed right half plane. Also,

the transfer matrix in (3.29) shows that the cart has an integrator. Figure 3.4 shows a plot of the

properties of the linear system around the upright equilibrium.

Figure 3.4: Properties of linear model about upright equilibrium for the inverted pendulum

24

This chapter contains details regarding the design and simulation of different control algorithms

for the stabilization, tracking and swing up of the inverted pendulum. The design goals for the

controllers is such that the constraints in the actual system are met and are as listed below:

Settling time of less than 10s for both cart and pendulum

maximum

from origin

Feedback linearization has a very different meaning from Jacobian linearization and seeks as an

objective to algebraically transform a nonlinear system dynamics into a linear dynamics by means

of state feedback and a nonlinear coordinate transformation based on a differential geometric

analysis of the system [5]. Feedback linearization is one of the key tools of nonlinear design

developed during the last few decades [37]. Because feedback linearization is strongly dependent

on a good model of the system, it is not a robust control design method hence the need to

combine it with more robust control techniques to deal with modelling uncertainties or spend a

great deal of effort and time to obtain accurate models of the system. Feedback linearization

usually follows two procedures :-Input-state linearization and input-output linearization.

4.1.1 INPUT-STATE LINEARIZATION [2]

Input -state linearization aims at transforming a nonlinear system of the form

(4.1)

into the system

(4.2)

25

where

and

using a diffeomorphism (a transformation matrix consisting of the output and its derivatives),

. The form of the system in (4.2) is the canonical form of a controllable linear system

also called the Brunovsky form. If the diffeomorphism

control law

,

(4.3)

the original nonlinear system (4.1) can be transformed into the linear controllable system of form

(4.2), where

linearizable depends on the system meeting the conditions of theorem 4.1 below:

Theorem 4.1 [2]: The system (4.1) is input-state linearizable in a domain D if and only if

1. The rank of the controllability matrix

2. The distribution

is involute in D. where

The first condition of theorem 4.1 is one of controllability which is a relevant requirement for the

control of any system. This is necessary if the input is to have any effect on the states being

controlled. The second condition of theorem 4.1 must be satisfied if a solution of the form

for an output that fully linearizes the system states is to exist in the partial differential

equation (4.4) below

[7] (4.4)

The diffeormorphism

obtained from the solution of equation (4.4) up to the order of the system and is used for the

nonlinear to linear state space coordinate transformations.

4.1.2 INPUT-STATE LINEARIZATION OF THE INVERTED PENDULUM[14,31]

To simplify and reduce the complexity of design we make the following assumptions:

, is assumed zero

is assumed zero.

26

Applying the assumptions above in the IP system of (4.5) gives the system in (4.6)

(4.5)

(4.6)

Now to further reduce the complexity of the analysis of the system in (4.6) above, according to

the method in [23], a transformation in the system input is done thus :

(4.7)

where

Substituting (4.7) in (4.6) yields the simplified state space equation for the system as shown in

(4.8)

(4.8)

Letting

(4.9) below

(4.9)

where

and

To determine if a diffeormorphism,

to theorem (4.1) for controllability and involutivity.

27

Controllability test:

To check the controllability of the system, we compute the rank of the matrix

Because

Involutivity Test:

Testing for involutivity, the span(

If the span

) of the set

is created.

is singular, then its elements are linear combinations of one another thereby

making it involutive.

The span of the system is thus computed:

Span

28

, Hence

is full rank

and therefore the system is not involutive. This implies that the inverted pendulum system fails

to meet the conditions for input-state linearization and therefore cannot be full state linearized.

4.1.3 APPROXIMATE FEEDBACK LINEARIZATION [2]

The relative degree of a system with respect to a given output

the output has to be differentiated for the control input

to appear in the equation. The

involutivity condition in theorem (4.1) would not be satisfied if the relative degree of the

nonlinear system is less than its order [37]. For the inverted pendulum, this is clearly the case. For

systems of this nature, input-state linearization is usually not possible. However, Kokotovic et. al ,

developed an algorithm of approximate feedback linearization to deal with systems of this nature

in [22]. The idea lies in the fact that certain terms in the diffeomorphism

of the

nonlinear system in (4.1) make the relative degree " " of the system with respect to the output

to be less than the order " " of the system. Neglecting these terms in

would

make the linearized system have a relative degree equal to the order of the nonlinear system and

therefore input-state linearizable. Such a relative degree is called a robust relative degree. The

tasks therefore in approximate linearization is to find the output function

that can

maximize the relative degree of the system such that when approximations are done, the system

would have a robust relative degree equal to its order [37].

4.1.4 APPROXIMATE FEEDBACK LINEARIZATION OF THE INVERTED PENDULUM

To apply the algorithm of approximate feedback linearization to the inverted pendulum,a solution

is attempted to the partial differential equation

where

and a robust relative degree is sought with respect to the output

make the relative degree less than 4 in the diffeomorphism

29

.

(4.10)

From [38], the solution to first order partial differential equations of the form in (4.11)

(4.11)

is

(4.12)

Comparing (4.10) with (4.11) and making substitutions in (4.12) gives the solution to (4.10) as

.

With the output

(4.13)

as follows:

(4.14)

(4.15)

(4.16)

(4.17)

(4.18)

The diffeomorphism

in the diffeomorphism

. This is not surprising as the

feedback linearization, we ignore the coefficient (

) of the input,

in the

diffeomorphism as it is approximately zero when the system is close to the equilibrium point

30

nonlinear system and drive the output

to stabilize the

, the

approximation made to obtain the state transformations become invalid and the system losses

relative degree. This implies the diffeomorphism obtained with the defined output is a local

diffeomorphism. Defining the state variables for the approximately linearized system as

,

in

(4.19)

The phenomenon of sliding modes was discovered by researchers like Anosov, Tzypkin and

Emel'yanov studying variable structure systems(VSS) [2]. VSS are systems having a discontinuity in

the right hand side of the differential equations describing their dynamics. That is:

(4.20)

VSS were discovered to have properties independent of the dynamics of the original systems in

the structure when switched at high frequency between the structures following a dynamic

switching condition called the switching surface. When this occurs, the VSS is said to be in a

sliding mode. The basic idea behind sliding mode control is to deliberately introduce sliding

modes into a system by making it variable structure using a discontinuous control action[39]. The

discontinuity in the control action is created by switching the control law

condition of a pre-specified switching surface

based on the

system is driven towards the chosen surface and into a sliding mode on the surface in finite time.

In sliding mode, the system inherits the dynamics of the switching surface and becomes invariant

to any external disturbance occurring in the same direction as the control input. The control

design effort in sliding mode control consists therefore in the design of the switching surface so

the system when on the surface has the desired dynamics(i.e. the surface dynamics) and the

31

design of a discontinuous control that will drive the system to the surface and keep it there upon

intersection [7]. The system does not actually slide on the surface when in sliding mode but

switches at high frequency around the vicinity of the surface. This high frequency switching of the

system on the surface leads to the problem of chattering. Chattering is a disadvantage in the

application of sliding mode control as it can lead to damages in the actuator of physical systems if

left unchecked.

4.2.1 SLIDING SURFACE DESIGN

The sliding surface is designed to have a reduced order from the system and a desired dynamics.

The switching surface is linear time invariant and exponentially stable. The switching surface is

defined based on the error between the system states and the reference value of the states if a

tracking control is desired.

state and

where

where

reference of

(4.21)

where

is a tuning parameter that set certain desired properties in the dynamics of the surface

4.2.2 SLIDING CONTROL DESIGN

The design of the sliding control action

sliding mode control action is designed such that the distance from the surface goes to zero in

finite time. A Lyapunov function based on the distance from the surface

is defined thus:

(4.22)

The control action is designed such that the derivative of the Lyapunov function

is negative

definite. This according to the stability theory of Lyapunov is necessary if the distance from the

surface

is to approach zero and therefore drive the system states to the surface,

(4.22),

. For

to be negative definite,

and

.From

fundamental condition for the system to reach the sliding surface and therefore the existence of a

sliding mode with any designed discontinuous control action

this reaching condition and they are called the reaching laws. Common reaching laws include the

following: [40]

32

with

and

a constant rate, .

with

or

surface exponentially.

with

or

and drives the switching

variable very fast when far from the surface but slower when close to the surface thereby

reducing chattering.

With a chosen reaching law , designing the sliding mode control action involves evaluating

and

equating it to the reaching law. The control action can be obtained by solving the resulting

equation for

As stated earlier, chattering is a common phenomena that plagues sliding mode control. To

reduce chattering , continuous functions such as saturation and relay functions that approximate

the discontinuous sign function are used, that is,

INVERTED PENDULUM(FL/SMC)

Consider now the approximately linearized inverted pendulum system (4.19) of section 4.1.4.

Let

(4.24)

Evaluating the error derivatives in (4.24) for a constant reference yields the surface equation as

(4.25)

To design the control action, an exponential reaching law is chosen.

Thus

(4.26)

(4.27)

33

Equating (4.26) and (4.27) and solving for the control action , we obtain the sliding mode control

action as in (4.28)

(4.28)

The control action applied to the plant is therefore according to the transformations done in

section 4.1.3 computed thus:

and

(4.29)

To reduce chattering in the control law of (4.29) above, the following modifications are made:(1) A power reaching law,

(2)

is replaced by

is used instead.

.

is thus computed:

(4.30)

CONTROLLER

The controller designed above is implemented in MATLAB/Simulink as shown in Figs A3.1A3.2(Appendix A). In tuning the controller, the Integral of Square Error(ISE) and Mean Absolute

Control Action(MACA) are used as indices to judge the relative performance of each parameter

chosen. Knowing that

value of

and

on the surface.

is first set at

changes are then made to the parameters using the performances indices as guide as shown in

Table 4.1

34

CONTROL PARAMETERS

PERFORMANCE INDICES

COMMENT

ISE is low but MACA is high

and results in chattering.

ISE and MACA both low. Good

transient

performance

and

Poorer Control and transient

and

shows an output from the approximately linearized system tracking a cart reference of 0.3m and

balancing the pendulum at zero degrees(upper equilibrium) from an initial position of

(0.2rads) using the parameters selected above.

Figure 4.1 Approximate feedback linearization with sliding mode control(Power Law)

From Fig. 4.1 above, it is observed that the controller satisfies the design goals. The cart has a

rise time of about 2s and a settling time of 3s.The pendulum balances in about 3.3secs. No steady

state error or overshoot is observed. The control action is below

less than

, both satisfying the physical constraints on the system. It is also observed that

the maximum angular displacement that can be given to the system and still obtain satisfactory

35

point. Figure 4.2 demonstrates the tracking ability of the controller in the presence of white noise

and disturbance. The noise power is about 0.02units and the a disturbance of 0.2 on both outputs

occurs at 10s, 20s and 35s. It can be observed from figure 4.5 that the controller has good tracking

and good recovery from disturbance even in the presence of noise. The control action and cart

distance remain within the constraints even with noise and disturbance being present.

Figure 4.2: Tracking, Noise and Disturbance Rejection of Approximate feedback linearization

with SMC(Power Law)

Given the system (4.31) below

(4.31)

is the desired output from the physical system. The aim of input-output linearization (4.31) is to

obtain a state feedback control law " " , that linearizes the map between the system output " "

and a certain virtual control input " " through the state transformation

constituted of

the output and its derivatives with respect to time up to the order " ", where " " is the relative

degree of the input-output linearized system. If r is less than the order " " of the nonlinear

system, then the nonlinear system is only partially feedback linearized and therefore consists of a

feedback linearized system controllable by the virtual linear control " " and an

36

uncontrollable(with respect to input " ") internal dynamics of order "n-r " as shown in (4.32)

below.

(4.32)

,(Internal dynamics)

Output:

From (4.32), it is seen that the virtual control input " " only affects the feedback linearized

system hence the internal dynamics is uncontrollable by the virtual control. The internal dynamics

must therefore be stable for the nonlinear system to be stabilizable by the feedback linearized

virtual control " ". However, for an unstable internal dynamics, an input-state linearization must

be done if possible or a way to deal with the unstable zero dynamics designed for input output

linearization to be applied. Input-output linearization becomes input- state linearization if the

relative degree is equal to the order of the system.

4.3.1 INPUT-OUTPUT LINEARIZATION OF THE INVERTED PENDULUM

Given the inverted pendulum system

(4.33)

differentiate

repeatedly until

in (4.33) above, we

. Where

.

37

and

is:-

(4.34)

order

exists. To analyze the stability of the internal dynamics is computationally intensive and

therefore the zero dynamics would be analyzed instead. The zero dynamics occurs when the

linearized states

,

It can be seen that the zero dynamics has two poles at the origin and is therefore unstable. A

simulation of this controller is shown to confirm the instability of the zero dynamics as shown in

figure 4.2 below.

Figure 4.3: Input-Output Linearization with Pendulum angle as output and unstable zero

dynamics(cart)

As a result of the unstable zero dynamics in the cart above, another input-output linearization will

be attempted with the cart as output.

Let

. Where

,

. Where

38

and

. The

(4.35)

From (4.35), it is hard to tell the stability of the zero dynamics, hence a simulation is done with

the cart set to track a reference of 1meter and the results shown below:

Figure 4.4: Input-Output Linearization with Cart as Output and stable zero dynamics (pendulum)

From Figure 4.3, it can be inferred that the zero dynamics with the cart distance as the output of

linearization is stable but oscillatory.

4.3.2 INPUT

STABILIZING CONTROL(FL/ZDC)

In this section, a controller is proposed to stabilize the unstable internal dynamics associated with

the system obtained after performing an input-output linearisation with respect to the pendulum

angle. The controller is based on the theorem due to Lyapunov and the idea of singularly

perturbed systems as done in [8,27]. Two controllers are therefore designed and combined to

39

control the system. The first controller is the input-output(angle) linearization controller in eqn.

(4.34) designed with angle as output. The second controller is the proposed Lyapunov based

controller. By setting the controller gains such that the system exhibits two -time scale

behaviour(fast dynamics for pendulum and slow dynamics for cart) [27], the system is made

singularly perturbed. The two dynamics of the singularly perturbed system can therefore be

independently stabilized by both controllers based on the principle of singular perturbation

theory .

Theorem 4.2 (Lyapunov theorem for local stability)[37]: Consider the system (43). If in

containing the equilibrium point

with

is positive definite in

is negative definite in D,

is stable

According to the theorem of Lyapunov, a stable system has a Lyapunov function that is positive

definite with a derivative that is negative (semi) definite . In order to design a stabilizing control

for the zero dynamics, a new control input

(4.34) as below:

(4.33)

where

(4.36)

To design

such that

with

. where

cart reference velocity

40

and

and

But

. Therefore,

(4.37)

where

(4.38)

where

The total control action

is derived thus:

(section 4.3.1 )

(4.39)

angle linearization control and the zero dynamics control as shown in (4.40) below:

(4.40)

However, it is realized that doing the summation in (4.40) above, eliminates

control for the feedback linearized output

(4.41)

ZERO DYNAMICS CONTROLLER

Figures A4.1-A4.3(Appendix A) show the MATLAB/Simulink implementation of the controller.

Tuning the controller above involves selecting the poles

control

and

. The parameters

of convergence to zero of the states in the internal dynamics. After trying various values, the

parameters for the controller are fixed by placing poles at

and

and

chosen as

and

and

making

a simulation of the system with this control law tracking a cart reference of 0.3m from an initial

angular position of about

stabilizes the pendulum after

and tracks the cart after

41

without

constraint on the input. The cart also stays within the constraints of the cart length i.e.

and both pendulum and cart have zero steady state error. Further investigation revealed that the

maximum angular displacement that can be given to the system and still obtain satisfactory

control meeting all constraints is about

system shows that the controller is almost globally attractive. It can stabilize the pendulum from

any arbitrary initial position except at

and

where

, as

Figure 4.6 demonstrates the tracking ability of the controller in the presence of noise and

disturbance. The noise power is about 0.02 and a disturbance of 0.2 on both outputs occurs at

10s, 20s and 35s. It can be observed from figure 4.6 that the controller track the reference

satisfactorily and has good recovery from disturbance even in the presence of noise. The control

action and cart distance remain within the physical constraints even with the addition of noise

and disturbance.

Figure 4.5: Input-Output(angle) Lin. and internal dynamics (cart) stabilizing control

42

added.

The linear quadratic regulator(LQR) is an optimal control strategy that seeks the best possible

control solution for a system by minimizing a quadratic cost function subject to the constraint of

stabilizing the system being controlled [2]. The cost functional is a quadratic function of the

control input,

as in (4.42) below.

, where

and

[44]

(4.42)

The optimization of the cost functional in (4.42) is subject to the constraint of stabilizing the

Linear Time Invariant(LTI) system

. Where

is stabilizable and

Definition 4.2: The pair

such that

such that

is Hurwitz

is Hurwitz.

The design of an LQR controller consists first in checking the linear system for controllability and

observability. It was calculated that the controllability matrix

observability matrix

and the

upright equilibrium position both had full rank, hence the linear system is controllable and

observable. The next step in the design of LQR controller consists in the selection of the weights

and

43

equation resulting from the optimization problem of a linear quadratic regulator is shown in

(4.43) and must be solved to obtain a positive definite solution ,

control action

(4.43)

where

(4.44)

and

sensitivity properties. If the states of a system are not readily available, LQR is combined with a

state estimator such as a Kalman filter. This is now called an LQG(Linear Quadratic Gaussian)

control. In this thesis, the pendulum states are assumed noiseless and available, hence the choice

of LQR control. Also an integrator is not used with the LQR because the cart has a type 1 transfer

function and therefore has an integrator.

4.4.1 DESIGN , TUNING AND SIMULATION OF LQR CONTROLLER FOR THE INVERTED

PENDULUM

The LQR controller implementation in MATLAB/Simulink is shown in Fig. A2.1-A2.2(Appendix A)

The MATLAB command

and

and

as

[45],

. The matrices ,

for the system linearised around the upright equilibrium position as defined in section 3.2

are used . Table 4.2 gives a succession of values tuned before settling at the chosen value of .

Table 4.2: Tuning of LQR control parameters.

CONTROL PARAMETERS

PERFORMANCE INDICES

COMMENT

Poor performance, takes long

to

stabilize

system.

Also

Improved

performance(transient)

and

Transient

control

performance

action

and

optimization

poorer.

Figure 4.7 shows a simulation of the nonlinear system with the designed LQR control above

applied with initial angle of

44

From Fig. 4.7, the settling time is

for the cart is about

.

for both the cart distance and pendulum angle. The rise time

cart displacement is also within the constraints of the system. There is no overshoot observed in

the cart and the steady state error is zero for both the cart and pendulum.

Figure 4.8 shows the tracking ability of the controller in the presence of white noise with a power

of 0.02 and disturbance of 0.2 on both outputs(cart and pendulum). The disturbance occurs at

10s, 20s and 35s. It is observed from figure 4.8 that the controller has good tracking and good

recovery from disturbance even in the presence of noise which is always present in actual

systems. The control action and cart distance remain within the constraints even in the presence

of noise and disturbance.

45

PID control is one of the most widely used control method today with wide applications in

industrial processes [46]. PID controller consists basically of three parts: The proportional control

which drives the corrective action based on the error, the integral control which removes steady

state error and the derivative control which dampens oscillation and ensures stability of control.

The classic PID controller is the three term controller shown in (4.45) which contains the three PID

components mentioned above.

, where

error,

and

(4.45)

In this thesis, a PID controller is designed to stabilize the inverted pendulum in the upright

vertical equilibrium .The design of the PID controller for the inverted pendulum uses two PID

control blocks to close the loops from each output

Note:-

angle

to system input,

input

transfer

to system

From Figure 4.9 , it is seen that the control action to the plant , is given as:

(4.46)

But

and

(4.47)

, Collecting terms in , and making

46

(4.48) Substituting

and

functions

and

which clearly shows that the characteristic equation for both the cart and pendulum is ;

(4.49)

But

and

and

.

Substituting

simplifying the equation yields the characteristic equation of the closed loop system in (4.50)

(4.50)

Using the method of pole placement, the PID gains are designed by assigning the closed loop

system the desired poles

thus:

(4.51)

Expanding, (4.51), collecting like terms and comparing the coefficients to (4.50), gives the system

of equations needed to solve to design the PID gains.

4.5.1 TUNING AND SIMULATION OF PID CONTROLLER

Figure A6.1-A6.2 (Appendix A) show the MATLAB/Simulink implementation of the PID controller.

The PID gains are calculated by placing the poles of the closed loop system at

. The above poles are chosen to give a settling time of at most 10second

using less aggressive control action. Using faster poles were observed to make the control too

aggressive and therefore violate the constraints within the system. Figure 4.10 shows the

simulation result. A settling time of 9seconds and 4seconds is obtained for the pendulum and

cart respectively which is not optimal and therefore suggest the use of much faster poles. The rise

time was below 2seconds for both cart and pendulum. The cart had no steady state error but an

overshoot of

cart PID controller. The reference of 0.3m in the cart is tracked satisfactorily and the pendulum

can be stabilized from an initial angle of at most

the PID can stabilize the system for all initial angles less than or equal to

47

Figure 4.10: Plot of the PID controller tracking 0.3m cart distance from an angle of 0.2rads

From figure 4.11, it can be deduced that the tracking of PID in the presence of noise and

disturbance is very poor in the cart. The angle however is well controlled even with noise. This

could be as a result of non optimal tuning of the PID parameters as well as a fundamental

limitation of PID controller with regard to the inverted pendulum system.

48

The objective in swing up control is to move the pendulum from the downward position to the

unstable upright position by moving the cart horizontally. As noted in chapter two, several

techniques have been applied in the solution of this problem with the most common methods

being the energy control, the passivity based control or the use of the position and velocity of

the pendulum to determine how the cart should be moved such that the pendulum gains enough

momentum to swing up[34]. The position and velocity control (PV) approach as well as the

passivity control methods are both demonstrated in this section.

4.6.1 SWING UP BY POSITION VELOCITY(PV) CONTROL [34]

PV control uses the pendulum angle and angular velocity to generate the reference cart positions

to be used by an independent controller designed to steer the cart to any desired position. A state

feedback control for the cart position is designed which controls the cart using its position and

velocity

and the output from PV controller fed as reference to the cart controller as shown in

with the gains

and

and

chosen to drive the pendulum away from the pendant position using the smallest displacement of

the cart as possible.

The complete Simulink/MATLAB design for the controller is shown in Appendix A(Figs A7.1-A7.3).

The gains

and

are chosen using a trial and error approach but keeping in mind that larger

values would generate bigger reference values for the cart and therefore violate the constraint on

cart length. Tuning the parameters for almost equal values of the ratios

guarantee swing up as long as

exceeds

and

exceeds

and

was found to

included in the output of the PV controller to restrict the range of values it calculates to the

maximum and minimum cart distance of

mode controller designed in section 4.2.4 at

. The wide domain of attraction

of the

sliding mode controller is exploited here as the PV controller can only swing the pendulum to

about

without violating the constraints on the cart length. The feedback linearized controller

with zero dynamics control(FL/ZDC) was also used to stabilize the pendulum successfully. Figure

49

4.12 shows the response of the pendulum using controller with parameters set at

,

and

Figure 4.12, it is observed that swing up occurs after about 40 seconds and the sliding mode

controller stabilizes the pendulum in about 1second. The control voltage and cart variation are

both within the constraints of the system. The peak variation of the cart distance is observed to

lie between

and

Figure 4.12 :Swing Up, Tracking and Stabilization of pendulum with PV and FL/SMC

Figure 4.13:Swing Up, Tracking and Stabilization of PV control with noise and disturbance

50

Figure 4.13 shows the PV controller can resist disturbance(at 10s,20s,35s,70s,80s,90s) of about

0.2 in both output with small noise also added and all system constraints met. This shows it is

robust. Chattering on the controller due to the discontinuous nature of sliding mode control is

observed but it is small and can be ignored.

4.6.3 SWING UP BY ENERGY CONTROL USING PASSIVITY OF PENDULUM [18,4]

This method of swinging up the pendulum exploits the fact that the pendulum is a dissipative

system. According to [4], this means there is no internal creation of energy within the system and

so the storage energy function

the available storage energy

at the initial time plus the total energy

supplied to

[4] (4.52).

The dissipative nature of the inverted pendulum makes it possess a trajectory where the total

energy of the system is zero. Such a trajectory is a homoclinic orbit that joins the saddle

equilibrium point(upright position) to itself. The swing up control tasks therefore lies in designing

the control action to take the system to this homoclinic orbit by using an appropriate Lyapunov

function candidate[18].

To apply this technique, the system in the form of (3.13) is shown in (4.53) for convenience.

(4.53)

Ignoring the inertia

(4.54)

where

To check the passivity of the system, we evaluate the derivative of the total energy of the system

and check if it satisfies the mathematical condition for passivity in (4.52). Note that

symmetric and has a determinant

making

is

(4.55)

An important result to be used later when establishing the passivity of the pendulum.

51

(4.56)

where

(4.57)

But

(4.58)

Hence,

(4.59)

(4.60)

(4.61)

Substituting (4.55) in (4.61) we get

(4.62)

Integrating (4.62) on both sides we get:

(4.63)

Assuming at time

, then

, and

(4.64)

Equation (4.64) establishes the passivity property of the inverted pendulum. The homoclinic orbit

of the pendulum can therefore be computed as the trajectory corresponding to zero energy and

zero velocity of cart. i.e.

and

.

(4.65)

Our goal now is to design a controller that is attracted to the homoclinic orbit above. Consider

now, the Lyapunov function candidate

:

(4.66)

52

We defined

negative definite.

;

Recall that

Putting

in

;

we obtain

(4.67)

(4.68)

Computing (4.68) with substituted values we obtain

(4.69)

Putting (4.69) in (4.67) :

(4.70)

We desire

(4.71)

and

(4.72)

From (4.72), it can be seen that for this control law to be valid, the denominator must be non

zero, this means

parameters

,

The controller designed above was implemented in MATLAB/Simulink as shown in Figure A8.1

(Appendix A). The parameters for the controller were selected as

,

,

while

,

is chosen to

53

swing up to occur. From Fig. 4.14, the pendulum swings constantly at increasing amplitudes from

an original position of

until it reaches

stabilizing LQR controller is done. It can be observed from Fig. 4.14 that the swing up occurs after

about

seconds and the LQR controller stabilizes the pendulum in less than 1 second. The energy

of the pendulum can be seen from Fig. 4.14 to approach zero from a value of

after

4seconds. The control action used is within the constraints of the system and lies between

The cart distance varies between

up strategy was observed to have a wide domain of attraction as it could swing the pendulum up

to about

This controller can therefore be combined with any stabilizing controller in a hybrid control

structure to swing up the inverted pendulum.

Figure 4.15 shows the performance of the swing up controller in the presence of noise(noise

power: 0.004units) and disturbances. It is evident from the figure that the controller maintains

good swing up and tracking performance while rejecting disturbance and noise. The effect the

noise had on the controller was to delay the swing up time from 4seconds to 6seconds and to

reduce the domain of attraction of the swing up controller from

to about

if all constraints

within the system must be met. The control action lies within the constrained value of

54

Figure 4.15: Swing Up and tracking with disturbance and noise of Passivity -Energy control

This section discusses the results obtained above with a focus on how the controllers compare to

each other in terms of performance and robustness.

4.7.1 COMPARISON OF PERFORMANCE

The indices for comparing the performance of the controllers above include:- The Rise Time

The Settling time

State Error(SSE) and Percent Overshoot(P.O). Table 4.3 shows a comparison of the performance

of the stabilizing controllers.

Table 4.3: Comparison of Performance of stabilizing controllers

Controller

PID

LQR

FL/SMC

2s

2

2s

FL/ZDC

2s

MACA

0.3563

ISE

0.8953

0.8281

P.O

33.3%

0%

0%

SSE

0

0

0

0.2499

0.0855

0.7854

0%

From Table 4.3, we see that LQR ,FL/SMC and FL/ZDC have better performance in all indices while

PID is the poorest. All the designed controllers have no steady state error. PID has P.O of 33.3%.

LQR, FL/ZDC and FL/SMC have no overshoot in their response. In terms of the control action,

FL/ZDC uses the least control action to stabilize the pendulum. LQR and FL/SMC have better

transient speed than FL/ZDC and PID. However, FL/ZDC produced much smoother transient phase

55

and eliminates large error faster and therefore has the best ISE and MACA. It can be observed

that the nonlinear controllers(FL/SMC and FL/ZDC) use less control energy in stabilizing the

system compared to the linear controllers(PID and LQR). The plots showing these properties are

shown in the sections where the simulation for the controllers are presented.

4.7.2 COMPARISON OF ROBUSTNESS

Robustness analysis for the controllers is done based on the following criteria:

Maximum basin of initial conditions where the controller is attractive to the equilibrium

upright position with and without consideration for system constraints

Table 4.4 compares the robustness of the controllers. Figures 4.16 to 4.19 show the plots of the

worst case output noise the controllers can tolerate. From table 4.4, it can be deduced that Sliding

Mode Control has the most tolerance for noise as can be seen from figure 4.18. This is due to the

invariance of the controller to disturbance when on the surface. LQR which is also a robust

controller has the next best tolerance for noise as evident in table 4.4 and figure 4.16. All the

controllers can withstand about the same level of disturbance. PID is however found to be the

most robust controller to parametric variation. This is because its design is less heavily dependent

on the model of the system but rather on the error in the measured outputs. The Feedback

Linearized controller with a compensator for the unstable zero dynamics has the largest basin of

attraction because it is based on an almost global linearization of the system. It is however poor in

robustness to noise compared to LQR and FL/SMC. This is because its accuracy depends on the

measured states since it is a completely model based controller.

Conclusively, it can be said that LQR is a fantastic controller especially where the states are

available. However, the use of an estimator like the Kalman filter is known to reduce the

robustness of LQR. Sliding mode control(SMC) on the other hand is a very good controller for

stabilizing a pendulum with good robust properties. However, the use of a feedback linearized

system with the SMC reduces the robustness of SMC. Being a nonlinear controller, it has a wider

domain of attraction to the equilibrium point. Furthermore, stabilizing the zero dynamics of the

input-output linearized system proved to allow the control of the non-minimum phase system

using input-output linearization which would have otherwise been impossible.

56

Figure 4.16: LQR with maximum noise power of 0.7 and disturbance of 0.2

Table 4.4: Comparison of robustness of stabilizing controllers

Controlle

r

PID

LQR

FL/SMC

FL/ZDC

Max. Output

Disturbance

(rad/metres)

Max. Noise

Power

Basin of

Attraction

(Constrained

Unconstrain

ed Basin of

Attraction

0.1

0.7

1.4

0.3

57

Max. Parameter

Variation

Tolerated

Figure 4.18: FL/SMC with max noise power of 1.4 and disturbance of 0.2

Figure 4.19:FL/ZDC with maximum noise power of 0.3 and disturbance of 0.2

4.7.2 COMPARISON OF SWING UP CONTROLLERS

It is observed that swing up by passivity based energy control shows superior performance to

swing up by Position Velocity control. The passivity based control swings up the pendulum in just

about 4seconds compared to the PV control which takes about 39seconds to swing . The region

of attraction of the energy based swing up is much wider

to

to

and therefore can be used with stabilising controllers having a smaller domain of

attraction. Also, the disturbance and noise rejection of the energy based controller is much better

than that of the PV controller. However, the PV controller is easier to design but more difficult to

tune.

58

5.1 CONCLUSION

The design of stabilizing and swing up controllers for the linear Inverted Pendulum(IP) using

techniques from Feedback Linearization, Sliding Mode Control, Lyapunov stability theory,

Singular Perturbation theory, PID control, LQR control, PV control and Passivity based Energy

control have been undertaken in this thesis. A modelling of the physical pendulum system from

Quanser Inc. have been done and shown to be consistent with the behaviour of the real system.

The controllers designed have been simulated on the computer using Simulink/MATLAB at

conditions set up to be as close to the real plant as possible. All the controllers have been found

to meet the design goals with acceptable performance. Sliding mode control(SMC) and LQR have

been found to be the most robust controllers in terms of disturbance and noise rejection. SMC

and LQR were also found to have the best performance. The non-linear controllers designed are

based on SMC and feedback linearization and have been found to have wider basins of attraction

to the upright equilibrium and better use of control energy when close to the equilibrium point

than their linear counterparts.

A novel way of stabilizing the unstable zero dynamics associated with the feedback linearization

of the non minimum phase inverted pendulum system have been proposed and demonstrated to

be stabilizing. The transient performance of the cart was observed to be a little degraded using

the above approach. This is because a slow cart dynamics is a fundamental requirement for

making the system singularly perturbed.

Swinging up the pendulum using a passivity based energy approach was found to be superior in

performance and robustness compared to the direct use of the pendulum's angle and velocity.

5.2 RECOMMENDATION

To improve on the work done and carry out further investigations, the following

recommendations are suggested:

Improve and extend the techniques used in this thesis to more complicated underactuated systems such as the double inverted pendulum on a cart.

Design linear and nonlinear observers/estimators to generate all the states of the system

rather than assume the availability of all states.

59

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61

APPENDICES

APPENDIX A: SIMULINK DIAGRAM

62

63

FIG A3.1: TOP LEVEL DIAGRAM OF APPROXIMATE LINEARIZATION WITH SLIDING MODE CONTROL

FIG A4.1 TOP LEVEL DIAGRAM OF INPUT OUTPUT LINEARIZATION WITH ZERO DYNAMICS

CONTROL

64

65

66

67

68

B1: NATURAL DYNAMICS

function [x2dot,x4dot] = fcn(x1,x2,x3,x4,u,n)

%#codegen

%%

%PARAMETERS

%%

L = 0.3302; M = 0.94; m = 0.23; J = 0.00788; Beq = 5.4; Bp = 0.0024;

g = 9.81; Rm = 2.6; Kt = 0.00767; Ng = 1; Kg = 3.71; Nm = 1;

Km = 0.00767; rmp = 0.00635;

a1=J+m*L^2; a2=J*m*L+m^2*L^3; a3=m^2*L^2*g; a4=M*m*L^2+(M+m)*J;

a5=(M+m)*m*g*L;

K1=(Ng*Kg*Nm*Kt)/(rmp*Rm); K2=(Ng*Kg^2*Nm*Kt*Km)/(rmp^2*Rm);

%%

%NONLINEAR DYNAMICS WITH ACTUATOR

%%

D=m^2*L^2*(sin(x3))^2+a4;

69

f2=(-a1*Beq*x2-m*L*Bp*x4*cos(x3)-a2*x4^2*sin(x3)+a3*sin(x3)*cos(x3)a1*K2*x2)/D;

g2=a1*K1/D;

f4=(-(M+m)*Bp*x4-m^2*L^2*x4^2*sin(x3)*cos(x3)m*L*Beq*x2*cos(x3)+a5*sin(x3)-K2*m*L*x2*cos(x3))/D;

g4=K1*m*L*cos(x3)/D;

x2dot=f2+g2*u+n;

x4dot=f4+g4*u+n;

function [U,s] = fcn(x1,x2,x3,x4,ebs,P1,Q1,x1d,lambda)

%%

%APPROXIMATE FEEDBACK LINEARISATION

%%

eqn1=(-6*sin(x3)/(cos(x3))^4+sin(x3)/(cos(x3))^2)*L*x4^4;

eqn2=-6*g*x4^2*sin(x3)/(cos(x3))^3;

eqn3=(-2*g*sin(x3)/(cos(x3))^3+g*sin(x3)/cos(x3))*3*x4^2;

eqn4=(-2*g/(cos(x3))^2+2*g)*g*sin(x3)/L;

fe=eqn1+eqn2+eqn3+eqn4;

ge=-6*x4^2/(cos(x3))^2+3*x4^2-3*g/(L*cos(x3))+2*g*cos(x3)/L;

y1=(x1-x1d)-L*log((1+sin(x3))/cos(x3));

y2=x2-L*x4/cos(x3);

y3=-tan(x3)*(g+L*x4^2/cos(x3));

y4=(-2/(cos(x3))^3+1/cos(x3))*L*x4^3+(-3*g/(cos(x3))^2+2*g)*x4;

%%

%SLIDING MODE CONTROL

%%

s=y4+3*lambda*y3+3*lambda^2*y2+lambda^3*y1;%SURFACE

sgn_s=s/(abs(s)+ebs); %CONTINUOUS APPROXIMATION OF DISCONTINUOUS SIGN

FUNCTION

w_exp=P1*s+Q1*sgn_s-((fe+3*lambda*y4+3*lambda^2*y3+lambda^3*y2)/ge);

%EXPONENETIAL LAW

w_pow=P1*(abs(s)^Q1)*(sgn_s)((fe+3*lambda*y4+3*lambda^2*y3+lambda^3*y2)/ge); %POWER LAW

%w=w_exp; %choose exponential law

w=w_pow; %choose power law

v=w/K1;

U=(M+m*(sin(x3))^2)*v-((m*g*sin(x3)*cos(x3)-m*L*x4^2*sin(x3)(K2+Beq)*x2)/K1);

%%INPUT-TO-OUTPUT(ANGLE)FEEDBACK LINEARIZATION

function u2 = fcn(x1,x2,x3,x4,v1)

%%

%LINEARIZING EQUATIONS

%%

D=m^2*L^2*(sin(x3))^2+a4;

f2=(-a1*Beq*x2-m*L*Bp*x4*cos(x3)-a2*x4^2*sin(x3)+a3*sin(x3)*cos(x3)a1*K2*x2)/D;

g2=a1*K1/D;

f4=(-(M+m)*Bp*x4-m^2*L^2*x4^2*sin(x3)*cos(x3)m*L*Beq*x2*cos(x3)+a5*sin(x3)-K2*m*L*x2*cos(x3))/D;

g4=K1*m*L*cos(x3)/D;

u2=(v1-f4)/g4;

%%

%ZERO DYNAMICS CONTROL BASED ON LYAPUNOV STABILITY THEORY

function V3 = fcn(x1, x2, x3, xref, x4, v1,c1,c2,c3)

70

%%

a5=(M+m)*m*g*L;

%ZERO DYNAMICS STABILIZING EQUATIONS

K1=(Ng*Kg*Nm*Kt)/(rmp*Rm); K2=(Ng*Kg^2*Nm*Kt*Km)/(rmp^2*Rm);

D=m^2*L^2*(sin(x3))^2+a4;

f2=(-a1*Beq*x2-m*L*Bp*x4*cos(x3)-a2*x4^2*sin(x3)+a3*sin(x3)*cos(x3)a1*K2*x2)/D;

g2=a1*K1/D;

f4=(-(M+m)*Bp*x4-m^2*L^2*x4^2*sin(x3)*cos(x3)m*L*Beq*x2*cos(x3)+a5*sin(x3)-K2*m*L*x2*cos(x3))/D;

g4=K1*m*L*cos(x3)/D;

e=x1-xref;

V3=((-c1*e-c3*x2-c2*f2)*g4-c2*g2*(v1-f4))/(c2*g2*g4); %ZERO DYNAMICS

STABILIZING CONTROL ACTION

function [u,E]= fcn(ke,kx, kd,kv,x1,x2,x3,x4)

%PASSIVITY SWING UP EQUATIONS

c1=Beq+K2;

q=[x1;x3]; %STATES

qdot=[x2;x4];

Mq=[(M+m) -m*L*cos(x3);-m*L*cos(x3) m*L^2];%MASS-INERTIA MATRIX

E=0.5*(qdot)'*Mq*qdot+m*g*L*(cos(x3)-1);% ENERGY OF INVERTED PENDULUM

p1=(kv*c1)/(M+(m*(sin(x3))^2));

p2=(kv*m*sin(x3)*(L*x4^2-g*cos(x3)))/(M+(m*(sin(x3))^2));

p3=kv/(M+(m*(sin(x3))^2));

Num=(-kd+ke*E*c1+p1)*x2-kx*x1+p2;

Den=ke*E+p3;

w=Num/Den;

u=w/K1; %SWING UP CONTROL ACTION

71

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