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5th Semester Mechanical


NAME: ___________________
BATCH: __________________
ROLL NO: _______________
REGISTER NUMBER: ______________________



Metrology and Instrumentation Lab

BATCH NO: ________





Name of the experiment

ROLL NO: _______

Page No.




Measurement of lengths,
heights, diameters by
Height Gauge
Measurement of lengths,
heights, diameters by
Vernier Calipers
Introduction and
Measurement with Slip
Composite Error
measurement from
Parkinson Gear Tester
Measure the Major,
Minor and Effective
diameter of external
parallel screw threads
using Floating Carriage
Measurement of screw
thread using tool makers
Measurement using
Profile Projector
Experiment to determine
area of irregular surface
by planimeter
Introduction and
Measurement with
Optical Comparator
(Least Count 0.002 mm)
Measurement WITH Gear
roller Tester
To Perform Calibration
test of Pressure Gauge
Introduction to GO and
NO-GO plug gauges
Introduction to
temperature measurement
Introduction and
Measurement with Screw

Thread Micrometer
Final internal marks awarded (out of 60)



AIM: - To measure lengths, heights & diameters by height gauge
Instruments used1. Surface 2. Vernier height gauge 3. Specimens
Specification: Range 400 mm
Least Count 0.02 mm
TheoryVernier height gauge is a sort of Vernier calipers equipped with a special with a base and other
attachment, which make the instrument suitable for height measurement. Along with sliding jaw
assembly arrangement is provided to carry a removable clamp. The upper and lower surfaces of
the measuring jaws are parallel to base, so that it can be used for measurements over or under
surfaces. The Vernier height gauge is mainly used in the inspection of parts and layout work. The
Vernier height gauge can be used to scribe lines at certain distance above surface with a scribing
attachment in pace of measuring jaw. Dial indicators can also be attached in the clamp and many
exact measurements can be made as it exactly gives the indication when the dial tip is touching
the surface. Surface plates as datum surface are used for the above measurements.

Nomenclature of parts of Height Gauge

Procedure1. Place the object and the vernier height gauge on the surface plate.
2. Note the value on the scale when the moving jaw is touching the bottom of the
3. Take the moving /sliding jaw to the top of the object and note down the value
on the scale.
4. The difference between 3&2 will give the height of the object.


Main Scale Reading, Vernier Scale Reading Measured reading=

MSR (mm)
VSR (mm)
= mm



1. The height gauges should be kept in their case when not in use.

2. Measuring jaws should be handled carefully.




Aim- Measurement of lengths, heights, diameters by Vernier Calipers
Theory-The Digital Caliper (sometimes incorrectly called the Digital Vernier Caliper) is a
precision instrument that can be used to measure internal and external distances extremely
accurately. Earlier versions of this type of measuring instrument had to be read by looking
carefully at the imperial or metric scale and there was a need for very good eyesight in order
to read the small sliding scale. The digital version requires a small battery whereas the
manual version does not need any power source. Digital calipers are easier to use as the
measurement is clearly displayed and also, by pressing the inch/mm button the distance can
be read as metric or imperial.

Vernier Caliper

Measurement in (mm)

Result:Procedure1. The display is turned on with the on/off button.

2. The external jaws should then be brought together until they touch and the zero button
should be pressed.
3. The material to be measured is placed between the external jaws and they are carefully
brought together.
4. The locking screw is tightened so that the jaws do not move apart.
5. The digital display can then be read.
6. The distance can be read by in metric and imperial by pressing the inch/mm button.


Aim- Introduction and measurement with Slip Gauge
Theory- Slip gauges are measuring blocks of hardened steel used for measurement, testing
and calibration. Various dimensions can be built up by wringing phenomenon. Slip gauges
are also called as JOHANSON GAUGES. The measuring surface of gauges is perfectly flat
and accurate, so that any two faces may be wrung together.
As per IS: 2984-1966, slip gauges are available in three different grades i.e. grade O, grade I,
and grade II.
Grade I Slip gauges are used in inspection department
Grade II Slip gauges are used in workshop
Grade 0 Slip gauges are used in laboratories & standard rooms
Some available sets of slip gauges are M112, M105, M50, M33, M27, M45, etc.
Wringing phenomenon:
When two clean & perfectly flat surfaces are slide together under pressure, they adhere
firmly. This phenomenon is called as WRINGING of slip gauges. The phenomenon of
wringing occurs due to molecular adhesion between liquid film & the mating surface.

Wringing of Slip Gauges

Procedure1. Calculate and select the minimum number of slip gauges required for building up the
dimension, from the given set of slip gauges.
2. Take out the required slip gauge from the box & keep it on cleaned surface plate.
3. Clean all the surfaces of the selected slip gauges using petrol or kerosene & wipe it with a
soft cloth & chamois leather.
4. Place two slip gauges together at right angles to each other to form a cross shape.
5. Rotate any one slip gauge through 90 degree while applying a small amount of pressure.
6. The slip gauges will get wrung together.
7. Wring all the slip gauges together as shown in Fig. and build the required dimensions.

8. Use this combination for the stated purpose, if any.

9. Slowly remove all the slip gauges.
10. Properly clean & put the slip gauges in wooden box at appropriate place.

Observation table-


Precautions1. The surface of gauge must be covered with natural petroleum jelly or some anticorrosive
to avoid rusting.
2. The gauges should be used under controlled condition of temperature.
3. Wringing of gauges should be done without applying undue pressure to avoid damage
to the surface.
4. Never drop slip gauges.
5. Never strike slip gauges with other metallic objects.
6. Use minimum number of gauges for building up size combination.




Aim:To measure composite error with Parkinson Gear Tester
TheoryThe principle of this device is to mount a standard gear on a fixed vertical spindle and the gear to
be tested on another similar spindle mounted on a sliding carriage, maintaining the gears in mesh
by spring pressure. Movements of the sliding carriage as the gears are rotated are indicated by a
dial indicator, and these variations are a measure of any irregularities in the gear under test;
alternatively a recorder can be fitted, in the form of a waxed circular chart and records made of
the gear variation in accuracy of mesh.
The gears are mounted on the two mandrels, so that they are free to rotate without measurable
clearance. The left spindle can be moved along the table and clamped in any desired position.
The right mandrel slide is free to move, running on steel balls, against spring pressure and it has
a limited movement. The two mandrels can be adjusted so that their axial distance is equal to the
designed gear center distance.

Parkinson gear tester

The spring pressure can be regulated. There are also screws for limiting the movement of the
sliding carriage. A scale is attached to one carriage and a Vernier to the other; this enables center
distances to be measured to within 0.025 mm. The dial indicator on the right contacts the right
end of the sliding carriage and therefore indicates any radial variations of the gear under test as
the gears are rotated.
When the waxed paper recorder is fitted, the chart makes a revolution for each one of the gears
mounted on the sliding carriage. As the chart moves or rotates, the line traced records the
movements of the floating carriage, a circle is drawn at the same time as the record. The figures
shown in are reproduction of a few typical charts with a reduced scale and the radial errors
magnified about 50 times. The gear shown by No. 1 record is a fully satisfactory one, that at No.
2 is a moderate gear at No. 3 is an unsatisfactory one.

Observation tableCentre Distance (mm)

Composite error (mm)


Precautions:1. Keep the instrument away from acid vapors ,oil, dust.
2. Keep the instrument clean & apply petroleum jelly over the surface when it is not used.
3. When required clean it with tissue paper & petrol, just before use.




Aim:To measure the Major, Minor and Effective diameter of external parallel screw threads using
Floating Carriage Micrometer
TheoryIn order to ensure the manufacture of screw threads to the specified limits laid down in the
appropriate standard it is essential to provide some means of inspecting the final product. For
measurement of internal threads thread plug gauge is used and to check these plug gauges
Floating Carriage Micrometer is used for measuring Major, Minor and Effective diameter.

Floating Carriage Micrometer

Procedure1. The diameter of setting master or a cylinder should be nearly same as the diameter of the
thread gauge to reduce error.
2. First meet the anvil of micrometer to dial gauge and rotate micrometer in forward to

rotate needle in dial by 10mm with setting its scale zero at needle position and make digital
micrometer to zero by pressing button.
3. Put master in between centers and make dial needle to zero by moving micrometer.
Take the reading on micrometer as RS.. Similarly replace master with a threaded work piece
again second reading is taken as R
4. Hang the required set of prisms (from Appendix-1 according to pitch of work piece)
on the hooks provided on both sides of standard. Take the reading on micrometer and zero
indicator in such a way that portion of prism touches master and flat portion of prism is on
micrometer & zero indicator.
5. Take reading for master as RP and work piece as Rq on micrometer as needle on dial
indicating zero.
6. Now place two small wires or cylinders in place of prism. The wires should be
chosen so that, when placed between the threads, they should contact about halfway down the
flanks. Suitable sizes of these cylinders for various threads are given atAppendix-1
7. Take the readings for master as RW and work piece as ROW on micrometer as needle on dial
indicating zero.
Calculation1. Two Wire MethodThe effective diameter of a screw thread may be ascertained by placing two wires or rods of
identical diameter between the flanks of the thread, and measuring the distance over the
outside of these wires. The effective diameter is then calculated as
Where T= Dimension under the wires =M2d
M=dimension over the wires, d= diameter of each wire
The wires used are made of hardened steel to sustain the wear and tear in use. These are given
a high degree of accuracy and finish by lapping to suit different pitches. Dimension T can also
be determined by placing wires over a standard cylinder of diameter greater than the diameter
under the wires and noting the reading R1 and then taking reading with over the gauge, say
Then T=S(R1R2).
P=It is a value which depends upon the diameter of wire and pitch of the thread.
If P= pitch of the thread, then
P= 0.9605p1.1657d (for Whitworth thread).
P= 0.866pd (for metric thread).
To give the effective diameter, The expression for the value of P in terms of p (pitch), d(diameter
of wire) and x (thread angle) can be derived as follows:
In Fig. since BC lies on the effective diameter line
BC= pitch= p
OP= (d cosec x/2)2
PA=d (cosecx21) 2
PQ=QC cot x2=p4 cot x2
AQ=PQAP=(p cot x2)4 d (cosec x2 1)2
AQ is half the value of P
.. P value=2AQ =p2 cot x2 d (cosecx21)

Two wire method can be carried out only on the diameter measuring machine described for
measuring the minor diameter, because alignment is not possible by two wires and can be
provided only by the floating carriage machine. In the case of three wire method, two wire, on
one side help in aligning the micrometer square to the thread while the third placed on the other
side permits taking of readings.
2. Three Wire MethodThis method of measuring the effective diameter is an accurate method. In this three wires or
rods of known diameter are used; one on one side and two on the other side This method
ensures the alignment of micrometer anvil faces parallel to the thread axis. The wires may be
either held in hand or hung from a stand so as to ensure freedom to the wires to adjust
themselves under micrometer pressure.
M=distance over wires E=effective diameter
r=radius of the wires d=diameter of wires
h =height of the center or the wire or rod from the effective
x=angle of thread.
AD = AB cosec x2 = r cosec x2
H = DE cot x2 = p2 cot x2
CD = H = p4 cot x2
r = cosec x2 p4 cot x2
Distance over wires=M = E+2h+2r
= E+2(r cosec x2 p4 cot x2)+2r
= E+2r (l+cosecx2 ) p2 cot x2
or M = E+d (1+cosec x2) p2 cot x2
(since 2r = 0 )
(i) In case of Whitworth thread:
X = 55, depth of thread = 0.64 p, so that
E= D0.64 p and cosec x2 = 2.1657
Cot x2 = 1.921
M = E+d(1l+cosec x2) p2 cot x2
= D0.64p+d(1+2.1657)p2(1.921)
= D+3.1657d1.6005p
M = D+3.1657d1.6p

Observation table-

Pitch circle diameter(PCD)

Outer diameter(OD)
Inner diameter(ID)





AimMeasurement with Tool Makers Microscope.
TheoryThe tool makers microscope is a versatile instrument that measure by optical means with no
pressure being involved, thus very useful for measurement on small and delicate parts.
It is designed for:
a) Measurement on parts of complex form e.g. - profile of external thread, tool, templates,
gauges, etc.
b) Measuring center to center distance of holes in any plane.
c) A variety of linear measurements.

Tool Makers Microscope

Tool makers microscope is shown in figure. The optical head can be moved up or down the
vertical column and can be clamped at any height by means of clamping screw. The table which
is mounted on the base of the instrument can be moved in two mutually perpendicular horizontal
directions (longitudinal and lateral) by means of accurate micrometer screw having thimble scale
and venires.

PrincipleA ray of light from a light source is reflected by a mirror through 90 It then passes through a
transparent glass plate (on which flat parts may be placed). A shadow image of the outline or
counter of the workspaces passes through the objective of the optical head and is projected by a
system of three prisms to a ground glass screen.
Observations are made through an eyepiece. Measurements are made by means of cross lines
engraved on the ground glass screen. The screen can be rotated through 360; the angle of
rotation is read through an auxiliary eyepiece.

Principe of Tool Makers Microscope

Procedure Pitch Measurement1) Take the hacksaw blade and mount on the moving blade of tool makers Microscope in
horizontal position.
2) Focus the microscope on the blade.
3) Make the cross line in the microscope coincided with one of the edge of the blade.
4) Take a reading on ground glass screen, this is the initial reading.
5) The table is again moved until the next edge of the blade coincides with the cross-line on the
screen and the final reading takes.
6) The difference between initial and final reading gives pitch of the blade.

Thread Angle-

1) Place the blade on the table in same position.

2) Rotate the screen until a line on the angle of screen rotation is noted.
3) Take the angular reading, the initial one.
4) Again rotate the screen until the same line coincides with the other flank of the tooth.
5) Take the final angular reading.
6) The teeth angle of blade in the difference between the two angular readings.

Observation table-





Aim:To measure screw thread measurement and screw thread profile with profile projector
Profile Projector:Profile projector is a measuring machine which displays a magnified shadow of the opaque parts
being measured on a screen where its dimensions are measured or compared with a master
drawing. Using a profile projector, measurement of small sized complicated shaped components
can be easily carried out.
Profile projector consists of four essential elements:1)

Source of light
Collimating or condensing lens
Projection lens
Ground glass.

The illumination system consists of a light source. Light from the lamp passes through a system
of lenses called achromatic condenser. The parallel beam of light from the condenser is
transmitted to the illumination mirror which bends it vertically upward through the class stage
plate in the worktables of the projector.
Projection system consists of projection lens, roof prism, a pair of image reflectors and screen.
Magnification of projector can be adjusted by changing projection lens assembly. The light
travels past the object to the projection lens, from which its passes upwards to roof prism.
Function of roof prism is to direct the beam of light horizontally towards the back of the
projector to assist the projection of image so that its aspects as presented to the observer are
correct. From roof prism light passes to two optically flat reflectors which change the direction
of beam of light and direct it horizontally to the screen.
Illumination section: For contour examination transmitted light [DIA-Diascopic] and for
surface examination indirect light [EPI-Epidoscopic].

1) For corrects measurement object should be kept perfectly horizontal and perfectly
focused on the screen.
2) For surface examination EPI lamp should be kept very close to the object and it
should make minimum possible angle with the lens tube.
OBSERVATION TABLE :1) Measurement of bore diameter

Initial reading (mm)

Final reading (mm)

Bore diameter (mm)


2) Screw thread measurement

reading reading rence




3) Comparison
Basic size:
Object no

Conclusion (Reject




Results:Bore diameter = --------------------Outer diameter = --------------------Core diameter = --------------------Pitch

a) Ind. = --------------------b) Span = ---------------------




Aim:To measure area of irregular surface by planimeter
TheoryPlanimeter is a Surveying instrument which can be used to find out the area of a map or plan. A
Swiss mathematician Jacob Amsler Laffon built first modern planimeter in 1854. Many
developments followed Amsler's famous Planimeter including the electronic planimeter.

We have three mechanical types of Planimeters:
Hatchet Planimeter
All Planimeter work on the same principle. There is a linkage, at one end is a pointer and the
other is fixed for a polar planimeter and is restricted for a linear. The pointer is traced along the
perimeter of the area of the shape is indicated on a scale.

ProcedureThere is a wheel attached to planimeter which rolls when the movement of the pointer is
perpendicular to the axis of the wheel so, this movement is recorded.It will skid when the
movement of the wheel is parallel to the axis so, this movement is ignored. That means that
planimeter measures the distance which is traveled by the rolling of the wheel. Area of the shape
is proportional to the nos. of turns through which the measuring wheel turns. In order to find out
the area, all you have to do is to trace the perimeter of the area on the map, and note down the
reading. To get more accurate results one should be skilled in tracing the exact perimeter of the
shape. You can convert the area to the field area using the scale of the map.

Observation tableArea obtained from Planimeter



Scale * Area



AimMeasurement by optical comparator

Specification1. Base steel plate of 200x280mm
2. Vertical slide capacity 100mm travel
3. Light source input 5mp 230 v with 1w led
4 work base die 50mm hardened ground base
5. Plunger travel 0.1 mm on either side
6. Optical scale 0 to 0.1 mm either side

Optical Comparator
Procedure1. To start place a master gauge block nearest to the sizes of work piece under test on the work
base of the comparator.
2. Switch on the light source at the top of the comparator unit.
3. Using knob provided at the top of the vertical slide, bring the unit downwards until the plunger
comes in contact with the master /work piece
4. When the plunger in contact and with little initial pressure on it, a image of cross wire appears
at bottom of the illuminated scale on the front of the comparator unit.
5. Planning master under plunger set the cross wire at 0 (zero) position at the center of the
6. This scale has division marked as 0.02mm up to 0.1 mm above and below zero marking
7. Now smoothly slide work piece under the plunger so that cross defect. If the work piece is so
of lower size than master cross moves below zero mark that is - side and if larger then above
zero mark that is ++ side

8. Scale marking to which horizontal line of cross is coinciding indicates difference in size from
that of master.

Observation tableS.no.

Std Piece Size


The core moves up or down, the induced voltage of one secondary coil increases while that of
other decreases the output voltage which is modulated, is the difference of the two, since
secondarys are in opposition. The output is proportional to the displacement of the iron core.
The features of LVDT are:
1) Due to no physical contact between the core and coil its mechanical components do not
wear out: as a result the friction is absent and true infinite resolution with no hysteresis is
2) The small core mass and the lock of friction enhance response capabilities for dynamic
measurements, and thus it becomes very suitable for taking measurement for on-line
3) Further as it is not affected by overload, its reliability is high.
Result:Precautions1. When the instruments is not in the use , cover it by plastic cover.
2. Keep the instrument away from acid vapors ,oil, dust
3. Do not touch the screen glass, worktable glass, lenses, mirrors, by naked hand to avoid the
4. Clean the work table glass by tissue paper and coiling.
5. Always keep the instruments clean and dry
6. Handle Micrometer Gently.




AIM:To measure deviation in CD and composite error in gear
TheoryWith gear roll bench following test on gear possible
1. Checking Deviation actual CD & Theoretical CD
2. Gear roll test with a Master Gear which gives composite error in gear.
Procedure1. Engage the gear under test in slide A. Engage the master gear in side B. Move the slide A till
there is no play between the two gear.
2. The master gear is Mounted on side B is floating on Balls & is free to move to & fro .small
spring in the side B will press the gear against the gear under test.
3. Lock the slide to the main guide bar .adjust the plunger dial gauge (2) with the little pressure
(appx 1mm ) reading and lock it.
4. Now rotated the gear under test slowly. The plunger dial gauge will show you the variations
.the displacement of the plunger dial gauge arm is indication of
Gear profile.
Concentricity of the gear (RUN OUT)
Observation tableS.no.

Run Out

Depth (mm)

Results: -

Precautions1. Keep the instrument away from acid vapors ,oil, dust.
2. Keep the instrument clean & apply petroleum jelly over the surface when it is not used.
3. When required clean it with tissue paper & petrol, just before use.




AIM:Calibrate Pressure Gauge
TheoryPressure gauges are one of the most commonly used and relied upon instruments in todays
manufacturing environment. However, due to their great numbers, there is often a lack of
attention given to pressure gauge calibration intervals and therefore reliability can become
compromised. Due to these oversights, it is not uncommon to see many pressure gauges out of
calibration, tagged out of service or not functional at all. This can become a real problem because
if a plant is operating with a failed or out of calibration pressure gauge in a critical process, the
quality of the product being produced or the safety of the plant may be at risk. Therefore, one
goal of good process control is to establish a procedure to set and ensure pressure gauge
calibration intervals are maintained. There are many different types of pressure gauges used in
almost every manufacturing environment imaginable.

Pressure gauge
ProcedureCalibration consists of two parts
Full scale adjustment (steps 1 5)
Verification of linearity (step 6 - 7)
This procedure assumes the user has a comparator-type pressure reference, and can generate the
required pressures accurately. It also assumes that the user is familiar with pressure gauge safety
and testing recommendations in ASME B40.1
UUT refers to the Unit Under Test (the gauge being calibrated).
REF refers to the reference gauge.
100% refers to 100% of gauge scale; 10% refers to 10% of gauge scale; etc.

1. Mount the pointer.

If UUT has a stop pin, mount pointer at 10%, with pressure at 10% of scale.
If UUT has no stop pin, mount pointer a zero, with no pressure on UUT.
2. Apply pressure so UUT reads 100%. Read actual REF pressure. Note if UUT is reading high
or low, and degree of variation.
3. Remove pressure, and remove pointer and dial (if necessary).
4. Adjust full scale slide or gooseneck:
If REF was greater than UUT, reduce distance between pushrod and shaft.
If REF was less than UUT, increase distance between pushrod and shaft.
5. Mount dial and pointer. Repeat steps 1 4 until UUT reads within specified accuracy with
respect to REF when at 100%.
6. Apply 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% to UUT. At each point, compare UUT to REF. If all values
are within specified limits, slowly reduce pressure and check descending pressure at 75%, 50%,
and 25%. If any intermediate readings are out of limits, perform step 7. If 100% reading was out
of limits, go back to step 1. If all readings are within limits, calibration is finished.
7. Remove pressure from UUT, and remove pointer and dial. Adjust pushrod (linearity
adjustment) as follows:
If REF was reading higher than UUT in step 6, lengthen the pushrod (this may require
loosening and sliding, or bending).
If REF was reading lower than UUT in step 6, shorten the pushrod (this may require
loosening and sliding, or bending).
8. Repeat steps 1 6.
If UUT and REF agree within accuracy limits, calibration is finished.
If UUT and REF disagree by more than accuracy limits, go back to step 3.
9. Note: If linearity cannot be achieved with the above procedure, other factors (such as dial
centering, mechanical friction in movement) may need to be addressed).
Observation Table:UUT READING






AIM:Introduction about GO and NOGO Gauge
A Go-No GO gauge refers to an inspection tool used to check a work piece against its allowed
tolerances. It derives its name from its use: the gauge has two tests; the check involves the work
piece having to pass one test (Go) and fail the other (No Go). It is an integral part of the quality
process that is used in the manufacturing industry to ensure interchangeability of parts between
processes, or even between different manufacturers. A Go - No Go gauge is a measuring tool that
does not return a size in the conventional sense, but instead returns a state. The state is either
acceptable (the part is within tolerance and may be used) or it is unacceptable (and must be
They are well suited for use in the production area of the factory as they require little skill or
interpretation to use effectively and have few, if any, moving parts to be damaged in the often
hostile production environment.
Gauges are inspection tools which serve to check the dimensions of the manufactured parts.
Limit gauges ensure the size of the component lies within the specified limits. They are nonrecording and do not determine the size of the part. Plain gauges are used for checking plain
(Unthreaded) holes and shafts. Plain gauges may be classified as follows; According to their
type: (a) Standard gauges are made to the nominal size of the part to be tested and have the
measuring member equal in size to the mean permissible dimension of the part to be checked. A
standard gauge should mate with some snugness. (b) Limit Gauges These are also called go and
no go gauges. These are made to the limit sizes of the work to be measured. One of the sides or
ends of the gauge is made to correspond to maximum and the other end to the minimum
permissible size. The function of limit gauges is to determine whether the actual dimensions of
the work are within or outside the specified limits. According to their purpose: (a)Work shop
gauges: Working gauges are those used at the bench or machine in gauging the work as it being
made. (b)Inspection gauges: These gauges are used by the inspection personnel to inspect
manufactured parts when finished. (c) Reference or Master Gauges: These are used only for
checking the size or condition of other gauges. According to the form of tested surface: Plug
gauges: They check the dimensions of a hole Snap & Ring gauges: They check the dimensions of
a shaft. According to their design: Single limit & double limit gauges Single ended and double
ended gauges 22 Fixed & adjustable gauges LIMIT GAUGING Limit gauging is adopted for
checking parts produced by mass production. It has the advantage that they can be used by
unskilled persons. Instead of measuring actual dimensions, the conformance of product with
tolerance specifications can be checked by a GO and NO GO gauges. A GO gauge
represents the maximum material condition of the product (i.e. minimum hole size or maximum

shaft size) and conversely a NO GO represents the minimum material condition (i.e. maximum
hole size or minimum shaft size)

Plug gaugesPlug gauges are the limit gauges used for checking holes and consist of two cylindrical wear
resistant plugs. The plug made to the lower limit of the hole is known as GO end and this will
enter any hole which is not smaller than the lower limit allowed. The plug made to the upper
limit of the hole is known as NO GO end and this will not enter any hole which is smaller than
the upper limit allowed. The plugs are arranged on either ends of a common handle.

Materials used for gauges:

High carbon steel:
Heat treated Cast steel (0.8-1% carbon) is commonly used for most gauges.
Mild Steel: Case hardened on the working surface. It is stable and easily machinable.
Case hardened steel: Used for small & medium sized gauges.
Chromium plated & Hard alloys: Chromium plating imparts hardness, resistance to abrasion &
corrosion. Hard alloys of tungsten carbide may also be used.
Cast Iron: Used for bodies of frames of large gauges whose working surfaces are hard inserts of
tool steel or cemented carbides.
Glass: They are free from corrosive effects due to perspiration from hands. Also they are not
affected by temperature changes.
Invar: It is a nickel-iron alloy (36% nickel) which has low coefficient of expansion but not
suitable for usage over long periods. (The name, Invar, comes from the word invariable, referring
to its lack of expansion or contraction with temperature changes. It was invented in 1896 by
Swiss scientist Charles Eduard Guillaume. He received the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1920 for
this discovery, which enabled improvements in scientific instruments.)
Taylors Principle of Gauge Design: According to Taylor, Go and No Go gauges should be
designed to check maximum and minimum material limits which are checked as below
GO Limit. This designation is applied to that limit of the two limits of size which corresponds
to the maximum material limit considerations, i.e. upper limit of a shaft and lower limit of a hole.
The GO gauges should be of full form, i.e. they should check shape as well as size.

No Go Limit: This designation is applied to that limit of the two limits of size which
corresponds to the minimum material condition. i.e. the lower limit of a shaft and the upper limit
of a hole. No Go gauge should check only one part or feature of the component at a time, so
that specific discrepancies in shape or size can be detected. Thus a separate No Go gauge is
required for each different individual dimension.



AIM:To Measure Temperature with Thermocouple
Fundamental laws
Seebeck Voltage When two dissimilar metals are joined at one end, an electrical potential called
the Seebeck voltage is generated, which changes proportionally to changes in the temperature
at the joint.

Where is called the Seebeck coefficient which is, in general, a nonlinear function of
A. Law of Intermediate MetalsThe introduction of a third metal (Metal C) between two other dissimilar metals (Metal A and B)
will yield the same Seebeck voltage, VAB, obtained by removing Metal C, if all the joints are at
the same temperature.

B. Sensor ConfigurationThe simplified cold-junction configuration is given

Let the meter reading be V (in millivolts) and TCJ (cold junction temperature) be measured in
C. Then the temperature T can be found by using the following equations:

Experimental Setup

Reading Table:S.No.





AIM: To Measure the effective diameter of the given screw thread by

a) Using Screw thread micrometer
DESCRIPTION:Effective diameter or pitch diameter is the diameter of pitch cylinder (the Imaginary cylinder
which is co axial with the axis of the screw and intersects the flanks of the threads in such a
way as to make the width of the thread and width of the space between the threads equal).
The effective diameter is equal to the length of the axis and measured between the points
where it cuts the flank of the thread.
a) Measurement of effective diameter using thread micrometer:
In the micrometer the end of the spindle is pointed to V thread form with corresponding
V recess in the fixed anvil. Suitable contact points are selected according to pitch of the
thread and fixed to screw thread micrometer and the pitch diameter or effective diameter is
read directly on the micrometer.
Measurement of Effective diameter using screw thread micrometer:Trail No.

Size of anvil used

Effective diameter