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Composed by Engin Batrk
TYPE

Notes

## 04: INTRODUCTION TO ANALYTIC GEOMETRY

CLASS

XII

No

COORDINATE SYSTEM

1st
2nd
3rd
4th

x
+
+

Distance Formula:
and B is equal to

Let

y
+
+
-

AB d

x2 x1 y2 y1
2

## P x, y divide the join AB in the ratio AP : PB k1 : k2

k x k x k y k y
P 1 2 2 1, 1 2 2 1
k1 k2
k1 k2
Mid Point of AB:

## Let P be the mid point of the join AB

x x y y2
P 1 2 , 1

2
2

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External Division:

k x k x k y k y
P 1 2 2 1, 1 2 2 1
k1 k2
k1 k2
Note:

Theorem:

The medians of a triangle are concurent and that point of concurrency divides each one of them in the ratio

2 :1
In-Centre of a Traingle:

Escribed Circle:

## The point of concurrency of the angle bisectors of a triangle is called in-centre

The circle touching two sides of a triangle internally and the third side externally is called an escribed

circle

## TRANSLATION AND RORATION OF AXES

Translation of Axes
Let xy is the original coordinates system and XY is the new coordinate system.
Translation of

Translation of

## P x, y with respect to original coordinate system is x X h, y Y k

Rotation of Axes
Let xy is the original coortinates system and XY is the new coordinate system.
Translation of

Translation of

## P x, y with respect to original coordinate system is x X cos Y sin , Y X sin Y cos

EQUATIONS OF STRAIGHT LINES

Inclination Angle:

## The inclination of a non horizontal line

If

Slope is denoted by

is the angle

,00 1800

## l , then its slope or gradient is tan

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Let

a, 0 then

0,b

y m x a

y mx c

then

y mx c

y y1 m x x1

x x1 y y1

cos sin

y y1
x x1

y2 y1 x2 x1

x y
1
a b

x cos y sin p

y2 y1
x2 x1

## The general equation of a straight line is

ax by c 0 , where wheither

a 0 or b 0

Case-1:

## ax by c 0 take the form x

c
, which is equation of
a

## ax by c 0 take the form y

c
, which is equation of
b

## line parallel to y-axis.

Thus, the line is parallel to y-axis if b 0

Case-2:

## line parallel to x-axis.

Thus, the line is parallel to x-axis if a 0

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Case-3:

If

## equation of line with

a
c
a 0 and b 0 , then the equation ax by c 0 take the form y x , which is
b
b

a
c
slope and y-intercept
b
b

## Transformation of General Equation of a Straight Line to Slope Intercept Form

General Form of a Straight Line is

a
c
ax by c 0 ,then slope intercept form is y x
b
b

## Transformation of General Equation of a Straight Line to Intercepts Form

General Form of a Straight Line is

x
y

1
c
c

a
b

## Transformation of General Equation of a Straight Line to Normal Form

General Form of a Straight Line is

ax
a b
2

by
a b
2

c
a b2
2

## Transformation of General Equation of a Straight Line to Point-Slope Form

General Form of a Straight Line is

a
c
ax by c 0 ,then point-slope form is y x
b
a

## Transformation of General Equation of a Straight Line to Two-Points Form

General Form of a Straight Line is

a
c
ax by c 0 ,then two-points form is y x
b
a

c
a

b
a 2 b2

y
a
a 2 b2

The point

The point

## ax1 by1 c 0 for b 0 or ax1 by1 c 0 for b 0

The point

A x1 , y1 is on the line ax by c 0 if

ax1 by1 c 0

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The distance

ax1 by1 c
a 2 b2

## DISTANCE BETWEEN TWO PARALLEL LINES

We use the same formula for finding distance between two parallel lines. First we find a point on one of the lines then by
using the formula we find distance between the point and the second line
AREA OF A TRIANGULAR REGION
Let

## A x1 , y1 , B x2 , y2 and C x3 , y3 be the vertices of the triangular region.

1
1
Then the formula finding the area is
x1
2
y1

Note:

If

x2

x3

y2

y3

x1

x2

y1

y2

y3

## POINT OF INTERSECTION OF TWO STRAIGHT LINES

The point of intersection of two lines
Note:

If

bc b c a c a c
a1 x b1 y c1 0 and a2 x b2 y c2 0 is 1 2 2 1 , 2 1 1 1
a1b2 a2b1 a1b2 a2b1

a1b2 a2b1 0 , then lines a1 x b1 y c1 0 and a2 x b2 y c2 0 will have no common point and therefore,

## these lines will be parallel lines.

If lines are parallel then

a1 a2

b1 b2

## The condition of concurrency of three lines

a1

b1

c1

a1 x b1 y c1 0 , a2 x b2 y c2 0 and a3 x b3 y c3 0 is a2
a3

b2

c2 0

b3

c3

tan

m2 m1
1 m1.m2

Theorem 1:

The lines

Theorem 2:

Theorem 3:

## The right bisectors of triangle are concurrent

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Theorem 3:

## EQUATION OF LINES THROUGH THE POINT OF INTERSECTION OF TWO LINES

Consider two lines

## of intersection of two lines is ,

a1 x1 b1 y1 c1 k a2 x1 b2 y1 c2 0
EQUATION OF THE RIGHT BISECTOR OF A SEGMENT
Let

A x1 , y1 and A x2 , y2 be the end points of the segment. For finding equation of right bisector, first find mid point of

AB and slope of AB

## Then the equation of right bisector will be

Note:

y1 y2
x x
x x
2 1 x 1 2
y2 y1
2
2

x2 x1
x1 x2 y1 y2
is the slope of right bisector.
,

2
y2 y1
2

## EQUATION OF ALTITUDES OF A TRAINGLE

Step-1:

Find the slopes of altitudes. (if you find slopes of sides, then you can find slopes of altitudes, because sides

Step-2:

m1.m2 1 )

## EQUATION OF MEDIANS OF A TRAINGLE

Step-1:

Find the mid points of sides. Now we have two points for each median, one is mid point and other one is

vertices
Step-2:

## By using two-points form of a straight line

y y1
x x1
you can find the equations

y2 y1 x2 x1

## EQUATION OF PERPENDICULAR BISECTORS OF A TRAINGLE

Step-1:

First find mid points of sides and slopes of all sides. (if you find slopes of sides, then you can find slopes of

perpendicular bisectors, because sides and perpendicular bisectors are perpendicular and
Step-2:

m1.m2 1 )

## EQUATIONS OF LINES IN MATRIX FORM

One Linear Equation:

ax by c 0

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in matrix form

x
b c
y

in matrix form

a1
a
2

Two lines

b1 x c1

b2 y c2

## Three Linear Equations:

a1

in matrix form a2

a3

a1 x b1 y c1 0 and a2 x b2 y c2 0

b1
b2
b3

Three lines

a1 x b1 y c1 0 , a2 x b2 y c2 0 and a3 x b3 y c3 0

c1 x 0
c2 y 0
c3 z 0

## General Form of Homogeneous Equation:

f kx, ky k n f x, y

Theorem:

equation

The angle

ax2 2hxy by 2 0

## Note: If the lines represented by

If the lines represented by

2 h2 ab
ab

## ax2 2hxy by 2 0 are parallel, then h2 ab 0

ax2 2hxy by 2 0 are perpendicular, then a b 0

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