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Composed by Engin Batrk
TYPE

Notes

04: INTRODUCTION TO ANALYTIC GEOMETRY

CLASS

XII

No

COORDINATE SYSTEM

Quadrant
1st
2nd
3rd
4th

x
+
+

Distance Formula:
and B is equal to

Let

y
+
+
-

A x1 , y1 and B x2 , y2 be two points on coortinate system. Then distance between A

AB d

x2 x1 y2 y1
2

Division Formula or Ratio Formula: Let

A x1 , y1 and B x2 , y2 be two points on coortinate system. Let a point

P x, y divide the join AB in the ratio AP : PB k1 : k2


k x k x k y k y
P 1 2 2 1, 1 2 2 1
k1 k2
k1 k2
Mid Point of AB:

Let P be the mid point of the join AB

x x y y2
P 1 2 , 1

2
2

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External Division:

k x k x k y k y
P 1 2 2 1, 1 2 2 1
k1 k2
k1 k2
Note:

Theorem:

The medians of a triangle are concurent and that point of concurrency divides each one of them in the ratio

2 :1
In-Centre of a Traingle:

Escribed Circle:

The point of concurrency of the angle bisectors of a triangle is called in-centre

The circle touching two sides of a triangle internally and the third side externally is called an escribed

circle

TRANSLATION AND RORATION OF AXES

Translation of Axes
Let xy is the original coordinates system and XY is the new coordinate system.
Translation of

P X , Y with respect to new coordinate system is X x h, Y y k

Translation of

P x, y with respect to original coordinate system is x X h, y Y k

Rotation of Axes
Let xy is the original coortinates system and XY is the new coordinate system.
Translation of

P X , Y with respect to new coordinate system is X x cos y sin , Y x sin y cos

Translation of

P x, y with respect to original coordinate system is x X cos Y sin , Y X sin Y cos


EQUATIONS OF STRAIGHT LINES

Inclination Angle:

The inclination of a non horizontal line

Slope or Gradient:

If

Slope is denoted by

is the angle

is the inclination of a non-vertical line

,00 1800

l , then its slope or gradient is tan

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Slope of a Line Passing Through Two Points:

Let

A x1 , y1 and B x2 , y2 be two points, then m

X- Intercept: If a line intersects x-axis at point

a, 0 then

a is called x-intercept of the line

Y- Intercept: If a line intersects x-axis at point

0,b

Slope-Intercepts Form of Equation of a Line:

Equation of Line With x-intercept:

y m x a

Equation of Line With y-intercept:

y mx c

then

is called y-intercept of the line

y mx c

Point-Slope Form of Equation of a Straight Line:

y y1 m x x1

Symetric Form of Equation of a Straight Line:

x x1 y y1

cos sin

Two Points Form of Equation of a Straight Line:

y y1
x x1

y2 y1 x2 x1

Intercepts Form of Equation of a Straight Line:

x y
1
a b

Normal Form of Equation of a Straight Line:

x cos y sin p

General Equation of a Straight Line:

y2 y1
x2 x1

The general equation of a straight line is

ax by c 0 , where wheither

a 0 or b 0

Case-1:

If a 0 and b 0 , then the equation

ax by c 0 take the form x

c
, which is equation of
a

ax by c 0 take the form y

c
, which is equation of
b

line parallel to y-axis.


Thus, the line is parallel to y-axis if b 0

Case-2:

If a 0 and b 0 , then the equation

line parallel to x-axis.


Thus, the line is parallel to x-axis if a 0

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Case-3:

If

equation of line with

a
c
a 0 and b 0 , then the equation ax by c 0 take the form y x , which is
b
b

a
c
slope and y-intercept
b
b

Transformation of General Equation of a Straight Line to Slope Intercept Form


General Form of a Straight Line is

a
c
ax by c 0 ,then slope intercept form is y x
b
b

Transformation of General Equation of a Straight Line to Intercepts Form


General Form of a Straight Line is

x
y

1
c
c

a
b

ax by c 0 ,then intercepts form is

Transformation of General Equation of a Straight Line to Normal Form


General Form of a Straight Line is

ax by c 0 ,then normal form is

ax
a b
2

by
a b
2

c
a b2
2

Transformation of General Equation of a Straight Line to Point-Slope Form


General Form of a Straight Line is

a
c
ax by c 0 ,then point-slope form is y x
b
a

Transformation of General Equation of a Straight Line to Two-Points Form


General Form of a Straight Line is

a
c
ax by c 0 ,then two-points form is y x
b
a

Transformation of General Equation of a Straight Line to Symmetric Form

General Form of a Straight Line is

ax by c 0 ,then symmetric form is

c
a

b
a 2 b2

y
a
a 2 b2

POSITION OF A POINT WITH RESPECT TO A LINE

The point

A x1 , y1 is below the line ax by c 0 if

ax1 by1 c 0 for b 0 or ax1 by1 c 0 for b 0

The point

A x1 , y1 is above the line ax by c 0 if

ax1 by1 c 0 for b 0 or ax1 by1 c 0 for b 0

The point

A x1 , y1 is on the line ax by c 0 if

ax1 by1 c 0

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DISTANCE OF A POINT FROM A LINE


The distance

d of the point A x1 , y1 from the line ax by c 0 is

ax1 by1 c
a 2 b2

DISTANCE BETWEEN TWO PARALLEL LINES


We use the same formula for finding distance between two parallel lines. First we find a point on one of the lines then by
using the formula we find distance between the point and the second line
AREA OF A TRIANGULAR REGION
Let

A x1 , y1 , B x2 , y2 and C x3 , y3 be the vertices of the triangular region.

1
1
Then the formula finding the area is
x1
2
y1

Note:

If

x2

x3

y2

y3

x1

x2

x3 0 , then A x1 , y1 , B x2 , y2 and C x3 , y3 are said to be collinear points

y1

y2

y3

POINT OF INTERSECTION OF TWO STRAIGHT LINES


The point of intersection of two lines
Note:

If

bc b c a c a c
a1 x b1 y c1 0 and a2 x b2 y c2 0 is 1 2 2 1 , 2 1 1 1
a1b2 a2b1 a1b2 a2b1

a1b2 a2b1 0 , then lines a1 x b1 y c1 0 and a2 x b2 y c2 0 will have no common point and therefore,

these lines will be parallel lines.


If lines are parallel then

a1 a2

b1 b2

CONDITION OF CONCURRENCY OF THREE STRAIGT LINES

The condition of concurrency of three lines

a1

b1

c1

a1 x b1 y c1 0 , a2 x b2 y c2 0 and a3 x b3 y c3 0 is a2
a3

b2

c2 0

b3

c3

ANGLE OF INTERSECTION OF TWO LINES

tan

m2 m1
1 m1.m2

a1 x b1 y c1 0 and a2 x b2 y c2 0 are perpendicular if a1a2 b1b2 0

Theorem 1:

The lines

Theorem 2:

The altitudes of triangle are concurrent

Theorem 3:

The right bisectors of triangle are concurrent

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Theorem 3:

The side bisectors of triangle are concurrent

EQUATION OF LINES THROUGH THE POINT OF INTERSECTION OF TWO LINES


Consider two lines

a1 x b1 y c1 0 , a2 x b2 y c2 0 and a point A x1 , y1 then the equation lines through the point

of intersection of two lines is ,

a1 x1 b1 y1 c1 k a2 x1 b2 y1 c2 0
EQUATION OF THE RIGHT BISECTOR OF A SEGMENT
Let

A x1 , y1 and A x2 , y2 be the end points of the segment. For finding equation of right bisector, first find mid point of

AB and slope of AB

Then the equation of right bisector will be

Note:

y1 y2
x x
x x
2 1 x 1 2
y2 y1
2
2

x2 x1
x1 x2 y1 y2
is the slope of right bisector.
,

is the mid point of AB and


2
y2 y1
2

EQUATION OF ALTITUDES OF A TRAINGLE

Step-1:

Find the slopes of altitudes. (if you find slopes of sides, then you can find slopes of altitudes, because sides

and altitudes are perpendicular and


Step-2:

m1.m2 1 )

By using point-slope form of a straight line

y y1 m x x1 you can find the equations

EQUATION OF MEDIANS OF A TRAINGLE

Step-1:

Find the mid points of sides. Now we have two points for each median, one is mid point and other one is

vertices
Step-2:

By using two-points form of a straight line

y y1
x x1
you can find the equations

y2 y1 x2 x1

EQUATION OF PERPENDICULAR BISECTORS OF A TRAINGLE

Step-1:

First find mid points of sides and slopes of all sides. (if you find slopes of sides, then you can find slopes of

perpendicular bisectors, because sides and perpendicular bisectors are perpendicular and
Step-2:

By using point-slope form of a straight line

m1.m2 1 )

y y1 m x x1 you can find the equations

EQUATIONS OF LINES IN MATRIX FORM


One Linear Equation:

ax by c 0

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in matrix form

x
b c
y

Two Linear Equations:


in matrix form

a1
a
2

Two lines

b1 x c1

b2 y c2

Three Linear Equations:

a1

in matrix form a2

a3

a1 x b1 y c1 0 and a2 x b2 y c2 0

b1
b2
b3

Three lines

a1 x b1 y c1 0 , a2 x b2 y c2 0 and a3 x b3 y c3 0

c1 x 0
c2 y 0
c3 z 0

HOMOENEOUS EQUATIONS OF SECOND DEGREE IN TWO VARIABLES

General Form of Homogeneous Equation:

f kx, ky k n f x, y

Second Degree of Homogeneous Equation:


Theorem:

equation

The angle

ax2 2hxy by 2 0

f kx, ky k n f x, y between the lines represented by the homogeneous second degree

ax2 2hxy by 2 0 is given by tan

Note: If the lines represented by


If the lines represented by

2 h2 ab
ab

ax2 2hxy by 2 0 are parallel, then h2 ab 0


ax2 2hxy by 2 0 are perpendicular, then a b 0

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