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Have copies of other applicable piping/hydro standards at Test site, have open book discussion forum with candidate. Allow
candidate time and stress the importance of using Scope & Index when referring to Standards or searching for
Identify the lowest point elevation on all drawings
Identify any Mark Numbers on drawings (samples given)
Identify any unusual features or items to be removed for hydrotest (orifice flanges, equipment, filters, traps,
Identify any valves requiring field hydrotesting
On each Drawing, list the following at the bottom of the drawing:

Line number

Piping Class

Flange ratings

Gasket types

Limiting Factor for Hydrotest

Medium for testing

Any Special Process Requirements (PWHT, NDT, Seal welding, etc) & SAES-W-011 100% requirements such as

SAES-W-011 (Welding)

SAES-A-004 (Pressure Testing)

SAES-A-007 (Test Fluids/Lay up)

SAES-L-005 (Piping Material Specifications)

Line Class Designators
Where are the Saudi Aramco Line Class Designators and Service Codes. See Sect. 7, have candidate break
down example of 6-CA-127-1CS3C.
6 = Line Size, CA = Caustic Service, 127 = Line Identification #, 1 = Pressure Rating @ 150#, CS =
Matl, 3 = Corr. Allow 4.8mm, C = Service (Caustic)
Branch Connection Tables (page 22, ensure candidate can use table)
What type of connection is acceptable for a 24 header, 12 branch?
Weldolet or branch weld with reinforcing pad.

SAES-L-050 (Construction Requirements for Metallic Piping)

Friction Factors
Torque value tables
Stud Tightening Sequence
Be able to identify the different type of gaskets/color coding per TPSA procedures

SAES-L-056 (Testing of Plant Piping)

04-SAMMS-048 (Valve Testing)

GI 2.102 Pressure Testing Safely

Pre-Punch Checklist
1. Lay-up procedure and estimated service date has been determined (60-day rule).
2. Line completed and in compliance with SA standards & Isometrics (as built or redlined dwgs available during punching).
3. System boundaries have been clearly identified and temporary blinds have been installed per hydro test diagram.
4. Correct Construction Materials utilized (grade/schedule). PMI reports reviewed/OK. HIC Testing Certs available.
5. Correct rating of materials (flanges, forged fittings). Determine test limitations (psi).
6. Branch reinforcement meets SA standards and piping specifications.
7. Orifice flanges flush, seal welded internally and in correct orientation. NDT (PT) & visual inspection of internals documented and
accepted prior to flange tensioning.
8. Piping installed plumb and level, slope angle correct where required. 50MM minimum clearance can be obtained, especially after
insulation. Dead legs are not within 625mm of structural supports.
9. Weep holes and vent holes in reinforcement and wear pads. Air testing completed, OK.
10. Seal welding of threaded connections completed to the first block valve.
11. Valve types, location and orientation correct. Field hydrotesting report acceptable.
12. Correct bolts installed and identified. Stamping of hardware meets specifications.
13. Temporary gasket locations have been identified for gasket reinstatement on dwgs.
14. Correct gasket type, size and rating. Reports/dwgs for Gasket installation accepted.
Color-coded marking on hardware by QC has identified final torque acceptable.
15. Permanent supports and guides are installed. Temp. supports (if needed) installed.
16. All welding completed and documented, QC reports available.
17. NDT completed and all outstanding repairs completed, accepted and documented.
18. PWHT and hardness testing completed accepted and documented.
19. Water quality analysis requirements for flushing (12 inch and below) and filling are determined and Reports/certs are available.
Chemical additives to flushing and test water for heater coils and headers and other specialty items have been determined.
20. Flushing of lines to 12 diameter with appropriate quality water/chemicals has been performed. Cleaning with air and rags on lines
14 and above has been completed. Flushing Certificate accepted.
21. Check valves and/or flappers removed.
22. Instruments (level gauges, relief valves, control valves, orifices, etc) isolated, gagged and removed as required by SA standards.
23. Strainers, filters and in-line components removed as required by SA standards.
24. High point vents fully opened prior to and during filling to remove air from the system. Low point drain available and identified as

25. Pressure gauges installed (2 minimum), with relief valve calibrated as required for 5% over pressurization.

General Information
What is an Inspection & Test Plan? A mandatory item in the Quality Plan that guides and assures quality in a specific type of work in a
specific sequence of QC activity steps.
What is a Quality Control procedure? A document that details the specific steps needed to fulfill the QC activity in the ITP
What is a Quality Control Form? A written documentation detailing a specific activity in the ITP & QC Procedure
What references will be found in ITPs? SA STDs, Procedures and code references, specifications
What is a specification? A specification is a guideline to assure that minimum quality standards are met
What 4 types of Inspection Action points are found in the ITP? Hold, Witness, Surveillance, Review
Explain the differences between the 4 types of Inspection points? Detail answer and ensure a clear understanding by candidate
What is a P&ID? Piping and instrument Diagram will show the piping layout and detailed notes relating to piping and instrumtation.
What is an SIS? Safety Instruction Sheet that gives full design details related to a piping system or line.
What is a piping system? Describes the specific service or fluid.
What is the piping line class designation? A specific name in alphanumeric designation describes features of a piping system.
Give an example of a line designation from Isometric Drawing? 1CS1P3 = 150# class, Carbon Steel, 1/16 CA, General Hydrocarbon
What is an isometric drawing? A detailed piping system/line drawing with reference to construction and material requirements
What things are found in a Piping Isometric drawing? Line conditions, references to drawings, materials of construction,
continuations, orientation, piping and drawing details and notes, revision control and approval status.
What is a Material List or Material Take-Off Sheet (MTO)? Details of materials used in construction of Isometric.
What is a PIP? Process Industry Practice details requirements for fabrication as Industry Practice. These are often the basis for SA stds
Give an example of a PIP? PNSC 0001, PNSC 0011, PNSC 0021
What kinds of information and requirements are found in PIPs? Common industry practices for manufacture & construction
Name the different types of Service Conditions? Temperature, pressure and fluid type

Material Inspection
Match physical condition in field to service condition shown on ISO/P&ID/SIS

How do you verify (name several items to check) that the correct piping material is used? Mill Cert, heat number, colorcoding & PMI, schedule, rating, Carbon Equivalent value for PREHEAT, diameter, class, grade.

How do you identify fittings and flanges? Correct ratings, sizes, class, schedules as marked on fittings & mill certs

How do you check piping for the correct schedule? Use a Vernier Caliper and ensure piping is within tolerances.

What are the tolerances for physical piping straightness and defects? Check the ASTM or API piping specification.

What is the standard mill tolerance for piping? 87-1/2% (all) to 115% (greater than 2), 120% (2 & less) of nominal

Valves of the correct rating and material. Check materials, CMTRs & trim during Valve Testing (Visual inspection)
What is the tolerance for ovality of piping? 1%.
Example: 24 piping is 610mm. One joint can be 610 x 610 (oval), another can be 604 x 616 (1% out & within tolerance). When
matched for fitting, how will internal alignment of piping meet 1.5mm tolerance in SAES-W-011.
Crescent technique for repairing ovality is required (method statement). Crescent is (2) 12mm crescent shaped plates separated by
steel bar center that distributes load and bearing force and increases efficiency, doubles production by and reduces potential damage to
piping. Jacking limits (30 ton maximum for CS, much less for SS) to 25mm max. Cold bending and forming repairs including rolling
thick repads require a method statement and must conform to ASME B31.3. Hammering on steel is not allowed and evidence of
hammer marks is cause for rejection and removal of affected item.
Determine Process
SMAW ONLYFollow CE determination values in Drawings and Tables 3, 3A notes of SAES-W-011 for pipe, fitting, and flg.
GTAW or GTAW/SMAWFor field fabrication or repair of carbon steel materials (all ASME P-No. 1 materials, including API
grades up to and including X60), use preheats listed in Standard Drawing W-AE-036451, sheet 1-8
Mill Certs
CE Values
GTAW Process
Heat Input
Determine Preheat Requirements
from Table for GTAW

Flanged Joints (SAES-L-050, PIPs PNSC series, Checklists, PFI-ES-3)

What are the different types of mating flanges? Name the 4 most common RFWNF, RFSO, RTJ, and FF
Describe good inspection practice during gasket installation? List common problems associated with poor practice.
TPSA Gasket installation checklist approved is the correct answer. Detailed discussion to follow.
What is the requirement for bolting and torqueing flanges at SA? SAES-L-050, Tables and applicable procedure
What is a friction factor?
What is the difference between torqueing CS and SS bolting? Yield strength is greater in Carbon and torque values are greater
Does the use of galvanized bolts require any special torqueing consideration, or can the CS bolt torqueing values be used?
What is a spectacle plate? Mandatory SA Std dwg with plate used for service and shutdown (isolation) for maintenance purposes
What are jackscrews and when are they required? They are located at flanged connections to facilitate maintenance and removal of
spectacle and orifice plates to facilitate maintenance
What is often overlooked during orifice flange fabrication? Grinding butt welds flush and seal welding orifice.
What NDT methods are required during orifice flange installations? Visual and PT/MT
Flange tolerances during construction are found where? SAES-L-050 & PFI-ES-3.
Describe how flanges can be misaligned in different directions? Rotational offset & hole misalignment, misaligned vertically & horiz
What is cold spring? Application of mechanical stress (bending twisting pulling) upon a piping segment to achieve bolting and
connection to another segment. Is cold spring acceptable? No

How can an inspector determine if cold spring exists visually on a flanged section of piping? Visual determination is easy. Close
inspection of flanged connection and any visible deformation, especially in small diameter sections.
When a flange connects to a pump or other equipment, is there any special tolerance involved? Yes, Mfg tolerance.

Threaded Joints (SAES-L-010, PIPs, Checklists)

What is the maximum diameter piping allowed in hazardous service? 1-1/2
What is the minimum sized piping that can be installed on pipe racks? 1 (AB-036207-Pipe spacing)
What is the required thread engagement for piping at SA and where can it be found?
What is the requirement for seal welding at SA? SAES-L-010 and specifications.
Can Teflon tape be used prior to seal welding?
How many threads can be visible after seal welding threaded joints? Zero, seal welding must cover all threads.

Socket Joints (SAES-L-010, PIPs, Checklists)

What is the gap requirement for socket welds for new construction? 1.5mm to 3mm gap prior to welding.
What is the best way to assure consistent gap is maintained? Use of gap-o-let rings
What is the minimum fillet weld size for a socket welded connection? 1-1/4t but not less than 3.2mm.
What are common failures in the quality system during fit up that leads to hydrotest failures? Failure to properly clean, deburr and
degrease fittings and piping prior to welding. Oil residue from cutting causes thru weld porosity and leakage during hydro tests.

Welded Branch Connections (SAES-L-005, PIPs, TPSA Piping Specs, Checklists)

Ensure SA STD dwg AE-036175 is used and followed extensively related to welding bosses.
Before fitting repad over branch, what requirements for SA work applies?
Follow Spec Branch Connection Tables and Std drawings to determine required construction.
Have the tell-tale holes for air testing been drilled, tapped, deburred and oil removed by cleaning (sandblasting)
Has the branch to header weld been welded flush, NDT performed, accepted prior to fit up of repad.
Has the repad been properly cold worked and radiused to meet the piping OD and assure good fit up. No hammer marks.
Do not allow flange tack welding above the branch connection until the repad fit is acceptable. Maximum gap is 1.6 mm.
A 6 mm gap maximum is allowed between repad and branch for root opening.
Follow preheat tables and W-011 requirements for GTAW & SMAW process on welding

Supports (SAES-L-011, 012) ISOs, TPSA Piping Specs, Checklists)

What critical overlooked requirement on support installation causes the most rework? Fit-up, elevation and slope per AFC drawings,
this checked by survey or level (string line) in accordance with PIPS and procedures.
What is an expansion loop? Draw a picture
What is an anchor? Draw a picture
Where is an anchor required? Draw a picture
What is the required freedom of movement for anchors? As shown on drawing, clearances are critical
What are these tolerances for anchor locations? As shown on drawing, none if no tolerance is shown.
What is a guide? Restrains piping movement, as shown on drawing
What is a stop? Restrains piping movement, as shown on drawing
Where are they required? On and adjacent to structural supports
When should anchors, guides, etc, be welded in place during construction to prevent rework from movement?
After the line has been checked, the last thing before hydrotest & punching is to weld restraints (anchors, guides, stops, etc).
What is a saddle support and what minimum spacing from structure to pipe must be maintained? 100mm or as shown on dwg.
When should shims be installed? To correct movement and correct misalignment and provide full bearing of support as needed.
Give examples of unique support details that allow piping freedom of movement for thermal expansion? Teflon slides/wear pads,
Spring hangers, hydraulic snubbers, expansion joints. Closely follow drawing details and notes related to installation

Clearances (SAES-L-011, 12)

REVIEW ISOs closely for obvious violations before piping construction

Piping spacing per AC 036207 and 50 mm rule between all piping and supports (Lessons Learned)
24 clearance from supports dead legs and drains, vents------------ Small diameter , 300MM from grade @ all piping.
Fittings, butt welds, etc, adjacent to hangers, clamps, supports, etc must be spaced to allow freedom of piping movement.
Alternatively, flush gind and NDT can be allowed as long as weld location will not restrict piping movement.
Know clearances listed in Section 5 & AC drawing 036207.

Valves (SAES-L-008)