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TITLE PAGE

THE CORRELATION BETWEEN THE FAMILY BACKGROUND AND


ENGLISH LEARNING DIFFICULTIES OF ELEMENTARY STUDENTS
OF SDN 001 SAMARINDA ILIR IN ACADEMIC YEARS 2015/2016

PROPOSAL

By:
SIMBOLON SELFANIA M
Students Number : 0905085324

ENGLISH DEPARTMENT
COLLEGE OF EDUCATION
MULAWARMAN UNIVERSITY
SAMARINDA
2016

TABLE OF CONTENTS
TITLE PAGE...........................................................................................................1
TABLE OF CONTENTS.........................................................................................2
CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION..............................................................................3
1.1.

Background of Study.................................................................................3

1.2.

Research Questions...................................................................................5

1.3.

Objectives of the Study.............................................................................5

1.4.

Scope and Limitation of the Study............................................................6

1.5.

Significance of the study...........................................................................6

1.6.

Definition of Key Terms............................................................................7

CHAPTER II REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE.........................................9


2.1.

Learning Difficulties.................................................................................9

2.2.

Family Background.................................................................................10

2.2.1.

Socioeconomic.................................................................................13

2.2.2.

Parental Education...........................................................................14

2.2.3.

Parental Motivation..........................................................................16

2.2.4.

Home Atmosphere............................................................................17

CHAPTER III RESEARCH METHODS..............................................................19


3.1.

Research Design......................................................................................19

3.2.

Population and Sample............................................................................20

3.3.

Research Instrument................................................................................21

3.4.

Data Collection Technique......................................................................23

3.5.

Data Analysis Technique.........................................................................24

REFERENCES.......................................................................................................27

CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION

This chapter consists of the background of the study, the research question,
the objective of the study, scope and limitation of the study, the significant of the
study, and definition of key terms.

1.1. Background of Study


This research analyzes the correlation between students family background
and English learning difficulties on the sixth grade of SDN 001 Samarinda Ilir.
There are some researches that inspired to do this research. First, a study
conducted by the Early Language Learning in Europe (ELLiE), a collaborative
effort covering seven European countries (Croatia, England, Italy, the
Netherlands, Poland, Spain, and Sweden) found that parental educational levels
were significantly correlated with young learners comprehension in the target
foreign language, including English (Enever, 2011). This study also found that the
parents of most children with good results also had successfully completed their
secondary education or had completed a university degree.
In addition, Zou and Zhang (2011) conducted among a research on secondary
school students in Shanghai rather than elementary school students, also found
that students English performance (as measured by a locally administered written
test) showed differences that varied by their parents educational levels. This study
shows that parents educational levels are significantly related to students
achievement. The parents who achieved university or more advanced degrees are

significantly more likely to support their children in learning than the parents This
study confirms the view that family background is an important aspect in the
conceptual framework of second/foreign language education.
Zou and Zhang (2011) also analyze family economic status related to English
learning difficulties. Family economic status reveals a more complicated picture
than the family educational dimension. Although high socioeconomic families
have spent significantly more money on their childrens English learning than
middle-high socioeconomic families, there is no significant difference in the
English scores between the students in these two groups. This result suggests that
the great economic power of the family may not lead directly to a better
performance in the test. High education background of parents can sometimes
offset the disadvantage of lower expenditure on childrens English learning.
However, the relationship between a familys socioeconomic conditions and
education is by no means straightforward. A study carried out by Wang (2004)
investigated a group of high school students and their families in an inland
province in China. According to this research, there is no correlation between the
outcomes of language learning and the tuition fees the family paid to college
student tutors. What affects the learning outcomes most is the general academic
environment of the family, and how supportive the parents are in advising learning
strategies to their children.
However from the previous researchers above, they found there are complex
relationships between foreign language learning and the influence of family
background. Parents educational levels play an important role in affecting the

English learning processes and impacting the learning outcomes of the students.
Therefore, it was worthwhile conducting a research on students family
background in SDN 001 Samarinda Ilir because family background is basic step
for learning and the researcher assumes that family background may effect the
students English learning difficulties. The researcher choose the sixth grade
students of SDN 001 Samarinda Ilir, because they have studied for five years and
they have many experiences than the other students in learning English so they
will represent students English learning difficulties.

1.2. Research Questions


Based on the background of the study, the researcher formulates research
questions as follows:
1. What are students family backgrounds of the sixth grade students in
SDN 001 Samarinda Ilir in academic years 2015/2016?
2. What are English learning difficulties of the sixth grade of students in
SDN 001 Samarinda Ilir in academic years 2015/2016?
3. Is there any correlation between students family background and
students learning difficulties of the sixth grade students of SDN 001
Samarinda Ilir in academic years 2015/2016?

1.3. Objectives of the Study


Based on the research questions above, the purpose of the study is intended to
know:

1. What students family backgrounds of the sixth grade students in SDN


001 Samarinda Ilir in academic years 2015/2016 are.
2. What English learning difficulties of the sixth grade of students in SDN
001 Samarinda Ilir in academic years 2015/2016 are.
3. Correlation between students family background and students learning
difficulties of the sixth grade students of SDN 001 Samarinda Ilir in
academic years 2015/2016

1.4. Scope and Limitation of the Study


To make this study specific, this study is limited into its scope and area
of investigation as follows:
1. The study focuses on the students family background that causing
English learning difficulties of students in SDN 001 Samarinda Ilir
2. The subject of this study are the sixth grade students of SDN 001
Samarinda Ilir
3. Resources of data are taken from the questionnaire, interview, and
document interview

1.5.

Significance of the study


The study is significant to both sides of teachers and students in-class
activities. The researcher hopes this research will advantages as follows:
1. Theoretically, this research will provide evidence about whether family
background causes English learning difficulties or not

2. Practically, this research is as a follow-up to the reader, especially the


society, to improve education by reducing the English learning difficulties
in the next generation

1.6. Hypotheses
Based on the question of this study, the problem can be tentatively answered
by the following hypotheses:
1. Alternative hypotheses
2. Null hypotheses

1.7. Definition of Key Terms


In order to get better understanding of the correct outline in this study, the
researcher presents several key-terms as follows:
1. Learning difficulties is a concept that encompasses a heterogeneous group
of disorders that manifest in significant difficulties in understanding,
speaking, reading, writing, reasoning, and mathematical ability,
presumably of biological origin and related to the functioning of the
central nervous system ( Kavale & Forness, 2000; Lerner & Kline, 2006).
2. The family background is defined in terms of family social status,
parents educational level and family economic status, which represent
the familys social, economic and cultural power, respectively. The social
status is determined according to the highest social position of one of the
two parents. The economic status is determined according to the

household monthly income. The family educational level is defined in


terms of three levels that roughly fall into high (university or more
advanced degrees), middle (diplomas from vocational schools/senior high
schools) and low (diplomas from junior high schools or lower) (Zou and
Zhang, 2011)

CHAPTER II
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

This chapter consist of the concept of factors causing English learning


difficulties such as learning difficulties and families social background.

2.1.

Learning Difficulties

Learning is done by every person in their life. They learn everything to know
what they do not know before. Reffering to the study of Susanti (2014) under the
title Students learning difficulties and the strategies to overcome at eighth grade
student of SMPN 1 Sumbergempol, learning is acquiring or getting of knowledge
of a subject or a skill by study experience or instruction (Brown, 2000 : 7).
Learning is relatively permanent change in behavioral tendency and is the result
of reinforced practice (Kimble and Garmezy, 1963 : 133). Meanwhile, Sudjana
(1989 : 28) states Learning is a process of seeing, observing and understanding
something. From that statement the writer can conclude that learning is needed
by every person and they can learn something everywhere and everytime in along
life.
Learning difficulty is a neurological condition that infers with a persons
ability to store, process or produce information. Wood (2007 : 24) states
Learning difficulty can affect ones ability to read, write, speak, spell, compute
math, reason also affect a persons attention, memory, coordination, social skill
and emotional maturity. Learning difficulties are not always caused of low

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intelligence factor, but it can be caused of non-intelligence factor. Thereby,


student has a high IQ can not guarantee someone to be success student (Ahmadi
and Supriyono, 2008 :77). Because of that in giving appropriate learning guidance
to the student, so the teacher should understood the problems deal with student
learning difficulty.
Learning difficulties are manifested in terms of the competencies. More
specifically, they affect studentss ability to read, communicate verbally or in
writing, and use mathematics. Learning difficulties generally arise in cases where
students have problems using cognitive and metacognitive strategies and properly
applying certain cross-curricular competencies (Quebec, 2004 : 2).
From the statement above, the researcher can conclude that learning
difficulties is a neurological condition that affects students ability to read, write,
speak, and listen the information.

2.2.

Family Background

Based on Cambridge Dictionary, family is a group of people who are related


to each other, such as a mother, a father and their children. They live under one
roof and usually under one head. In the other hand, the definition of background is
the scenery or ground behind something.
Formal education is one of many ways that children learn and develop. The
learning trajectory begins well before children enter school and once children are
attending school, they continue to learn at home and in the community. Parents
play a critical role in providing learning opportunities at home and in linking what

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children learn at school with what happens elsewhere. By participating in and


facilitating diverse learning experiences and activities outside the school, parents
become an important factor in childrens overall learning and education (Emerson,
2012).
It is a well-known fact that the family is a typical informal agency of
education. It has been and to large extent still remains the main educational
agency of mankind. It is call as informal agency because, there is no fixed
schedule of teaching, no time table, no formal syllabus and very little formal
teaching. Atmosphere without any affection and atmosphere with too much of
affection are both as dangerous to a child at school as at home. A good home gives
a good start in life. The root of human life is the home. This is the institution
around which all the other institution revolve and for which they ultimately exist.
Home is the great school of character and citizenship. From family child will
derived his first habits, his ideas of the world and perhaps more important than
these, his first standards of conduct. Family lays foundation for the physical,
mental, moral, emotional, social and spiritual growth of the child. Before the
establishment of schools, parents were responsible for the education of their
children. The child also develops qualities like love sympathy, and sensitiveness
to the needs of others. There is much emotional learning also (Sasidharan, 2013).
Because the home is the single most important on how well a child does in
school (Bronfenbrenner, 1969), family characteristics have long been studied for
possible relationships to school maladjustment (Gildea et al. 1936). For example,
Gildea, et al., (1967) reported an association between lack of maternal

12

responsibility for a childs behavior and poor school adjustment, and McDermott,
et al., (1965) found that the children of unskilled workers had more serious school
adjustment.
Several recent studies have focused on relationships between particular family
background problems and specific school adjustment difficulties. Thus, Felner,
Stolberg and Cowen (1975) found that children of separated or divorced parents,
referred to a school mental health program, displayed more antisocial, acting-out
behaviors than either referred non crisis controls or children with histories of
parental death. Conversely, children with histories of parental death exhibited
significantly more shy-anxious behaviors than divorce, or control, youngsters.
Lorion, Cowen, Kraus and Milling (1977) compared the school maladjustment
profiles of referred children under family pressure to succeed academically and
those from home environment lacking educational stimulation.
From the explanation above, the researcher concludes that family background
is defined in terms of family social status, parents educational level and family
economic status, which represent the familys social, economic and cultural
power, respectively. The social status is determined according to the highest social
position of one of the two parents. The economical status is determined according
to the household monthly income. The family educational level is defined in terms
of three levels that roughly fall into high (university or more advanced degrees),
middle (diplomas from vocational schools/senior high schools) and low (diplomas
from junior high schools or lower) (Zou and Zhang, 2011)

13

2.2.1.

Socioeconomic

Socioeconomic status is commonly conceptualized as the social standing or


class of an individual or group. It is often measured as a combination of
education, income and occupation. Examinations of socioeconomic status often
reveal inequities in access to resources, plus issues related to privilege, power and
control.
According to Nariswariatmojo (2011) and Rathod (2012) in Difficulties in
Learning English as a Second Language in Rural Areas of Pakistan points out in
his research discussed that family background, social relations and school factor
play an important role in learning English as a second language. There is a
relationship between social class and second language achievement. Some studies
show that pupils with learning difficulties disproportionately come from poor
family backgrounds who do not support their education (Rydell, 2010).
Furthermore, several studies on Families social backgrounds matter: socioeconomic factors, home learning and young childrens language, literacy and
social outcomes by Hartas (2011) show that the effect of socio-economic
disadvantage on childrens development have been explained through parents
decisions about how to allocate a range of resources, for example money, time and
energy (Foster, 2005). The amount of money parents spend on children, for
example purchasing books or toys, and the time they spend with them in joint
activities (e.g reading books) are considered investment that have the potential to
enhance childrens cognitive skills and language (Gershoff, 2007) and emergent
literacy (Dickinson & Tabors, 2001). The investment model often explains the

14

link between family income and childrens cognitive and linguistic development,
whereas the link between socio-economic disadvantage and childrens behavioral
functioning is explained through the impact of poverty on parental skills and
capabilities and has been found to be modest (Linver, 2002).
From the explanation above, the researcher concludes that socioeconomic
status is defined as combination of social and economic factors that play an
important role in learning English as a second language.

2.2.2.

Parental Education

Parental education is parents levels of educational background that describe


support of parent to their children in learning. Parents education is likely to be an
important factor for the educational outcome of their children. Parents are
potential role models for their children. A home with books on the shelves and a
daily newspaper in the letterbox is likely to make reading more natural for
children. More educated parents are probably also more capable of helping the
children with homework. But also the genetic heritage could be a source of
intergenerational transmission of educational attainment. Especially mothers
education is found to be an important determinant of childrens educational
attainment. This finding is typical regarding the importance of parents
educational level and the greater effect of mothers education.
Several recent studies in a research review The importance of families and
the home environment by (Bonci, 2008) found that parents with low literacy
levels:

15

Are less likely to help their children with reading and writing (Williams,
Clemens, Oleinikova and Tarvin, 2003; Parsons and Bynner, 2007)

Free less confident in doing so (Williams, 2003)

Are less likely to have children who read for pleasure (Parsons and
Bynner, 2007)

Are more likely to have children with lower cognitive and language
development levels (De Coulon, Meschi and Vignoles, 2008)

Parental education level has an impact on young childrens cognitive and


language development:

Parents level of education correlates with the cognitive development of


babies between 12 months and 27 months of age (Roberts, Bornstein,
Slater and Barrett, 1999).

Data obtained from a study of 16.000 three-year-old children, who were


assessed within the framework of the British Millennium Cohort Study
(George, Hansen and Schoon, 2007), indicated that children with the most
educated parents (who had degree-level or above qualifications) were on
average about 12-13 months ahead of those with the least educated
parents (who had no qualifications).

According to Konda, Miura and Oi (2015) in their research journal Causes


of academic and behavioral difficulties among Japanese-Brazilian students:
cognitive, linguistic and parental education factors there much research regarding
parental factors has focused on mothers. For example, Hammer et al. (2012)

16

reported that mothers characteristics have an effect on childrens linguistic


development. Suarez-Orozco et al. (2009) stated that mothers educational
background predicts childrens academic achievement. Similarly, a mothers
educational background has an impact on her childs behavior (Edwards, 2014). In
contrast, some research indicates the importance of parental factors on childrens
classroom performance. McFadden et al. (2001) stated that the involvement of
low-income fathers with their childrens education predicts their academic
achievement.
From the explanation above, the researcher concludes that parental education
is defined as levels that roughly fall into high (university or more advanced
degrees), middle (diplomas from vocational schools/senior high schools) and low
(diplomas from junior high schools or lower). This factor describe how parents
support their children in learning.

2.2.3.

Parental Motivation

Other factors that influence childrens learning is parents positive attitude


towards their children and family support increase pupils confidence in their
abilities and awakens the childs interest in satisfying and meeting parents
expectations (Campbell & Verna, 2007). In a research review The importance of
families and the home environment by Bonci (2008) points that parental
involvement in their childs literacy practices positively affects childrens
academic performance (Fan and Chen, 2001) and is a more powerful force for

17

academic success than other family background variable such as social class,
family size and level of parental education (Flouri and Bunchanan, 2004).
Specifically parental involvement with reading activities at home has
significant positive influences not only on reading achievement, language
comprehension and expressive language skills (Gest, Freeman, Domitrovich, and
Welsh, 2004), but also on pupils interest in reading, attitudes towards reading and
attentiveness in the classroom (Rowe, 1991).
Based on Hartas (2011) in much research, parental involvement with home
learning is thought to make a positive contribution to child development by
enhancing skill such as organization, planning and monitoring and language that
are conductive to learning, as well as motivation towards leaning by developing
academic interests and making connections between curriculum subjects and
everyday experiences (e.g. Hoff et all., 2002). Although frequent parental
involvement with home learning can turn learning into a routine activity, the
quality of parent-child interactions and the closeness between home and school
cultures play a significant part in making home learning effective. What makes
home learning effective is how well equipped parents are, educationally and
financially to maximize the learning experiences for their children.

2.2.4.

Home Atmosphere

Learning is complex; it begins at birth and continues throughout life. Parents


are the first teachers and role models for their children and therefore have a strong
influence on their learning. Yet, studies continue to show that many parents are

18

not aware of the importance the play in their childs education and have a limited
understanding of their role in their childrens learning. (DCSF, 2007).
Based on the role of parental Children from divorced families are more
likely to have difficulties with school performance (Hines, 1997). Lanahan (1996)
compares children from a two parent home versus children from a single-parent
home as being more likely to drop out of school, less likely to over-complete
college and more likely to become single parents themselves. Sandefur (1995)
talks about the importance of spending quality time with children. Common sense
tells us that single parents have less time to spend with their children. The
responsibilities are overwhelming. They are accountable for the entire family
income, maintaining a home, nutrition needs and child rearing.

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CHAPTER III
RESEARCH METHODS

The research methodology is divided into five parts: research design,


population and sample, research instrument, data collection techniques, and data
analysis techniques.

3.1. Research Design


In this study, researcher will use correlational research. A correlational study
determines whether or not two variables are correlated. This means to study
whether an increase or decrease in one variable corresponds to an increase or
decrease in the other variable. This study will determines whether family
background and English learning difficulties are correlated
Based on research question, the correlation design is useful to determine
whether there is significant correlation between students family background and
English learning difficulties on sixth grade SDN 001 Samarinda Ilir. The reason of
using correlation design because the possibility of relationship between students
family

background

and

English

learning

difficulties.

Students family

backgrounds such as socioeconomic, parental education, parental motivation and


home atmosphere may have a relationship in students learning process.

20

3.2. Population and Sample


Based on Fraenkel, Wallen and Hyun (2012:106), population is the group of
interest to the researcher, the group to whom the researcher would like to
generalize the results of the study. The population of this research is the all sixth
grade students of SDN 001 Samarinda Ilir. The detail of population can be seen in
Table 3. 1.
Table 3. 1 Number of Students
Class
6A
6B
6C
TOTAL

Number of students
32
35
33
100

A sample is any part of a population of individuals on whom information is


obtained. Fraenkel, Wallen and Hyun (2012:338) suggest that correlation research
design uses 30 samples as minimum. Based on Krejcie and Morgan (1970:607),
there is a relationship between sample size and total population. It should be noted
that as the population increases the sample size increases at a diminishing rate and
remains relatively constant at slightly more than 380 cases. In determining the
amount of sample, the researcher uses Krejcie table (Table 3. 2).
Table 3. 2 Krejcie table*)
n
50
100
200
300
400
500

s
44
80
132
169
196
217

n
600
700
800
900
1000
1100

s
234
248
260
269
278
285

n
5000
8000
10000
50000
75000
100000

s
357
367
370
381
382
384

21

* Significance levels = 0,05


Adapted from: Krejcie, R. & Morgan, D., 1970. Determining Sample Size For Research
Activities. Educational and Phychological Measurement, 30(607-610).

Based on Krejcie table above, the sample of this research is 80. In


determining amount of samples from each class, the researcher uses calculation as
follows:

3.3. Research Instrument


3.3.1.

Interview Guide

Interview guide is a script that we can use to help us direct the conversation
toward the topics and issues we want to learn about. In this research, the interview
guide is used to elicit data from the subjects to generate their thoughts about
English learning difficulties (answering the research question number 2). The
interviews are getting important information about family backgrounds factors
making the subjects difficult in learning English (Berry, 1999).
This research uses semi-structured interview which means a guideline
consisting of some questions that are determined first. Then more questions are
added as the interviews go on. As for the contents of the interviews, they are
related to the research question of the study (Harris, 2010).

22

The semi-structured interview guide in this study consists of question


requiring either yes-no answers or long answers like clarification, confirmation, or
explanation. Both types of question make the researcher respond to the subjects,
inquire about further information, clarify, and so forth. The questions are arranged
in such a way that the interview started with simple questions that made the
subjects feel comfortable. In the study, the first interview using this guide is
intended to collect general information such as the research subjects habit in
reading, listening, speaking, and writing. In the following interviews, more
questions about English learning difficulties and its correlation with their family
background.

3.3.2.

Questionnaire

Based on Merriam-Webster dictionary, questionnaire is a written set of


questions that are given to people in order to collect facts or opinions about
something. Tambahin lagi
In this research, questionnaire is the main instrument to collect the main data
especially students family background and English learning difficulties which
aimed to answer the research question number one (1) and two (2). Both
questionnaires consist of 40 items. The researcher use closed-ended items that the
respondents are only to choose one of the given alternatives.
The questionnaire as an instrument employed in this study has to be valid and
reliable. The researcher holds a try-out in order to test the validity and reliability
of the questionnaire. The try-out of questionnaire holds out to 30 students of sixth

23

grade students of SD 001 Samarinda in academic year 2015/2016. The result of


try out will be analyzed with SPSS (Statistical Package for the Social Sciences).
To ensure the reliability of the questionnaire in this study, the internal consistency
reliability is measure by the Cronbach Alpha Coefficient which ranges between 0
and +1 (Dornyei, 2003), and this coefficient is used to calculate the reliability of
the items. The ranges of the internal consistency reliability for the Cronbachs
Alpha are on the following table.
The Cronbach Alpha Coefficient
Cronbachs Alpha
.9
.9 > .8
.8 > .7
.7 > .6
.6 > .5
.5 >

Internal Consistency
Excellent
Good
Acceptable
Questionable
Poor
Unacceptable

on Fraenkel, Wallen and Hyun (2012:340), correlation coefficient is useful to


check the reliability and validity of scores obtained from tests and other
instruments used in research; when use, they are called reliability and validity
coefficients. When used to check reliability of scores, the coefficient should be at
least .70. When used to check validity of scores, the coefficient should be at least .
50.

3.4. Data Collection Technique


Data collection procedures as follows:
1. The researcher comes into every sixth grade students classroom and contacts
in their respective classrooms.

24

2. The researcher give information about the purpose of study


3. The respondents are guided orally by the researcher how to fill the
questionnaire. The questionnaire is designed simply to be understood easily.
It mainly consists of close-ended questions and MCQs.
4. After that explanation, the respondents complete the questionnaire in one
sitting by selecting appropriate response category which they consider more
appropriate regarding their learning difficulties in English language. This step
takes time approximately an hour.
5. After the researcher analyzes the result of questionnaire, interview will be
held for 80 students. The interview concerns in their difficulties in English
learning process. They are interviewed to explain or clarify their difficulties
in learning process.

3.5. Data Analysis Technique


3.5.1. Likert Scale
The researcher uses Likert Scale with 3-point scale. Based on Mellor and
Moore (2013), the reason of using 3-point is provide a simple answer for student
aged 11-13 years. A 3-point format make this questionnaire more easily
understood by children.

Table 3. 3 Likert Scale


Statements
Positive Statements
Negative Statements

Often
3
1

Sometimes
2
2

Never
1
3

25

Based on Likert scale, the lowest score of this questionnaire is 20. The
highest score of this questionnaire is 60. According to Arikunto (1990:249), the
qualitative criteria of Likert Scale are very strong, strong, enough, weak and very
weak. So, the researcher uses five levels of scores in scoring the questionnaire.
Based on Suprapto (2000), the way in determining level of score is as follows:
c

xn xi
k

60 - 20
5

=8
where : c: score level; k: number of class; xn: larget score; xi: smallest score
Adapted from: Suprapto, J., 2000. Statistik Teori dan Aplikasi, Jakarta: Erlangga.

Based on the formulation above, it can be conclude as follows:


Table 3. 4 The Qualitative Criteria of Likert Scale
Score
53-60
45-52
37-44
29-36
20-28

Qualitative Criteria
Very Strong
Strong
Enough
Weak
Very Weak

3.5.2. Simple Correlation Analysis


In correlation analysis, the researcher estimate a sample correlation
coefficient, more specifically the Pearson Product Moment correlation coefficient.
The sample correlation coefficient, denoted r, ranges between -1 and +1 and
quantifies the direction and strength of the linear association between the two

26

variables. The correlation between two variables can be positive (i.e., higher
levels of one variable are associated with higher levels of the other) or negative
(i.e., higher levels of one variable are associated with lower levels of the other).
The sign of the correlation coefficient indicates the direction of the association.
The magnitude of the correlation coefficient indicates the strength of the
association.
The researcher uses SPSS 16 computer software to calculate the Pearson
Product Moment correlation coefficient. In hypothesis testing, the researcher
compares rs calculation and rs table. If rs calculation is larger than rs table, H0 will
be rejected. It means that students family background has influence on English
learning difficulties. But if the rs calculation is smaller than rs table, H 0 will be
accepted. It means that students family background has no influence on English
learning difficulties.

27

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SAGE Publication.
Quebec. 2004. Learning Difficulties. Ministere de IEducation
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29

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30
KUESIONER
STUDENTS FAMILY BACKGROUND
Nama :
Kelas :
Petunjuk:
1. Ada 20 pertanyaan yang harus kamu jawab. Pikirkan sejenak dengan baik sebelum
memberikan jawaban. Pilihlah jawaban mana yang paling cocok dengan pilihanmu
2. Berilah tanda () pada jawaban yang paling cocok dengan pilihanmu dengan pilihan:
1 = Tidak pernah
2= Kadang-kadang
3= Sering
No

Pernyataan

Sosio-ekonomi orang tua


Orang tua saya memenuhi permintaan kalau ada alat-alat tulis
1
yang habis/rusak
Orang tua saya menyediakan fasilitas meja belajar untuk saya
2
belajar
Orang tua saya membelikan buku paket/LKS tambahan diluar
3
buku paket/LKS yang diwajibkan di sekolah
Orang tua mengajak saya ke toko buku untuk membeli buku di
4
luar buku paket/LKS yang diwajibkan oleh sekolah
Orang tua membelikan media belajar tambahan yang membantu di
5
dalam proses belajar seperti kamus atau buku kosakata bergambar.
Orang tua membelikan makanan/minuman/multivitamin untuk
6
meningkatkan daya ingat saya
7 Orang tua memberikan uang saku untuk keperluan di sekolah
Orang tua mengajak saya ke tempat rekreasi belajar (Contoh:
8
Taman belajar, Planetarium atau Kebun binatang)
Orang tua membelikan alat permainan yang berhubungan
9
pelajaran
Orang tua mendorong saya untuk belajar bahasa Inggris secara
10
berkelompk dengan tetangga di sekitar rumah
Pendidikan orang tua
Orang tua saya membantu saya secara langsung saat saya
1
mengalami kesulitan belajar
Orang tua saya mendorong saya untuk rajin membaca pengetahuan
2
selain pelajaran di sekolah (Contoh: membaca majalah anak-anak)
3 Orang tua mendidik saya dengan keras
4 Saya dibantu oleh orang lain ketika mengalami kesulitan belajar
5 Orang tua mengajarkan bagaimana cara belajar yang benar
Orang tua berharap saya lebih berprestasi dibandingkan anak-anak
6
yang lain
Orang tua mengajak saya ke perpustakan daerah/kota untuk
7
membaca buku-buku pengetahuan umum
8 Orang tua mengajak berbicara menggunakan bahasa Inggris
9 Orang tua mengajak membaca buku cerita bahasa Inggris

Skala
2

31
Orang tua berdiskusi dengan saya terkait SMP yang akan menjadi
tempat belajar saya berikutnya
Motivasi dan dukungan orang tua
Orang tua memberikan semangat dan motivasi saat saya
1
mengalami kesulitan belajar
2 Saya semangat belajar karena pengaruh orang tua saya
3 Orang tua memarahi saya jika saya tidak belajar
Orang tua memberi dukungan kepada saya mengikuti pelajaran
4
tambahan atau les privat di luar sekolah
5 Orang tua mendorong saya untuk belajar jika ada waktu luang
Orang tua bertanya kepada guru saya jika ada hasil ujian saya yang
6
tidak lulus
7 Orang tua bertanya mengenai nilai yang saya dapatkan setiap hari
8 Orang tua bertanya mengenai tugas atau PR yang belum selesai
Orang tua mendukung untuk mengikuti lomba, festival, pameran
9
dll
Orang tua memberikan pujian ketika saya berhasil mendapatkan
10
nilai yang bagus
Suasana di rumah
1 Orang tua yang bertengkar mengakibatkan saya kesulitan belajar
2 Orang tua saya memberikan kasih sayang penuh kepada saya
3 Orang tua saya memperhatikan cara belajar saya di rumah
Suasana di rumah mengakibatkan saya tidak menyesaikan
4
tugas/PR sekolah
5 Tetangga saya mengakibatkan saya sulit untuk belajar
Bunyi televisi atau musik di rumah mengganggu konsentrasi saya
6
saat sedang belajar
Orang tua mengganggu konsentrasi belajar saya dengan menyuruh
7
saya melakukan apa yang mereka sedang perintahkan
Kakak/adik/saudara keluarga yang lain mengganggu saya saat
8
mengerjakan tugas/PR sekolah
Orang tua/saudara memutar kaset CD yang menggunakan bahasa
9
Inggris
Orang tua menyuruh saya menjaga saudara (adik) sehingga saya
10
tidak sempat belajar
10

32
KUESIONER
ENGLISH LEARNING DIFFICULTIES
Nama :
Kelas :
Petunjuk:
1. Ada 40 pertanyaan yang harus kamu jawab. Pikirkan sejenak dengan baik sebelum
memberikan jawaban. Pilihlah jawaban mana yang paling cocok dengan pilihanmu
2. Berilah tanda () pada jawaban yang paling cocok dengan pilihanmu, dengan pilihan:
1 = Tidak pernah
2= Kadang-kadang
3= Sering
No

Pernyataan

KETERAMPILAN MEMBACA
Saya mengalami kesulitan dalam membaca kata, kalimat atau teks
1
bahasa Inggris dengan ucapan dari intonasi yang tepat
Saya mengalami kesulitan dalam membaca nyaring teks sederhana
2
dalam bahasa Inggis
Saya mengalami kesulitan dalam menjawab pertanyaan
3
berdasarkan teks/dialog percakapan yang saya baca
Saya mengalami kesulitan dalam memahami teks bacaan atau
4
kalimat bahasa Inggris
Saya mengalami kesulitan ketika menghafal lebih dari 10 kosakata
5
baru
6
`
7
8
9
10
KETERAMPILAN MENDENGAR
Saya menghadapi kesulitan dalam mendengarkan teks percakapan
11
dalam bahasa Inggris
Saya menghadapi kesulitan ketika mendengarkan guru dan
12
memberi tanda pada kata yang didengar
Saya mengalami kesulitan ketika guru mendikte kosakata bahasa
13
Inggris
Saya menghadapi kesulitan dalam memahami penjelasan guru
14
ketika guru menggunakan bahasa Inggris
15
16
17
18
19
20
KETERAMPILAN BERBICARA
Saya menghadapi kesulitan di dalam mengeja kata di dalam bahasa
1
Inggris dengan ejaan yang benar

Skala
2

33

2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

Saya menghadapi kesulitan ketika menirukan ucapan Bahasa


Inggris yang saya dengar dari guru
Saya mengalami kesulitan ketika menjelaskan suatu benda di
depan kelas dengan menggunakan bahasa Inggris
Saya mengalami kesulitan dalam berdialog/melakukan percakapan
sederhana bersama teman dalam bahasa Inggris
Saya mengalami kesulitan di dalam pengulangan lisan kata-kata
bahasa Inggris yang sedang dipelajari
Saya mengalami kesulitan ketika menjawab secara lisan dengan
bahasa Inggris, nama gambar yang ditunjukkan guru
Saya menghadapi kesulitan dalam mempraktekkan percakapan
yang ada di dalam buku bahasa Inggris
Saya mengalami kesulitan dalam melafalkan kosakata sederhana
dalam bahasa Inggris
Saya mengalami kesulitan dalam menyebutkan kosa kata dengan
bernyanyi lagu bahasa Inggris

10
KETERAMPILAN MENULIS
Saya mengalami kesulitan ketika menyusun kembali kata-kata
acak menjadi kalimat yang benar dalam bahasa Inggris
Saya mengalami kesulitan dalam menemukan arti kosakata bahasa
Inggris di dalam maus
Saya mengalami kesulitan dalam menyalin kalimat dengan bahasa
Inggris secara tepat
Saya mengalami kesulitan ketika mencari kata-kata yang
tersembunyi (puzzle)
Saya mengalami kesulitan membuat cerita sederhana dengan
menggunakan bahasa Inggris
Saya merasa sulit kata/kalimat sederhana bahasa Inggris dengan
melihat gambar
Saya menghadapi kesulitan saat menuliskan kata di dalam bahasa
Inggris ketika guru mengeja kata tersebut
Saya mengalami kesulitan dalam menterjemahkan kata-kata dalam
bahasa Inggris ke dalam bahasa Indonesia
Saya mengalami kesulitan dalam melengkapi ulang, kalimat
percakapan sederhana bahasa Inggris yang sebelumnya telah
dibahas
Saya kesulitan mengerjakan PR bahasa Inggris
Saya mengalami kesulitan ketika melengkapi huruf yang kurang
dalam kata bahasa Inggris

34

INDIVIDUAL INTERVIEW GUIDE


PERTANYAAN WAWANCARA SEMI-STRUKTUR
SUBJECT :
DATE

TOPIK PERTANYAAN
Kesulitan belajar bahasa Inggris

1.
2.
3.

Latar belakang keluarga

1.
2.

Hubungan kesulitan belajar


bahasa Inggris dan latar
belakang keluarga

1.

PERTANYAAN
Apa adik sering merasa kesulitan saat belajar bahasa
Inggris di sekolah?
Pada saat pelajaran apa adik merasa sulit saat belajar
bahasa Inggris? Apa saat membaca, menulis, atau
mendengarkan?
Apa yang adik lakukan jika menemukan kesulitan
dalam mengerjakan tugas bahasa Inggris?
Siapa anggota keluarga yang paling sering
memperhatikan pendidikan adik di sekolah?
Bagaimana perhatian orang tua terhadap pendidikan
adik di sekolah?
Apakah orang tua selalu membantu saat adik kesulitan
belajar Bahasa Inggris?

35

FORM PENDATAAN KELUARGA SISWA


Petunjuk:
1. Mohon diisi dengan huruf kapital
2. Berilah tanda () pada kotak yang tersedia
NAMA SISWA:_____________________________________/ KELAS:______________
I.

PROFIL ORANG TUA


A. AYAH
A. NAMA

B. TEMPAT/TANGGAL LAHIR

C. AGAMA
:
ISLAM PROTESTAN KATOLIK HINDU BUDHA
D. SUKU
:
BANJAR JAWA KUTAI DAYAK __________________
E. STATUS HIDUP

: HIDUP` MENINGGAL

B. IBU
A. NAMA

B. TEMPAT/TANGGAL LAHIR

C. AGAMA
:
ISLAM PROTESTAN KATOLIK HINDU BUDHA
D. SUKU
:
BANJAR JAWA KUTAI DAYAK __________________
E. STATUS HIDUP

: HIDUP MENINGGAL

1.

Berapa jumlah anak Anda saat ini?


1 2 3 4 >5

Berapa jumlah anggota keluarga lain yang tinggal di rumah selain dari suami/istri
dan anak-anak Anda?
1 2 3 4 >5

Bagaimana kondisi struktur keluarga Anda saat ini?


Keluarga yang utuh (ayah kandung, ibu kandung dan anak)
Keluarga yang tidak utuh (salah satu orang tua meninggal dunia atau bercerai)
Tidak ada ayah dan ibu kandung

36

II.

PEKERJAAN ORANG TUA


A. AYAH
A. PEKERJAAN
B. ALAMAT

TEMPAT

(KOTA)

:
KERJA :

C. PENGHASILAN PER
BULAN

: Rp. 0 Rp. 1.000.000


Rp. 1.000.000 - Rp. 3.000.000
Rp. 3.000.000 - Rp. 5.000.000
Rp. 5.000.000 - Rp. 7.000.000
Rp. 7.000.000 - Rp. 10.000.000
> Rp. 10.000.000

B. IBU
A. PEKERJAAN

B. ALAMAT TEMPAT KERJA :


(KOTA)
C. PENGHASILAN PER
BULAN

: Rp. 0 Rp. 1.000.000


Rp. 1.000.000 - Rp. 3.000.000
Rp. 3.000.000 - Rp. 5.000.000
Rp. 5.000.000 - Rp. 7.000.000
Rp. 7.000.000 - Rp. 10.000.000
> Rp. 10.000.000

Apakah total penghasilan ayah dan ibu sudah dapat mencukupi kebutuhan
sekolah anak-anak tiap bulan?
Ya
Tidak
III.

PENDIDIKAN ORANG TUA


A. AYAH
PENDIDIKAN TERAKHIR
:
SD SMP SMA D3 S1 S2 S3
B. IBU
PENDIDIKAN TERAKHIR
:
SD SMP SMA D3 S1 S2 S3
Apakah Anda memberikan kesempatan bagi anak untuk memperoleh
pengetahuan di luar jam sekolah (Co: ekstrakurikuler/les musik/les privat)?
Ya Tidak