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Title

Grade Level
State Standards
Literacy
Standards
Engage

Explore

Explain

Elaborate

Evaluate

Differentiating
Instruction
NSTA Safety
Standards That
Apply to This
Lesson

Element Research Paper


10th, 11th, 12th grades; high school chemistry
Chm.1.1 Analyze the structure of atoms and ions.
Chm.1.3 Understand the chemical and physical properties of atoms
based on their position in the periodic table.
CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RST.11-12.1 Cite specific textual
evidence to support analysis of science and technical texts, attending
to important distinctions the author makes and to any gaps or
inconsistencies in the account.
Draw on students prior knowledge of elements by asking questions
about atomic number, mass, types of elements, etc.
Assign students element research paper project and give students
time on Chromebooks to choose element and begin research
Allow students time in class to work on project and ask questions
about any portion of project they have difficulty with.
Students are to fill in graphic organizer to help organize information
before putting it in paper format. Also helps with organization of
references.
Students should collaborate with at least two other classmates to
discuss findings in research and to discuss interactions between the
different elements students have chosen.
Projects will be evaluated using rubric based on information
presented, organization of information, lack of grammatical and
spelling errors, and completeness of works cited page.
ELL and EC students allowed to work with gifted students or teacher
to aid in explanation of findings in research or vocabulary that may
be difficult. They will also be given help in finding students to
collaborate with to discuss interactions between elements.
None

Title
Grade Level
State Standards

Literacy
Standards

Engage

Explore

Explain

Elaborate

Evaluate

Differentiating
Instruction

Mole Conversions
Chemistry, Grades 10-12
Chm.2.2 Analyze chemical reactions in terms of quantities,
product formation, and energy.
Chm.2.2.5 Analyze quantitatively the composition of a substance
(empirical formula, molecular formula, percent composition, and
hydrates).
CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RST.11-12.9 Synthesize information from
a range of sources (e.g., texts, experiments, simulations) into a
coherent understanding of a process, phenomenon, or concept,
resolving conflicting information when possible.
Materials large container of sweetarts on front desk
Ask students to get in groups and create a simple procedure for
determining the number of sweetarts in the container.
This activity will get students thinking about ways to measure large
quantities of materials easily.
Moles Popcorn Lab (Girard, 2016)
Materials popcorn kernels, kidney beans, pinto beans, navy beans,
large unopened bag of popcorn kernels, balance, handout
Completed in groups lasting approximately 45 minutes
Students will record data and complete calculations on handout
Vocabulary molar mass, mole, Avogadros number, molar volume,
representative particles, dimensional analysis, ion, atom, formula
unit, molecule (Complete Window Panes Graphic Organizer)
PPT on mole/mole conversions lasting approximately 45 minutes
Mole Map given to aid in mole conversion calculations
Khan Academy videos online to give students an additional resource
for practice and review (Khan Academy, 2016)
Using nutrition facts on back of materials (soda, sports drink, fruit
juice, chocolate milk), determine how many moles of sugar are in
one serving of each.
Which drink contains the most moles of sugar per serving?
Which drink contains the most moles of sugar per container?
Students will complete Mole Conversions Homework assignment
(Distasio, 1999) to check for understanding (formative assessment)
Students evaluated during activity by checking calculations
Unit test contains mole conversion questions
Students should understand mole conversion calculations based on
units and not need Mole Map to complete problems after first day
material is presented.
EC and ELL students put in groups with high performing students.
Receive additional verbal instructions and aid from teacher.
Gifted students introduced to multi-step problems without additional

instruction. Mole Map used to aid in solving these problems.

NSTA Safety
Standards That
Apply to This
Lesson
(NSTA, 2016)

Eating, drinking, and chewing gum are not permitted in the


laboratory.
Goggles should always be worn.
Do not taste any non-food substances or materials being used in
experiments.
Inspect glassware and equipment to ensure it is not broken or
damaged.

Title
Grade Level
State Standards

Literacy
Standards

Engage

Explore

Explain

Empirical Formulas
Chemistry, Grades 10-12
Chm.2.2 Analyze chemical reactions in terms of quantities,
product formation, and energy.
Chm.2.2.5 Analyze quantitatively the composition of a substance
(empirical formula, molecular formula, percent composition, and
hydrates).
CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RST.11-12.8 Evaluate the hypotheses,
data, analysis, and conclusions in a science or technical text,
verifying the data when possible and corroborating or challenging
conclusions with other sources of information.
Ask students to review percent composition formulas and
calculations.
Calculate percent composition of C2H2 and C6H6.
How can two different chemicals have the same percent
composition?
What do these formulas have in common?
K-W-L (Stephens & Brown, 2005, pp. 84-85): Students make chart
with 3 columns and label them What I Already Know, What I Want
to Know, and What I Learned.
Students split into groups of 3 or 4 and begin filling in the first
column of their charts. After the Explore activity, students fill in the
second column. After the Explain portion, students fill in the third
column.
Students provided with steps for completing empirical formula
problems.
Students work in groups of 3 or 4 to solve the Murder Mystery of
Chem S. Tree by determining five empirical formulas.
Students use handouts to perform calculations and write conclusion
as group to deliver their verdict.
Data Chart (Stephens & Brown, 2005, pp. 125-126): As students
complete activity, they will fill in Data Chart given in activity
handout (attached) and will use info in chart to aid in writing
conclusion.
Factstorming (Stephens & Brown, 2005, pp. 76-77): Students make
a chart with two columns facts and evidence. Since the
conclusion must contain evidence supporting the claim against the
killer, the students can fill in the factstorming chart to aid in
writing conclusion containing supporting evidence.
Approximately 30 minutes
Vocabulary empirical formula (Window Panes Graphic Organizer)
Key Concept Strategy (Stephens & Brown, 2005, pp. 155-157):
Students use graphic organizer to take notes on empirical
formulas. Graphic organizer is square split into 4 equal sections

Elaborate

Evaluate

Differentiating
Instruction
NSTA Safety
Standards That
Apply to This
Lesson

and a small circle in the middle. The four sections are Key
Concept, Properties/Rules/Processes, Examples, and Practice
Problems. The circle in the center holds the Lesson Focus.
The lesson focus is Empirical Formulas. The key concept
contains the definition of empirical formula. The
properties/rules/processes section contains the steps for solving the
problems. The examples section contains an example worked as a
class. The practice problem section contains an example the
student completes on their own.
Present empirical formula steps percent to mass, mass to mole,
divide by small, multiply till whole (PPT)
Work through examples of calculations (PPT)
Materials PPT, smartboard, laptop
Approximately 15 minutes
Students calculate empirical formulas for substances in
Composition Data and Molecular Weights handout
Will be used again on the next day to Elaborate on Molecular
Formulas
Students evaluated during activity by checking calculations
Homework assignment practicing empirical formula calculations
will be assigned formative assessment
Unit test contains empirical formulas questions
Students should be able to remember steps to solve problems
EC and ELL students given additional verbal instructions. Problems
will be broken down into individual steps to aid in solving.
Gifted students should be able to solve problems without being
given steps or order of calculations.
None

Title
Grade Level
State Standards

Engage

Explore

Explain

Elaborate

Evaluate

Differentiating
Instruction

Molecular Formulas
Chemistry, Grades 10-12
Chm.2.2 Analyze chemical reactions in terms of quantities,
product formation, and energy.
Chm.2.2.5 Analyze quantitatively the composition of a substance
(empirical formula, molecular formula, percent composition, and
hydrates).
Ask students to review empirical formula steps and calculations.
Ask students what information empirical formula does not give you.
Students are to complete a journal entry about the shortcomings of
empirical formulas, what information they do not give, how this
could affect potential conclusions (or lack of conclusions), etc.
For example, H2O2 is hydrogen peroxide but empirical formula only
tells us HO.
Students are given an Oreo and asked to complete calculations on
Oreo Cookie Handout
Completed in groups of 3 or 4
Approximately 15 minutes
Materials Oreos, balance, plastic knife, and plates
Vocabulary molecular formula, empirical formula mass (Window
Panes Graphic Organizer)
PPT to present molecular formula steps and to work through
calculation examples
Materials PPT, smartboard, laptop
Approximately 15 minutes
Students calculate molecular formulas for substances in
Composition Data and Molecular Weights handout (SAS
Institute, Inc., 2016)
Students use ChemExper Chemical Directory to determine
identity of each substance (ChemExper, 2016)
Students prepare blog entry to share answers to assignment
Students evaluated during activity by checking calculations
Homework assignment practicing molecular formula calculations
will be assigned formative assessment (Distasio, 1999)
Unit test contains molecular formula questions
Students should know steps to solve problems
Gifted students select three additional chemicals to research using
ChemExper Chemicals Directory (ChemExper, 2016) and
indicate whether each compound has empirical formula that differs
from the molecular formula. Calculate percent composition.
EC and ELL students problems broken down into individual steps.

NSTA Safety
Standards That
Apply to This
Lesson
(NSTA, 2016)

Goggles should always be worn.


Eating, drinking, and chewing gum are prohibited in the laboratory.
Do not taste any non-food substances or materials being used in
experiments.