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UNIVERSITI TENAGA NASIONAL

COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

MEMB221 - MECHANICS AND MATERIALS LAB


(FORMAL REPORT)
TITLE OF EXPERIMENT : TENSILE TESTING (UNIVERSAL TESTER)
COURSE & CODE : MECHANICS AND MATERIALS LAB (MEMB221)
SEMESTER & ACADEMIC YEAR
NAME

: NAGA SHIVANATH RAU A/L APPA RAO


ID

: ME095552

SECTION

: 06

GROUP

: 06

LAB INSTRUCTOR

Table of Content:

: SEMESTER 2 2016/2017

: PUAN SHAHIDA BEGUM

Content
Abstract and Summary
Objective
Theory
Equipment
Procedure
Data and observation
Results and Analysis
Discussions
Conclusions
References

Pages
2
3
3
4
5
6-8
9 - 15
16 - 17
18
19

ABSTRACT AND SUMMARY

The experiment carried out was the Tensile Test which is also known
as Universal Tester. This test was done to find out the stress strain relationship for
the two materials which is Aluminium and Brass. The relationship is stress strain
was obtained to find out mechanical properties of the materials tested. To obtain
the stress strain relationship, important values such as modulus of elasticity,
engineering stress, engineering strain and elongation at fracture was calculated
from the test. WP 300 was used to carry out the test, so the abilities and the
features of the equipment were analyzed. The procedures stated in the manual was
followed accordingly till the specimen was tested and fractures. Before the test
starts, basic measurements such as lengths of the specimens are noted. Till the
fracture the deflection values of the specimens and the force needed to deflect it
1

are recorded. From the recorded values, calculation were made to obtain the stress
strain values. From the calculated stress strain values, the graph of Force vs
Elongation and the graph of Stress Strain relationship was plotted for both
Aluminium and Brass. From the graph plotted, the Youngs modulus, elongation at
fracture, tensile and yield strength are obtained. This is to figure the mechanical
properties of the two test piece tested.
Tensile test are fundamental for understanding properties of different
materials, and how they will behave under load. Besides understanding the
principles of tensile testing, from the experiment, we could find the stress strain
relationship for the Aluminium and Brass tested. the graph of Force vs Elongation
and the graph of Stress Strain relationship was plotted.From the graphs we found
the mechanical values such as modulus of elasticity, engineering stress,
engineering strain and elongation at fracture of the two specimen tested. From the
experiment we can conclude the mechanical properties of the materials tested as
specimen. From the tensile test done both materials tested, Aluminium and Brass
showed their mechanical properties at instant also. Basically both specimen
fractured, but Brass showed brittle fracture and Aluminium showed ductile fracture
with obvious necking. From here we can say brass is harder material compared to
aluminium.
OBJECTIVES
1)

2)
3)

To determine the stress-strain relationship for two types of materials and to obtain
approximate values for the elongation at fracture, tensile strength (UTS), yield strength
(offset at 0.2%) and Modulus of Elasticity.
To understand the principles of tensile testing.
To determine the stress-strain relationship for two types of material.

THEORY

If the load stationary or changed relatively slowly with time and applied uniformly over a
cross section of a member, the mechanical behavior may be ascertained by a simple stress-strain
test. These test are conducted in the room temperature. Three principal are apply in this
experiment: compression, tension, and shear.
Tension is the common mechanical stress-strain test. Each material has characteristic
pattern that clearly can see at stress-strain diagram and it can determine the behavior of material.
The stability of specimen is deformed, fracture with a gradually increase tensile load that applied
along X axis of specimen. Tension test usually conducted according to ASTM Standard E8 and
E8M.

EQUIPMENT

1.

Machine base

2.

Hand wheel

3.

Force display

4.

Upper

5.

Dial gauge

6.

Gripping head

7.

Cross head

8.

Lower cross member

9.

Hydraulic system consisting of main cylinder

PROCEDURE

Adjusting the dial gauge

The dial gauge is pushed upwards on the support bar until the tracer pin is touching the drive.

The rotating scaleis set on the dial gauge to zero.

The maximum pointer is set on the force display to zero.

Experimental steps
1. The hand wheel on the master cylinder was untwist as far as it could and load frame was
load down to the lowest point.
2. Gripping head was screwed with the short bolt at the bottom and with pressure pad.
3. The head was gripped along with bolt at the top.
4. The sample was put in the mechanism.

5.
was measured and noted down the test length between two length.
6. The sample was screwed into the lower gripping head as far as it could by hand.
7. The sample was screwed into the upper gripping head as far as it can stop with rotating the
gripping head.
8. A nut on the upper grinding head was tighten by hand until the gripping head was seated
without slack in the upper cross-member.
9. The dial gauge was adjusted.
10. The dial gauge was pushed upward on the support bar until the tracer was touched the drive.
11. Rotating scale on the dial gauge was set to zero.
12. Ultimate pointer on the force display was set to zero.
13. The loaded was slowly and constantly rotated at handle wheel.
14. System of the force would spread over time interval by 5-10 minutes.
15. Dial gauge and sample was observed.
16. Record the force for every each 1mm extension for the first 1mm.
17. The sample and note was recorded when compression begins.
18. The sample was removed after the sample started fracture.
19. Hand wheel on master cylinder were twisted back as far as it can go and removed the load
frame down.

DATA AND OBSERVATIONS


A:
Diameter
= 6.00mm
L0
=62.00mm
LU
=66.10mm
Elongation, L=LU-LO (mm)
0

Force, F ( kN )
0
5

0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1.0
1.2
1.4
1.6
1.8
2.0
2.2
2.4
2.6
2.8
3.0
3.2
3.4
3.6
3.8
4.0
4.2
4.4
4.6
4.8
5.0
5.2
5.4
5.6
5.8
6.0

2.5
5.5
8.0
10.0
11.5
12.2
12.5
13.0
13.2
13.3
13.4
13.5
13.6
13.7
14.0
14.0
14.0
14.0
14.0
14.0
14.2
14.4
14.4
14.4
14.4
14.2
14.3
14.5
14.5
14.4
14.2
14.3
14.2
14.0
6.25
(FRACTURED)
Table 1: Elongations and corresponding forces for Aluminium

B:
Diameter
L0
LU

= 6.00mm
=62.00mm
=66.30mm

Elongation, L=LU-LO (mm)


0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1.0
1.2
1.4
1.6
1.8
2.0
2.2
2.4
2.6
2.8
3.0
3.2
3.4
3.6
3.8
4.0
4.2
4.4
4.6
4.8
5.0
5.2

Force, F ( kN )
0
1.5
5.0
8.0
9.2
9.5
9.6
9.6
9.6
9.6
9.6
9.6
9.3
9.3
9.2
9.0
9.0
9.0
8.8
8.5
8.5
8.4
8.0
7.8
7.5
7.4
7.0
6.5
6.0
5.5
5.0
0
(FRACTURED)

Table 2: Elongations and corresponding forces for Brass

In this experiment, necking occurred in both aluminium and brass sample before they eventually
fractured, but the necking in aluminium is more obvious due to being a more durable metal
compared to brass. Whereas for brass, the necking was not so obvious and fractured suddenly
after the maximum load is reached. For brittle material like brass, the rupture occurs without any
noticeable prior change in the rate of elongation.
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RESULTS AND ANALYSIS

Formula for modulus of elasticity

E=

tensile str ess( N )


extensional strain(m2 )

Stress
F
A

Strain

L
Lo

Elongation at fracture

A=

LuLo
100
Lo

Sample A

Force against extension graph


16

14

12

10

Force (kN)

0
0

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

Extension (mm)

10

From 2.5kN load to 14.1kN load, it is in linear elastic region which will return to
its original shape when it is loaded and unloaded, and will end at yield point which
is at 14.1kN. When it reaches the yield point, it starts to have a permanent
deformation which wont go back to its original shape. The loading stay constant at
14kN and continue to elongate until its extension is at 3mm, and this region is
called plastic region. Then, the sample start to take more load again from 14.2kN
until a point called the ultimate tensile strength which is at 14.5kN, and the region
along that is called strain hardening region. And finally, the load decreases from
14.4kN to 6.25kN which is its breaking point which its called the necking region.

11

Sample B

12

Force against extension graph


12

10

Force (kN)

0
0

Extension (mm)

13

From 2.7kN load to 9.6kN load, it is in linear elastic region which will
return to its original shape if its loaded and unloaded, and will end at yield
point which is at 9.6kN. When it reaches the yield point, it starts to have a
permanent deformation which wont go back to its original shape. The
loading stay constant at 9.6kN and continue to elongate until its extension is
at 1.2mm, and this region is called plastic region. Finally, the load decreases
from 9.3kN to 6.25kN which is its breaking point which its called the
necking region

14

Sample A

Graph of stress against strain for sample A


600

500

400

Stress,MPa

300

200

100

0
0

0.02

0.04

0.06

0.08

0.1

0.12

Strain

15

Sample B

graph of stress against strain for sample B


400

350

300

250

Stress, MPa

200

150

100

50

0
0

0.01

0.02

0.03

0.04

0.05

0.06

0.07

0.08

0.09

Strain

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DISCUSSION
The aim of the experiment is to verify the stress-strain relationship for materials,
therefore to estimate the values for the Elongation at fracture, Tensile strength (UTS) and Yield
strength (offset at 0.2%). Aluminium and Brass has been usedin the experiments as sample
materials. Based on the results and graphs are drawn using the values obtained. We can use this


formula

F
A0
, to calculate the stress of Aluminium and Brass and for strain, can apply the

LU L0
L0

formula

, the Stress-Strain graph for each specimen is then drawn. Based on the

graph the slope is obtained which is the Modulus of Elasticity. However this slope is taken at its
elastic region where there is an initial straight line portion. This region is called the elastic region
in where load is proportional to elongation. Beyond this region or the non-linear portion, the
material will start to deform permanently and is referred as plastic deformation. As load
continues to increase until a maximum value where the material will fracture or rupture.
From the slope of the two graphs (refer to Graph 3 and Graph 4), the E modulus for Aluminium
is found to be 48.57GPa, a percentage error of 30.61 % from the theoretical value of 70 GPa.
The E modulus for Brass is calculated to be 57.45 GPa, thus a deviation of 53.74 % from its
theoretical value of 105 GPa. The Elongation of fracture is obtained by the formula

LU L0
100%
L0
. As such the A value for Aluminium is found to be 8.9736% and Brass to be

9.6154%. From the values, we can see the elongation of fracture for Brass is higher compare to
Aluminium. As we known, Aluminium is more ductile than Brass or in other words Brass is
more brittle than Aluminium. Brass fractures at shorter elongation than Aluminium. But for this
case, Aluminium fractures at shorter elongation compare to Brass. Maybe this is due to some
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errors. From the stress-strain diagram the Ultimate Tensile Strength (UTS) can also be
determined. It is the maximum test force before a material fractures. Hence from the graphs the
tensile strength for Aluminium is 265.30 MPa and Brass is 509.30 MPa. It can be said that it
takes more force for Brass before it eventually breaks compared to Aluminium.The yield strength
is determined by the 0.2% offset on the stress-strain diagrams as well. After analysis the yield
strength for Aluminium is 219.28 MPa. The yield strength for Brass is 290.09 MPa.
Aluminum is the second most generally indicated metal in structures after steel, and is
utilized as a part of all development divisions, from business structures to residential residences.
Brass is used to make pipes and tubes, weather-stripping and other architectural trim pieces,
screws, radiators, musical instruments, and cartridge casings for firearms.Brass is a metal made
fundamentally out of copper and zinc. Copper is the principle segment, and metal is generally
named a copper composite. Brass is more grounded and harder than copper, yet not as solid or
hard as steel. It is anything but difficult to frame into different shapes, a great conductor of heat,
and by and large impervious to erosion from salt water.One of Aluminums essential speaks to
specifiers is its remarkable quality to weight proportion. At 2.7g/cm2, Aluminum is 66% lighter
than other metal such like steel. It is likewise far less helpless to fragile cracks. Surely, when
aluminum structures are analyzed, Aluminum's more prominent modulus of flexibility implies
that weight proportions of 1:2 are effortlessly accomplished. While Aluminum has a generally
high co-proficient of direct extension, at 24 X 10-6/'C in its unadulterated structure, the
material's low modulus of elasticity (65,500N/mm2 for 6063 amalgam) empowers temperature
actuated anxieties to be suited. Without a doubt, these are by and large far lower than in a
tantamount steel structure (M of E = 210,000N/mm2). This is graphically shown by Aluminum's
heap avoidance bend, which is nonstop, without a yield point.

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CONCLUSION
The Principles of Tensile Testing is clearly understood from this experiment. The stressstrain relationship was determined. Graphs of Load against Elongation and Stress-Strain
diagrams are drawn using the experimental results. Hence the Modulus of Elasticity, E of
Aluminium and Brass is obtained to be 48.57 GPaand 57.45 GPa respectively. Elongationof
Fracture for aluminium is 8.9736% and brass is 9.6154%. The objective is achieved.

19

REFERENCES
Book
1)
2)

Ferdinand P.Beer, E.Russell Johnston, Jr., John T.DeWolf. 2004. Mechanics Of


Materials.6th Edition. McGraw Hill
Semester 2 2015/2016. MEMB211 Mechanics and Materials Laboratory Manual. College
Of Engineering, Unversiti Tenaga Nasional.

Journal
1)
2)

E. J. Pavlina and C. J. Van Tyne. December 2008. Correlation of Yield Strength and
Tensile
Strength with Hardness for Steels. Journal Of Materials Engineering and Performance.

Internet
1)

Yield(engineering). 2015. https://en.wikepidea.org/wiki/Yield_(engineering)

2)

Elastic modulus. 2015. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elastic_modulus

3)

Ultimate tensile strength. 2015. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ultimate_tensile_strength

4)

Ductility. 2015. https://simple.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ductility

5)

Youngs Modulus. 2015. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Young%27s_modulus

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