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2009

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551.44
26.823
492
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: . 2009 . 112 . . 68, . 4, . 197 .
Klimchouk A.B. Epikarst: hydrogeology, morphogenesis, and evolution.
Simferopol: Sonat. 2009. 112 p. Il. 68, Tables 4, References 197.
ISBN 978-966-2178-02-9
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ISBN 978-966-2178-02-9

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..........................................................................................................................................................................7
1. , .................................................9
2. .................................................................................. 13
3. ....................................... 15
4. ............................................................. 19

4.1.
....................................................................................................................... 19
4.1.1. ........................................................................... 21
4.1.2. ....................................................................... 22
4.1.3. ........................................................................ 22
4.1.4.
............................................................................. 23
4.2. ..................................................... 24
4.3. ..................................................................................................... 26
4.4. ............................................................. 28
4.5. ............................................................. 29
4.6. .......................................... 31
4.7. ................................................................................................................. 31
5. ............................................................................................................................ 33

5.1. ........................................................................................................................ 33
5.2. .......................................................................... 33
5.3. ....................................................................................................................... 34
5.4. - ................................................................................................ 35
5.5. : .......................................................................... 35
5.6. : ........................................................................ 36
5.7. .................................................................................................... 36
5.8. ........................................ 36
5.9. ....................................................................................................................... 36
6. - ....................... 39

6.1. .................................................... 39
6.2.
, , ......................................................................................... 41
6.3. .................................................................................... 43
6.4.
, ........................................................................................................................ 44
6.4.1. ..................................................................................................... 45
6.4.2. ............................................................................................. 45
6.4.3. ................................................................................ 46
6.4.4. .......................................................................................................... 48
6.5.
................................................................................................................................... 48
6.5.1. .................................................. 49
6.5.2. ........................................ 50

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4.5.3. ....................................... 51
6.5.4.
............................................................................................................................. 51
6.6. ......................................................... 52
6.6.1. , .................................................... 52
6.6.2. , , .............................. 53
6.7. ......................... 55
7. ....................................................................................................... 57

7.1. ........................................................................................................................ 58
7.2. .......................................................................................................... 58
7.3. .................................................................................................................... 59
7.4. ........................................................ 59
7.5. .................................................................................. 60
7.6. ........................................................... 63
8. : ...................... 65

8.1. , () .................................. 65
8.2. : ................................. 65
8.3. ............................................................................................. 67
8.4. .......................................... 68
8.5. ........................................................................................................... 69
8.6. ................................................................................ 72
8.7. ()
..........................................................................................................................................73
8.8. ................................................... 75
8.9. ............................................................................. 77
8.10. ........................ 78
8.11. .................................................................... 79
8.12. .................................................................. 79
8.13. ......................................................................... 81
9. ....................................................................................................... 85
10. ............................................................................................................................ 91

10.1. .................................................................. 91
10.2. ........................................................... 93
10.3. ................................................................. 95
10.4. ............................. 96
11. ...................................... 97
12. () ............................................ 99

12. 1. () ............................... 99
12.2. ...................................................... 101
................................................................................................................................................................ 103
.................................................................................................................................................................. 105
......................................................................................................................................................................... 111
ABSTRACT ...................................................................................................................................................................... 111

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2007-2009 . ( ).

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1. ,

,

,



(, 2008;
Klimchouk et al., 2000).

,


,

.



.


,
,
.

.
,
.
,
. ..
(1956) .. (1961)

,

(
),
( )
( ).
.. (1956)
,


. . (Quinlan, 1978)
.. (1990)

: ,
() ,

( ).

,

(Klimchouk,
1996a) (Klimchouk and Ford,
2000),
-
( 1.1).
,
( ),
, ,
(
,
).

(
),
().

( )
, ,



.
(Klimchouk et al., 2000; , 2008).

,

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1.1. ( Klimchouk, 1996).


.
,
:
, , .

()

()
:


,

.
.

,
,

.
,
.

(deep-seated karst
)
,
,

.
(subjacent karst;
,
)
,
.
(entrenched karst)
,
,

. (denuded
karst)

,
,
(, 1990).

,
.
.

10

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1. ,

.

,


.



,

.
,
,
.

,

, (. 4.4).


(),
(Palmer, 1991;
Klimchouk, 2000; 2007; 2009).


, ,
,
.



,
.

, ..
( 1000 ) .

(,
) .



, ..
,
(, 2006, 2008; Klimchouk, 2000,
2003, 2007).

.


( 5 ),

.

()


.


.

()


,

.

,

(
16 /2) (6,4%)
(0,4%) ,
,
(, 2008).

/,
.
.

,

. 4.4
,
(
) ,
.

,
,


. (, 1984;
, , 1988; , 1999; Klimchouk,
1996, 2000b).

(
), (
), ,


.

11

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2.

(1989) ,

,
,
.

- ,

(, 1952; , 1979; 2.1).


70-
-
. ,


(. 8).


( 2.2). (Bakalowicz et
al., 1974) ,

, .
(Williams, 1972),
(subcutaneous),

.
(, , 1978; , ,
, 1979) ,
,

70- 80-

,
,
: ,
,

,

,
.
-
.
(Rouch, 1968)
,

,

, ,

. (Mangin, 1973, 1975)

2.1.

( - )
( .., 1979). : I
= -
; 2 = ; 3 =
.

13

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2.2. : 1 = -
(Mangin, 1975); 2 = .,
1979; 3 = (Williams, 1972).

.

.
,

( 2.2).
,



(Williams, 1983, 1985),
(, 1987, 1989; Klimchouk, 1995,
2000, 2004a), (Droque, 1979, 1980),
(Smart and Friederich, 1987). 21
,



.

- ,


.


(Perrin et al., 2003; Trcek,
2003; Aquilina et al., 2006; Pronk et al., 2009,
).

(Doeriger et al., 1999;
Goldscheider et al., 2000, .). 2003

(; Jones et al., 2004).



(Clemens et al., 1999; Gabrovek, 2004; Bauer et al.,
2005)

(Williams, 2008)
(2007). ,

()
. ,



.
,

(,
1987,
1989),




.
20 ,
,
.

,
.

,
,
,
.

14

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3.

(Klimchouk, 2004a)


,

,


.

,
.
,
,
.


.

,


.


,
,

( 3.1). (Ford
and Williams, 2007) 70%

10- , ..
.

3.1. (; Williams, 1983), (; Smart and


Friederich, 1987) .

15

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3.2. ,
(), ,
( Al-Fares et al., 2002).


,
.


( 3.2),

,

.

1%,
0.005 - 0.5% (Worthington et al.,
2000), -
.
, ,
, .
,

,

.

2-3 20-30 ,
. ,
,
(
) ,
- (.
7).


2-10% (Gouisset, 1981)
5-10% (Willliams, 1985) 30% (Williams, 2009).

.

-

.

.
,
.

.
,
,
( ),
()
.

, ,
.
,

,
,
-
,

()
() ( 3.3
-).

16

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3.

3.3.
. = ( R.A.Sup.),
, = ( Fogaro),
(
R.A.Inf.). ( Klimchouk et al., 1996).
. 6.2.

.

,

.
,

(. 6.1).
, -


.


,
.
,

.

17

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4.


, (, ,
1984; Smart and Friederich, 1986; Ford and Williams,
1989; White, 1988).

,
.
(
) , ..


(Klimchouk,
2007).
4.1.



,
.

.


,
4.1
.

4.1.


4.1. ( Ford and


Williams, 1989).

(, )

( )


.

)

,
()
,

19

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4.1.

, ,

()

<0,1

0,1 10

>10

()

( )
(,
)

()

(
)

(
)

( )

( )

,
( )
(
)


,
,


()

( ),
(
)

. shaft ow

. vadose ow

. vadose seepage

/

.

. matrix ow

()

()

()

. quick ow

()

. base ow

(, )

( )


.
(
) -
,

. ,

,
.


30 (Quinlan et al., 1996).

.
,
.
(Bonacci, 1987)
0,2 - 45 %, (Freeze and Cherry,
1979) - 0 - 20 %.
20

20

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4.

,
0,17 10 % 1,6 % ( 5
10 %
).
. ,


.

,
,
-
(-) (, 1977).

,
(, , 1984).


(conduit or channel porosity),
. -,


,

,

(
),

.
,

,

().

,

4.1.1.

(
)
, 0,1 .
,
.
.

, ,

( 1 ) .

: 40-70%

10-20%

4.2
(
Worthington, Ford and Beddows, 2000)
,

, /

(
) , %
,
(),

( *, %)

(
),%

, /
( *,
%)

(
),%

, /
(
*, %)

6.6 (99.7)

1x10-10 (0.000003)

0.02 (0.3)

1x10-5 (3)

0.003 (0.05)

3x10-4 (97)

,
(),

2.4 (96.4)

2x10-11 (0)

0.03 (1.2)

1x10-5 (0.3)

0.06 (2.4)

3x10-3 (99.7)

, ,

30 (99.9)

1x10-8 (0.02)

0.01 (0.03)

4x10-6 (6)

0.02 (0.07)

6x10-5 (94)

,
(),

17 (96.6)

7x10-5 (0.02)

0.1 (0.6)

1x10-3 (0.2)

0.5 (2.8)

4x10-1 (99.7)

: (Worthington, Ford and Beddows, 2000)


:
F = K / (K + K + K)

[4.1]

F = , K = , , .

21

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.


.
.
, (Worthington, Ford and
Beddows, 2000)
: 2,4%
, 6,6%
, 17%
() 30% ( 4.2).

510-17 510-13 2,
- 510-11 510-7 /
(Freeze and Cherry, 1979).
4.2
2x10-11 () 7x10-5
() /;
493

(Halihan, Sharp and Mace, 1999). 1 ,

(96,4
- 99,9 %),
( : 0 0,02 %).

.

4.1.2.

()
.


,

.
,

,

(
1983)

.
,
,
- .
(
)
, ;
1 15 (.
). (
10-15 ) ,
,

.


,
(
).


b = (12 T / ( g))0.33

[4.2]

b = , T = ,
= , =
g = .
,
,
.

(, 1962; , 1983).
(1979),

,
10 %
.

(1970)
: - 0,1
0,3 %, - 0,3 1 %, - 1 3 %,
- 3 10 %.
,
, (2000),
(

) 0,01 0,1 %,
- 0,03 1,2 %,

.

, .

10-5 10-3,
- 0,2 6 %.

-.

4.1.3.

10
,
(White, 1999)

. (Ford and Williams,
1989)
5-15 ,
.

(2002) ,
10 ,
,

:

22

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4.

( 4- )
() (. ,
2008) ,
.

()
.

. (Atkinson, 1977)
,
,
;


. (1987)


(
),
. ,
(2000)
,
( 4.2),
, :
A=CR/v

[4.3]

A = , C =
, R =
( ), v =
,

.
,
,
,
.
,
0,003
0,5 %, -
0,05 2,8 %. ,


(, ,
,
).

-

3-7
. ,
( 94
99,7 %)
,

.



(, 1999; Klimchouk 1992,
2000c, 2003, 2004b; Worthington, 1999; Worthington, Ford

and Beddows, 2000).


,
, ,
, (
, 3/),
(
, /2),
( , )
( ,
) ().

(2008)

,
( 0,5 %)
. ,
,
2,0 - 12,0 %, (5,0 %),

.


.

4.1.4.


,
,

, ( 4.2).
c
,

( ) .

,

,
. ,

.



.
( )

,
(, 2006, 2008). ,
,
.
,


.
4.2 ,


,

23

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( 94 99,7 %)
.
, ()
. ,


.
,
,

,

, ,

()
,

. ,

(
),
(
) .
, ,

()
,
,
.
,
,

( ) .

( -

) .

,

.

4.2.


.

.

(
) (Burdon and
Papakis, 1963)

( )
.

-
(White and Schmidt, 1966: Shuster and White,
1971), -
(Atkinson, 1985),
- (Quinlan and Ewers, 1985).
,
(
)

.

(
- )

,
.


()
().


,

4.2.
: = ( Kiraly, 1975); =
, , ( Halihan, Sharp and Mace, 1999).

24

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4.

.
, ,
,
(, , )

.
, , ,


.

,
(Kiraly, 1975; Quinlan et.
al., 1992; Sauter, 1993; Worthington and Ford, 1997;
Worthington, 1999; Halihan, Sharp and Mace, 1999).
,
;
.

.
5-8

( )
()
( 4.2).

:
1)

,

.
.
2)
,

.
.
3)

,

.
, .
4)
,

,

(),
.

.

()
,

(, , ),


() ,

,
,

.

. (1960)
. ,

,
.
( ),
, ,
( ).

.
(,
, , 1973; , ,
, 1976; , 1972),

(),

-
(). ,
,

,
- , .

,

,
,
,


( ). ,

,
,
,


0,01 10 ,
(, 1975;
, , 1984; White, 1999).

,
.

(, , ),

25

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. -
,

()


-
,
. (1983) ,



.
(
)



- . ,

(-)
,

()
, ,
.


.

,


(Clemens et al., 1996; Sauter, 1993;
Sauter and Liedl, 1999).


.

,
,

. (White, 1999)

- :
1) ,
-
;
2)
.


.
3) ,
,
, .




.
,
(. 4.3-), -


.

( 4.3-). 4.2-II

,
,
. ,
,

( T2).

-
.
.

(
T1).


.

.

: ,

; (
)
,
;

.

.

4.3.

(
4.4) ( ):
( ),
,
, ,

,
, -
,
.
,
,

,

.

(,
1989)

26

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4.

. 4.3. (
): I - - () () ;
II - . T1
, T2 - . II
(Droque, 1980).
,

( 4.5).
(
) .

() .
,

( ),

.
,
,




,
,
( ),

.


.

,

.
( )

.


.
( ) ,
, ()
.
()
300-500 .
.

27

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4.4.
( .. (1961), (1971) (1977),
). : - , .
: I ( - ; ,
); II ( -
); III (; II IV);
IV ; : IV
, (); IV - ; IV
( ) .
: 1 , 2 , 3 : 3
- , 3 , 4 , 5
, 6 .

().


. IV

,
, ,
.
(
)
,

(
-)
.

4.4.

.
,

(,

) (,

,

).

,

.
.


) (

).


(, ,
1984).

,
,

,
, .
,

- .

8.2, 8.3.

.

,
( 4.5).
,

28

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4.

1)


,

.
2)

().
3)

(
)

: , ,
.

,
.

,

,
,
.

4.5.
.


. 80-


(Gunn, 1981, 1983; Friederich and Smart,
1982; Smart and Friederich, 1987).


,

.
,

, ,

(Ford and
Williams, 2007).

,
,

:


,
, ,
,

.

4.5.


, .



().

.

,

() .

(, , )
.

.
.

29

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: ,
,
, ,
,
.

,

, ,

(Montazer and Wilson, 1984;
4.6). , -
.

,

,

.
.


.


. ,
,

.
, ()

.

4.6.

( Montazer and Wilson, 1984).


() .
(. 4.2) ,

,
.
, ,
(-)
.
, ,

.
(Peters and Klavetter, 1988)
,
.

,
,
.

,
.



.

.

,


.
.

.
, ,

,
. ,

( )

,
.

,

30

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4.

( ,
).

,
.

4.6.


: ,

(Ford, Williams, 2007).
.
,
.

.

.


, 30% ,
, 10-1000 /.

( ),
,
( ).

, ,
()

.

4.7.

,


(, 1987, 1989, 2008; Smart and Friederich,
1987; White, 1988; Ford and Willians, 2007; Klimchouk,
2004; . 4.5).

1) (: vadose
seepage; : vs).
,

.
,
.
2) (: vadose ow;
: vf).
,
(
),

.
,

.
3) ( )
( )
(: shaft ow, conduit ow;
: sh).
( 10 ) ,

(
),
.

,

.

()

,
, , ,
,

(, ,
).



,

.

31

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5.

5.1.

-

,

.

.



,
( )
.

,
,

.


.

, :
, .
,


(Klimchouk et al., 1996; .
6.2 3.3, 6.6 10.5).

5.2.


(. 7.5)
( 10)

.

,

,
,
,

.
,

.
,
,
,

.

,
,

,
.

,
-
. ,
,


.

(
)
, ,

,

.

33

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, , ,

.
() ,
,
,
,
.
,

,
, ,
.


(. 10.3),

( 10)
( 9).
,

,
,
,
.

,
. ,


,
,

.


,
.

.
,

, (
50 /2 ),

,

.

,
-
,
,
( ) ,
,

.
,

,
.

5.3.
, ,

, , .

(Ford and Williams, 2007).
()

,

(ground penetrating radar - GPR)
(Stangland and
Kuo, 1987; Yelf and Creswell, 1988; Carpenter et al.,
1995; Finetti et al., 1995; Valle and Zanzi, 1996; Elbehiry
and Hanafy, 2000; Roark and Lambert, 2001; Geraads
and Omnes, 2002; Al-fares et al., 2002; Bosak et al.,
2003; Tallini et al., 2006).

()


,
,

,

,
,
..).
,

, ..
,
.

,
(
30 )
,
.

(100-50 )
.



,

34

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5.

,
(.
6.1).

,

.

5.4. -

5.5. :


,

( ),
,

.



(. 4 8).



(. 4.1, 4.5 8.12).


(
)
,
() ,

,

.
,


.


,
, , pH,
, ,
,
,

.

,

.

8.13.

,
,

.
,

.

18

(
O/16O)

(D/H)

()

,


.

,
(Dansgaard,
1964).
,
60- .


,
.


,
.


.


,
,
,
,
,

, ()
,


, ,

. ,

,

(Yonge et al., 1985; Even et al.,
1986; Bakalowicz and Jusserand, 1987; Chapman et
al., 1992; Caballero et al., 1996; Lee and Krothe, 2001;
Perrin et al., 2003; Cruz et al., 2005; Fuller et al., 2008;
Schwartz et al., 2009, .).

.
, ,

, , - ,

35

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. ,
,

.

,
,
,

/ (Aquilina et al., 2005).

,
,
.


.

5.6. :



,
,
.

,
(), WT, B
.
,
(Aley,
2001).


, () ().



,
.

.


,

. (Aley, 1997)

.

,
.
,
20 50%
,
0,1
1% , 1
10% 10 30%
.
,

.

, ,
0,315 /, 30-90 / >150 /.

5.7.


,

(Mahler and Lynch, 1999; Massei et al., 2003:
Pronk et al., 2009).
( ; . 8.10),
(
)

:

,

(~1 m),
(Pronk et al., 2009).

5.8.

(Smart
and Friederich 1987; Bottrell and Atkinson, 1992;
Kogovek, 1997, Kogovek and ebela 2004; Perrin,
2003; Perrin et al., 2003; Pronk et al., 2009 .).

,
,
(
, , , , ,
, .),
( ,
).


.

,

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, ,
,

.

6.

5.9.

36

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5.

0.051.5 , ( )
,

(Sket, 2004; Pipan and Brancelj, 2004).

,
(. 7)


.


( ),
, ,
.

,
.
,

,

(Copepoda)
.

(Pipan,
2003; Brancelj, 2004 a, b; Pipan and Brancelj, 2004).

( )
(Pipan and
Culver, 2005, 2007)

. , 27
37
10
().
(
)

100 .

(Pipan
and Culver, 2007).

37

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www.hinko.org

6. -

,
,


,

,
(Klimchouk, 2004a).

,
.

,
,

,

, .

6.1.

- (Al-Fares et al.,
2002)
,
,
.


120 ,
15 ,
0,5 1 . pulseEKKO 100,
50 , 2 , 400600 , 1600 .
(. 6.1)


,
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(F P3
). 6.2

,
10
32 80 .

6-7

12-15 .
P1
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( L ). 13

(2),
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(F ),
(D),
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,
.

.


(Tallini et al., 2006).
, .

100 ( 4 )
40 ( 12 ).


, .

39

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6.1. () ()
( Al-Fares et al., 2002).
: = , B =
, = , D = , F = , L = , P1 P2 P3 =
, X = . : =
, B = , P = .

6.2.
( Al-Fares et al., 2002). : 1 = (
), 2 = ( ), 3
= , 4 = , 5 = , 6 = .

40

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6. -

,
, ,
(

).
,

( 6.3-2), 2-4 .

6.3. (1)
, (2): =
, b = , c =
() (). 3 =
( Tallini et al., 2006).

1

3-
(. 6.4, ).
,

. ,

,
, .

6.2.

, ,

( )



1000 2300 ,
.
40-45
,

.

,
(Klimchouk et al., 1996).

6.4. : -

: 1 = , 2 =
, 3 =
, 4 = ,
, 5 =
.
: ,

( ).

( Tallini et al., 2006)

41

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6.5.
( , )

( Klimchouk et al., 1996).

( 1 )

,
(
6.5).


.
,
,

,


(.
3 3.3). ,

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.
,


.
,

,


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,
10-20 .
,
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= , ( , ).
.

42

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6. -


( ; .
3.3-)
(.
3.3-).

.

,

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(. 6.6- 10.5).
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,
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,
() ,
.

,


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,


.
, 100
, .
,
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.

.
,

,
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GB).

.

: 1)
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GB
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GB ,
( )

, 5
( 6.7).
80
10 .


, ,

13 . ,

,


( ),
.
White Scar
(Bottrell and Atkinson, 1992).
10 ,

,
.
, 45 90
,
24 -.

6.7.
GB . ,
+.
.
( )
( Friederich and Smart, 1981).

43

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.

,
.

6.8.
Tumbling Creek
, ( Aley, 2004).
30-70 ; 3)

160 .
2 3
. ,
2, .
, 3
,

2 .

,
,
,
.

(Kogovsek, 1997).

( ): 0,5 2
/, 10-2 / 0,001 /.
Tumbling Creek ,
(Aley, 2004).

.
1

.
,
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,
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( 6.8).

120
.


, 144
,
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,
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6.4.

,


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,
, 3555 (Perin, 2003; Perin et al., 2003).
,

.

.
40-80 ,

.
,
,


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:
(seepage ow; SO
EN 6.9-6.13),

44

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6. -

(vadose ow; EC)


(conduit ow; AM -
).

(
SAI).
.

,

,

( 6.9).
1000
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.

,
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/.
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,

, 13 2.

, ,
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,

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(N),

,
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(
Perrin et al., 2003;

(. 4.1).
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c .
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-11). ,
,

.
( 6.11


.
,
.
: AM ( ,
20-600 /), SO (0,04-0,41 /), EN (0,005-0,3
/) EC (0,02-1,51 /).
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6.13),
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6.4.1.



.
( 6.10),

18

( -6)

(
),
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6.4.2.

45

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,

.

.

,
.. .

6.4.3.

(
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6.10. : 18
. :
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2000 .
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( )
8, 9 10
.
( ) 11
( 6.11),

.

.
()
()
.
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.
.


,
1,5
(Bar-Matthews et al., 1996) 4.5
(Hsieh et al., 1998).
,
,
( ).

,
.

6.11.
2000 ( Perin et
al., 2003). : .
:
. :
. AM
, SO .

.

46

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6. -

6.12.
2001 .
( Perin et al., 2003). :
. :
.
:
.

. AM ,
.

6.13.
2001 .
( Perin et al., 2003). :
. :
.
:
.

. AM ,
.

( SO) .
.
,


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-9,8
13,01
, ,

(0,15). 18
SO -9,25 AM -9,05.

. ()
( 6.12).
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,
. (SO)
, -
.

2001 .
24 (
17 ) 25
(7 ) 27 (7,5 ). 22
, 3


(
15) . ,
18
.

(EC)
18 ,

.
(AM)

.

47

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2001 .
9 , ,
18,2
( 6.13).
(0,4
).
()

.
() ,
.
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. ()

9 .
() .

6.4.4.


, ,

.


,
.



.


8.13.
8.12.

(Lakey,
Krothe, 1996)

(Perin et al., 2003) .
,

.

, 30 10%,
( ).
,



.


(Perin, 2003; Perin et al., 2003, .),
-

(
)

, .
, ,
,
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138
. ,
1 , 140 ,
,
.
,
10%-
138 .
110 ,
(Pronk et al., 2009)

.

6.5.




(
)
(Pronk et al., 2009).





.


Gnsbrunnen
( ) Grand-Bochat ( ),
Vers-chez-le-Brandt (
).
.

Vers-chez-le-Brandt
30
1-2- ,
(
6.14).
.
0,6
/,
,
,
,
, ( 32
0,9 139 m),
().
(Escherichia
coli ).

48

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6. -

,

()
(.
4.1 8.12).

(
) ( )
.
.
(8-11 ) .

6.14.
Vers-chez-le-Brandt ( Pronk et al., 2009).

6.5.1.


(2,8 1,5 ) (19,1 8 )
6.15).
5-

.
,
, .
2 /,
100 /.

, 160 20
, ,
.
,
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1) (
), 2) (

),
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,
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( 2)
73% 26%
, , ,
.

(Lee and Krothe 2001; Perrin
et al., 2003),
70% 90%.

6.15. ( Vers-chez-le-Brandt): )
, ) . Q , Turb. , EC ( Pronk et al., 2009).

49

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.
( 6.15-)
: ,

, ,
.

,
( ).

,
( ).
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, 20
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. ,
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.

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-

( 1 ; . 8.12)
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3,9 /,
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-
,


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.


.
,
,
.
,
.
(Ryan and Elimelech 1996;
Sirivithayapakorn and Keller 2003) .

( , , ),
,
.

6.5.2.

2005
. 13,2
7,1 /. 28 2 (
),
, 15,1 /
200 .

6.16.
.


(QS)
(QD), .

, ( Pronk et al., 2009).

50

www.hinko.org

6. -


.


,

,
.

(III)

-
6.17
(QS)

(QD) 3 .
.
III 1,9
0,9 1,5, 1,5 2,0 2,0 2,5 m. C/M
,

() ( ) ( Pronk et al., 2009).

,

4.5.3.
.



( )
( IIIb), 7,1 ,
.

16 /,
.
().

(QS)
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.
2,1 (

6.17).
,
,
.
. ,

, 39%,
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.
IIIb
(0,9 3,5
,
m) ,
5,2 /,
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1,1

,
.
.
,


1,7 , 26
.
, .
IIIc

.
.
.


:
,
16,5%, 1,3%, 0,4%, 0,2% 0,1%.
.

36%

.

.
6.5.4.
,

, 39%.

( )
2007 .

1,5
(
7,4 /.,
) 110 .
15,8 /

51

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23,7 .

,

.
6.18.
,
(E. coli
)
: I ,
, II
,
, ,
,
, III
-
,
, .

,
.

0,9 139 m.


12 m.
( III)
,
,
.

.

, ,
.
E. coli
0,9
1,5 m (R2 = 0,85 0,87 E. coli ).

,

. ,

-
.

6.6.

6.6.1.
,

, ,


(Schwarz et al., 2009).
,
.
165
2, 31% 61%
.

, 50 .
100 150
, 50 120 .

,
2,43 3/. 0,3
32 3/,
.
4 .

6.18.

.

,

( Pronk et al., 2009).

,
6,5,
1100 / 800 / - .

500 /.
50 .

2005 2006

,
33 , 45 8 . 6.19.

52

www.hinko.org

6. -




18 (-2,9)

(-24,6). 18,


, -9,3.


( ,

): 9,5 10,6 (LTH
), -9.3 10.5 (VH),
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(TK) 9.5 10.6 (HWS).

NS

,

18 .

6.19. ,
-10,
( , )

( , b) ( Schwarz et al., 2009).



. ,
.

68 and 73 LTH and 67 and
72 .


, -,
,

(Klimchouk and
Jablokova, 1989; Caballero et al., 1996; Perrin et al.,
2003; Cruz et al., 2005).

(Schwarz
et
al.,
2009)

( 6.20).

.

,

,
,

.
,
.


,
.

6.20.
()
() ( Schwarz et al., 2009).

6.6.2.
, ,
(Fuller et al.,
2008) (2003-2005)

13-
,
Cnoc nan Uamh -
, -
,
.

( )
1900 ,
250-270
7,1 .

53

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,
10 ,
.

:
1000 .

50%,
-

,
.

(
6%) ,
.

,
.
7,1
3,7 ,

.
-6,6.
( )
7.1.

18

1,67
( -7,66 -5,99).
0,36 (S2) 1,19
(S5).

.

18
-7,18,

(-7,09).

.



,
.

6.21. , ,
(cps),
2
(SIcalcite) (SIdolomite)
-
( Liu et al., 2007).
.

6.22. , ,
(cps),
2
(SIcalcite) (SIdolomite)
-
( Liu et al., 2007).
.

54

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6. -

6.7.

,

. ,

,


.
(Liu et al., 2007)



-
,

. ,

6.23. ,
(cps),
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-
( Liu et al., 2007).
.

200 ,
(

15-
)
pH, ,
.
2
.
10
,
- .
0,0120 / () 0,05-30 /.
1750 ,
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17 . 0 2 .

,
(
)

(
6.21-6.24).

6.24. ,
(cps),
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-
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.

55

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(

;
)
,

2.

.


.
,

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2,

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, ,



2 .

56

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7.



(. 3)
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(. 1).


, .. .


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),

(, 1989; Klimchouk, 2004a).
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.

. ,
,
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(Klimchouk,
1996c).
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(Mylroie
and Vacher, 1999).

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,
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/).

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1)
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57

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(
,
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, (
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7.1.

( Klimchouk, 2004a).

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7.1.
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(, 1983).
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in situ
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58

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7.

-
(Oilier, 1969).

(, 1965),

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, (1976),


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59

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7.2. : = ,
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60

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7.

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61

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7.3. .

62

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63

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64

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8. :

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65

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8.1. (
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66

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8. :


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67

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( )

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68

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8. :

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69

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8.4. ,

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; Tallini et al., 2006).

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.



,
-
( 8.3).


2-10% (Gouisset, 1981)
5-10% (Willliams, 1985), 20% (Williams, 2004)
30% (Williams, 2008). ,


,
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.

, ,
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( 8.6).



.

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8.7.

,
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Smart and Friederich, 1987; , 1989; Lee and
Krothe, 2001; Perin, 2003; Perin et al., 2003; Aquilina
et al., 2006; Schwartz et al., 2008; Pronk et al., 2009,
).
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, 2000 2
47 ,

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. 10 ,
, .


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45
47.

(. 6.4) 7 ,

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. ,
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:

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1,8 . 3, 138
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1 ,
140 ,
, .
,
10%-
138 .
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110 . ,
100-140


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Lost River (Lee and Krothe, 2001)
,

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, ,
10,6%,
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, ,
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(Smart and Friederich, 1987),
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1992)
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,
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(
),
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, ,


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,
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,

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50
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30-50 .
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,

30 80 .




. ,
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80

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Scar ,


100 ,
45-90 (Bottrell and
Atkinson, 1992).

, 60
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ebela, 2004). (Aley,
2004)

Tumbling
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200

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,

, 4 (. 4.1 4.5).

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160 .
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2001; Perrin et al., 2003; Cruz et al., 2005; Fuller et al.,
2008; Schwartz et al., 2009; Lambert and Aharon, 2009,
.).
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.


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.

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,
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m),
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,
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,
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8.11.

1000


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4.5, 8.1, 8.3, 8.7 4.1
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8.13.

,
( Perrin et al., 2003). Q(t)
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,

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Qq Qb.


8.13.
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r.

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,
Williams,
2007).

b ( ),


( ),
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b
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1983)
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-44 18 -6,5, - -16
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a (Lakey and Krothe, 1966)
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.
20-25% 1824 .
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77-80 % ( 8.15).
, ,
.
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2001) -


Lost River , ,

, ,
10,6%,
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, ,

55,4%.
94% .

,

.
.
(Pronk et al.,
2009)


. ,
( )
110 .
,
QO
: QS (
- -),
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QO=QS+QD

[8.2]

QOcO=QScS+QDcD

[8.3]

D
I.
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( )
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9.

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Morel, 1976).


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,

.
(Gabrovsek, 2004)




.

,
,
.

.


(Bauer et al.,
2005)
(Clemens et al., 1999)
(Bauer, 2002).


( )
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Aquifer Void Evolution),

( ),

.

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. ,

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and Eisenlohr, 2000).

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1995, 2000, 2004a).


(. 7.2-), ..

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2005).
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( ),
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20 30 . ( 1-3) 2 . ( 4) (
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2: >0,0001, >0,001, >0,01, >0.1 >1,0 ; 1,3 .
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.

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9.4.

2 ( Bauer at al.,
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. 80-


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(1979,
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1995)
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10.1. , , .

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, -,

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(Bauer
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(. 9).


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( )
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10.5. , , ,
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., 1979 ; , 1989; Klimchouk, 2000)
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,
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0,5 2 ,
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)
10-20 ,
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200

(Baro, 2002),
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1989),
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0.051.5
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,
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Copepoda (Cyclopoida and
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(Sket, 2004). ,

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( Elaphoidella cvetkae,
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12. 1. ()

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Zaporozec, 1994)

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/ ,

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30

,
Daly and Drew (1999), De Maio et al. (2001), Zaporozec
(2002), Daly et al. (2002), Civita and De Maio (2004),
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Goldscheider et al., 2000; , Daly and
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104

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. . : - . , 1999. 161 .

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Klimchouk A.B. Epikarst: hydrogeology, morphogenesis, and evolution.


Simferopol: Sonat. 2009. 112 p. Il. 68, Tables 4, References 197.
ABSTRACT
The book examines properties of the epikarst, - the near-surface zone of exposed carbonate rocks, - and its role in karst
hydrogeology and morphogenesis. Conceptual principles of karst hydrogeology are rened and the role of the epikarst
sub-system in functioning of the karst groundwater system is revealed. The book consolidates fundamentals of the
epikarst theory which describes the formation and evolution of specic structural and percolation properties of the nearsurface zone of carbonate massifs and hydrogeological and morphogenetic processes in it.
The essence and the result of the epikarst development is specic evolution of recharge conditions of a karst massif and
the formation of peculiar karst landscape. This occurs in close relationship with the evolution of the permeability structure
at depth of a massif (speleogenesis). Epikarst has signicant storage capacity, distributes predominantly diffused
recharge onto various ow components in the vadose zone, and provides considerable retardation of through-ow and
transmission of pollutants to phreatic zone and major springs. In the hydrogeological respect, epikarst, with its storage
and regulative functions, is an alimentation sub-system of the karst system. Hydrogeologic behavior of the epikartic zone
strongly inuences regime of major karst springs and is an important factor of natural protection of karst groundwater
resources.
Peculiar features of the epikarst structure and hydrogeologic functioning, and high dissolution rates in the epikarst,
determine specic mechanisms of epikarst morphogenesis, through which percolation heterogeneities in depth of the
massif translate into typical karst morphology of the surface. The epikarst concept provides a ground for an advanced
interpretation of karst morphogenesis and speleogenesis at depth of the massif. The concept of epikarst evolution is
elaborated, and diagnostic features of its evolutionary stages are suggested. The landscape-forming and ecological roles
of the epikarst are emphasized, as well as its signicance as a factor of decreasing vulnerability of karst groundwaters,
which calls for a special protection status of epikarst.
The book is intended for karst and cave scientists, as well as for hydrogeologists, geomorphologists and ecologists
dealing with karst terrains.
Key words: karst, epikarst, karst hydrogeology, karst hydrology, karst geomorphology, speleogenesis, karst springs,
groundwater vulnerability.

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