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Running head: VIRTUAL IMMERSION STUDY SUPPORT

CALIFORNIA STATE UNIVERSITY MONTEREY BAY

Virtual Immersion
Study Support

CAPSTONE Report

Submitted in partial satisfaction of requirements of the degree of


MASTER OF SCIENCE in
Instructional Science and Technology
Juliana Shajari
December 2016
Capstone Approvals: (At least one advisor and capstone
instructor should approve)
Dr. Rosali Strong
________________________________________________
Advisor Name

Signature
Date

Dr. Rosalie Strong


__________________________________________________

VIRTUAL IMMERSION STUDY SUPPORT


Capstone Instructor Name

2
Signature

Date

Table of Contents
Executive Summary......................................................................................
Introduction.................................................................................................
Target Audience............................................................................................
Literature Review..........................................................................................
Available Resources.....................................................................................
Solution Description.....................................................................................
Goals............................................................................................................
Instructional Strategies................................................................................
Methods....................................................................................................
Deliverables...............................................................................................
Program Strategy ......................................................................................
Feedback and Assessments.......................................................................
Objectives..................................................................................................
Media Components....................................................................................
Challenges.................................................................................................
Resources..................................................................................................
Timeline.....................................................................................................
Design Plan:...............................................................................................
Evaluation and Testing Report...................................................................
Tryout Condition........................................................................................
Exucative Summary..................................................................................

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Methodology.............................................................................................
The Expected Outcomes...........................................................................
Usability Test and Data.............................................................................
Pre and Posttest Results.......................................................................
Questioner Results and Data...................................................................
Significant Findings....................................................................................
Conclusion.................................................................................................
References................................................................................................
Appendix A- Trisection: Reading Comprehension ILR Levels.....................
Appendix BPretest & Posttest.................................................................
Appendix CQuestioner.............................................................................
Appendix D- Project Snapshots.................................................................

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Executive Summary
The second language is not simply taught as another subject in the
curriculum, but rather is the medium through which the curriculum itself is
taught (Genesse, 1983 p 4).
Teaching a second language in an immersive way is the purpose of
this program. Virtual Immersion programs is focusing on helping students,
to gain a pedagogical approach towards learning the language, and will
increase their learning ability. Virtual Immersion is an eLearning program
that helps students to practice their speaking and listening skills, mainly
after school hours. This idea will make the teaching and learning process
much easier for both teachers and the students. Currently, there are 3 days
of face-to-face ISO (Isolated Immersion) training, during the 47 weeks of
Persian-Farsi Language Education at Defense Language Institute (DLI). Due
to security measures, students have to be in a designated and secure
location that limits the availability of the sources and resources for
performing the tasks.
For the capstone project, Virtual Immersion program gives the
opportunity to the learner, to have a minimum of 8 hours of weekly
engagement in an immersive situation with a native speaker on a secure
platform, at a time and location based on the learner's choice. The
students perform in scenario-based role-plays, and stage performances in
a simulative act. The lessons are on the daily life subjects, and students
are the main producers of the performance. Each hour is divided into three
segments: introduction, core, and the conclusion. The library of

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suggestions is open to the students, and they have the opportunity to


select the subject of their interest.
Virtual Immersion is potentially a specific audience program. The
instructional designer has reviewed this project continually to address
cultural and diversity issues as identified.
Virtual Immersion is a long-term project that has begun with this
capstone project and includes the following set of learning tools to
teach Persian-Farsi Language to the service members.
1. Reading Semester 1 (Synchronous and Asynchronous Lessons)
2. Listening Semester 1 (Synchronous and Asynchronous
Lessons)
3. Reading Semester 2 (Synchronous and Asynchronous Lessons)
4. Listening Semester 2 (Synchronous and Asynchronous
Lessons)
The capstone project includes both formative and summative
evaluation. Formative assessment was gathered from students at
Persian-Farsi School at DLI. Usability testing was done using
Department C students at Persian-Farsi School. Summative evaluation
includes both students and the teachers and contains pretest and
posttest of the related lessons.

Introduction
Background
Reading, Listening, and Speaking are foundational skills required for
language learning success. Defense Language Institute Interagency
Language Roundtable (ILR) Level standards require that students pass final
exams (DLPT) with 2+/2+/2 or higher. Reviewing the existing face-to-face
immersion program at DLI, indicated that the following performance gaps
exist in the program:

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Total duration of the immersion program in 47 weeks of training is 3


days, which consists of, one-day training in semester one, and two

days training in semester two.


Three day immersion program in 47 weeks of teaching equals to
0.92% of the weight of the program. While in language training,
learning prospects through immersion is expected to be 80% of the
educational program.

Problem Description
Currently, the Immersion Program is conducted in the form of faceto-face sessions in designated locations (due to security measures).
Teachers and students have to be present at a specific time in a designated
location for the duration of the session
The performance gap is caused by the lack of adequate immersive
instruction in the language learning process. This deficiency could be
alleviated by using a Virtual Immersion training program that helps the
students to spend time with a native speaker, who can help them with reallife practice and immediate feedback.

Target Audience
For the Capstone project, the target audience are the U.S. service
military personnel. In the military when they enlist, first, they go to basic
training. After completion of this training, they are sent for specific training
based on their assignments, such as cooks, firefighters, mechanics,
infantry, or linguistics. The Defense Language Institute (DLI) receives new
soldiers a few times a year.
The age of the student ranges from 19 to 40 years. They have
diverse educational and social backgrounds. They might have previous
education in another language due to the nature of their job or mission.
The process of absorbing a new language is easier for those with another
language background. In language learning there are five predictable

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stages, as it is said: Students learning a second language move through


five predictable stages: Preproduction, Early Production, Speech
Emergence, Intermediate Fluency, and Advanced Fluency (Krashen &
Terrell, 1983, p10)
The duration of each course is between 47 to 60 weeks. The subject
of motivation is very critical in these trainings. They are in this program for
different and significant reasons. Due to the time limitation and exclusivity
of application of the program, and limited extension of the course, it is
important that the instruction be geared in a motivating and stirring
design.
Military personnel may find themselves in positions where a clear
understanding of conversations or written material of a contentious
nature, will be essential to their mission. As a result, topics in areas
such as politics, international relations, and social mores, are designed
to be included in this language-training program for DLIFLC students. In
virtual immersion, these topics are given to the students in advance,
and they can select their desired text or audio clip based on their
interest and the requirement of their positions at their job or mission.
The students can start virtual immersion training starting mid semester
one or at the beginning of semester two. There are some prerequisite
requirements both from the military and from the school for the
students in this program.

Literature Review
When it comes to finding the best way of teaching language, several
philosophies prevail. Some say teachers will suppress inspiration if they try
to impose structure on students. Other teachers stand on the simple
structure of curriculum training. According to Gagne, Strategies, which

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influence the selection and mode of operation of the internal process of


learning and thinking are important kinds of learning outcomes (Gagne,
1977. P 126)
In virtual immersion, the learner deals with real-life situations in a
simulation, or task-based instruction, where the result of the learning is
directly the students internal process of learning and thinking.
The interpretation of Bruner is directly implies to the notion of this
program. He says; Strategies problem-solving that are specific to
particular kinds of problems may be discovered by the learner, or they may
be readily acquired by being told. Once required, they appear to function
with equal effectiveness irrespective of how they have been learned
(Bruner, (1975/76, p 3, 255-287).
Utilizing all the above systems require different internal and external
conditions. Based on Gagnes theory, learning tasks for intellectual skills
depends on the complexity of organizing the intellectual competencies in a
competence style. The significance of hierarchy is providing the direction
for instruction and sequencing instruction that identifies prerequisites to
facilitate learning.

Available Resources
To date, there was no Persian-Farsi comprehensive immersive
program available to DLI students as a study support tool.
Consequently, many students were not getting the required language
practice to get to the mandatory Interagency Language Roundtable
(ILR) level 2+/2+/2., and above.
In Virtual Support program, verbal information or procedural
knowledge will allow students to employ critical thinking and annalistic
approach. Learners will incorporate learning into a larger context, and
connect forms, meaning and use of the target language in the practice.

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Teachers can develop frameworks based on real world tasks that students
will need to perform using the Target Language and learn grammar and
vocabulary in those settings.
According to Gagne, the preparedness of the student is a vital point.
The adequacy of students preparedness influences the efficacy of learning
guidance as an instructional event. Such adequacy, though, has different
meanings depending upon what learning outcomes is expected (Gagne,
1977, P 126).
Virtual Immersion program in Persian-Farsi will help the students
elavate their profeciency to the desired 2+/2+/2 level.

Solution Description
Virtual Immersion program develops and distributes multiple focused
lessons, or sustainment workouts. Lessons cover professional topics, such
as politics, economics, and science and technology with a variety of
learning activities. The students can complete the lessons anytime,
anywhere using their laptop or iPad.

Goals
The design of the activities reflects the actual work and permits the
learner to compare the theoretical aspects of the training with their
experience. In virtual Support training, students incorporate search and
discovery and utilize the different options for learning, in the course.
The design of the virtual immersion training follows the five primary
education levels in Gagnes theoretical framework. The focus of Gagne
theory is on intellectual skills, and the basis of the virtual immersion
training is on the Gagne's theoretical outline. The virtual immersion
training is for the military language training institutions, with the stress on
Gagne's (1962) particular attention to military training settings.

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Instructional Strategies
According to Gagne, Strategies, which influence the selection and
mode of operation of the internal process of learning and thinking are
important kinds of learning outcomes (Gagne, 1977. P 126)
In virtual immersion, the learner deals with real-life situations in a
simulation, or task-based instruction, where the result of the learning is
directly the students internal process of learning and thinking.
The interpretation of Bruner: Strategies problem-solving that are
specific to particular kinds of problems may be discovered by the learner,
or they may be readily acquired by being told. Once required, they
appear to function with equal effectiveness irrespective of how they have
been learned. (Burner, J. S. & Postman, L. 1949, p 18, 206-223).
Utilizing all above systems require different internal and external
conditions. Based on Gagnes theory, learning tasks for intellectual skills
depends on the complexity of organizing the intellectual competencies in a
competence style. The significance of hierarchy is providing the direction
for instruction and sequencing instruction that identifies prerequisites to
facilitate learning.
The methodology observed in the Virtual Immersion design, is based
on the systematic Gagnes instructional events:

Gain attention (reception) Show a variety of pictures related to the

language learning.
Categorize objectives (expectancy) - pose the question: Why
learning new language requires Immersion? In addition, what to

expect from it?


Recall prior learning (retrieval) - review and use the previous

knowledge.
Present stimulus (selective reception) - produce language and talk
with the native speaker.

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Guide learning (semantic encoding) - show examples of the role-

play.
Elicit learning (responding) ask students to create scenarios, or

give directions.
Provide feedback (reinforcement) - check all examples for accuracy.
Assess performance (retrieval) - provide scores and alleviation.
Enhance retention/transfer (generalization) - show videos and ask
students to identify the subjects.

Methods
Since the beginning of the MIST program, the prototype of
the program has shaped. More than a dozen reading and
listening captivate deliverables have been created in PersianFarsi language for the use in semester one and two.
The Persian-Farsi Scenario-based modules were completed using
Captivate 9, and Camtasia. The evaluation, pre and post test
also were performed and administered.

Deliverables
Virtual Support program helps Persian-Farsi language
learners to be in an immersive learning atmosphere. The
complete program will consist of two semester platforms in two
listening and reading categories. Each category, then contains 10
modules.
Table 1 shows the relation of the learning materials designed for
virtual immersion with Gagnes nine events of instruction. In each
step, the presentation, production, and application of the
instructional design module are discussed, along with the
examples.

Table 1: Gagnes (1977) nine events of instruction about the materials


taught in virtual immersion.

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Event of Instruction

Learning materials in virtual

1-Gain Attention

immersion
Activate the receptors with the
use of stimuli
In an introductory scene, the
content is presented in vital colors
and images. The images are utilized
to hold the attention of the learner

2- Inform learners of Objectives

in the process of learning.


Create the sense of expectation
for learning
A learning objective section is
presented at the beginning of each
chapter. The Objective statements
list the expectancy of learning and
learners have the option to go back
to the learning objective section

3- Stimulate recall of prior learning

whenever necessary.
Retrieve and activate the
information stored in short-term
memory.
Before entering the learning
sections in the immersive state,
learners go through a Refresh Your
Mind section, where they can
access materials from their prior
courses to stimulate prior
knowledge. This link is available

4- Present the content

throughout the lesson.


Create or increase the selective
perception of content
Multimedia elements deliver media-

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rich and interactive content. Users
navigate and determine their
sequence in obtaining the new
information with their pace and

5- Provide learner guidance

preference.
Encode the information
semantically into the storage of
long-term memory
Content is embedded with on-screen
instructions to allow students to
clarify and organize the information.
Authentic and real-life examples are
incorporated into the learning
materials to enable the students to
assimilate the information more

6- Elicit performance

efficiently.
Respond to questions to further
enhance encoding and ensure
verification
Activities and tutorials are
embedded into content and
encourage learners to participate to
confirm their understanding of the
lesson learned. The practices are
tied to the learning objectives
displayed at the beginning of the

7- Provide feedback

lessons.
Reinforce and assess the
accurate performance
Feedback to learners responses is
provided immediately upon the
completion of the exercises. These

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feedbacks include specific guidance
and showing the right answer for
incorrect attempts as a learning

8- Assess performance

reinforcement tool.
Retrieve and reinforce the
knowledge or skills as the final
evaluation
Performance scores and
percentages are shown to reveal the
results. Also, some suggestions and
praise are added according to the
level of achievement to increase the

9- Enhance retention and transfer to

likelihood of retention.
Retrieve and generalize the

the job

learned knowledge or skills to


new situation or real
environment
An analysis unit at the end of each
learning module consists of short
video clips in the target language,
and more information for advance
knowledge. This article aimed at
enabling the learners to have more
exploration in the application and
therefore encourage them to
improve their learning further with
the content.

Program Strategy
In language learning, the learners are learning the whole process:
sound and script, word level, sentence level, Paragraph level, reading,

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writing, listening and speaking, using sequencing and scaffolding. Once


learners understand the basic concepts of the target language, they will be
able to shift to more multifaceted levels. Virtual Immersion program
emphasizes the foundational learning strategies. The learners deal with
real-life situations in a simulation, or task-based instruction, where the
result of the learning is directly the students internal process of learning
and thinking.

Instructional Content

Initial Language is Persian Farsi


Initial proficiency level is at Interagency Language Roundtable (ILR)
2, 2+ or 3. See Appendix A for Interagency Language Roundtable

(ILR) level standards.


Standard lessons: Four lessons or "workouts" per week. Each lesson
consists of, authentic materials, focused on culture, economy,
environment, geography, military, politics, security, society, and

technology.
Lessons includes both "Quick Study" and "Endurance Study" and
learning activities are focusing on the listening, reading, and

speaking.
Major International News Events (MINE) Lessons-Occasional MINE
lessons may be distributed as news event warrant.

Module I and II Supplementary Speaking and Role Plays


1. Hobbies
2. Entertainment
3. Sports
4. Physical Fitness, Health, and Nutrition
5. Military Sports and Olympics
6. Education
7. Educational Issues
8. Employment
9. Employment Issues
10.
Military Service
11.
Common Ailments and Accidental Injuries
12.
Medical and Dental Care

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13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.

16

Medical Emergencies
Medical Advances
War Wounds
Geography and Civilization
Natural Resources and Border Disputes
Natural Disasters and Global Warming
Population and Demographics
War and Peace
Economics
Economic Issues
International Trade
World Politics
The March of Democracy

Each subject has a text and audio clip with a set of task and quizzes.
Students can select the lesson and log in with their CAC card in to the
designated secure platform for the course. The length of the lessons varies
between 15 to 30 minutes and after each lesson, they take a quiz. In
Module 2, an important goal is to increase speaking proficiency in a wider
range of topics and tasks. There is a second level practice test that
emphasizes on the Interagency Language Roundtable (ILR) language tasks
at level 2 and 3. These speaking tasks are generic and may be adapted to
any language course.
Some of the lesson plans use a three-column format that contain
media and activities based on the content. The procedures explicitly
instruct the learner if they have to read, go over, ask, or tell. The action
and reflection and the learning approach for solving the complex and
strategic problems are utilized to create new insight, skill, and knowledge
of the learner. The students are practicing different games, frame games,
interactive storytelling, puzzles, role-plays, and alleged experiments.
For facilitating the training program, the supplies list that indicates
the list of the sound effects that the learners need to be able to attend in,
is prepared.

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Feedback and Assessment


Gagnes suggests: learning can be improved when conditions of
learning are properly incorporated into the design development of
training. (Gagne 1977, p 8-10).
The feedback is implemented in each module. The learners will
assess on the lessons before finishing the lesson. The students will be
given different types of feedback.

Objectives
The goal of virtual immersion program is to increase the proficiency
level of the students in speaking, reading, and listening skills. By the end of
semester 1, students will demonstrate competency in the following skills:

Listening Comprehension: Identify the Essential Elements of


Information (EEIs), and give a short answer to simple questions for
level 1 passage of dialogs with 4-6 sentences and monologs of 15

seconds, with 70% accuracy.


Speaking: describe their FORTE (family-occupation-recreation, travel,
education) with level 0+/1 conversational exchanges of 6-10

sentences; ask and answer simple questions.


Transcription: Partial transcription of EEIs for level 1 passages of
dialogs with 4-6 sentences and monologs of 15 seconds, with 70%

accuracy.
De-contextualized numbers: Number strings, up to 90 seconds in
length; 2-and 3- digit number dictation of 10-12, level 1 phrases with

70% accuracy.
Translation: From English to Farsi, and from Farsi to English, of level 1
sentences: 30 words of printed text, and 15 words of handwritten
text, with 80% accuracy; two-way translation aloud, and in writing of
Level 1 dialogs of 4-6 sentences with 80 % accuracy.

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Hard-copy dictionary skills: Find level 1 words, definitions, and


information with 70% accuracy; alphabetize names, and words with

80% accuracy.
Website research: On Farsi websites, learn specific navigation terms,
and find specific pictures, words, and phrases related to the chapter's
topics.

By the end of semester II, students will demonstrate competency of the


grammar points by creating causative, impersonal, past, present, and
future tense sentences with 80% accuracy

Media Components
Virtual Support Program is delivered in the form of USB flash
media device, and URL, for the purpose of this capstone project. The
users have the choice of applying the URL, or placing the USB flash in
the computer, to load up the program interface. Virtual Support
includes 4 lessons and 10 subject categories for each module.

Challenges
The major challenges were the time, and the pretest assessment.
This program is to support language-learning process. For pretest, the
challenge was the previous knowledge of the learners for taking the
pretest. In real world the extent of the previous knowledge of the
students in the program is close to none. Therefore, the pretest
hypothesis for usability data was heard to be feasible.
The project advanced itself to the concept of action research By
testing of one group who received the virtual immersion training vs the
group who received the regular instruction. The results indicated that
the group received the Virtual Support were more successful in
reaching the goals of DLI mission 2+/2+/2 and higher. In other words,
the use of the Virtual Immersion training makes a difference.

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Resources
The basic lessons were developed in Captivate 9, and utilized the
following resources:

Captivate 9 for creating training deliverables

Weebly for creating the website

Camtasia for creating videos

Snap shot for taking screen captures

Adobe Audition for audio recording

Microsoft Word

Microsoft PowerPoint

Microsoft Excel

Dreamweaver Web tool

Google forms for creating surveys

Outlook for communication

Timeline
Since the beginning of the MIST program, the designer has been
working on this project, and has completed 4 lessons. The project was
completed during the capstone class per the following schedule.

Design Plan:
Task

Start

Finish

Design
Look & feel
Design Avatar
Design Captivate
Prototype
Formative

8/2015
8/2015
8/2015
8/2015
12/2015

12/2016
12/2016
12/2016
12/2016
3/2016

Evaluation

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Development
Semester 1
Semester 2
Listening
Reading
Sub Topics
Interface
Review of the

12/2015
1/2016
12/2015
3/2016
3/2016
11/2016
11/2016

2/2016
4/2016
4/2016
6/2016
12/2016
11/2016
11/2016

lessons
Update lessons

11/2015

11/2015

based on feedback
Evaluation
Formative review

11/2016

11/2016

Usability Test
Summative

11/2016
11/2016

11/2016
11/2016

Evaluation

Evaluation and Testing Report


Tryout Conditions

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The user group that participated in the usability test werer seven
students, three students, each, from 2 different semesters, and one class
leader. They contributed to the usability test and later they indicated
whether they took the test in the barracks or home.

Executive Summary
In this usability test, participants completed a set of tasks and
questions in Target Language(Persian-Farsi), in a typical office environment
or barracks. The facilitator briefed the attendants, and explained that the
goal is an evaluation of the application, not the participants.
The participants completed a pretest questioner and went through the
course. Then they completed the post-test questioner. Subsequent the
review of this usability test plan for Study Support module, as we
anticipated, the results showed Study Support is a great help to increase
the student's pedagogy level to 2+/2+/2, and 3/3/2 in DLPT test.

Methodology
There are a variety of user experience methods for a usability test. In
the usability test of the Virtual Immersion Course, the Un Moderated
Usability Testing is being used. In Unmoderated Usability Testing, the
fundamental technique is used by usability professionals to get the
feedback from users.

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The expected outcomes


Upon completion of the modules in the semester I and II, learners
expected to be able to know the level I and II knowledge in Culture,
Geography, Grammar, Role play, Writing, Newsroom, Children Books,
Movies, Games, and Military of the Target Country. We designed the
questions, to build the foundation of the information for knowing what we
wanted to achieve. In order to measure learning effectiveness; two tests
were used, pre and post test. It was hypothesized that the participants
would exhibit a satisfactory significant increase in mean scores of the posttest.

Assessment Instruments
The instrument contained 12 multiple choice questions. The
questions included partial Farsi language. The pre and post test were
created in google form and were emailed to the participants. First, the pretest was emailed. Post-test was not available to take untile the learning
module was completed.

The method for Gathering Data


Because the learning modules allowed for free navigation between
the contents and the semesters, the participants had the maximum
flexibility to refer to the available materials in different modules. The

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participants had the possibility of referring to the learning contents by


multiple attempts.

Who were Tested


Seven participants, having the following characteristics, evaluated
the Study Support Course. They were in the 7th week of training and had
limited, but sufficient knowledge of Persian-Farsi to be able to read
questions which were partially in Farsi. Some items required referring to
more than one module to get the correct answer. This way we also
measured their ability to remember previous training. One aspect of their
success is their ability to recall the protocols and the final learning
objectives and get mastery in the Target Language.

Computer Usage

Audience Type
In Service
Military
Members

Age
18-25
26-39
TOTAL
(participants)

Daily 6 to 10
hours

Gender
5
2
7

Women
Men
TOTAL
(participants)

3
4
7

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The participants completed a pretest, and a posttest to measure the


usability and adequacy of the program. During the debriefing, the
participants were asked to provide an honest opinion about the usability of
the program.
Participants are service military members, currently studying PersianFarsi. A minimum of 7 weeks of Persian-Farsi language training was
prerequisite for taking the course and participating in the usability test.
Participants were required to take semester I and part of semester II
modules of the program.
Participants received an overview of the usability test and procedure.
They were informed that a part of the program is presented in Persian-Farsi
and seven weeks of basic training is a prerequisite for taking this course.
Participants were told that they have the choice of selecting the subject of
their interest. The course is designed to cover 47 weeks of training, and it
is divided into two semesters. Based on the amount of Farsi language
knowledge, participants are free to perform the usability test for the
related semester.

Procedure
Participants participated in the usability test outside the teaching
hours, in their barracks, or home. The username and password for the
course were provided to them, and they needed internet access to sign
into the course. The Google forms for pre and post test along with the

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questioner were emailed to their edu email address. The participants


interaction with the program was not personally monitored with the
facilitator. A zoom link was provided to the participants in the event they
would need assistance or clarification.
Participants were briefed that they are evaluating the application, not
themselves being evaluated. They all consented and acknowledged that
participating in the usability test is voluntary, and they can cease it at any
time. The process of the test could not be videotaped, due to the security
reasons.
For the same reason, members were not required to complete a
pretest demographic and background information questioner. The process
and the duration of the pre-test and post-test were logged by the
participants and reported to the facilitator.

What Data We Collected


In the pretest data, the participants answered to a set of questions in
Target Language. A variety of Vocabulary, Grammar, Culture, Geography,
Economy, and Military knowledge of the participants were tested. Then
they logged on to the Virtual Support site to take the course.
https://virtualsupport.moodlecloud.com/login/index.php

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User ID: student


Password: UPFdliflc
After taking the course, the post-test was forwarded to them, and they took
the posttest. The results are as follow;

Usability Tests and Data


Pre and Post Test Results and Graphs
PreTest

Post Test

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t-Test: Paired Two Sample for Means

Variable 1

Variable 2

Mean

57.14285714

6.428571429

Variance

32.14285714

30.95238095

Observations
Pearson Correlation

-0.245326691

Hypothesized Mean
Difference

df

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29

t Stat

15.13725086

P(T<=t) one-tail

2.62129E-06

t Critical one-tail

1.943180281

P(T<=t) two-tail

5.24257E-06

t Critical two-tail

2.446911851

Reject the null


because the

T-Stat Is bigger than T Critical, so we support


the research

Because we are
comparing same
students taking pre
and posttest, we
check t-Test Pairs
Two Sample for
Means

Questioner Results and Data


Participants then were asked to share their reflection and answer the
questioner provided through Google Forms. The questioner was designed
to measure the effectiveness and clarity of the instructions. They had the
opportunity to express their like or dislike and explain if in general, the
overall course was practical and in line with their expectations.

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Completion Rate
Participants completed the pre and post test and answered the
questioner without critical errors.

Subjective Measures
The independent opinions about specific tasks, time to perform each
task, features, and functionality was surveyed. Participants rated their
satisfaction with the overall system.

Significant Findings
Subsequent the review of this usability test plan for Study Support
Course, the pre and post test results were compared and entered in the
chart. The mean and median, as well as the frequency of correct answers,
were registered in the table. Of 7 applicants all were responded to the
questions in the pre-test and logged on to the course and later responded
to the post-test.
The pre and post test question were identical, and the test was a
paired two-sample of the mean. So a paired-sample-t-test was performed
on the pre and post-test mean scores to verify the hypothesis that the
learning module would result in a satisfactory significant increase in the
instrument rating. Based on the t-test statistics and the df =6, the critical
value of (1.943180281) is less than the t stat (15.13725086), so when the

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34

T-Stat is bigger than T Critical, we support the research. The results and
data indicated that the program is well-managed, and is successful. The
students will benefit from the course and could regulate their study habits.
Overall, the product of the usability test revealed that Study Support
Course is a great help to promote the students performance in target
language learning.

Conclusion
The virtual Immersion is designed for the U.S. service military
personnel. In the military when they enlist, first, they go to basic
training. After completion of this training, they are sent for specific
training based on their assignments, such as cooks, firefighters,
mechanics, infantry, or linguistics. The Defense Language Institute
(DLI) receives new soldiers a few times a year. The Virtual Support has
implemented a new learning program at DLI, in a different form, using
different methods of technology and applications. Virtual Support
includes 4 lessons and 10 subject categories for each module.
To date, there was no Persian-Farsi comprehensive immersive
program available to DLI students as a study support tool.
Consequently, many students were not getting the required language
practice to get to the essential Interagency Language Roundtable (ILR)
level 2+/2+/2., and above.
In Virtual Support program, verbal information or procedural
knowledge will allow students to employ critical thinking and annalistic
approach. Virtual Immersion program emphasizes the foundational
learning strategies. The learners deal with real-life situations in a

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35

simulation, or task-based instruction, where the result of the learning is


directly the students internal process of learning and thinking.
The deficiency caused by the lack of adequate immersive
instruction in the language learning process could now be alleviated
and improved by using the Virtual Immersion training program that
helps the students, and provides them with practice and feedback.
The hypothesis was that after taking the course there would be
an increase of knowledge in the level of the familiarity of the learners
with the Target Language and the participants could score better in the
post-test. The pre and post-test data showed that the post-test results
were significantly higher than pretest results.
Currently Persian-Farsi school is implementing the Virtual
Immersion as a virtusl support program during the study hall hours
18:30 to 20:30 at DLI. The program is welcomed by many students and
they participate at the zoom sessions to use this program.

References

Bruner, J. S. (1975/76). From communication to language: A


psychological
perspective. Cognition, 3, 255-287.
Burner, J. S. & Postman, L. (1949). On the perception of
incongruity: A
paradigm. Journal of Personality, 18, 206-223.
Genesee, F. (1983). Bilingual education of majority-language children: the
Immersion experiments in review. Applied Psycholinguistics, 4: 1-49.

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Gagn, R. M. (1977). Types of capabilities and learning hierarchies in
instructional design.
Journal of Instructional Development, 1(1), 8-10.
doi:10.1007/bf02904308
Gagn R M. The conditions of learning. New York: Holt, Rinehart and
Winston,
1977. 339 p. [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL]
Krashen, Stephen D. and Tracy D. Terrell. (1983). the natural approach:
language
acquisition in the classroom. Hayward, CA: Alemany Press. 183pp

Appendix A: ILR Levels

LEVEL 0+

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CONTENT:

37

Can recognize letters in alphabet, high frequency elements

of
Syllabary or character system.
Some numbers.
Isolated words and phrases.
Personal and place names.
Street signs, office, and shop designations.

TASKS:

Understand memorized phrases, words.

ACCURACY:

Often interprets content inaccurately. Unable to read

connected
Prose.

LEVEL 1

CONTENT:

Very simple connected written material


Short notes
Announcements
Highly predictable descriptions of people, places, or

things
Brief explanations of geography, government, and
currency systems simplified for non-natives

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Short instructions/directions (application forms, maps,


menus, directories, brochures, simple schedules)

TASKS:

Understand the main idea


Find some specific details
Guess meaning of unfamiliar words from context

ACCURACY:

Understands the basic meaning of simple texts using


high frequency language
May misunderstand even some simple texts

LEVEL 2

CONTENT:

Concrete, factual, predictable texts


Descriptions of persons, places and things
Narration of current, past and future events
News items describing frequently recurring events
Simple biographical information
Social notices
Routine business letters
Simple technical material for the general reader

TASKS:

Locate and understand the main ideas and details

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Answer factual questions about texts

ACCURACY:

Can read uncomplicated but authentic prose on familiar


subjects that are normally presented in a predictable
sequence that aids the reader in understanding
May be slow and misunderstand some information

LEVEL 3

CONTENT:

Authentic written material on general and professional


subjects
News, informational, and editorial items in major
periodicals for educated native readers
Personal and professional correspondence
Reports
Material in professional specialty
Abstract concepts on such topics as economics, culture
science

TASKS:

Understand hypothesis, supported opinion,


argumentation, clarification, various forms of elaboration
Interpret material correctly, relate ideas, understand
implicit information
Distinguish between various stylistic levels
Recognize humor, irony, emotional overtones, subtleties

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ACCURACY:

40

Misreading is rare
Cannot always thoroughly comprehend texts that have
an unusually complex structure, low frequency idioms, or
a high degree of cultural knowledge embedded in the
language.

LEVEL 4

CONTENT:

All styles and forms of writing used for professional


purposes, including texts form unfamiliar general and
professional-specialist areas
Newspapers, magazines, and professional literature
written for well-educated native readers
Highly abstract concepts
Reasonably legible handwriting

TASKS:

Follow unpredictable turns of thought on any subject


matter addressed to the general reader
Show both global and detailed understanding of texts
Understand almost all cultural references

ACCURACY:

Can relate a specific text to other written materials in the


culture
Demonstrate a firm grasp of stylistic nuances, irony, and
humor.

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Appendix B: Pretest and posttest

What is the highest rank in Iranian Army? *


5 points
a.
b.
c.
d.

What is the present stem of verb * ?


5 points
a.
b.
c.
d.

is needed for Iranians to *


5 points
Work in the United States
Work in a factory

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Work on their school project
Work for Iranian government

What is one of the famous in Isfahan? *


5 points
a.
b.
c.
d.

What is past participle of verb * ?


5 points
a.
b.
c.
d.

What do the Iranian do on * ?


5 points
a. They do the spring cleaning
b. They go out to the parks
c. They stay home with the family
d. They make a special dinner

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Where is * ?
5 points
a. In the South East region of Iran
b. In the Northern region of Iran
c. In the Mountain region of Iran
d. In the South West region of Iran

Where is * ?
5 points
Shiraz
Mashhad
Kashan
Tehran

What is the third month of summer in Iranian calendar? *


5 points
a.
b.
c.
d.

What is the concept of * ?


5 points
a. Started his business
b. Started to work with his hands

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VIRTUAL IMMERSION STUDY SUPPORT


c. Started to paint
d. Started to do the job

Where is located? *
5 points
a. In the south of Iran
b. In the north of Afghanistan
c. In the border of Iran and Russia
d. In the south of Indian Ocean

What is Cyrus Cylinder? *


5 points
a. The cylinder shape lake in the Fars region
b. The first human rights declaration
c. The name of Cyrus the greats palace
d. None of the above

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Appendix C: Questioner
Was the instruction clear enough to follow?
Least
1
2
3
4
5
Highest
How significantly do you think the instruction contributed to Target
Language learning skill
Least
1
2
3
4
5
Highest
Did you experience any frustration while learning with the module?
Least
1
2
3

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4
5
Highest
How would you describe the difficulty level of level-specific practice items?
Least
1
2
3
4
5
Highest
Do you now feel more confident about recalling a passage from memory?
Least
1
2
3
4
5
Highest
Did you enjoy learning with the module?
Least
1
2
3
4
5
Highest

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The instructions are clear


5 points
Very Clear
Somewhat Clear
Not Clear
Navigation through the lesson is clear.
5 points
Very Clear
Somewhat Clear
Not Clear
The navigation is easy to use.
5 points
Very Easy
Somewhat Easy
Not Easy
The lesson layout and design are appealing
5 points
Very Appealing
Somewhat Appealing
Not Appealing
The graphics and video are informative.
5 points
Very informative

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Somewhat Informative
Not Informative
The narration audio, adds to the learning experience
5 points
Yes
No
The sound quality is appealing.
5 points
Yes
No
The overall lesson was enjoyable
5 points
Yes
No
The overall lesson was of educational value
5 points
Yes
No
The structure of the learning is clear
5 points
Very Clear
Somewhat Clear
Not Clear

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Appendix D Project Snapshots

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